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1

Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2011-08-01

2

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2012-04-01

3

Simulation of the temperature elevation in children exposed to plane wave electromagnetic fields (10 MHz-1 GHz) at the ICNIRP reference level.  

PubMed

Because of a lack of thermal models, to date, limitation of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) has been based on restricting intracorporal specific absorption rates. To allow convenient compliance checks, reference field values have been defined. If they are met, compliance with basic restrictions is assumed. This article demonstrates that this assumption is not valid in every case. It has therefore been investigated as to whether the biological goal of limiting tissue heating is still met, in particular with regard to children. The thermal solver applied is based on the bioheat equation, with implemented additional improvements that allow consideration of blood flow and metabolic rate as a function of local tissue temperature rise and, in addition, adapt the blood temperature relative to the absorbed power. As a further improvement, heat exchange at the tissue/air boundary has been modeled, with radiation, convection, and sweating considered as well. The mathematical equations describing these additional thermoregulatory mechanisms were taken from the literature and unified in the thermoregulatory model used for this study. For the investigated case of plane wave exposure, the results confirm the violation of the basic restrictions in five of the six models when exposed to reference EMF levels. However, using thermal modeling, it was possible to demonstrate that heating remained within the biological tolerances. In particular, temperature elevation of the body core temperature remained <0.014°C and the local peak temperature did not exceed 1°C. PMID:22691427

Niedermayr, Florian; Leitgeb, Norbert; Siegl, Werner

2012-06-01

4

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

Halgamuge, Malka N

2013-05-01

5

Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

6

A Variable-Reference-Level Correlator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design and preliminary performance characteristics of a variable-reference-level correlator (VRLC) are described. This unique instrument utilizes the basic circuitry of a digital polarity-coincidence correlator but, by comparatively simple modificatio...

J. A. Macaluso

1969-01-01

7

The role of skin conductivity in a low frequency exposure assessment for peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on numerical computations using commercially available finite difference time domain code and a state-of-the art anatomical model of a 5-year old child, the influence of skin conductivity on the induced electric field strength inside the tissue for homogeneous front-to-back magnetic field exposure and homogeneous vertical electric field exposure was computed. Both ungrounded as well as grounded conditions of the body model were considered. For electric field strengths induced inside CNS tissue the impact of skin conductivity was found to be less than 15%. However, the results demonstrated that the use of skin conductivity values as obtainable from the most widely used data base of dielectric tissue properties and recommended by safety standards are not suitable for exposure assessment with respect to peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines in which the use of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin is suggested as a conservative surrogate for peripheral nerve exposure. This is due to the fact that the skin conductivity values derived from these data bases refer to the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the skin, which does not contain any nerve or receptor cells to be protected from stimulation effects. Using these skin conductivity values which are approximately a factor 250-500 lower than skin conductivity values used in studies on which the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines are based on, may lead to overestimations of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin by substantially more than a factor of 10. However, reliable conductivity data of deeper skin layers where nerve and preceptor cells are located is very limited. It is therefore recommended to include appropriate background information in the ICNIRP guidelines and the dielectric tissue property databases, and to put some emphasis on a detailed layer-specific characterization of skin conductivity in near future.

Schmid, Gernot; Cecil, Stefan; Überbacher, Richard

2013-07-01

8

Reference level winds from balloon platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The superpressure balloon was developed to provide a method of obtaining global winds at all altitudes from 5 to 30 km. If a balloon could be made to fly for several weeks at a constant altitude, and if it could be tracked accurately on its global circuits, the balloon would provide a tag for the air parcel in which it was embedded. The Lagrangian data on the atmospheric circulation would provide a superior data input to the numerical model. The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) was initiated in large part based on the promise of this technique coupled with free-floating ocean buoys and satellite radiometers. The initial name proposed by Charney for GARP was SABABURA 'SAtellite BAlloon BUoy RAdiometric system' (Charney, 1966). However, although the superpressure balloon exceeded its designers' expectations for flight duration in the stratosphere (longest flight duration of 744 days), flight duration below 10 km was limited by icing in super-cooled clouds to a few days. The balloon was relegated to a secondary role during the GARP Special Observing Periods. The several major superpressure balloon programs for global wind measurement are described as well as those new developments which make the balloon once again an attractive vehicle for measurement of global winds as a reference and bench-mark system for future satellite systems.

Lally, Vincent E.

1985-01-01

9

Rapporteur Report: ICNIRP international workshop on EMF dosimetry and biophysical aspects relevant to setting exposure guidelines.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection has commenced the revision of its EMF guidelines in the frequency range up to 300 GHz. The ICNIRP International EMF Dosimetry Workshop has brought together a range of scientists to discuss the basis of the existing guidelines and to highlight those areas where attention needs to be given. This report is an attempt to extract the key messages from each of the presentations. A tabulation of the important issues discussed in the summary and conclusion session is provided at the end of this report. PMID:17495669

Roy, Colin R

2007-06-01

10

Automatically Generated References in Minimal-Level Authority Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes minimal-level, or provisional, authority records that are constructed from headings in bibliographic records as part of a computer validation process. Two types of references that can be generated automatically for authority records are explained: (1) those based on other data in the bibliographic record, and (2) those derived from the…

Anderson, Douglas

1991-01-01

11

Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach  

SciTech Connect

A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

Vano, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es; Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Medical Physics (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Radiology (Spain); Verdu, J. F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Department of Radiology (Spain); Garay, M. Gonzalez de [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Radiology (Spain); Azpiazu, A. [Hospital Txagoritxu, Department of Radiology (Spain); Segarra, A. [Hospital Valle de Hebron, Department of Radiology (Spain); Hernandez, M. T. [Hospital Funacion Alcorcon, Department of Radiology (Spain); Canis, M. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Department of Radiology (Spain); Diaz, F. [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology (Spain); Moreno, F. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez (Spain); Palmero, J. [Hospital Clinico de Valencia (Spain)

2009-01-15

12

Development of a low-level radon reference atmosphere.  

PubMed

In order to calibrate measurement devices for the activity concentration of Rn-222 (radon) in air below 1,000 Bq/m(3), a constant for long time (>5d), homogeneous reference atmosphere is created by a certified activity in a certified volume. The PTB developed this reference atmosphere from 150 Bq/m(3) to 2,000 Bq/m(3) based on the precisely known emanation of Rn-222 from a Ra-226 activity standard. This set-up reduces uncertainties and increases the range of traceability for commercial radon measurement devices. Thus, a gap in radon metrology is closed. The new primary standard for reference atmospheres is realised with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 1.1%. PMID:23562434

Linzmaier, Diana; Röttger, Annette

2013-11-01

13

Radiometer calibration procedure and beacon attenuation estimation reference level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives are to compare radiometer attenuation with beacon attenuation and to compare sky temperature estimates with calculations using simultaneous meteorological data. Secondary objectives are: (1) noise diode and reference load measurements and (2) to adjust for outside temperature and component temperature changes.

Crane, Robert K.

1994-01-01

14

Instrument quickly transposes ground reference target to eye level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical alignment of equipment is facilitated by a traverse target with a string suspending a plumb bob to transpose the ground level point to eye level operation. This instrument appreciably decreases the time required from the present method but achieves the same degree of precision.

Green, B. E.; Van Deventer, E. L.

1966-01-01

15

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

16

Component-level demonstration of a microfabricated atomic frequency reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate component-level functionality of the three critical subsystems for a miniature atomic clock based on microfabrication techniques: the physics package, the local oscillator and the control electronics. In addition, we demonstrate that these three components operating together achieve a short-term frequency instability of 6times10-10\\/radictau, with a total volume below 10 cm 3 and a power dissipation below 200 mW

V. Gerginov; S. Knappe; P. D. D. Schwindt; V. Shah; L. Liew; J. Moreland; H. G. Robinson; L. Hollberg; J. Kitching; A. Brannon; J. Breitbarth; Z. Popovic

2005-01-01

17

Cryogenic-Sapphire-Oscillator-Based Reference Signal at 1 GHz with 10-15 Level Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 1 GHz reference signal with 10-15 level fractional frequency stability for averaging times longer than 1 s, synthesized from a 10.8 GHz oscillation frequency of a cryogenic-sapphire-resonator-based ultra-stable oscillator and phase locked to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of about 1000 s. The degradation of the short term stability of the reference signal by phase

Ken-ichi Watabe; Shinya Yanagimachi; Akifumi Takamizawa; Takeshi Ikegami; Shin-ichi Ohshima; Giorgio Santarelli; Clayton R. Locke; John G. Hartnett

2008-01-01

18

Does the Choice of Reference Levels of Education Matter in the ORU Earnings Equation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines whether the results of the earnings equation developed in the over-education/required education/under-education (ORU) literature are sensitive to whether the usual or reference levels of education are measured using the Realized Matches or Worker Self-Assessment methods. The analyses are conducted for all male native-born and…

Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

2010-01-01

19

Classifying Clinically Referred Adolescent Substance Abusers by Level of Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent substance abusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive Substance Abusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive Substance Abusers showed

Cynthia L. Rowe; Howard A. Liddle; Gayle A. Dakof

2001-01-01

20

The Backtranslation Score: Automatic MT Evalution at the Sentence Level without Reference Translations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic tools for machine translation (MT) evaluation such as BLEU are well established, but have the drawbacks that they do not per- form well at the sentence level and that they presuppose manually translated reference texts. Assuming that the MT system to be evaluated can deal with both directions of a language pair, in this research we suggest to conduct

Reinhard Rapp

2009-01-01

21

Lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein and lipoprotein(a) levels: reference intervals in a healthy Indian population.  

PubMed

The role of lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] in coronary artery disease (CAD) is known but the role of major apolipoproteins (apos) other than apo A-I and apo B remains unclear. In this study, using immunoturbidimetry we have estimated serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, LDL-apoB and all major apos; A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III and E, in 751 healthy Indian subjects (470 men and 281 women, age 25-65 years), determined their percentiles, and established reference intervals. The effects of age, smoking and alcohol on all these analytes were also evaluated. This is the first study to provide reference intervals for all apos, in both sexes from a general population. The percentiles and the reference intervals have clinical relevance and will be useful in assessing the risk of CAD in patients with hyperlipidemia and other diseases. PMID:16205021

Ashavaid, Tester F; Kondkar, Altaf A; Todur, Seema P; Dherai, Alpa J; Morey, Jaysingh; Raghavan, Rani

2005-01-01

22

Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju, South Korea.  

PubMed

This study assessed the reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju city, South Korea based on the dose width product (DWP) and compared them with those already established elsewhere. A total of 44 panoramic dental radiographic sets (36 digital and 8 analogue panoramic sets) in 41 dental clinics in Gwangju city were chosen. The third quartile DWP was determined from 429 surface dose measurements of the adult surface dose in panoramic dental radiography. The third quartile DWP for panoramic radiography was 60.1 mGy mm. The proposed DWP reference levels of 60.1 mGy mm were less than or equal to those previously reported in other countries, such as Italy and UK, and acceptable for panoramic radiography in Gwangju, South Korea. PMID:20702464

Lee, Jae-Seo; Kim, Young-Hee; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol

2010-12-01

23

Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.  

PubMed

Abstract High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11?IU for every year of age (1?IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve. PMID:24805832

Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

2014-06-01

24

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

25

Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. However, only few studies have reported age- and sex-specific pediatric reference values for TSHbasal (TSH), free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) so far. Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex differences. Methods 2,194 thyroid hormone tests obtained from a hospital-based pediatric population were included into our retrospective analysis. Individuals with diagnoses or medications likely to affect thyroid function were primarily excluded, as well as the diagnostic groups, if different from the purely healthy subgroup (n = 414). Age groups were ranging from 1 day to 1 month, 1 – 12 months, and 1 – 5, 6 – 10, 11 – 14, and 15 – 18 years, respectively. Levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH were measured on Advia® Centaur™ automated immunoassay system. Results The final sample size for reference data creation was 1,209 for TSH, 1,395 for fT3, and 1,229 for fT4. Median and 2.5/10/25/75/90/97.5 percentiles were calculated for each age group. Males had greater mean fT3 concentrations than females (p < 0.001). No sex-differences were found for TSH and fT4 between age-matched serum samples. Median concentrations of fT3, fT4 and TSH were greatest during the first month of life, followed by a continuous decline with age. Conclusion Our results corroborate those of previous studies showing that thyroid hormone levels change markedly during childhood, and that adult reference intervals are not universally applicable to children. Moreover, differences of our reference intervals compared to previous studies were observed, likely caused by different antibody characteristics of various analytical methods, different populations or undefined geographic covariates, e.g. iodine and selenium status.

Kapelari, Klaus; Kirchlechner, Christine; Hogler, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Katharina; Virgolini, Irene; Moncayo, Roy

2008-01-01

26

A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

Kerr, T.A.

1997-04-01

27

Local reference levels and organ doses from pediatric cardiac interventional procedures.  

PubMed

Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures can be responsible for relatively high radiation doses compared to conventional radiology especially for young patients. The aim of this study was to assess current exposure levels in a French reference centre of pediatric IC. Dosimetric data including dose area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine frame (NF) were analysed taking into account patient weight. Doses to the lungs, esophagus, breast and thyroid were evaluated using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Finally, effective doses (E) were calculated using DAP and conversion factors calculated with PCXMC 2.0 software. 801 IC procedures performed between 2010 and 2011 were analysed. Large variations were observed for DAP, FT and NF values for a given procedure and a given weight group. The assessment of organ doses showed high levels of dose to the lungs and esophagus especially in new-born babies. For diagnostic procedures, E varied from 0.3 to 23 mSv with a mean value of 4.8 mSv and for therapeutic procedures, values ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 mSv with a mean value of 7.3 mSv. The highest values were recorded for angioplasty procedures (mean 13 mSv, range 0.6-48.4 mSv). The increasing use of IC in pediatric population stresses the need of setting up reference levels and keeping doses to children as low as possible. PMID:24651982

Barnaoui, S; Rehel, J L; Baysson, H; Boudjemline, Y; Girodon, B; Bernier, M O; Bonnet, D; Aubert, B

2014-08-01

28

Verification of The RA2/MWR Level 2 Geophysical Reference Processors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RA2/MWR Level 2 processing includes some algorithms designed specifically to extract geophysical measurements over different types of surfaces (ocean, sea-ice, continental ice, etc.). In order to do this, four specialised retrackers have been developed and are continuously run in parallel (over all surfaces): __ ocean retracker: optimised for ocean surfaces (operating on Ku and S bands), and based on a modification of the Hayne model __ ice1 retracker: optimised for general continental ice sheets. It employs an Offset Center-of-Gravity parametrisation of the Ku/S band echoes to calculate tracker offsets. This was used for ERS and will ensure measurement continuity. __ ice 2 retracker: optimised for ocean-like (Ku and S) echoes from continental ice-sheet interior, and based on the Brown model, __ sea-ice retracker: optimised to estimate a tracker offset for narrow peaked (sea-ice) echoes. It operates only on Ku band These algorithms were prototyped within CLS, LEGOS and MSSL (referred to as ESLs, or Expert Support Laboratories), and once verified, became reference processors, that were used to validate the Near Real Time and Off-Line ground operational processors (referred to as IPF and F-PAC).

Milagro-Perez, M. P.; Soussi, B.; Baker, S.; Zanife, O.-Z.; Dumont, J.-P.; Muir, A.; Legresy, B.; van den Bossche, M.; Benveniste, J.

2003-04-01

29

Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values.  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) generally uses reference doses (RfDs) or reference concentrations (RfCs) to assess risks from exposure to toxic substances for noncancer health end points. RfDs and RfCs are supposed to represent lifetime inhalation or ingestion exposure with minimal appreciable risk, but they do not include information about the estimated risk from exposures equal to the RfD/RfC. We used results from benchmark dose modeling approaches recently adopted for use in developing RfDs/RfCs to estimate the risk levels associated with exposures at the RfD/RfC. We searched the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database and identified 11 chemicals with oral RfDs and 12 chemicals with inhalation RfCs that used benchmark dose modeling. For assessments with sufficient model information, we found that 16 of 21 (76%) of the dose-response models were linear or supralinear. We estimated the risk from exposures at the established RfDs and RfCs for these chemicals using a linear dose-response curve to characterize risk below the observed data. Risk estimates ranged from 1 in 10,000 to 5 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfDs, and from 1 in 10,000 to 3 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfCs. Risk estimates for exposures at the RfD/RfC values derived from sublinear dose-response curves ranged from 3 in 1,000,000,000 to 8 in 10,000. Twenty-four percent of reference values corresponded to estimated risk levels greater than 1 in 1,000; 10 of 14 assessments had points of departure greater than the no-observed-adverse-effect levels. For policy development regarding management of cancer risks, the U.S. EPA often uses 1 in 1,000,000 as a de minimis risk level. Although noncancer outcomes may in some instances be reversible and considered less severe than cancer, our findings call into question the assumption that established RfD and RfC values represent negligibly small risk levels.

Castorina, Rosemary; Woodruff, Tracey J

2003-01-01

30

Patient doses in paediatric CT: feasibility of setting diagnostic reference levels.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that doses to paediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) examinations are of special concern, only few data or studies for setting of paediatric diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have been published. In this study, doses to children were estimated from chest and head CT, in order to study the feasibility of DRLs for these examinations. It is shown that for the DRLs, patient dose data from different CT scanners should be collected in age or weight groups, possibly for different indications. For practical reasons, the DRLs for paediatric chest CT should be given as a continuous DRL curve as a function of patient weight. For paediatric head CT, DRLs for a few age groups could be given. The users of the DRLs should be aware of the calibration phantom applied in the console calibration for different paediatric scanning protocols. The feasibility of DRLs should be re-evaluated every 2-3 y. PMID:21784731

Järvinen, H; Merimaa, K; Seuri, R; Tyrväinen, E; Perhomaa, M; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Svedström, E; Ziliukas, J; Lintrop, M

2011-09-01

31

Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.  

PubMed

An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe. PMID:20142277

Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

2010-01-01

32

Development of an online automatic diagnostic reference levels management system for digital radiography: a pilot experience.  

PubMed

The diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) concept is a methodology proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for identifying any unusual high patient doses involved in radiological examinations. However, some challenges are anticipated in the DRLs concept including resource demand for running the audit cycle by individual imaging departments and availability of DRLs. The objective of this study was to develop an online automatic DRLs management system for digital radiography (DR) with the aim of addressing the challenges of the DRLs obligation. An online automatic DRLs management system for DR composed of freeware was developed. The system was tested with 75 DR images. This pilot experience shows that the system successfully addresses the challenges in the DRLs management, i.e. resource demand for running the audit cycle by individual imaging departments and availability of DRLs. It can provide at a low cost an efficient and effective solution to the implementation of regular audits of patient doses using DR in busy clinical departments. It can also contribute to the development of DRLs at local and national levels. In this way, any unacceptable radiological practice (examination used unjustified high radiation dose) can be identified. PMID:20719401

Ng, Curtise K C; Sun, Zhonghua

2011-09-01

33

Phylogenetic reference data for systematics and phylotaxonomy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from phylum to species level.  

PubMed

Although the molecular phylogeny, evolution and biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are becoming clearer, phylotaxonomically reliable sequence data are still limited. To fill this gap, a data set allowing resolution and environmental tracing across all taxonomic levels is provided. Two overlapping nuclear DNA regions, totalling c. 3 kb, were analysed: the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (up to 1800 bp) and a fragment spanning c. 250 bp of the SSU rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (c. 475-520 bp) and c. 800 bp of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both DNA regions together could be analysed for 35 described species, the SSU rDNA for c. 76 named and 18 as yet undefined species, and the ITS region or LSU rDNA, or a combination of both, for c. 91 named and 16 as yet undefined species. Present phylogenetic analyses, based on the three rDNA markers, provide reliable and robust resolution from phylum to species level. Altogether, 109 named species and 27 cultures representing as yet undefined species were analysed. This study provides a reference data set for molecular systematics and environmental community analyses of AMF, including analyses based on deep sequencing. PMID:22150759

Krüger, Manuela; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Stockinger, Herbert; Schüssler, Arthur

2012-03-01

34

Diagnostic reference levels for panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography of korean children.  

PubMed

Pediatric patients are considered to be more radiosensitive than adults; thus, radiation dose evaluations based on radiologic examinations are particularly important in this population. However, no national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are available for pediatric patients in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the usage of panoramic and cephalometric radiography under the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme and to investigate the current DRLs for child panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography using dose area product (DAP). DAP values were obtained for standard child exposure settings used routinely by dentists. Analysis was performed on data obtained from 28 panoramic and 20 cephalometric x-ray units for the DAP investigation. DRLs for child panoramic and cephalometric radiography were found to be 95.9 mGy cm and 121.3 mGy cm, respectively. These DRLs are higher than those recommended in the UK and Germany, which indicates that further effort is required to reduce pediatric doses in the Republic of Korea. PMID:24978282

Kim, Young-Hee; Yang, Byoung-Eun; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Seo

2014-08-01

35

New diagnostic reference level for full-field digital mammography units.  

PubMed

The diagnostic reference level (DRL) has generally been defined as the 75th percentile of the distributions of mean doses observed on a sample of standard-sized patients, but for mammography, the 95th percentile has been used. In this study, the 75th and 95th percentiles are estimated for 26 full-field digital mammography units, representing six models from four manufacturers. Systematic differences between categories of manufacture/models are investigated with respect to mean glandular dose (MGD) and figure of merit (FOM), defined as signal difference to noise ratio squared divided by the MGD. The MGDs per unit range from 0.7 to 2.1 mGy, with overall 75th and 95th percentiles of 1.4 and 2.0 mGy, respectively. The different manufacture/models show differences in both dose distributions and FOMs. As national DRL, the 95th percentile is proposed to determine which units can be accepted for use. To identify the need for optimisation, it is proposed to use the 75th percentile for the different manufacture/models, along with the FOM. PMID:23771960

Hauge, I H R; Bredholt, K; Olerud, H M

2013-12-01

36

Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

2011-01-01

37

Towards proposition of a diagnostic reference level for mammographic examination in the greater Khorasan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Although, over the past few years, the application of mammography has risen up sharply in Iran, very little, if any, has been reported of the extent of patient's dose from this type of imaging. The purpose of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference level (DRL) arising from mammography in the great Khorasan province of Iran. It is generally assumed that the glandular tissue is the most vulnerable type of breast tissue. Therefore, the mean glandular dose (MGD) has been widely accepted as the most appropriate dosimetric quantity to predict the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Literary, DRL for mammography is defined as the 75th percentile of MGD distribution. In Khorasan province, 7 out of 40 centres were randomly selected. In this work, 100 patients were studied. Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs). Since, it is difficult to directly measure MGD, Monte Carlo model-based conversion factors were utilised to conclude MGD from ESD. The results have revealed that patients dose is varied widely. The measured ESDs ranged from 0.74 to 19.81 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) view and 1.20 to 25.79 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The average MGDs per image were 0.88 and 1.11 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. Based on the internationally adopted definition, DRL arising from mammography tests for Khorasan is 1.33 mGy. Implementation of a dose reduction programme is suggested because of the large variations observed in patient MGD values. In this study, the DRL value is significantly lower than the corresponding values suggested by other researchers elsewhere. PMID:23209184

Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Zare, H; Bayani Roodi, Sh; Hashemi, M; Akbari, F; Malekzadeh, M

2013-06-01

38

Levels of Complexity in Discourse for Reference Disambiguation and Speech Act Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a discussion of means of describing the discourse and its components which makes speech act interpretation and reference disambiguation possible with minimal search of the knowledge in the database. A portion of this paper will conside...

C. Bullwinkle

1977-01-01

39

Commentary Variations: Level of Verbalization, Personal Reference, and Phase Relations in Instructional Films on Perceptual-Motor Tasks. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an experiment to determine the most efficient design for the commentary of an instructional film, special consideration was given to three variables concerned with the construction of commentaries: the level of verbalization (the amount of talk), the personal reference of the narrator, and the phase relationship between the commentary and the…

Zuckerman, John V.

40

The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

2006-01-01

41

Glucose levels in newborns with special reference to hypoglycemia: a study from rural India.  

PubMed

Hypoglycemia is one of the common metabolic problems in neonatal medicine. There is association between blood glucose levels and neurological development. The study involved 100 mothers and neonates blood glucose levels were measured using a standard glucometer in mother delivering babies within half an hour of delivery and in newborns at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of life. Blood glucose levels were low at 0(th) and 6(th) h and maximum at 24(th) h. Neonates born to mothers with high maternal blood glucose levels were hypoglycemic showing a negative correlation. The mean blood glucose levels were low in pre-term and post-term compared with term babies and range of blood glucose levels were wide in preterm and post term babies. PMID:24741538

Dias, Edwin; Gada, Sandeep

2014-01-01

42

An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from sleep deprivation arising from nursing interventions and ambient noise. This may exacerbate confusion and ICU-related delirium. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that average hospital sound levels should not exceed 35 dB with a maximum of 40 dB overnight. We monitored five ICUs to check compliance with these guidelines. Methods Sound levels were recorded in five adult ICUs in the UK. Two sound level monitors recorded concurrently for 24 hours at the ICU central stations and adjacent to patients. Sample values to determine levels generated by equipment and external noise were also recorded in an empty ICU side room. Results Average sound levels always exceeded 45 dBA and for 50% of the time exceeded between 52 and 59 dBA in individual ICUs. There was diurnal variation with values decreasing after evening handovers to an overnight average minimum of 51 dBA at 4 AM. Peaks above 85 dBA occurred at all sites, up to 16 times per hour overnight and more frequently during the day. WHO guidelines on sound levels could be only achieved in a side room by switching all equipment off. Conclusion All ICUs had sound levels greater than WHO recommendations, but the WHO recommended levels are so low they are not achievable in an ICU. Levels adjacent to patients are higher than those recorded at central stations. Unit-wide noise reduction programmes or mechanical means of isolating patients from ambient noise, such as earplugs, should be considered.

2013-01-01

43

Levels of State and Trait Anxiety in Patients Referred to Ophthalmology by Primary Care Clinicians: A Cross Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives) being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. Design Cross sectional study. Participants and Controls 322 participants and 80 control participants. Methods State (i.e. current) and trait (i.e. propensity to) anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. Main Outcome Measure Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p<0.04), but similar for trait anxiety (p>0.1). Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into “anxiety-absent” and “anxiety-present” items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. Conclusions State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients.

Davey, Christopher J.; Harley, Clare; Elliott, David B.

2013-01-01

44

Post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels with reference to the causes of death.  

PubMed

To evaluate pathophysiological significance of post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in determining the cause of death, we investigated 210 forensic autopsy cases, partially in comparison with serum levels. Post-mortem serum myoglobin levels were extraordinary high in most cases possibly due to post-mortem change. Urinary myoglobin levels did not correlate with the serum levels, showing possible post-mortem elevation in cases of a prolonged post-mortem period over 48h. A high (>1000 ng/ml), moderate (100-1000 ng/ml), slight (50-100 ng/ml) and not significant (<50 ng/ml) elevation of urinary myoglobin were observed in 26, 43, 31 and 110 cases, respectively. Half the highly elevated cases were those with a survival time over 24h. In cases of minor muscle injury such as head trauma, elevation of urinary myoglobin level was closely related to longer survival. In acute/subacute deaths with a post-mortem interval within 48h, a significant difference was observed in relation to the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of fire victims: myoglobinuria over 100 ng/ml was more frequently and markedly observed in cases with COHb below 60% than over 60%, suggesting muscle damage in fatal burns. Similar elevation was observed in heat stroke victims, and also in some cases of acute and subacute death from polytrauma, asphyxiation, drowning, electricity and spontaneous cerebral bleeding, but not in myocardial infarction. Thus, it was suggested that high post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in acute and subacute death cases may be a possible indicator of antemortem massive skeletal muscle damage as well as exertional muscle hyperactivity or convulsive disorders associated with hypoxia. PMID:11074173

Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Taniguchi, M; Oritani, S; Kamikodai, Y; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

2001-01-15

45

Determination of diagnostic reference levels in general radiography in Latin America.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the International Action Plan on Radiation Protection of Patients and the International Commission on Radiological Protection have for some time carried out important efforts to assure that in the medical applications of the ionising radiations, the optimisation of radiological protection of patients is fundamental, to such a point that the IAEA includes it directly as a requirement for these practices (in its International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS)-GSR Part 1, 2011). For this reason, among the objectives of Regional Project RLA/9/057 and Regional Project RLA/9/067, the intention was to establish the dose references in conventional radiology for Latin America, for the purposes of determining whether these doses comply with the requirements of the BSS and to tend to improve practices, in order to minimise the dose received by the patients. PMID:23571690

Blanco, Susana; Mora, Patricia; Almonte, Narkiss; Benavente, Tony; Benson, Nadja; Blanco, Daniel; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz Gómez, Yolanda; Edding, Oscar; Escobar, Carolina; Fonseca, María; Gamarra, Mirtha; García Aguilar, Juan; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Roas Zuniga, Norma; Zaire, Edgar; Nader, Alejandro

2013-09-01

46

Effect of hypertension and its treatment on lipid, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, and bilirubin levels in patients referred for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the serum lipid profile, together with plasma fibrinogen and serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), glucose, bilirubin, and albumin levels in 491 patients (310 men) who were referred for the management of primary dyslipidemia. All these variables have been shown to predict vascular events. The patients were not taking lipid-lowering drugs; hypertension was present in 156 (31.7%) of them.Of the hypertensive

John A. Papadakis; Emmanuel S. Ganotakis; Indera A. Jagroop; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; Anthony F. Winder

1999-01-01

47

Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

1986-01-01

48

DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

49

Rational Reference Levels for Pacific Coast Radioactive Pollution Studies Supplied by Samples from Northern Baja California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background levels of radioactivity in the marine environment along the Pacific Coast are at present extremely low. However, these certainly will rise along with the growth of coastal populations and with the increased use of nuclear energy. It would be de...

T. R. Folsom

1974-01-01

50

Histamine levels in commercially important fresh and processed fish of Oman with reference to international standards.  

PubMed

Histamine was investigated in fresh (378), frozen (441), canned (290) and dried (24) fish samples of scombroid and non-scombroid species of Oman using a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Of the 1133 fish samples tested, histamine was detected in 551 samples with a detection rate of about 41.8% among fresh fish, 61.0% of frozen fish, 78.9% of canned fish and 91.6% of dried fish samples and the mean histamine levels were 2.6, 5.8, 3.1 and 104mgkg(-1), respectively. A total of 3.7% and 0.79% of the total samples exceeded the FDA and EU regulatory limits for histamine. Imported dried anchovies contained high histamine levels. The study confirms that post catching and commercialisation practices of seafood are adequate, warranting good quality fish and may not cause histamine risk to consumer in terms of human diet. While necessary monitoring may be done for imported dried fish products. PMID:23692766

Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Zidjali, Mehdia; Al-Zidjali, Alia; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2013-10-15

51

Analyzing the level of knowledge and attitude of the mothers referring the urban health centers of Birjand about nutritional behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background: Achieving a balanced and proper nutrition is one of the most important health objectives in the early years of the child's life. The aim of this study is to determine the level of knowledge and attitude of the mothers covered by the urban health centers of Birjand about nutritional behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the mothers with children less than five years referring the health centers of Birjand, in 1387. A questionnaire was prepared for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, Chi square, ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests with a accuracy level of P < 0.05. Results: Two hundred ninety four patients were studied. A meaningful difference was observed between the knowledge and attitude scores in terms of the mothers’ education stand (P = 0.002). Eighty three point seven percent, 65.6%, 82.7% and 64.6% of mothers were aware about the importance of iron absorption, the onset of iron supplement drop, the minerals and vitamins in the body, and the effects of vitamin A deficiency, respectively. The mothers’ knowledge and attitude about the nutritional behavior was evaluated at the average and good level, respectively. Conclusions: Considering the average level of the mothers’ knowledge and attitude about children's nutritional behaviors, the retraining of family physicians and health centers staff about the importance of nutritional behaviors is recommended.

Rezaei, Omolbanin Motamed; Moodi, Mitra; Moazam, Nahid

2014-01-01

52

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs  

SciTech Connect

This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific environmental monitoring requirements for final site characterization and certification surveys are beyond the scope of this Addendum. Data collection associated with site reconnaissance and preselection is not specifically addressed, but it is recognized that such data may be useful in designing the preoperational program. Predisposal control measures, quality assurance, and record-keeping (other than inventory records) associated with waste disposal operations are also not addressed. The primary intent of routine environmental surveillance at a LLWBG is to help ensure that site activities do not cause significant transport of radioactivity from the site, resulting in an unacceptable health hazard to people. Preoperational environmental surveillance serves to determine for later comparison the background radioactivity levels, either naturally occurring or the result of man's activities (e.g. world-wide fallout or an adjacent nuclear facility), in and around the proposed burial ground site. The operational environmental surveillance program is used to estimate radiological conditions, both onsite and offsite as a possible result of burial ground activities, including trench closure(s). These data help to determine LLWBG compliance with regulatory requirements. During the post-operational period environmental surveillance should normally be an extension of the program carried out during operations, with appropriate deletions (or modifications) to account for the differences between operational and post-operational activities at the site. During the long-term storage and custodial care period, environmental surveillance serves to verify the radionuclide confinement capability of the burial ground and to identify problem situations requiring remedial action. For waste removal (exhumation), the environmental surveillance program is again modified to account for the greatly increased potential for direct radiation and contamination spread. At the time of decommissioning, "environmental surveillance" takes on a new meaning, from that of an ongoing prog

Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

1981-07-01

53

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.  

PubMed

A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

Sakai, K

2012-01-01

54

Relationships between spiritual quotient and marital satisfaction level of men, women and couples referred to consultancy centers of bandar abbas.  

PubMed

Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples' scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples' understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples' spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.-More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644499

Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

2013-01-01

55

Indicators of the health of the North Sea fish community: identifying reference levels for an ecosystem approach to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift in emphasis away from the single-species focus of traditional fisheries manage- ment towards an ecosystem approach to management requires application of indicators of ecosystem state. Further, an ecosystem approach to management requires the identifica- tion of ecological reference points against which management objectives might be set. In applying indicators, identifying reference points, and setting objectives, an obvious require-

Simon P. R. Greenstreet; Stuart I. Rogers

2006-01-01

56

Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.  

PubMed

Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

2013-12-01

57

Evaluation of a Balanced 300-mb Height Analysis as a Reference Level for Satellite-Derived Soundings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is developed and evaluated for using wind observations through application of the balance equation to improve the accuracy of objective height analysis in regions between height observations to provide reliable reference heights for satellite ...

A. Thomasell

1976-01-01

58

Development of a Provisional Domain Model for the Nursing Process for Use within the Health Level 7 Reference Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSince 1999, the Nursing Terminology Summits have promoted the development, evaluation, and use of reference terminology for nursing and its integration into comprehensive health care data standards. The use of such standards to represent nursing knowledge, terminology, processes, and information in electronic health records will enhance continuity of care, decision support, and the exchange of comparable patient information. As part

William T F Goossen; Judy G Ozbolt; Amy Coenen; Hyeoun-Ae Park; Charles Mead; Margareta Ehnfors; Heimar F Marin

2004-01-01

59

The Concurrent Validity of the Cognitive Levels Test with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for a Sample of Referred Children and Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the Cognitive Levels Test (CLT) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) scores for 55 children who were referred for remedial educational services. A comparison of the correlations for each of the criterion measures from the WISC-R showed a consistent significant positive relationship with the CLT. (Author/LLL)

Vance, Booney; And Others

1991-01-01

60

k0NAA Applied to Certified Reference Materials and Hair Samples: Evaluation of Exposure Level in a Galvanising Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The k\\u000a0 parametric neutron activation analysis has been applied since 1995 in the Radiochemical Sector\\/CDTN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Several certified reference materials were studied with the aim of analysing biological samples. This work is related to an IAEA co-ordinated research project whose goal is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. It has

M. Â. de B. C. Menezes; C. de V. S. Sabino; A. M. Amaral; E. C. Pereira Maia

2000-01-01

61

The effect of skill level, external frame of reference and environmental changes on one-handed catching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two groups of subjects designated ‘good’ (n= 12) and ‘poor’ (n= 10) catchers on the basis of a task-specific criterion were required to catch, one-handed, balls projected from a ball-projection machine under eight different conditions. Four of these comprised the ‘environment illuminated’ conditions (full light; hand obscured by an opaque screen; a see-through screen and an external vertical reference frame

G. J. P. SAVELSBERGH; H. T. A. WHITING

1988-01-01

62

Intercomparison of ultraviolet photometry and gas-phase titration techniques for ozone reference standards at ambient levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intercomparison experiments were made between two independent techniques for ozone (O3) reference standards often used as the primary standards in air quality monitoring networks. These techniques include ultraviolet absorption photometry of O3 at the 253.7-nm Hg line and gas-phase titration of O3 with excess NO. For ultraviolet photometry, a well-designed and maintained standard reference photometer (SRP) built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) was employed. For gas-phase titration (GPT), an existing system was significantly modified by the National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan) by using gravimetric NO/N2 standard gases, accurate flow measurement systems based on laminar flow elements, and two chemiluminescence NO detectors to minimize uncertainty in the measurements, which had previously been a major shortcoming of this method. Uncertainty in the improved GPT system was reduced to less than 0.4% above 100 nmol mol-1 O3 mole fraction. A series of comparison runs between the two methods over the course of 13 months from August 2004 to August 2005 showed a significant discrepancy, which cannot be explained by the measurement uncertainties attributed to either SRP or GPT in the range of 80-800 nmol mol-1 O3, where GPT was about 2% higher than SRP. This result indicates possible biases in the currently existing O3 reference standards and warrants further studies to identify and characterize possible sources of the systematic discrepancy.

Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Mukai, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Norris, James E.

2006-08-01

63

Comparison of Techniques for the Computation of a Height Reference Surface from Gravity and GPS-Levelling Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different techniques for quasigeoid modelling from gravity and GPS-levelling data are compared: (i) a penalized least-squares\\u000a technique using spherical radial basis functions provides a gravimetric quasigeoid solution; the combination with GPS-levelling\\u000a data is formulated as the solution of a Cauchy boundary-value problem for the Laplace operator. This solution when added to\\u000a gravimetric solution yields the final quasigeoid; (ii) a

R. Tenzer; R. Klees; I. Prutkin; T. Wittwer; B. Alberts; U. Schirmer; J. Ihde; G. Liebsch; U Schäfer

64

Free Thyroxine Level in the High Normal Reference Range Prescribed for Nonpregnant Women May Reduce the Preterm Delivery Rate in Multiparous  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the most common reason for perinatal morbidity and mortality in the western world. It has been shown that in euthyreotic pregnant women with thyroid autoimmune antibodies, L-Thyroxine replacement reduces preterm delivery rate in singleton pregnancies. We investigated in a nonrandomized retrospective observational study whether L-Thyroxine replacement, maintaining maternal free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women also influences the rate of preterm delivery in women without thyroid autoimmune antibodies. As control group for preterm delivery rate, data from perinatal statistics of the State of Baden-Württemberg from 2006 were used. The preterm delivery rate in the study group was significantly reduced. The subgroup analysis shows no difference in primiparous but a decline in multiparous by approximately 61% with L-Thyroxine replacement. Maintaining free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women may reduce the preterm delivery rate.

Torremante, P.; Flock, F.; Kirschner, W.

2011-01-01

65

A DSP-based implementation of a nonlinear model reference adaptive control for a three-phase three-level NPC boost rectifier prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design and the implementation of a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) applied to a three-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) boost rectifier are presented. This control strategy is developed with a view to regulate dc output and neutral point voltages and to reduce the influence of parameter variations while maintaining unity power factor. A nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

Loubna Yacoubi; Kamal Al-Haddad; L.-A. Dessaint; F. Fnaiech

2005-01-01

66

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-10-01

67

Estimates of low-level waste volumes and classifications at 2-Unit 1100 MWe reference plants for decommissioning scenarios  

SciTech Connect

A number of nuclear utilities and industry organizations in the United States have evaluated the requirements for reactor decommissioning. These broad scope studies have addressed the major issues of technology, methodology, safety and costs of decommissioning and have produced substantial volumes of data to describe, in detail, the issues and impacts which result. The objective of this paper to provide CECo a reasonable basis for discussion low-level waste burial volumes for the most likely decommissioning options and to show how various decontamination and VR technologies can be applied to provide additional reduction of the volumes required to be buried at low-level waste burial grounds.

Hauf, M.J. (Sierra Nuclear Corp., Scotts Valley, CA (US)); Vance, J.N.; James, D. (Vance and Associates, Ruidoso, NM (United States)); Avis, R.T. (Fluor Daniel, Inc., Chicago, IL (US)); Farr, R.J.; Roth, P.W. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States)); McArthur, W. (Quadrex Corp. (US))

1991-01-01

68

Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase levels in Obese South Indian adults with reference to atherogenic lipid risk factors and lipid peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Obesity has reached epidemic proportions especially in South India. In recent years, Waist circumference (WC), which reflects central obesity, has been regarded as an independent predictor of risk. Generation of free radicals occurs in central obesity and depletes intracellular glutathione, thereby inducing the production and release of Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) into circulation. High GGT levels are known to

Niranjan Gopal; Ajeet Selvam; Srinivasan A R; Saha S; Prakash H Muddegowda; Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth

2012-01-01

69

SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE IN ALCOHOLICS, MODERATE DRINKERS AND ABSTAINERS: EFFECT ON GT REFERENCE INTERVALS AT POPULATION LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To clarify in the association between amount of ethanol consumption and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GT) levels. Methods: GT values were measured from 195 individuals with a wide variety of well-documented ethanol consumption assessed by detailed personal interviews using a time-line follow-back technique. These included 103 heavy drinkers (90 men, 13 women) and 92 healthy volunteers (54 men, 38 women)

JOHANNA HIETALA; KATRI PUUKKA; HEIDI KOIVISTO; PETRA ANTTILA; ONNI NIEMELA

70

Haemoparasite infections in newly introduced dairy cattle in Loei Province, Thailand: Trypanosoma evansi antigen levels by ELISA referring to abortion.  

PubMed

An antigen-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) based on affinity-purified polyclonal antibody was utilised as an immunodiagnosis for Trypanosoma evansi infections in cattle. Five hundred pregnant heifers were introduced in Loei province, Thailand and a total of 271 samples were collected at 37 farms during four visits over a year commencing a month after the introduction. Each time the haematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT) was carried out as a field diagnosis for T. evansi, and sera were examined for trypanosomal antigen levels by Ag-ELISA. At the first sampling over 80% of the cattle were positive for trypanosome antigens by Ag-ELISA although the titres were low. Soon after, aborted cases at the late stage of pregnancy were reported and at the second sampling in the rainy season, 25.5% of the cattle sampled were found to harbour T. evansi by HCT. This time the infection rate by Ag-ELISA was 52.9% with high antigen levels. Between the first and second sampling nine cattle out of 51 aborted, which was suspected to be due to T. evansi. As soon as treatment with a trypanocidal drug was started, abortion cases decreased. However, the infection rate remained high during the rainy season when Tabanus flies were active. As the climate became cool and dry, the antigen levels in the area lowered and the positive rate by Ag-ELISA dropped to 32.3%. PMID:9870362

Kashiwazaki, Y; Pholpark, M; Polsar, C; Pholpark, S

1998-12-31

71

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1983-01-01

72

GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

2011-01-01

73

GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-comparison of Ground-based Lightning Reference Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

Cummins, K. L.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; Cecil, D. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.

2011-12-01

74

Repeated Acceleration Ability (RAA): A New Concept with Reference to Top-Level Field and Assistant Soccer Referees  

PubMed Central

Purpose To perform an exploratory characterization of repeated sprint sequences (RSS) and repeated acceleration sequences (RAS) in top level soccer referees. Methods 7 field and 7 assistant referees were monitored during 2007 America's Soccer Cup with GPS technology. Sprints of >18 km·h-1 and accelerations of >1.5 m·s-2 were considered as high intensity activities. RSS and RAS were defined as a minimum of 3 consecutive bouts interspersed with a maximum of 45 s. Results Field and assistant referees performed substantially more accelerations than sprints. Neither field nor assistant referees recorded any RSS. In contrast, total distance performing RAS amounted to ?37% and ?20% of the total distance covered by accelerations during the entire match for field and assistant referees, respectively. Only field referees exhibited fatigue-related reductions in RAS characteristics between halves. Conclusion The results of the present study would appear to support the appropriateness of a repeated acceleration ability (RAA) concept, instead of the repeated sprint ability (RSA) concept, in soccer referees. Further studies should assess RAS in referees and athletes of different team sports for designing better training exercises and physiological testing.

Barbero-Alvarez, Jose Carlos; Boullosa, Daniel; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Andrin, German; Weston, Matthew

2013-01-01

75

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

76

Standardized centile curves and reference intervals of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in a normal Japanese population using the LMS method.  

PubMed

Measurements of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are useful not only for diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone (GH)-related disorders but also for assessing nutritional status. We reported population-based references of serum IGF-I in 1996. However, they did not properly reflect data in the transition period from puberty to maturity. The aim of the present study was to re-establish a set of normative data for IGF-I for the Japanese population. The study included 1,685 healthy Japanese subjects (845 males, 840 females) from 0 to 83 years old. Subjects suffering from diseases that could affect IGF-I levels were excluded. Obese or extremely thin adult subjects were also excluded. IGF-I concentrations were determined by commercially available immunoradiometric assays. The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method. Median IGF-I levels reached 310 ng/mL in males at the age of 14 years and 349 ng/mL in females at the age of 13 years, falling to 124 ng/mL and 103 ng/mL, respectively, by the age of 70 years. The mean pretreatment IGF-1 SD scores in patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) obtained from the database of the Foundation for Growth Science and from clinical studies for adult GHD were -2.1±1.6 and -4.9±2.5, respectively. The present study established age- and gender-specific normative IGF-I data for the Japanese population and showed the utility of these references for screening patients with severe GHD. PMID:22673406

Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Yokoya, Susumu; Chihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Teramoto, Akira; Tatsumi, Ke-ita; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Horikawa, Reiko

2012-09-30

77

Estimation of adult patient doses for common diagnostic X-ray examinations in Wad-madani, Sudan: derivation of local diagnostic reference levels.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to estimate patient dose in some common diagnostic X-ray examinations. Radiation doses were estimated for 307 patients in six public hospitals comprising 7 X-ray units in Wad-madani, Sudan. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was estimated in a three step protocol: First, X-ray unit output Y(d) was measured at a distance, d for different peak tube voltages and tube loadings (mAs). Next, incident air kerma (Ki) was calculated from Y(d) using inverse square law combined with patient exposure factors. ESAK was calculated from Ki using backscatter factor, B. Mean ESAK values are comparable to those reported in other countries and are below reference dose levels. The estimated mean ESAK values are: 0.3, 2.2, 2.2, 2.9, 2.8, 3.1, and 7.5 mGy for chest PA, Skull AP/PA, Skull LAT, Abdomen, Pelvis AP, Lumbar Spine AP and Lumbar Spine LAT examinations, respectively. The results are used for dose optimization, and to propose local diagnostic reference levels. PMID:24584663

Suliman, I I; Mohammedzein, T S

2014-06-01

78

Evaluation of three reference genes of Escherichia coli for mRNA expression level normalization in view of salt and organic acid stress exposure in food.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli can adapt to various stress conditions encountered in food through induction of stress response genes encoding proteins that counteract the respective stresses. To understand the impact and the induction of these genes under food-associated stresses, changes in the levels of their mRNA expression in response to such stresses can be analysed. Relative quantification of mRNA levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) requires normalization to reference genes with stable expression under the experimental conditions being investigated. We examined the validity of three housekeeping genes (cysG, hcaT and rssA) among E. coli strains exposed to salt and organic acid stress. The rssA gene was shown to be the most stably expressed gene under such stress adaptation experimental models. The cysG gene was the least stable, whereas the hcaT gene showed similar interstrain variability as rssA but lower expression stability in the different stress adaptation models. PMID:24766447

Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

2014-06-01

79

Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2012-10-15

80

Palynology References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University

81

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

82

EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

83

Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

Merkus, Henk G.

84

Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression  

PubMed Central

Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs.

Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

2013-01-01

85

End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) cause toxicological renal effects, but the clinical relevance at low-level exposures in general populations is unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in relation to Cd, Pb, and Hg exposure. Methods A total of 118 cases who later in life developed end-stage renal disease, and 378 matched (sex, age, area, and time of blood sampling) referents were identified among participants in two population-based prospective cohorts (130,000 individuals). Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in prospectively collected samples. Results Erythrocyte lead was associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease (mean in cases 76 ?g/L; odds ratio (OR) 1.54 for an interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.00), while erythrocyte mercury was negatively associated (2.4 ?g/L; OR 0.75 for an interquartile range increase, CI 0.56-0.99). For erythrocyte cadmium, the OR of developing end-stage renal disease was 1.15 for an interquartile range increase (CI 0.99-1.34; mean Ery-Cd among cases: 1.3 ?g/L). The associations for erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte mercury, but not for erythrocyte cadmium, remained after adjusting for the other two metals, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. Gender-specific analyses showed that men carried almost all of the erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte cadmium associated risks. Conclusions Erythrocyte lead is associated with end-stage renal disease but further studies are needed to evaluate causality. Gender-specific analyses suggest potential differences in susceptibility or in exposure biomarker reliability.

2013-01-01

86

SARS Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amedeo.com, the online Medical Literature Guide, has recently made available the SARS reference -- a "comprehensive and up-to-date overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome" edited by Christian Drosten and Wolfgang Preiser. Offered free of charge to any user, the SARS reference will be updated monthly for the duration of the epidemic. Content includes SARS virology, epidemiology, treatment, a timeline, and a number of other timely and important topics. Users may view chapters individually within their browser, or download the entire publication. Also available in Spanish and Chinese.

Osten, Christian.

87

Ready Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

Koltay, Emery

2001-01-01

88

Reference Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes the nature and availability of reference books for children and adolescents and then reviews some recent publications of this type, including works of a general nature and works on social science, science, the arts, language, history and geography, and biography. (JL)

Silver, Linda; And Others

1982-01-01

89

Reference Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most electrochemical measurements, it is necessary to keep one of the electrodes in an electrochemical cell at a constant potential. This so-called reference electrode allows control of the potential of a working electrode (e.g. in voltammetry) or the measurement of an indicator electrode (e.g. in potentiometry, see Chap. II.9). The standard hydrogen electrode plays the role of a basic reference element in electrochemical devices; however, in practice, it is difficult to handle. Therefore, secondary reference electrodes are preferred in most experiments. A secondary reference electrode must fulfil the following criteria: (i) it should be chemically and electrochemically reversible, i.e. its potential is governed by the Nernst equation and does not change in time; (ii) the potential must remain almost constant when a small current passes through the electrode and reverse to its original value after such small current flow (i.e. a non-polarisable electrode); and (iii) the thermal coefficient of potential should be small.

Kahlert, Heike

90

Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P. E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

2009-01-01

91

Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure  

SciTech Connect

To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

D'Ercole, Loredana, E-mail: l.dercole@smatteo.pv.it [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Klersy, Catherine [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy); Bocchiola, Milena [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lisciandro, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)] [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)

2013-04-15

92

level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and realization of two reference cavities for ultra-stable lasers addressing narrow transitions in mixed-species (115In+ / 172Yb+) Coulomb crystals. With a simple set-up, we achieve a fractional frequency instability close to the thermal noise limit of a 12-cm-long cavity, reaching ? y = 4.7 × 10-16 at 10 s with a linear drift of 53 mHz/s. We discuss the individual instability contributions and show that in a set-up with a lower thermal noise floor and vibration sensitivity, an instability of 1 × 10-16 can be reached. To achieve this, we implement a vibration-insensitive design for a 30-cm-long cavity mounted horizontally and conduct first tests that show a sensitivity of 1.8 × 10-11 ms-2 to vertical accelerations. This is about a factor of 20 less than the value observed for the short cavity. Mechanical tolerances and ways to further reduce the sensitivity are discussed.

Keller, J.; Ignatovich, S.; Webster, S. A.; Mehlstäubler, T. E.

2014-07-01

93

In-vivo assessment of tissue metabolite levels using 1H MRS and the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method.  

PubMed

Quantitative values of metabolite concentrations in (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been obtained using the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method, whereby a synthetic reference signal is injected during the acquisition of spectra. The method has been improved to enable quantification of metabolite concentrations in vivo. Optical signal transmission was used to eliminate random fluctuations in ERETIC signal coupling to the receiver coil due to changes in position of cables and highly dielectric human tissue. Stability and reliability of the signal were tested in vitro, achieving stability with a mean error of 2.83%. Scaling of the signal in variable loading conditions was demonstrated and in-vivo measurements of brain were acquired on a 3T Philips system using a transmit/receive coil. The quantitative brain water and metabolite concentration values are in good agreement with those in the literature. PMID:20101606

Heinzer-Schweizer, S; De Zanche, N; Pavan, M; Mens, G; Sturzenegger, U; Henning, A; Boesiger, P

2010-05-01

94

Normalization of microRNA expression levels in quantitative RT-PCR assays: Identification of suitable reference RNA targets in normal and cancerous human solid tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper normalization is a critical but often an underappreciated aspect of quantitative gene expression analysis. This study describes the identification and characterization of appropriate reference RNA targets for the normalization of microRNA (miRNA) quantitative RT-PCR data. miRNA microarray data from dozens of normal and disease human tissues revealed ubiquitous and stably expressed normalization candidates for evaluation by qRT-PCR. miR-191 and

HEIDI J. PELTIER; GARY J. LATHAM

2008-01-01

95

Multilaboratory Comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae Opsonophagocytic Killing Assays and Their Level of Agreement for the Determination of Functional Antibody Activity in Human Reference Sera ? †  

PubMed Central

Antibody-mediated killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) by phagocytes is an important mechanism of protection of the human host against pneumococcal infections. Measurement of opsonophagocytic antibodies by use of a standardized opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) is important for the evaluation of candidate vaccines and required for the licensure of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulations. We assessed agreement among six laboratories that used their own optimized OPAs on a panel of 16 human reference sera for 13 pneumococcal serotypes. Consensus titers, estimated using an analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) mixed-effects model, provided a common reference for assessing agreement among these laboratories. Agreement was evaluated in terms of assay accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, precision, and bias. We also reviewed four acceptance criterion intervals for assessing the comparability of protocols when assaying the same reference sera. The precision, accuracy, and concordance results among laboratories and the consensus titers revealed acceptable agreement. The results of this study indicate that the bioassays evaluated in this study are robust, and the resultant OPA values are reproducible for the determination of functional antibody titers specific to 13 pneumococcal serotypes when performed by laboratories using highly standardized but not identical assays. The statistical methodologies employed in this study may serve as a template for evaluating future multilaboratory studies.

Rose, Charles E.; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Burton, Robert L.; Carlone, George M.; Goldblatt, David; Nahm, Moon H.; Ashton, Lindsey; Haston, Mitch; Ekstrom, Nina; Haikala, Raili; Kayhty, Helena; Henckaerts, Isabelle; Durant, Nathalie; Poolman, Jan T.; Fernsten, Phil; Yu, Xinhong; Hu, Branda T.; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Blake, Milan; Simonetti, Elles R.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Plikaytis, Brian D.

2011-01-01

96

Chemical Reference Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative and effective laboratory experiment of chemical reference literature is reported. The objectives of the experiment are to acquaint the first term student of college chemistry with the vast source of chemical literature that is available to him; to raise the general level of scientific literacy of these first term college students;…

Young, Shirley M.

97

Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required. PMID:24718699

Eguchi, Akifumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Qian; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-07-01

98

Community and species responses to water level fluctuations with reference to soil layers in different habitats of mid-boreal mire complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses water level fluctuations in different parts of boreal mire complexes (eleven localities), mainly\\u000a aapa mire complexes, on the basis of measurements performed by means of shallow observation wells and a few deeper observation\\u000a tubes (piezometers) in the coastal half of the southern aapa mire zone in Finland. The sites represented intact vegetation\\u000a from 12 different habitat

Jarmo Laitinen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

2008-01-01

99

The Po River Delta epidemiological survey: Reference values of total serum IgE levels in a normal population sample of North Italy (8–78 yrs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to define, for the first time in Italy, normal levels of total serum IgE in a general population sample of North Italy. Total serum IgE in 1905 subjects, living in Po Delta area (near Venice), were measured by PRIST method. Normal values were derived from 558 subjects without asthma and\\/or asthmatic\\/rhinitic symptoms, noncurrent smokers,

M. Simoni; P. Biavati; S. Baldacci; L. Carrozzi; M. Pedreschi; F. Di Pede; T. Sapigni; G. Viegi

2001-01-01

100

Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe  

PubMed Central

In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments.

Fujii, Toyonobu

2012-01-01

101

Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe.  

PubMed

In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

Fujii, Toyonobu

2012-01-01

102

A mixture model with a reference-based automatic selection of components for disease classification from protein and/or gene expression levels  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic selection of extracted components to be retained for classification analysis remains an open issue. Results The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to extract components for disease prediction. It achieves average sensitivities of: 96.2 (sd = 2.7%), 97.6% (sd = 2.8%) and 90.8% (sd = 5.5%) and average specificities of: 93.6% (sd = 4.1%), 99% (sd = 2.2%) and 79.4% (sd = 9.8%) in 100 independent two-fold cross-validations. Conclusions We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained factorization on a sample-by-sample basis. As opposed to that, existing methods factorize complete dataset simultaneously. The sample model is composed of a reference sample representing control and/or case (disease) groups and a test sample. Each sample is decomposed into two or more components that are selected automatically (without using label information) as control specific, case specific and not differentially expressed (neutral). The number of components is determined by cross-validation. Automatic assignment of features (m/z ratios or genes) to particular component is based on thresholds estimated from each sample directly. Due to the locality of decomposition, the strength of the expression of each feature across the samples can vary. Yet, they will still be allocated to the related disease and/or control specific component. Since label information is not used in the selection process, case and control specific components can be used for classification. That is not the case with standard factorization methods. Moreover, the component selected by proposed method as disease specific can be interpreted as a sub-mode and retained for further analysis to identify potential biomarkers. As opposed to standard matrix factorization methods this can be achieved on a sample (experiment)-by-sample basis. Postulating one or more components with indifferent features enables their removal from disease and control specific components on a sample-by-sample basis. This yields selected components with reduced complexity and generally, it increases prediction accuracy.

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and non–obese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of non–obese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and non–obese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in non–obese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyper–insulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders.

Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

2013-01-01

104

Benchmarking curriculum content in entry-level health professional education with special reference to health promotion practice in physical therapy: a multi-institutional international study.  

PubMed

Health promotion (HP) warrants being a clinical competency for health professionals given the global burden of lifestyle-related conditions; these are largely preventable with lifestyle behavior change. Physical therapists have a practice pattern conducive to HP, including lifestyle behavior change. The extent to which HP content is included in entry-level physical therapy (PT) curricula, and how it is taught however, is unknown. The aim of this study was to benchmark lifestyle behavior HP content within entry-level curricula of international PT programs. The sampling frame included 258 accredited PT academic programs spanning six countries. An internet-based survey was used to assess HP curricular content. Descriptive questions for HP topics (smoking cessation, nutrition, weight control, alcohol consumption, exercise, and stress management) included hours allotted and instructional methods used. Chi square tests examined differences between the proportion of programs in the United States (US) and other countries (combined) for HP topics, and among HP topics regarding instructional methods. The response rate was 48 %. Most programs (>80 %) included all HP topics except alcohol consumption (65.5 % of programs). Instructional methods used were primarily theory-based; few programs (range 2.6-24.1 %) combined theory, practical and attainment of clinical competency for all HP topics (exercise prescription notwithstanding). Proportionally, more US programs included alcohol and nutrition than other countries combined. Overall, HP lifestyle behavior topics were included to varying extent; however, instructional methods used and hours allotted per topic varied across PT curricula. Universal standards of HP practice as a clinical competency are warranted within the profession. PMID:22987193

Bodner, Michael E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Miller, William C; Dean, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

105

Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure water levels and collect water samples from the alluvium. Twenty-three of the holes were cased to seal out water and were used as access tubes to accommodate a neutron-neutron probe for determining the moisture content of the alluvium and tuff. The source of recharge for the perched ground-water body in the alluvium in Mortandad Canyon is the precipitation in the drainage area of the canyon. During the winter of 1960-61, a snowpack 1-2 feet thick accumulated in the narrow shaded upper part of the canyon. The alluvium below the snowpack received some recharge because of diurnal melting during the winter. In March 1961 the snowmelt water saturated most of the thin alluvium in the upper part of the canyon, and a surface stream began to flow on the alluvium. The maximum flow of the stream was about 250 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from the stream infiltrated the alluvium at the front of the stream and in the reach upstream from the front. A ground-water mound was formed beneath the channel by water infiltrating from the stream. The front of the stream and the front of the ground-water mound advanced eastward to about the middle of the area studied. From this point eastward, the alluvium was thick enough to absorb and transmit the amount of flow in 1961. Late in April the front of the stream retreated, and by the first of May the flow stopped. During and after this period the ground-water mound decayed, and ground-water levels declined in the upper part of the canyon as water drained into the channel and downgradient through the alluvium. The amount of recharge was small in the wide lower part of the canyon during the period of study. The rise in ground-water levels and the increase in moisture content of the alluvium in the lower part of the canyon indicate that water moved downgradient by underflow through the alluvium from the recharge area in the upper part of the canyon. Moisture measurements indicate that only a little water moved into the underlyin

Baltz, E. H.; Abrahams, J. H., Jr.; Purtyman, W. D.

1963-01-01

106

Cyclic reference counting by typed reference fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting strategy is a natural choice for real-time garbage collection, but the cycle collection phase which is required to ensure the correctness for reference counting algorithms can introduce heavy scanning overheads. This degrades the efficiency and inflates the pause time required for garbage collection. In this paper, we present two schemes to improve the efficiency of reference counting algorithms.

J. Morris Chang; Wei-Mei Chen; Paul A. Griffin; Ho-Yuan Cheng

107

SPAR reference manual update SPAR level 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Command runstream elements are presented for analyzing structural systems that are composed of a number of cyclically symmetrical sectors. Provisions are included for systems in which each cyclically symmetrical sector also possesses a plane of reflective symmetry. The following types of analysis may be performed: static analysis with and without preload, vibrational analysis with and without preload, and buckling analysis with and without preload.

Whetstone, W. D.

1980-01-01

108

Optical voltage reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current a...

R. Rankin D. Kotter

1992-01-01

109

Short Reference Years - Test Reference Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Test Reference Year (TRY) is a collection of hourly weather data for a specific location and for 365 days arranged as 8760 sets of simultaneous weather parameters. A Short Reference Year (SRY) is correspondingly a similar collection of data for less tha...

H. Lund

1984-01-01

110

Live, Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

Kenney, Brian

2002-01-01

111

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

112

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

113

A Reference Grammar of Pashto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

114

Basic Auditor Student Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reference was written to provide a consolidated reference source that encompasses the topics presented in the Basic Auditor Course Program of Instruction (POI). To accomplish this objective, it is structured in the same manner as the POI. Section numb...

1978-01-01

115

Genetics Home Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih.gov — is ...

116

QuickReferenceContents  

Cancer.gov

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117

Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)] [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan)] [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)] [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

2011-02-15

118

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

119

ITER reference accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference accidents are selected to envelope possible accident sequences to confirm the adequacy of ITER's safety design. Analyses of ITER reference accidents were carried out starting from postulated initiating events (PIE) to all consequential failures including environmental releases, if any. In case of plasma control malfunctioning, up to 3.3GW of fusion power can be reached transiently, however, no radiological consequence

H.-W. Bartels; A. Poucet; G. Cambi; C. Gordon; M. Gaeta; W. Gulden; T. Honda; M. Iseli; H. Jahn; J. Koonce; O. Kveton; B. Merrill; N. Mitchell; R. L. Moore; D. Petti; S. Polkinghorne; M. T. Porfiri; J. Raeder; G. Saji; E. Stubbe; S. J. Piet; L. Topilski; N. Uckan; W. VanHove

1998-01-01

120

Rethinking Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

121

An Online Reference System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

1984-01-01

122

Marketing Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

Norman, O. Gene

1995-01-01

123

Coal Data: A Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the fifth edition of Coal Data: A Reference, a summary of information about coal, an important energy source in the United States. Intended for a wide audience, the purpose of this reference is to answer general inquiries and to broaden the reader...

1987-01-01

124

Thermocouple Reference Tables.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report consists of thermocouple reference tables covering the temperature range from -320 F to +4200 F. The tabular data are based upon a reference junction temperature of 150 F. These tables reflect the temperature-EMF relationship for the following...

E. M. Candler

1967-01-01

125

Nuclear Science References (NSR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains references to low and intermediate energy physics research publications listed in the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) Data File at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Users can search via nuclide, target, incident particle, outgoing particle, reaction, author, keynumber list, subject or quantity. Links to abstracts from the American Physical Society are provided.

2004-04-16

126

Setting reference targets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly di...

R. E. Ruland

1997-01-01

127

Goals as Reference Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that goals serve as reference points and alter outcomes in a manner consistent with the value function of Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992). We present new evidence that goals inherit the properties of the value function—not only a reference point, but also loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity. We also use the value function

Chip Heath; Richard P. Larrick; George Wu

1999-01-01

128

Martindale's "The Reference Desk"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

Martindale, Jim

129

Frames of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

130

Chemical Reference Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An innovative and effective laboratory experiment of chemical reference literature is reported. The objectives of the experiment are to acquaint the first term student of college chemistry with the vast source of chemical literature that is available to h...

S. M. Young

1971-01-01

131

International Reference Ionosphere 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet condition...

D. Bilitza K. Rawer L. Bossy I. Kutiev K. Oyama

1990-01-01

132

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

133

Genetics Home Reference: Sialidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... I, also referred to as cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome, is the less severe form of this ... with sialidosis type I also experience muscle twitches (myoclonus), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), leg tremors, and seizures. ...

134

Glossaries and Reference Material  

Cancer.gov

Updated: 10/05/2010 Updated: 10/05/2010 Glossaries and Reference Material Glossary of Cancer Statistics Definitions of common terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence, and lifetime

135

OA Internet Reference Materials  

Cancer.gov

skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA Contact Us OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10 PSC Codes for Small Business Business

136

Genetics Home Reference: Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Epilepsy Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Aicardi syndrome autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features benign ...

137

Militran Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Militran Reference Manual is one of three technical reports which constitute a complete description and instructions for using the Militran language in computer programming of simulation problems. Topics discussed in the manual include: (1) general la...

1964-01-01

138

Enterprise Reference Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

2011-01-01

139

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

140

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

2001-01-01

141

Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference-Dependent Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much experimental evidence indicates that choice depends on the status quo or reference level: changes of reference point often lead to reversals of preference. The authors present a reference-dependent theory of consumer choice, which explains such effects by a deformation of indifference curves about the reference point. The central assumption of the theory is that losses and disadvantages have greater

Amos Tversky; Daniel Kahneman

1991-01-01

142

Reference Man anatomical model  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

Cristy, M.

1994-10-01

143

Intrinsic References in Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: References are ubiquitous in computing. Memory addresses,URLs, file names are references. Every reference has a referentthe data that is referred to.By the reference-referent relation we have in mind the relationbetween two pieces of data, where given the first pieceof data (reference) it is possible to retrieve the other piece(referent) unambiguously, and in a way that was intended bythe designer

Kave Eshghi

2002-01-01

144

The NEPA reference guide  

SciTech Connect

The NEPA Reference Guide conveniently organizes and indexes National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations and guidance, along with relevant federal case law, all in one place. It allows the user to quickly learn the statutory, regulatory, and case law authority for a large number of NEPA subjects. A unique feature of The NEPA Reference Guide is its detailed index that includes a large number of diverse NEPA subjects. The index enables users to find and compile any statutory, regulatory (including CEQ guidance), and case law original source material and references on virtually any NEPA subject. This will be an especially useful tool for new NEPA practitioners who need to become immersed in a particular subject quickly.

Swartz, L.L.; Reinke, D.C.

1999-10-01

145

NASA's ESDS Reference Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, advances in geophysical measurement technologies have led to an explosion in the volume and scope of Earth Science data sets. Implementation of the instrument systems that acquire these measurements requires commensurate development in data systems to enable the collection, processing, archiving and distribution of the resultant large volumes of data. As more and more of the data systems come on line, their common features have become increasingly apparent. NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) recognizes these trends and needs and has asked its Standards Process Group (SPG) to develop a reference architecture for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS's). That reference architecture is introduced in this presentation. The NASA ESDS Reference Architecture describes those common features and patterns, and thus provides guidelines for individuals and teams who plan to construct and interact with new NASA ESDS's.

Burnett, M.; Weiss, B.; Law, E.

2011-12-01

146

Setting reference targets  

SciTech Connect

Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

Ruland, R.E.

1997-04-01

147

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

Sadoway, D.R.

1988-08-16

148

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

1988-01-01

149

NASCAP programmer's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

1993-01-01

150

Science Reference Materials for Children and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of science reference service, there is a list of science reference books. First are general science books, then specific lists by broad Dewey decimal classes. Grade levels are given for each work. (LS)

Strickler, Richard L.

1974-01-01

151

Role and Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

152

Tagalog Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference text of Tagalog grammar provides extensive description with illustrative examples of the language. Language classification and grammatical analysis are predicated on principles of transformational generative grammar. Seven categories of materials include: (1) pronunciation, (2) basic sentence structure, (3) nominals and their…

Schachter, Paul; Otanes, Fe T.

153

Ground Truth, Reference Truth & \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently introduced automated methods of evaluating machine translation (MT) systems require the construction of parallel corpora of source language (SL) texts with human reference translations in the target language (TL). We present a novel method of exploiting and augmenting these resources for task-based MT evaluation, assessing how accurately people can extract Who, When, and Where elements of information from TL

M. Vanni; C. R. Voss; C. Tate

154

An Amharic Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

Leslau, Wolf

155

Learning to Identify Referents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children (ages 5-8) were presented with a communication task under four different experimental conditions, to find contexts which would encourage their use of the indefinite article. Even older children failed to identify their referents consistently, although nearly all subjects used indefinite expressions intermittently when mentioning new…

Warden, David

1981-01-01

156

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Statistic Type Selection Fast Stats presents the data analysis in a format appropriate for each Statistic Type. The following is a list of the statistic types available in Fast Stats for which data types, and the output formats

157

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-01-01

158

Hospitality Services Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

159

Internet Issues in Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

Tenopir, Carol

1995-01-01

160

Benchmarking Reference Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a companion to an introductory article on benchmarking published in an earlier issue of Medical Reference Services Quarterly. Librarians interested in benchmarking often ask the following questions: How do I determine what to benchmark; how do I form a benchmarking team; how do I identify benchmarking partners; what's the best way to collect and analyze benchmarking information;

Holly Shipp Buchanan; Joanne G. Marshall

1996-01-01

161

A Marathi Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Marathi reference grammar designed for adult students is based on the model of transformational grammar developed by Zellig Harris, and may be of interest to linguists as well. The basic grammatical facts of Marathi are set forth in eleven chapters: (1) the Marathi sound system, (2) the Devenagari script, (3) nouns, pronouns, and adjectives,…

Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

162

International reference ionosphere 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

1990-01-01

163

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

164

Best Reference 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

2007-01-01

165

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu as follows: Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006, 1992-2006, 2000-2006. Trends in Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006,

166

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection Fast Stats statistical analyses are based on data that has been collected from 1975 to the present. Data collected before 1992 is available for the following Races/Ethnicities: All Races White (including

167

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection The race/ethnicity groups available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Year Range menu. For year ranges starting before 1992 (e.g. 1975-2006) the Race/Ethnicity selections available

168

The Unreliability of References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

Barden, Dennis M.

2008-01-01

169

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-12-01

170

Isotope reference materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

Coplen, Tyler B.

2010-01-01

171

Teachers Reference: Annotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

172

Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.

2008-01-31

173

Cooking Up Referring Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the referring expression generation mechanisms used in EPICURE, a computer program which produces natural language descriptions of cookery recipes. Major features of the system include: an underlying ontology which permits the representation of non-singular entities; a notion of , to determine what properties should be used in a description; and a PATR-like unification grammar to produce surface

Robert Dale

1989-01-01

174

Generating Multimodal References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

2007-01-01

175

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Data Type Selection The data type selection is a combination of the data source and statistical calculation. The available data type categories are: SEER Incidence Delay-adjusted SEER Incidence U.S. Mortality Survival Prevalence Risk

176

Volunteeer's Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

Armstrong, Julie; And Others

177

Multimedia Reference Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

Holzberg, Carol S.

2001-01-01

178

Digital Reference Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

Mon, Lorri

2000-01-01

179

European Structures of Qualification Levels: A Synthesis Based on Reports on Recent Developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales). Volume 1. CEDEFOP Reference Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European structures of qualification levels were examined through a review of reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The examination focused on the following topics: the scope of the national frameworks; the definition of standards and qualifications; the definition of levels in…

Westerhuis, Anneke

180

Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4ºC or room temperature. The effect of high (> 80%) or low (< 20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4ºC improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ± 4% (2? level) over a dose range of 20-350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PMID:23149793

Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

2012-01-01

181

MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

1974-01-01

182

OSH technical reference manual  

SciTech Connect

In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

Not Available

1993-11-01

183

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

184

The Celestial Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual basis of reference frames defined by extragalactic objects is straightforwaxd: that the universe as a whole does not rotate so very distant objects cannot have an overall rotational motion. Experimentally, the global rotation of the universe is less than 10(exp -12) arcsecond/yr as inferred from the 3K microwave background radiation. At the distance of 10(exp 8) parsecs, even if an object were moving transversely at the speed of light, its angular velocity would be less than 0.6 x 10(exp -3) arcsecond/yr, while an object moving at a physically more reasonable speed comparable to the Sun would show a motion of 10(exp -6) arcsecond/yr, entirely undetectable by current technology. Since neither systematic universal motion nor random motion at such great distance is measurable, it is reasonable to construct a static celestial reference frame on the basis that such objects axe fixed in the sky.

Ma, Chopo

1999-01-01

185

Alignment reference device  

DOEpatents

An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA) [Sunnyvale, CA; Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA) [Palo Alto, CA

1987-01-01

186

Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

2011-12-01

187

Range reference atmosphere, Nellis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This range reference atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model (derived from upper air observations) of the atmosphere from 0 to 30 km over the Nellis range complex. The data used to create this document was from Desert Rock (KDRA), about 50 NM west Nellis AFB. The RRA provides tabulations of monthly and annual means, standard deviations, and skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure, temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, and dew point temperature. It also gives means and standard deviation for the zonal and meridional wind components and hydrostatic model atmosphere. Methodology is included, along with graphic displays of wind statistics that can be derived from the wind data.

1990-12-01

188

The Calculator Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you remember the days when calculators were as big as today's laptops, then you'll definitely feel nostalgic when you visit the Calculator Reference. Operated by an avid collector of vintage calculators, the site covers Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard brands, as well as the pioneering Curta. Several other models are included in the Desktop Calculators section. Even some interesting trivia is given on the site, like why calculator key pads are numbered in a different order than telephone key pads. There are many links to other sites and articles related to classic calculator technology.

Furr, Rick.

1997-01-01

189

Magnetic heading reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading reference for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.

Garner, H. D. (inventor)

1977-01-01

190

Wrangling Galaxy's reference data  

PubMed Central

Summary: The Galaxy platform has developed into a fully featured collaborative workbench, with goals of inherently capturing provenance to enable reproducible data analysis, and of making it straightforward to run one’s own server. However, many Galaxy platform tools rely on the presence of reference data, such as alignment indexes, to function efficiently. Until now, the building of this cache of data for Galaxy has been an error-prone manual process lacking reproducibility and provenance. The Galaxy Data Manager framework is an enhancement that changes the management of Galaxy’s built-in data cache from a manual procedure to an automated graphical user interface (GUI) driven process, which contains the same openness, reproducibility and provenance that is afforded to Galaxy’s analysis tools. Data Manager tools allow the Galaxy administrator to download, create and install additional datasets for any type of reference data in real time. Availability and implementation: The Galaxy Data Manager framework is implemented in Python and has been integrated as part of the core Galaxy platform. Individual Data Manager tools can be defined locally or installed from a ToolShed, allowing the Galaxy community to define additional Data Manager tools as needed, with full versioning and dependency support. Contact: dan@bx.psu.edu. or anton@bx.psu.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data is available at Bioinformatics online.

Blankenberg, Daniel; Johnson, James E.; Taylor, James; Nekrutenko, Anton

2014-01-01

191

Antares Reference Telescope System  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

1983-01-01

192

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01

193

Genetics Home Reference: Hyperlysinemia  

MedlinePLUS

... by elevated blood levels of the amino acid lysine, a building block of most proteins. Hyperlysinemia is ... shortage (deficiency) of the enzyme that breaks down lysine. Hyperlysinemia typically causes no health problems, and most ...

194

Red Language Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RED is a programmed language designed, in accordance with the DOD Steelman requirements, for DoD embedded computer applications. The language combines features common to most existing high level languages with new capabilities for abstract data types, exc...

J. Nestor M. V. Deusen

1979-01-01

195

Genetics Home Reference: Hypercholesterolemia  

MedlinePLUS

... hypercholesterolemia? Mutations in the APOB , LDLR , LDLRAP1 , and PCSK9 genes cause hypercholesterolemia. High blood cholesterol levels typically ... caused by mutations in the APOB , LDLRAP1 , or PCSK9 gene. Changes in the APOB gene result in ...

196

Genetics Home Reference: Histidinemia  

MedlinePLUS

... condition characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid histidine, a building block of most proteins. Histidinemia ... Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding histidinemia? amino acid ; ammonia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; complication ; deficiency ; disability ; ...

197

International Reference Ionosphere -2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 2010 includes several important improvements and ad-ditions. This presentation introduces these changes and discusses their benefits. The electron and ion density profiles for the bottomside ionosphere will be significantly improved by using more ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional lower iono-sphere parameter IRI-2010 will include the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Net models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. At high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity. The homepage for the IRI project is at http://IRI.gsfc.nasa.gov/.

Bilitza, Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

198

[Polychlorobiphenyls: reference values].  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to compare the PCB values in blood, serum and adipose tissue of non-exposed people over the last twenty years of scientific literature in order to establish whether the determination of single congeners is better then the evaluation of the total PCB amount moreover an analytical strategy useful to define a reference value for non-exposed Italian population has been evaluated. In the literature very variable results were found for the determination of total PCBs in blood, in serum or adipose tissue. We suggest to determine only the amount of the most toxic congeners of PCBs (28, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, 180) by using the HRGC/ECD as analytical technique. PMID:12696486

Pavan, I; Baroffio, C; Passini, V; Bilei, T; Pira, E; Minoia, C

2003-01-01

199

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

Yonco, Robert M. (LaGrange, IL); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1989-01-01

200

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1989-04-04

201

A reference architecture for the component factory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

1992-01-01

202

Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

1989-01-01

203

The Reference Librarian's Need for Measures of Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A national standard for measurement of reference service would help librarians. Such statistics are necessary for evaluation of interlibrary cooperation in reference, but keeping statistics is time consuming and difficult. Librarians need a new way to qua...

C. Morgan

1974-01-01

204

Whole-body-averaged SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida child voxel phantoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in children for plane wave exposure from 50 MHz to 4 GHz. The consideration of children is important in the application of the ICNIRP public exposure reference levels above ~1 GHz. The uniformly scaled models of NORMAN and NAOMI suggest that the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction for 5 year and 1 year old models. Comparison is made with the previous linearly scaled versions of NORMAN and NAOMI for calculations at 2 mm resolution. Further FDTD calculations were performed at resolutions of 1 and 0.7 mm above 900 MHz to elucidate the effects of grid resolution on SAR. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on the whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure.

Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley

2007-11-01

205

A structural SVM approach for reference parsing  

PubMed Central

Background Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. Results In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. Conclusions When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

2011-01-01

206

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Reference Light Water Reactors Following Postulated Accidents. Volume 2. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Appendix A - Reference site description; Appendix B - Reference PWR facility description; Appendix C - Details of reference PWR accident scenarios and resultant contamination levels; Appendix D - Generic cleanup and decommissioning information; ...

E. S. Murphy G. M. Holter

1982-01-01

207

Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.  

PubMed

Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

2014-07-01

208

Reference Artifacts for NDE  

SciTech Connect

Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component contains a replica of an inner capsule from a double shell target. The ''inner capsule'' and the bottom portion of the artifact are fabricated as a single piece to ensure dimensional stability. The area between the upper and lower components is filled by a machined piece of CRF aerogel that contains several intentional defects. Each of the components of this artifact can be fabricated on a diamond turning machine. The assembled artifact will contain several features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Outer and inner diameters of the upper hemispherical shell; Diameter of the inner sphere; Concentricity of outer and inner spheres; Step joint characteristics; Total width of step in the lower polystyrene component; Size of air gap at the top of the CRF; Size of air gap below the CRF; and Size and location of groove in the CRF.

Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

2003-02-11

209

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

2009-08-18

210

Global Drug Reference Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Drug Reference Online is a website that Olympic athletes and their support teams from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can check to see if any drug they take is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The purpose, of course, is to make sure the athletes aren't taking any drug that would give an unfair advantage to the athlete. The site allows athletes to make sure any medication they are taking, even for routine health problems, i.e. allergies, doesn't contain any ingredients that are prohibited by WADA. Visitors can do a mock search to see that the "user type", "sport" and "nation of purchase" are all factors in whether the drug is prohibited or not. The "user type" includes "athlete", "coach", "medical professional", "sports administrator", and "parent". Many of the mistakes the athletes could make in regard to determining if the drug is prohibited are mentioned in the "FAQs" section, and the burden of proof is clearly on them.

211

COSY INFINITY reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple calculation of high order effects. At the same time, it allows the computation of dependences on system parameters, which is often interesting in its own right and can also be used for fitting. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual user. At the same time, it offers the demanding user a very flexible and powerful tool for the study and design of systems, and more generally, the utilization of DA methods. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language and are very compact. The approach also considerably facilitates the implementation of new features because they are incorporated with the same commands that are used for design and study. 26 refs.

Berz, M.

1990-07-01

212

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01

213

Reference Tables Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are videos that show how to use the various pages in your Earth Science Reference Tables Thank you to the Hommocks Middle School Earth Science Teachers for all of their hard work. Check out their other sites too! TIME Front Cover (Page 1) Front Cover Properties fo Water Page 1 Radioactive Decay Page 1 Specific Properties of Common Materials Front Cover Equations Page 1 Ruler Page 1 Chemical Composition Page 2 Page 2 Generalized Landscape Regions Page 3 Page 3 Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State Page 4 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Tectonic Plates Page 6 Page 6 Rock Cycle Page 6 Transported Sediments Page 7 Igneous Rocks Page 7 Page 7 Sedimentary Rocks Page 7 Metamorphic Rocks Page 8 9 How to use page 9 Page 10 Page 10 Inferred Properties of Earth s Interior Page 11 Page 11 Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time Page 12 Page 12 Dewpoint and Relative Humidity Page 13 Page 13 Page 13 Temperature and Pressure Page 14 Page 14 Selected Properties of Earth s Atmosphere Page 14 Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts Page 14 Electromagnetic Spectrum Page 15 Page 15 Characteristics of Stars Page 15 Solar System Data Back Cover (Page 16) Page 16 ...

Teitelbaum, Mr.

2010-06-09

214

Improved Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of an improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards system is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are c...

G. F. Sushinsky D. G. Eitzen D. J. Chwirut C. J. Bechtoldt A. W. Ruff

1976-01-01

215

Reference Piping Design Stress Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A history of the piping stress analysis is presented, tracing the work done from the conceptual stage to the final reference design layout. The piping stress analysis of the final reference design piping layout is also presented.

S. Mathias S. Westerman

1973-01-01

216

Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks.

Mike, Everhart.; Oceans Of Kansas, Sternberg M.

217

Gender agreement and multiple referents.  

PubMed

We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use. PMID:21037930

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

2008-01-01

218

Having a Suitable Reference Place  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to understand reference libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The reference part of libraries was examined from 2008 to 2011. We found that the number of reference librarians should be increased. We found graduate students are the main patrons. We understand interaction with patrons is very important. This study will be helpful for specialist, librarian, and administrators.

Vahabi, Fataneh; Kolahdouzan, Akbar

2013-01-01

219

Gestural Viewpoint Signals Referent Accessibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tracking of entities in discourse is known to be a bimodal phenomenon. Speakers achieve cohesion in speech by alternating between full lexical forms, pronouns, and zero anaphora as they track referents. They also track referents in co-speech gestures. In this study, we explored how viewpoint is deployed in reference tracking, focusing on…

Debreslioska, Sandra; Özyürek, Asli; Gullberg, Marianne; Perniss, Pamela

2013-01-01

220

Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

Singer, Carol A.

2012-01-01

221

Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

2006-01-01

222

Profiling the reference price consumer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in marketing have devoted considerable attention to understanding how price impacts the purchase decision. Some individuals, termed memory-based reference price (MBR) consumers, take into account price expectations developed from past purchase behavior when making a current choice. Other individuals, termed stimulus-based reference price (SBR) consumers, make choices by constructing a reference point from the currently observed distribution of prices.

Sangkil Moon; Gary J. Russell; Sri Devi Duvvuri

2006-01-01

223

Confessions of a Reference Writer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the academic reputation of reference materials and their role in education. Suggests that reference writing differs from academic writing in the target audience and recency of information. Indicates that reference writing has low status among academic circles despite the great value it carries for society as a whole. (MAB)

Jason, Philip K.

1995-01-01

224

Canadian listeriosis reference service.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic organism capable of growing at refrigeration temperatures, is of major concern in extended shelf life, refrigerated foods. Considering that as much as 80-90% of human listeriosis cases are linked to the ingestion of contaminated food, human cases are predominantly seen in high-risk individuals, including organ-transplant recipients, patients with AIDS and HIV-infected individuals, pregnant women, cancer patients, and the elderly. In 2001, the Canadian Listeriosis Reference Service (LRS) was created by the Bureau of Microbial Hazards (Health Canada) and the National Microbiology Laboratory (now part of the Public Health Agency of Canada). Major goals of the LRS include investigation of listeriosis cases and maintenance of a national collection of isolates. The LRS intends to create a comprehensive molecular epidemiological database of all isolates in Canada for use as a resource for outbreak investigations, research and other microbiological investigations. The PFGE profiles are being established and stored for clinical, food, environmental, and possibly animal strains of L. monocytogenes. The LRS pursues research activities for investigation and implementation of other molecular methods for characterizing L. monocytogenes isolates. Ribotyping, Multi-locus Sequence Typing (MLST), Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR), Multi-locus virulence sequence typing (MLVA), microarray- based technologies and sequence-based typing schemes, are being investigated on selected diversity sets. The LRS has also used PFGE typing for outbreak investigations. The molecular epidemiological data, timely coordination and exchange of information should help to reduce the incidence of listeriosis in Canada. In Canada, listeriosis is not a national notifiable disease, except for the province of Quebec, where it has been since 1999. The LRS, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network, and federal epidemiologists are currently working on making human listeriosis notifiable throughout Canada. PMID:16602988

Pagotto, Franco; Ng, Lai-King; Clark, Clifford; Farber, Jeff

2006-01-01

225

Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.  

PubMed

Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50?Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4?µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5?µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141?µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189?µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58?kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms. PMID:24615825

Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

2014-05-01

226

VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

1992-01-01

227

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

228

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

Hall, S.H.

1996-02-13

229

Reference values for methemoglobin concentrations in children  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this work was to establish reference values for methemoglobin levels in 6 to 10-year-old children. Methods Methemoglobin concentrations were studied in clinically healthy children. The method for methemoglobin measurement used, neither uses highly toxic chemical compounds nor expensive enzymatic methods, thus it is feasible in the laboratory routine. Results The results showed higher reference values for clinically healthy children (from 3.61 to 6.44%) than for adults (from 1.9 to 3.8%). Conclusion The higher concentrations of methemoglobin in children may be explained by smaller amounts of soluble cofactor cytochrome b5 and reduced activity of the cytochrome b5 reductase enzyme in red blood cells which make children particularly susceptible to the development of methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobin concentrations in children are higher than in normal adult subjects thus, adult reference values cannot be used to interpret infant methemoglobinemia.

Rechetzki, Kely Francini; Henneberg, Railson; da Silva, Paulo Henrique; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo Jose

2012-01-01

230

Having a suitable reference place.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to understand reference libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The reference part of libraries was examined from 2008 to 2011. We found that the number of reference librarians should be increased. We found graduate students are the main patrons. We understand interaction with patrons is very important. This study will be helpful for specialist, librarian, and administrators. PMID:23687465

Vahabi, Fataneh; Kolahdouzan, Akbar

2013-01-01

231

Optical probe with reference fiber  

DOEpatents

A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

2006-03-14

232

User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

2007-01-01

233

Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2005-01-01

234

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

235

Technostress and the Reference Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

Kupersmith, John

1992-01-01

236

Latin American Resources, Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Latin American reference sources are presented in three independent documents: (1) an annotated bibliography of business and law-related publications, organized by type and subject, including periodicals; (2) a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials in humanities and social sciences; (3) a directory of selected book dealers,…

Schaffer, Ellen G.; And Others

237

Dedicated online virtual reference instruction.  

PubMed

To facilitate nursing students' information literacy skills and enhance traditional library user services, academic librarians have developed synchronous (real-time) online virtual reference instruction in nursing research classes. The authors discuss collaborative efforts of nursing and library faculty in planning, implementing, and evaluating a discipline-specific virtual reference pilot program. PMID:16292145

Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Plaisance, Louise

2005-01-01

238

Using DIALOG for Ready Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of the Westport (Connecticut) Public Library's experience with DIALOG as an effective ready reference tool highlights introduction of the search service, location of the terminal, the three most popular databases, a workshop to provide online training for the entire reference staff, and costs and free searches. (EJS)

Golomb, Katherine A.; Reisman, Sydelle S.

1984-01-01

239

Are Reference Desks Dying Out?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making…

Carlson, Scott

2007-01-01

240

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

241

Robot at the Reference Desk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a librarian, assisted by a knowledge engineer, developed a computerized reference assistance system for a separate government documents department. Rationale for the expert system, problems in selecting reference materials and user questions to computerize, and the formulation of a workable human/computer interface are covered. A…

Smith, Karen F.

1986-01-01

242

When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

243

Expert Systems for Reference Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

Parrot, James R.

1986-01-01

244

Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

245

An Integrated Inertial Reference-Inertial Navigation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application described and disclosed herein consists of, but is not limited to, a unique integrated inertial reference-inertial navigational system including a local-level inertial platform system, an inertially referenced gyro system, an accura...

F. W. McDonald

1975-01-01

246

Simulated Precipitation Reference Materials, IV.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes work performed at the National Bureau of Standards under the sponsorship of the United States Environmental Protection Agency to establish the composition of a fourth series of reference materials intended to be used for the intercal...

W. F. Koch G. Marinenko J. W. Stolz

1982-01-01

247

Genetics Home Reference: Weaver syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Weaver syndrome Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry Genetic ...

248

Genetics Home Reference: Osteogenesis imperfecta  

MedlinePLUS

Osteogenesis imperfecta Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases Additional ...

249

Genetics Home Reference: Perry syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Perry syndrome Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Gene Reviews Clinical summary ...

250

Genetics Home Reference: Geleophysic dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

Geleophysic dysplasia Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Gene Reviews ...

251

Genetics Home Reference: Ethylmalonic encephalopathy  

MedlinePLUS

Ethylmalonic encephalopathy Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Additional NIH Resources National Institutes of Health Educational resources Information pages Patient ...

252

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could als...

J. Wu

1991-01-01

253

Simulated Precipitation Reference Materials, III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the preparation of a third series of reference materials for the chemical analysis of natural precipitation samples. They will be used as a means of intercalibrating atmospheric monitoring stations. These materials consist of high an...

E. R. Deardorff T. C. Rains W. F. Koch

1980-01-01

254

Biodeterioration of Standard Reference Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials have been examined for susceptibility to biodeterioration. Several of these materials were attacked by bacteria and fungi when stored at elevated humidity after exposure to outdoor air. Som...

G. J. Olson W. P. Iverson F. E. Brinckman

1981-01-01

255

Genetics Home Reference: Dystonia 6  

MedlinePLUS

... 6? DYT6 DYT6 dystonia idiopathic torsion dystonia of mixed type primary dystonia, DYT6 type THAP1 dystonia torsion dystonia 6 For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming ...

256

Teacher Training: A Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Teacher Training Reference Manual consists of three major parts: an introduction, three content chapters, and an appendix. The first, this Introduction to the Manual, gives the Peace Corps Volunteer an idea of why teacher training is an important deve...

1986-01-01

257

Virtual reference: chat with us!  

PubMed

Virtual chat services represent an exciting way to provide patrons of medical libraries with instant reference help in an academic environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation, marketing process, use, and development of a virtual reference service initiated at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and its three-campus libraries. In addition, this paper will discuss practical recommendations for the future improvement of the service. PMID:19384714

Lapidus, Mariana; Bond, Irena

2009-01-01

258

Space Station reference configuration description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

1984-01-01

259

Multi-reference vibration correlation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene.

Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram

2014-02-01

260

Reference sharing mechanism for watermark self-embedding.  

PubMed

This paper proposes two novel self-embedding watermarking schemes based upon a reference sharing mechanism, in which the watermark to be embedded is a reference derived from the original principal content in different regions and shared by these regions for content restoration. After identifying tampered blocks, both the reference data and the original content in the reserved area are used to recover the principal content in the tampered area. By using the first scheme, the original data in five most significant bit layers of a cover image can be recovered and the original watermarked image can also be retrieved when the content replacement is not too extensive. In the second scheme, the host content is decomposed into three levels, and the reference sharing methods with different restoration capabilities are employed to protect the data at different levels. Therefore, the lower the tampering rate, the more levels of content data are recovered, and the better the quality of restored results. PMID:20716503

Zhang, Xinpeng; Wang, Shuozhong; Qian, Zhenxing; Feng, Guorui

2011-02-01

261

Reference Anywhere, Anytime: Recent Works on Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of virtual reference has been a popular one in the past year, and this column highlights a range of those articles. Included are overviews of the topic, articles addressing specific technological solutions and concerns, and pieces that explore the intricacies of delivering and assessing a "traditional" service through a different medium.

Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

2008-01-01

262

Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

263

A New Vertical Reference System for South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main objective of a modern vertical reference system is to satisfy h = H + N world wide. It requires the definition and realisation of a unique physical reference surface, and the linkage of the local reference levels to the global one. Based on the gravity field missions and satellite altimetry data an accurate global reference level (W0) can be determined. Its realisation (the geoid) on marine areas becomes feasible by solving the classical boundary value problem (BVP). On continental areas, it is more complicated: besides the hypothesis to determine the geoid, the observables included in the BVP are affected by the inconsistencies of the height datums. In this way, four steps must be followed: 1) Solution of the BVP according to Molodenskii Theory, 2) Connection of the local levels with the global reference surface, 3) Recalculation of the height-related observables to iterate the BVP and, 4) Repetition of the procedure until getting a mm-level accuracy in normal heights and height anomalies. The central problem is to find the adequate strategy to unify the local height datums. Our proposal is: a) joint analysis of tide gauge and satellite altimetry data to determine the time variation of sea level at the reference tide gauges, b) continuously GNSS positioning at the same reference points to separate crustal movements from sea level rise, c) evaluation of physical and geometrical heights on a high-precise reference frame, and d) connection of the existing height datums. The unification of the South American classical vertical datums is presented as an example of the proposed methodology.

Sanchez, L.

2007-05-01

264

Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.  

PubMed

In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. PMID:19194889

Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

2009-05-01

265

Safety analysis review terms of reference  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

Hurley, T.

1981-03-01

266

Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles  

PubMed Central

The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

2010-01-01

267

Range reference atmosphere Shemya, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference atmosphere is a statistical model of the earth's atmosphere, derived from upper air observations over a specific location. The individual RRA is the authoritative source for upper atmosphere climatology over the launch and recovery site for which it has been prepared. The RRA's are used to plan, evaluate, and establish environmental launch constraints for aerospace vehicles launched from a particular location.

1991-08-01

268

Range reference atmosphere: Thule, Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference atmosphere is a statistical model of the earth's atmosphere, derived from upper-air observations over a specific location. The individual RRA is the authoritative source for upper atmosphere climatology over the launch and recovery site for which it has been prepared. The RRA's are used to plan, evaluate, and establish environmental launch constraints for aerospace vehicles launched from a particular location.

1991-08-01

269

Range reference atmosphere, Fairbanks, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference atmosphere is a statistical model of the earth's atmosphere, derived from upper air observations over a specific location. The individual RRA is the authoritative source for upper-atmosphere climatology over the launch and recovery site for which it has been prepared. The RRAs are used to plan, evaluate, and establish environmental launch constraints for aerospace vehicles launched from a particular location.

1990-08-01

270

The Dexter hypertext reference model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1994-01-01

271

The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1989-01-01

272

Reduced-reference SSIM estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural similarity (SSIM) index has been shown to be a good perceptual image quality predictor. In many real-world applications such as network visual communications, however, SSIM is not applicable because its computation requires full access to the original image. Here we propose a reduced-reference approach that estimates SSIM with only partial information about the original image. Specifically, we extract

Abdul Rehman; Zhou Wang

2010-01-01

273

Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

274

Set of permittivity reference materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permittivity is investigated in the decimeter wavelength range by means of standing waves (coaxial and volumetric resonators), traveling waves (traveling-wave resonators and directional couplers), and pulse reflectometry. Each method is characterized by its random and systematic errors. It was necessary to produce reference materials (RM) for ensuring uniform permittivity measurements. For this purpose the Siberian Scientific-Research Institute of Metrology (SNIIM)

N. A. Nikulina; N. L. Yatsynina

1977-01-01

275

Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease  

MedlinePLUS

... referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson disease. How common is Parkinson disease? Parkinson disease affects more than 1 million people ... year. The late-onset form is the most common type of Parkinson disease, and the risk of developing this condition increases ...

276

A Stellar Tracking Reference System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stellar attitude reference system concept for satellites was studied which promises to permit continuous precision pointing of payloads with accuracies of 0.001 degree without the use of gyroscopes. It is accomplished with the use of a single, clustered...

B. Klestadt

1971-01-01

277

Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

278

Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

279

Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

Penner, Katherine

2011-01-01

280

Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

281

Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

282

Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

283

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too

J. Wu

1991-01-01

284

Selected Reference Books of 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

McIlvaine, Eileen

2001-01-01

285

Expert Systems in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

1989-01-01

286

Reference Works in Reduced Size  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lower cost and less shelf space requirements have made major reference works in miniaturized print editions attractive to small libraries. The major disadvantage is the necessity of a magnifying glass for reading entries. A bibliography of reduced-size editions is included. (JAB)

Hennessey, David

1977-01-01

287

Mars Human Exploration Reference Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo

Bret Drake

1998-01-01

288

Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geochemical Earth Reference Model (GERM) initiative is a grass- roots effort with the goal of establishing a community consensus on a chemical characterization of the Earth, its major reservoirs, and the fluxes between them. Long term goal of GERM is ...

H. Staudigel F. Albarede H. Shaw B. McDonough W. White

1996-01-01

289

Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a list of materials available for postal delivery, including: Icelandic basalt, Massachusetts marine sediment, Virginia diabase, Wyoming shale, etc. The size and content of each sample, descriptions of the location the reference material is taken from, and total element concentrations are given.

290

Voice Over IP Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of architectural specifications, network and signaling protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP. Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. There is also a collection of documents containing VoIP references, and in this sections, visitors will find an H.323 tutorial.

2008-02-13

291

Human Rights: The Essential Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

292

Circuit and method for producing a flexible reference voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible reference voltage circuit includes a circuit for producing a first digital signal representative of a range of reference voltage levels; a circuit for producing a second digital signal representative of a selected reference voltage level within the range of reference voltage levels; an adder for adding the first and second digital signals to produce a third digital signal; and a digital to analog converter for providing an output voltage in response to the third digital signal. The method of producing a flexible reference voltage performed by the circuit is also claimed. The invention can be used with a differential protection circuit to provide a series of trip level ranges, with a series of selectable trip levels in each range. This is accomplished in a high accuracy circuit which is relatively simple to construct, thereby minimizing size and complexity of the current sensor module, in differential protection applications, or the circuitry, if used in a power system controller. Standard digital logic components can be used to perform the necessary range/level decoding.

Thornton, Roger D. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

293

Making E-Reference Books Findable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet has significantly changed the ways in which information is provided, particularly in libraries. Libraries are buying increasing numbers of electronic reference (e-Reference) materials which are buried in the catalog or on web pages, not to be easily found by the user. Unlike print reference books, e-Reference books are not found on libraries’ reference shelves and, therefore, are underused.

Mohan Ramaswamy; Tara Baillargeon; Charlene N. Simser

2008-01-01

294

Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities To meet the needs of all users such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended NRLMSISE-00 and Horizontal Wind Model HWM-93 empirical reference models The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere providing estimates of neutral temperature density and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location day of year time of day and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region The less mature HWM-93 model based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model The availability of several new long term data sets including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS

Drob, D. P.; Emmert, J. T.; Picone, J. M.

295

Levels at gaging stations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations indicate that the reference gage is off by |0.015| ft or more, it must be reset.

Kenney, Terry A.

2010-01-01

296

The Serials Department's Responsibilities for Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the benefits and complexity of reference within the serials department and its interrelationship with general reference service. Practical solutions are suggested for problems of training, staffing and organization of serials reference service. (RAA)

Grochmal, Helen M.

1981-01-01

297

Optical frequency/wavelength references  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than 100 years, optical atomic/molecular frequency references have played important roles in science and technology, and provide standards enabling precision measurements. Frequency-stable optical sources have been central to experimental tests of Einstein's relativity, and also serve to realize our base unit of length. The technology has evolved from atomic discharge lamps and interferometry, to narrow atomic resonances in laser-cooled atoms that are probed by frequency-stabilized cw lasers that in turn control optical frequency synthesizers (combs) based on ultra-fast mode-locked lasers. Recent technological advances have improved the performance of optical frequency references by almost four orders of magnitude in the last eight years. This has stimulated new enthusiasm for the development of optical atomic clocks, and allows new probes into nature, such as searches for time variation of fundamental constants and precision spectroscopy.

Hollberg, L.; Oates, C. W.; Wilpers, G.; Hoyt, C. W.; Barber, Z. W.; Diddams, S. A.; Oskay, W. H.; Bergquist, J. C.

2005-05-01

298

National Software Reference Library (NSRL)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

299

Validity of acoustic reference standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, acoustic calibrations and associated uncertainties are hot topics. Countries all over the world establish new calibration facilities and coordinate their efforts to make sure that they can calibrate correctly and have their results internationally accepted. This work goes on within accreditation, between National Calibration Institutes, and within standardization. The working groups of the technical committee IEC/TC29, which today make essentially all acoustic instrument and calibration standards, thus expand existing standards with detailed test procedures and related uncertainty requirements. The new requirements are partly associated with the primary pressure and free-field calibration of Reference Standards performed by National Calibration Institutes, and partly with the testing of instruments in Calibration Service Centers, which are the main users of the references. This paper deals with calibration of Reference Standards, which generally needs to be analyzed and elaborated in connection with the ongoing international work. Thousands of microphone and pistonphone calibration results of the Danish Primary Laboratory of Acoustics have been analyzed. Resulting data including uncertainty, reproducibility, and repeatability will be presented. The data are based on calibrations performed over several decades and covering the range from 20 Hz to 25 kHz.

Frederiksen, E.

2002-11-01

300

Reference gene selection for quantitative PCR studies in sheep neutrophils.  

PubMed

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A

2013-01-01

301

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep.

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

302

PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference  

SciTech Connect

The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

Dobos, A. P.

2013-10-01

303

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28

304

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service contains information for "anyone interested in crime, victim assistance, and public safety." Given the outstanding collection of criminal and juvenile justice data held in the NCJRS Abstracts Database, this site should be one of the first tools used to answer criminal justice queries. The NCJRS Abstracts Database holds over 185,000 entries from within the U.S. and around the world. The Question and Answers link on the site allows the user to formulate a question and provides quick and helpful answers. Sponsored by several Federal organizations, this site holds the most up-to-date information in the field of criminal justice and corrections.

2006-10-30

305

Reference atmospheres: VIRA II -Venus International Reference Atmosphere update.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VIRA I was started in 1982 (30 years ago) and published in1985 (ASR,v5,n11, 1985) by G. Keating, A. Kliore, and V. Moroz. The purpose was to produce a concise, descriptive model summarizing the physical properties of the atmosphere of Venus, which by then had been extensively observed by instruments on board the Venera and Pioneer space probes. VIRA was used by many scientists and engineers in their studies as referent standard of atmospheric data. Afterwards several missions have obtained new data. In particular the experiments on late Veneras and Venus Express. Experiments on board of VEX, working on the orbit for 6 years, provide new high quality data on atmospheric structure, clouds properties, dynamics, composition of the atmosphere, thermal balance, ionosphere. These new data will be used for VIRA update. Original data consists of 7 Chapters.(1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude, (2) Circulation of the atmosphere from surface to 100 km, (3) Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere, (4) Models of Venus neutral upper atmosphere: structure and composition, (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude, (6) Solar and thermal radiation in the Venus atmosphere, (7) The Venus ionosphere. By 2002 Gerry Keating collected materials to update VIRA. But only two chapter were published: (1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude (Zasova et al, 2006, Cosmic Research, 44, N4), (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude (De Bergh et al. 2006, PSS). Both these chapters were based on the data, obtained before VEX. At the moment the structure of the original VIRA looks acceptable for VIRA II also, however, new Chapters may be added. At COSPAR 2014 in Moscow the session on Reference atmospheres (RAPS), may be proposed to continue discussion on VIRA, and start working on MIRA, and complete VIRA and publish (including CD) after COSPAR 2016 (or may be even after COPAR 2014). MIRA was published in 1982 (Kliore A., The Mars reference atmosphere, ASR, vol. 2, no. 2, 1982). The amount data on Martian atmosphere and variability of the conditions at different regions, seasonal, local time variations, etc., requires more complex, interactive model. CIRA experience may be very useful in the case of MIRA.

Zasova, Ludmila

2012-07-01

306

Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities. To meet the needs of all users, such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development. Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory, Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended (NRLMSISE-00) and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM-93) empirical reference models. The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements. These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere, providing estimates of neutral temperature, density, and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location, day of year, time of day, and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions. Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date, although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region. The less advanced HWM-93 model, based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model, provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model. The availability of several new long term data sets, including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS satellite, as well as ground-based optical Fabery-Perot measurements, provide the opportunity to make significant refinements to the existing model. Initial results from an improved HWM will be shown for altitudes between 100 and 500 km. Improvement in the model's ability to represent the seasonal changes, solar forcing, geomagnetic forcing, diurnal variation, and vertical structure of horizontal winds of the region is presented. Few or no wind measurements, or wind measurement techniques, exist currently for the 100 to 200 km region, particularly at night-time and at high latitudes. The need for additional wind measurements in these regions are discussed in the context of the performance of the model.

Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; Picone, Michael

307

Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

Dimbylow, Peter

2005-09-01

308

Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI.  

PubMed

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%. PMID:16177529

Dimbylow, Peter

2005-09-01

309

The Shape of E-Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As question answering services in the commercial sector proliferate, libraries are innovating with new forms of electronic reference (e-reference). The Library of Congress' Collaborative Digital Reference Service (CDRS) extends worldwide. Discussion includes reference service developments; "reclaiming" users; growth of library interest in…

Oder, Norman

2001-01-01

310

Reference Is Better than We Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses measurement techniques for determining good reference service and describes results from a study of 12 public libraries in California that investigated reference service. Topics include inconsistent reference studies that showed reference service giving good results half of the time; and measuring unrelated outcomes of accuracy, utility,…

Richardson, John V., Jr.

2002-01-01

311

Reference and the First Person Pronoun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that deciding whether the first person pronoun is a referring expression requires clarity about the role of "I" and a detailed account of the notion of reference. It is concluded that "I" is a limiting case of reference, in which the possibility of referential failure and misidentification does not apply. (24 references) (CK)

Glock, Hans-Johann; Hacker, P. M. S.

1996-01-01

312

Changes in Reference Systems and Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) has been introduced as recommended by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). This is a fixed reference system that is epoch independent. This is based on Earth kinematics rather than the solar system dynamics. It is implemented by a reference frame, the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), determined from distant radio sources, that are not

P. K. Seidelmann

2005-01-01

313

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

314

Nuclear science references coding manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1996-08-01

315

Reference toxins for antivenin standardization*  

PubMed Central

Potency determinations in mice of venom samples from snakes of the species Bothrops jararaca, which had been caught in an area of less than 10 000 km2, gave the following principal results: (1) Various methods of drying—i.e., closed and continuous vacuum-drying at 5° and 37°C and freeze-drying (lyophilization)—had no different effect on the potency of venoms. (2) Venom samples which display no differences in the final results of intravenous assay may be distinguishable if the observation time is limited to one or two hours. (3) Venom samples obtained from snakes caught no more than about 50 km apart may be of different potencies. (4) Different titres may be obtained for an antivenin, if different samples of venom from the same snake species are employed as reference preparations in the assay. From physiological experiments on dogs and rabbits, in conjunction with observations made in tests on mice, it is evident that B. jararaca venom causes death in circulatory collapse through a mechanism which is as yet unknown. Two physiologically (and probably immunologically) distinct hypotensory factors seem to be present in this venom. The conclusions drawn from the investigation is that consistent and reproducible reference preparations of snake venoms for antivenin assay can probably be obtained only from snakes that are bred and kept in captivity under constant environmental conditions.

Schottler, W. H. A.

1958-01-01

316

Reference-assisted chromosome assembly  

PubMed Central

One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed “reference-assisted chromosome assembly” (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map.

Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M.; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A.; Ma, Jian

2013-01-01

317

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

1994-05-03

318

Auditory Warnings, Signal-Referent Relations, and Natural Indicators: Re-Thinking Theory and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In auditory warning design the idea of the strength of the association between sound and referent has been pivotal. Research has proceeded via constructing classification systems of signal-referent associations and then testing predictions about ease of learning of different levels of signal-referent relation strength across and within different…

Petocz, Agnes; Keller, Peter E.; Stevens, Catherine J.

2008-01-01

319

Reference genes for normalising gene expression data in collagenase-induced rat intracerebral haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms of brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. Gene expression studies using quantitative real-time RT-PCR following ICH have increased our understanding of these mechanisms, however the inconsistent results observed may be related to inappropriate reference gene selection. Reference genes should be stably expressed across different experimental conditions, however, transcript levels of common reference genes have

Naomi L Cook; Timothy J Kleinig; Corinna van den Heuvel; Robert Vink

2010-01-01

320

The Reference Desk Survey: A Management Tool in an Academic Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a survey of the level of reference service requested at service points conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University indicate that, while 20.5 percent of 14,026 questions recorded fall in the reference category, only 0.7 percent required research by professional librarians. Models of reference desk service and…

Kok, Victoria T.; Pierce, Anton B.

1982-01-01

321

National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography  

PubMed Central

Objectives Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Methods Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Results Dose–area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose–area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm2 and 25 mGy cm2, respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm2 to 108 mGy cm2. Conclusion This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm2 and 25 mGy cm2 for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

Holroyd, J R

2011-01-01

322

Reference condition approach to restoration planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem restoration planning requires quantitative rigor to evaluate alternatives, define end states, report progress and perform environmental benefits analysis (EBA). Unfortunately, existing planning frameworks are, at best, semi-quantitative. In this paper, we: (1) describe a quantitative restoration planning approach based on a comprehensive, but simple mathematical framework that can be used to effectively apply knowledge and evaluate alternatives, (2) use the approach to derive a simple but precisely defined lexicon based on the reference condition concept and allied terms and (3) illustrate the approach with an example from the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) using hydrologic indicators. The approach supports the development of a scaleable restoration strategy that, in theory, can be expanded to ecosystem characteristics such as hydraulics, geomorphology, habitat and biodiversity. We identify three reference condition types, best achievable condition (A BAC), measured magnitude (MMi which can be determined at one or many times and places) and desired future condition (ADFC) that, when used with the mathematical framework, provide a complete system of accounts useful for goal-oriented system-level management and restoration. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nestler, J. M.; Theiling, C. H.; Lubinski, K. S.; Smith, D. L.

2010-01-01

323

Accurate Analysis of Array References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis addresses the problem of data dependence analysis, the base step in detecting loop level parallelism in scientific programs. Traditional data dependence analysis research has concentrated on the simpler problem of affine memory disambiguation....

D. E. Maydan

1992-01-01

324

Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... lipids (fats) properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

325

Genetics Home Reference: Isovaleric acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... certain proteins properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

326

Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

327

Genetics Home Reference: Glycine encephalopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Testing Registry Genetic testing PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Glycine encephalopathy On this page: Description ... known as nonketotic hyperglycinemia or NKH, is a genetic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of a molecule ...

328

Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic neutropenia  

MedlinePLUS

... during which there is a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that ... during episodes of neutropenia. At times when their neutrophil levels are normal, they are not at an ...

329

Genetics Home Reference: Craniometaphyseal dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... cells. Pyrophosphate helps regulate bone formation by preventing mineralization, the process by which minerals such as calcium ... cells. Reduced levels of pyrophosphate can increase bone mineralization, contributing to the bone overgrowth seen in craniometaphyseal ...

330

Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken.

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-01-01

331

GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

2005-01-01

332

Mars Human Exploration Reference Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo missions, followed by a human piloted mission. The power needs of such a mission include nuclear thermal propulsion, and the possible use of Mars in situ resources. The exploration will require electric propulsion, stationary power source, and a mobile power source. The trajectories required for electric propulsion of earth are shown, and the engineering of a Mars Transportation Habitat are reviewed.

Drake, Bret

1998-01-01

333

SNAP operating system reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories.

Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III

1982-03-01

334

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

2001-01-01

335

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

2001-01-01

336

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource "offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide." They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. Visitors who know what they are looking for may wish to start with the "A-Z Publications/Products" area and may also wish to sign up for their biweekly email newsletter, JustInfo. The homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, new reports on improving responses to people with mental illnesses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Those persons looking for grants and funding opportunities will definitely want to look over a special section dedicated to providing information on hundreds of different programs.

2008-01-01

337

NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

WINCHELL,D.F.

2007-04-01

338

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-01-01

339

Hazard Communication Project: reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

Not Available

1989-03-01

340

Computational Science Education Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Science Education Reference Desk (CSERD) is part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and it receives funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The aim of the CSERD is "to help students learn about computational science and to help faculty and teachers incorporate it into the classroom." First-time visitors can learn more in the "Getting Started" area and they can also sign up to create their own account to store various resources for future use. Users can dive right in by clicking on the "Featured Collection" on the left-hand side of the page and there's even a "featured Virtual Manipulative" that's worth a look. The site also contains a special area for students ("For Students") and one "For Educators" that includes information about upcoming educational workshops. Also, the Journal of Computational Science Education is worth a look as well. Finally, educators are also encouraged to submit their own resources for inclusion within the CSERD's metadata catalog.

341

International reference ionosphere: Recent developments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An introduction to the history and intentions of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is given and future plans are outlined. The description of the topside electron density profile in the IRI is based on Bent's summary of topside sounder measurements, mainly Alouette. Instead of Bent's tabular form, the IRI has the advantage of an analytical description. Our comparison with AEROS satellite data shows that the IRI model is inaccurate in its description of the latitudinal behavior of the electron density in the topside ionosphere close to the magnetic equator. An improved IRI formula is proposed that closely follows the experimental data. The present IRI is restricted to solar activities reached during the last solar cycle 20. Measurements during the present solar cycle indicate a saturation effect for very high solar activities.

Bilitza, Dieter

1986-05-01

342

Standard definitions for sound levels in the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements and calculations in underwater and bio-acoustics should use for the units of the primary reference quantities the International System of Units commonly referred to as SI metric. Relative levels are important quantities provided the reference is clearly specified and the modifier to the term level is consistent with the units of the reference quantity. In particular it is necessary

W. M. Carey

1995-01-01

343

A reference aerosol for a radon reference chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of radon and radon progenies and the calibration of their detection systems require the production and measurement of aerosols well-defined in size and concentration. In the German radon reference chamber, because of its unique chemical and physical properties, carnauba wax is used to produce standard aerosols. The aerosol size spectra are measured on-line by an aerosol measurement system in the range of 10 nm to 1 ?m aerodynamic diameter. The experimental set-ups for the study of adsorption of radioactive ions on aerosols as function of their size and concentration will be described, the results presented and further adaptations for an aerosol jet introduced (for example, for the measurement of short-lived neutron-rich isotopes). Data on the dependence of aerosol radius, ion concentration and element selectivity is collected by using a 252Cf-sf source. The fission products of this source range widely in elements, isotopes and charges. Adsorption and the transport of radioactive ions on aerosols have therefore been studied for various ions for the first time, simultaneously with the aerosol size on-line spectrometry.

Paul, Annette; Keyser, Uwe

1996-02-01

344

Fitness to Stand Trial Evaluations: A Comparison of Referred and Non-Referred Defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the characteristics of 80 defendants referred for fitness to stand trial evaluations with those of 80 defendants who were not referred. Results indicated that referred and non-referred defendants were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics. Referred defendants were significantly more likely to be charged with a violent offense, meet diagnostic criteria for current psychotic disorder, and demonstrate

Jodi L. Viljoen; Patricia A. Zapf

2002-01-01

345

Small Hydro Reference Model Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small hydropower has long been developed in the US, but still thousands of small hydro sites remain untapped; most of them are technically and environmentally feasible but may not cost-effective to be developed within current level of technology and carbo...

B. T. Smith Q. F. Zhang W. Zhang

2012-01-01

346

Reference ranges for newer thyroid function tests in premature infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish reference ranges for recently developed assays of thyroid function in premature infants. Methods: We measured serum free thyroxine (T4) by direct equilibrium dialysis and serum thyrotropin by a sensitive immunometric method in 104 preterm infants (25 to 36 weeks of gestational age) during the first week of life. Results: The free T4 level correlated positively with gestational

Linda M. Adams; Janet R. Emery; Susan J. Clark; Esther I. Carlton; Jerald C. Nelson

1995-01-01

347

Phase inverter provides variable reference push-pull output  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dual-transistor difference amplifier provides a push-pull output referenced to a dc potential which can be varied without affecting the signal levels. The amplifier is coupled with a feedback circuit which can vary the operating points of the transistors by equal amounts to provide the variable reference potentials.

1966-01-01

348

Model reference adaptive control of heart rate during wheelchair ergometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used parametric methods to identify a model of the wheelchair user's heart rate response to changes in physical workload while on a wheelchair dynamometer. A model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithm was developed based upon the results of the system identification process. Based upon subject's maximum speed, ten random levels from zero to maximal speed were selected to

Rory A. Cooper; Tianna L. Fletcher-Shaw; Rick N. Robertson

1998-01-01

349

Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations  

PubMed Central

We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb–VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb–VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels.

Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

350

General symptom reporting in female fibromyalgia patients and referents: a population-based case-referent study  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and palpation tenderness. In addition to these classic symptoms, fibromyalgia patients tend to report a number of other complaints. What these other complaints are and how often they are reported as compared with related referents from the general population is not very well known. We therefore hypothesized that subjects with fibromyalgia report more of a wide range of symptoms as compared with referents of the same sex and age from the general population. Methods 138 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia in primary health care and 401 referents from the general population matched to the cases by sex, age and residential area responded to a postal questionnaire where information on marital status, education, occupational status, income level, immigrant status, smoking habits physical activity, height and weight history and the prevalence of 42 defined symptoms was sought. Results The cases had lower educational and income levels, were more often unemployed, on sick leave or on disability pension and were more often first generation immigrants than the referents. They were also heavier, shorter and more often had a history of excessive food intake and excessive weight loss. When these differences were taken into account, cases reported not only significantly more presumed fibromyalgia symptoms but also significantly more of general symptoms than the referents. The distribution of symptoms was similar in subjects with fibromyalgia and referents, indicating a generally higher symptom reporting level among the former. Conclusion Subjects with fibromyalgia had a high prevalence of reported general symptoms than referents. Some of these differences may be a consequence of the disorder while others may reflect etiological processes.

Bjorkegren, Karin; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Johansson, Saga; Svardsudd, Kurt

2009-01-01

351

The NGST Design Reference Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NGST Design Reference Mission (DRM) defines the key science goals for the NGST observatory. In 1999, the Ad Hoc Science Working Group (ASWG) refined and prioritized the 22 programs in the DRM. The top two programs, deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, emphasize the unique and important role that NGST will play in the near infrared (NIR) study of the origins of the first stars and galaxies. The top 7 programs include supernova and weak lensing surveys, determination of the epoch of reionization, imaging and spectroscopic studies of protostars, and mid-infrared (MIR, 5-28 ? m) surveys of heavily obscured star formation regions such as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We describe the DRM, the prioritization process, and the role that the DRM plays in the selection and allocation of instrumental capabilities among the international partners (NASA, ESA, and CSA). NGST is a central mission in the NASA search for astronomical origins. For additional information, readers are encouraged to visit the NASA and STScI websites: http://ngst.gsfc.nasa.gov/, http://www.ngst.stsci.edu/.

Stockman, H. S.; Mather, J. C.

1999-12-01

352

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01

353

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-05-23

354

Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

2013-01-01

355

Aircraft Accidents Investigation and Prevention: Selected References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The listing of references was compiled at the request of the Transportation Safety Institute, Aeronautical Center. It up-dates the Library's Bibliographic List No. 1 of aircraft accident references dated January, 1964. Indexes and bibliographic lists thro...

1971-01-01

356

Development of Solid Radium-226 Reference Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radium-226 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil or tailings samples are not available in sufficient quantity for use by remedial-action contractors to calibrate their laboratory gamma-ray spectrometers. Such reference materials are needed t...

C. W. Sill P. R. Engelder R. B. Chessmore

1983-01-01

357

40 CFR 60.741 - reference tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Supporting] [Sec. 60.741 Definitions, Symbols, and Cross - reference tables.] 40...60.741 Sec. 60.741 Definitions, symbols, and cross PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT...Supporting Sec. 60.741 Definitions, symbols, and cross-reference...

2009-07-01

358

Affirmative Action and Seniority: Selected References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography contains a selection of references to books and articles on the subject of affirmative action and seniority. Most of the references are annotated. The bibliography addresses the legal aspects of the controversy between affirmative action ...

I. D. Powell

1979-01-01

359

Biographical Sources in the Reference Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An annotated bibliography of biographical sources in the reference collection at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries is presented. Biograhical reference works are listed under the heading: International; United States; Foreign ...

L. Cheng

1977-01-01

360

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods ... program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville ...

361

Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is pro...

K. Krishnakumar V. Stepanyan

2012-01-01

362

Establishment of reference standards in biosimilar studies  

PubMed Central

When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios. The reference standard can then be used for assessing the degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies.

Zhang, Aijing; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Chow, Shein-Chung

2014-01-01

363

Efficiency wages revisited: The internal reference perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The missing wage rigidity in general equilibrium models of efficiency wages is an artifact of the external wage reference definition usually adopted. Efficiency wage models with a wage reference depending on the firm's ability to pay generate strong wage rigidity.

Jean-Pierre Danthine; André Kurmann

2006-01-01

364

15 CFR 2008.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false References. 2008.1 Section 2008.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE General Provisions § 2008.1 References. (a) Executive Order...

2009-01-01

365

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2013-04-01

366

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2011-04-01

367

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2013-07-01

368

Investigating Motion: Understanding Frame of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students observe and describe motion from different frames of reference and measure the time for the motion. They analyze their findings and develop a working definition of "frame of reference".

369

21 CFR 660.52 - Reference preparations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.52 Reference preparations. Reference Anti-Human Globulin preparations shall...

2011-04-01

370

Speaker Adaptation Using Multiple Reference Speakers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We introduce a new technique for using the speech of multiple reference speakers as a basis for speaker adaptation in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. In contrast to other methods that use a pooled reference model, this technique normalizes...

F. Kubala R. Schwartz C. Barry

1989-01-01

371

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary antithrombin deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary antithrombin deficiency? acids ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

372

Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y50th, 3y50th, 5y50th, 7y50th, and 20y50th. The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y10th, 5y10th, and 20y10th with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg-1, was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

2012-05-01

373

Reference model for data fusion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we offer an overview of design principles and propose a fusion process reference model that provides guidance for the design of data fusion systems. We incorporate a formal method approach to fusion system design and show the role of the psychology of the human/computer interface in the system design process. Data fusion is a complex, multi-faceted field that has evolved from a number of different disciplines. This disparate nature has lead to a largely bottom-up approach to data fusion system design where the components are constructed first and the system- level issues addressed afterwards. The result is an ad hoc, prototype driven philosophy which, we content, is neither efficient nor effective. We believe that design of data fusion systems needs to be given proper consideration, with a top-down approach that addresses system-level constraints first, thereby offering the possibility of re-usable, abstract structures. We offer an object-centered model of data fusion together with practical tools for studying and refining the model so that it can be useful in designing real data fusion systems.

Kokar, Mieczyslaw M.; Bedworth, Mark D.; Frankel, Carl B.

2000-04-01

374

Rethinking Job References: A Networking Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can job references play an active role in shaping one's career plans? Would individuals consider their references as part of their personal and professional network? Although most professionals may respond with a resounding "Yes, of course!" to these questions, the author realized that many of his students were skeptical about job references. To…

Muir, Clive

2009-01-01

375

Analyzing Reference Desk Statistics: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reference statistics were collected and analyzed for a three-year period from Fall 1975 to Summer 1976 at the Pennsylvania State University Main Undergraduate Library. Reference questions were classified and recorded in three categories: (1) search, (2) ready reference, and (3) directional. Hour of question, interlibrary loan, book, and telephone…

Glogoff, Stuart J.

376

Javari: adding reference immutability to Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a type system that is capable of expressing and enforcing immutability constraints. The specific constraint expressed is that the abstract state of the object to which an immutable reference refers cannot be modified using that reference. The abstract state is (part of) the transitively reachable state: that is, the state of the object and all state reachable

Matthew S. Tschantz; Michael D. Ernst

2005-01-01

377

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame define...

K. J. Johnston D. Boboltz A. L. Fey R. A. Gaume N. Zacharias

2004-01-01

378

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame define...

K. J. Johnston D. Boboltz A. L. Fey R. A. Gaume N. Zacharias

2005-01-01

379

Frames of Reference in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

Grossman, Joshua

2012-01-01

380

Evaluating Reference Services in the Electronic Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an electronic era, the evaluation of reference and related information services should still be based on the same principles used to evaluate traditional face-to-face reference services and printed reference tools. Traditional research methods can be utilized very effectively in an electronic environment. However, electronic technologies offer…

Whitlatch, Jo Bell

2001-01-01

381

Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.  

PubMed

We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m reported the maximum E field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at < 1 m, 1 m, and, 1.1-1.5 m showed the maximum E field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m was 200%, <30%, 0.76%, and 0.82%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limit for occupational exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices. PMID:23570423

Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

2013-01-01

382

High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

K. N. Green; R. L. van Alstine

1984-01-01

383

High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

Green, K. N.; van Alstine, R. L.

384

Fine resolution calculations of SAR in the human body for frequencies up to 3 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 100 MHz to 3 GHz at the basic 2 mm resolution of the voxel (volume pixel) model NORMAN without any rescaling to larger cell sizes. The reduction in the voxel size from previous work allows SAR to be calculated at higher frequencies. Additionally, the calculations have been extended down to 10 MHz, covering the whole-body resonance regions at a resolution of 4 mm. As well as for the adult phantom, SAR values are calculated for scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children for both grounded and isolated conditions. External electric field levels are derived from limits of whole-body averaged SAR and localized SAR in the ankle, and compared with NRPB investigation levels and ICNIRP reference levels. The ICNIRP field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of the localized SAR exposure in the leg for grounded conditions. It would be necessary to invoke the secondary reference level on limb current to provide compliance with basic restrictions on localized SAR averaged over 10 g.

Dimbylow, P. J.

2002-08-01

385

REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

Langton, C

2009-01-06

386

Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications?  

PubMed Central

In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering them. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs, presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety, and concludes with some practical implications of implementing RDP policies.

Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2010-01-01

387

Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

388

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository  

SciTech Connect

One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the syst

NA

2000-10-07

389

In situ exposure to non-directional beacons for air traffic control.  

PubMed

In situ electromagnetic field exposure of workers and the general public due to non-directional beacons (NDB) for air traffic control is assessed and characterized. For occupational exposure, the maximal measured electric field value is 881.6 V/m and the maximal magnetic field value is 9.1 A/m. The maximum electric fields exceed the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels at all seven NDB sites, and the magnetic fields at two of the seven NDB sites (occupational exposure). Recommendations and compliance distances for workers and the general public are provided. PMID:22252685

Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

2012-04-01

390

Reference waste package environment report  

SciTech Connect

One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

Glassley, W.E.

1986-10-01

391

Initial applications of an exponential multi-reference wavefunction ansatz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial applications of a new exponential multi-reference wavefunction ansatz [M. Hanrath, J. Chem. Phys. 123 (2005) 084102] are reported. The proposed ansatz is based on the state universal ansatz of Jeziorski and Monkhorst [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24 (1981) 1668] and uses a reference specific cluster operator with a determinant based indexing. The approach is Fermi vacuum invariant, size consistent, insensitive with respect to intruder states and converges to full CI with an increasing cluster operator excitation level. Applications on the H 4 and H 8 model systems are reported.

Hanrath, Michael

2006-03-01

392

Laser ultrasonic signal processing: A model-reference approach  

SciTech Connect

A model-reference approach is developed to solve the signal enhancement problem of a laser ultrasonics application for nondestructive evaluation. In this problem a sophisticated laser thermoelastic propagation model is used to synthesize the surface displacement of the specimen under test. Once synthesized, this model response is used as the reference signal in an optimal (minimum error variance) signal enhancement scheme. Both fixed and adaptive processors are considered in this application where it is shown that a significant improvement in signal levels can be achieved over the usual methods to enhance noisy data acquired from a Michelson interferometric measurement system and increase its overall sensitivity.

Candy, J.V.; Thomas, G.H.; Chinn, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-437, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Spicer, J.B. [The Johns Hopkins University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

1996-07-01

393

Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division is presented in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. The article examines ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies, and makes recommendations about how these strategies can be applied to the Reference Division and to Internet usage for the reference process

Sara Ryan

1996-01-01

394

Alternative Reference Frames in River System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding environmental processes begins with mental conceptualizations of system components and interactions. Conceptualizing rivers begins with adopting one of two reference frames for observing movement: Eulerian, wherein the flux of objects is observed in a spatially bounded area, or Lagrangian, wherein specific objects are tracked through time. Mechanistic studies include Eulerian and Lagrangian data, with some negotiation of how much Eulerian and Lagrangian information may be needed to maximize the accuracy of understanding processes and the efficiency of data collection. Most studies rely on a presupposed reference frame, yet we suspect breakthroughs lurk in explicit alterations of presupposed reference frames. We analyze the importance of reference frames by contrasting the extent to which alternative reference frames have been used and combined in studies of sediment transport, fish migration, and river biogeochemistry. We show how adopting alternative or nonintuitive reference frames can facilitate novel research questions and observations, potentially triggering new research trajectories.

Martin Doyle (University of North Carolina;Department of Geography)

2009-06-01

395

The JWST Calibration Reference Data System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS) will be used during the instrumental calibration phase of JWST data processing to select reference files (e.g. darks, flats, distortion models) to be used to calibrate each dataset. The CRDS will also be used in the delivery and management of reference files within the JWST data archive and to manage the rules that will be used to determine which files are to be used with each science dataset. The CRDS incorporates lessons learned from more than 20 years of use of the HST Calibration Database System (CDBS), allowing for easier management of the reference file mapping rules, web-based reference file delivery and retrieval procedures, on-line access by off-site users who are reprocessing their science data, and easier testing of new reference files in the operations environment.

Bushouse, H.; Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

2012-09-01

396

The NASA master directory: Quick reference guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a quick reference guide to the NASA Master Directory (MD), which is a free, online, multidisciplinary directory of space and Earth science data sets (NASA and non-NASA data) that are of potential interest to the NASA-sponsored research community. The MD contains high-level descriptions of data sets, other data systems and archives, and campaigns and projects. It provides mechanisms for searching for data sets by important criteria such as geophysical parameters, time, and spatial coverage, and provides information on ordering the data. It also provides automatic connections to a number of data systems such as the NASA Climate Data System, the Planetary Data System, the NASA Ocean Data System, the Pilot Land Data System, and others. The MD includes general information about many data systems, data centers, and coordinated data analysis projects, It represents the first major step in the Catalog Interoperability project, whose objective is to enable researchers to quickly and efficiently identify, obtain information about, and get access to space and Earth science data. The guide describes how to access, use, and exit the MD and lists its features.

Satin, Karen (editor); Kanga, Carol (editor)

1989-01-01

397

BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

398

Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

1977-01-01

399

Temperature-compensated reference circuits for SOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel reference circuits that exploit unique aspects of SOI technology are reported. The first is a voltage reference based on the G4-FET, a new four-gate transistor possible only in SOI; which achieves a temperature-compensated output voltage without the use of the standard bandgap architecture. The second is a current reference that uses the zero leakage p-well resistor available in

S. C. Terry; S. Chen; B. J. Blalock; J. R. Jackson; B. M. Dufrene; M. M. Mojarradi

2004-01-01

400

Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SARwb) and 58% (SAR10g) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SARwb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2010-06-01

401

SAR calculations from 20 MHz to 6 GHz in the University of Florida newborn voxel phantom and their implications for dosimetry.  

PubMed

This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of SAR in the University of Florida newborn female model. The newborn model is based upon a surface representation of the organs of the body, using non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces (NURBS). The surface model can then be converted into voxels at any resolution required. This flexibility allows the preparation of voxel models at 2, 1 and 0.5 mm to investigate the effect of resolution on dispersion and the choice of algorithms to calculate SAR in the Yee cell as the frequency increases up to 6 GHz. The added advantage of the newborn model is that it is relatively small and so FDTD calculations can be made tractable at a very fine resolution of 0.5 mm. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure. At 250 MHz, the whole body resonance, the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction. The reference level is also breached in the range 700-2450 MHz by all of the irradiation geometries considered. PMID:20157229

Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley; Lee, Choonsik

2010-03-01

402

Lessons in Electric Circuits Vol V Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics. These books DC, AC, Semiconductors, Electronics, Digital, Reference, and Experiments, and all related files are published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. Chapter 1: USEFUL EQUATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Chapter 2: COLOR CODES Chapter 3: CONDUCTOR AND INSULATOR TABLES Chapter 4: ALGEBRA REFERENCE Chapter 5: TRIGONOMETRY REFERENCE Chapter 6: CALCULUS REFERENCE Chapter 7: USING THE SPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION PROGRAM Chapter 8: TROUBLESHOOTING -- THEORY AND PRACTICE Chapter 9: CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS Chapter 10: PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2013-06-14

403

Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic vomiting syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Cyclic vomiting syndrome Mitochondrial DNA References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and ...

404

Spatial reference frame agreement in quantum networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to communicate information in a quantum network effectively, all network nodes should share a common reference frame. Here, we propose to study how well m nodes in a quantum network can establish a common spatial reference frame from scratch, even though t of them may be arbitrarily faulty. We present a protocol that allows all correctly functioning nodes to agree on a common reference frame as long as they are fully connected and not more than t nodes are faulty. Our protocol furthermore has the appealing property that it allows any existing two-node protocol for reference frame agreement to be lifted to a protocol for a quantum network.

Islam, Tanvirul; Magnin, Loïck; Sorg, Brandon; Wehner, Stephanie

2014-06-01

405

Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

1976-01-01

406

Reference design description for a geologic repository: Revision 01  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the current design expectations for a potential geologic repository that could be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This Reference Design Description (RDD) looks at the surface and subsurface repository and disposal container design. Additionally, it reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. In accordance with current legislation, the reference design for the potential repository does not include an interim storage option. The reference design presented allows the disposal of highly radioactive material received from government-owned spent fuel custodian sites; produces high-level waste sites, and commercial spent fuel sites. All design elements meet current federal, state, and local regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and protection of the public and the environment. Due to the complex nature of developing a repository, the design will be created in three phases to support Viability Assessment, License Application, and construction. This document presents the current reference design. It will be updated periodically as the design progresses. Some of the details presented here may change significantly as more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements are identified.

NONE

1997-09-01

407

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse.

TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2013-01-01

408

Generating referring expressions with a cognitive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low computational cost of the incremental algorithm for generating referring expressions makes it an interesting start- ing point for a cognitive model. But the algorithm has a very limited cognitive adequacy; first of all because of the fact that the preference list (the order in which features are considered for inclusion in the referring expression) is fixed. This means

Markus Guhe

409

Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

2013-01-01

410

Flexible Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These references on flexible educational facilities are abstracted by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities. College material includes an experimental learning center, a college health center, a fine arts center, and university library design. References on schools include secondary school design, flexible high school design, standard…

Wakefield, Howard E.

411

Economics: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 84 reference materials on economics located in the McLennan Library, McGill University (Montreal), are cited in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography serves to provide an overview of the printed bibliographic and reference sources useful for the study of economics. Financial and business sources and statistical compendia and…

Mason, Mary, Comp.

412

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are

Joyce M. Shaw

1988-01-01

413

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

Shaw, Joyce M.

1988-01-01

414

Empirical Data Reference Behaviour in Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past several years a considerable amount of effort has gone into the measurement, analysis, and modeling of program behavior. Most of the work either assumes the existence of a reference string, which is then used in various ways, or attempts to produce a model for the process by which such reference strings are generated. With very few exceptions

J. Rodriguez-rossel

1976-01-01

415

Recent references. January 1999 through December 1999  

SciTech Connect

In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data and basic research in nuclear physics, the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature-the Nuclear Science References (NSR). Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. The NSR file contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Since 1993, Recent References has been published on an annual basis as the December issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The present issue includes entries made to the NSR file between December 5, 1998 and December 3, 1999. NNDC continues to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files by online access to the NSR File. Web access to the NNDC databases is available at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/. A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the NNDC.

Winchell, D.F.; Sonzogni, A.A.

1999-12-01

416

Jonah: Experience Implementing PKIX Reference Freeware  

Microsoft Academic Search

IBM made a business decision to promote an open, secure, interoperable and integrateable environment by embracing the IETF's Public Key Infrastructure (X.509) standards, developing a reference implementation of the core set, and giving it away as freeware. We discuss the architecture of this reference code, emphasizing lessons learned from implementing the standards in an integrated PKI system.

Mary Ellen Zurko; John Wray; Ian Morrison; Mike Shanzer; Mike Crane; Pat Booth; Ellen McDermott; Warren Macek; Ann Graham; Jim Wade; Tom Sandlin

417

Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

2010-01-01

418

Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

2013-01-01

419

Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

Kristof, Cynthia

420

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

421

Teaching Bibliographic Reference in a Reports Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bibliographic reference is here defined as identification of documents by combinations of report numbers, accession numbers, contract numbers, personal authors, and/or corporate authors with subject. Bibliographic reference was taught to a non-professional staff member to service an uncataloged collection of scientific and technical reports. (7…

Rice, Barbara A.

1973-01-01

422

Aggression and Diagnosis in Psychiatrically Referred Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated correlations between measures of proactive and reactive aggression subtype, and the severity and frequency of overt aggression and psychiatric diagnosis in a clinically referred sample of children compared to a non-referred community comparison group free of psychiatric diagnosis. All measures of aggression were significantly…

Connor, Daniel F.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.

2006-01-01

423

Some terms of reference in data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the needs for a concept and harmonized terms of reference in data fusion. Previously published definitions are analyzed. A new definition of the data fusion is proposed which has been set within an European working group. Several definitions and terms of reference are given which describe the information intervening in any problem of data fusion

Lucien Wald

1999-01-01

424

SCORE, A Measurement of Reference Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Denver Libraries employed SCORE (Service Components Reliability and Efficiency), a cost analysis technique, to measure effectiveness and cost of reference activity. This report examines the results and the problems encountered in application of this methodology. A reference model, designed as a flow chart, was developed by…

Beeler, Richard J.

425

Reference Service: A Field with a View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses new technologies and the value of one-on-one personalized interaction in the reference environment and reports results of an informal survey of practitioners that investigated their views on the influences of theoretical models and new technologies on reference service. Highlights include collection development; interpersonal relations;…

McCann, Linda; Wallach, Ruth

1999-01-01

426

So You Want To Do Virtual Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the practical details of setting up live online reference services in libraries. Topics include choosing software; differences between licensed and hosted applications; models used to implement virtual reference services; how libraries are using these services in day to day operations; and marketing strategies. (Author/LRW)

Coffman, Steve

2001-01-01

427

Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page, "Reference

Kitao, Kenji

2002-01-01

428

Reference and Attitude in Infant Pointing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated two main components of infant declarative pointing, reference and attitude, in two experiments with a total of 106 preverbal infants at 1;0. When an experimenter (E) responded to the declarative pointing of these infants by attending to an incorrect referent (with positive attitude), infants repeated pointing within trials to…

Liszkowski, Ulf; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2007-01-01

429

Ready Reference Collections: Thoughts on Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is a ready reference collection? A stack of reference books selected according to personal interests? Each institution is unique in its needs and so are the collections that each library carries. The curricula and programs determine the collection development policies and the student population justifies the needs for their implementation. Is…

Fernandes, Maria Isabel

2008-01-01

430

English Language Arts. Delaware Teachers' Desk Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document represents one section of the Delaware Teachers' Desk Reference to Standards and Performance Indicators for Curriculum Planning and Unit Development produced by the Delaware Department of Education. The Desk Reference is part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

431

Medical Reference Sources on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the best standard medical reference works have migrated to the Internet. Corporations, professional organizations, and the federal government have taken advantage of the distribution and public education capabilities of the Internet to launch free or fee-based resources (or a combination thereof offering limited information as a teaser to encourage purchasing or subscriptions). Core medical\\/health reference works are identified

Gary A. McMillan

2005-01-01

432

Stress-Burnout: A Bibliography. 1000+ References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography contains an alphabetized list of over 1000 references dealing with job stress and burnout. All relevant published references are included; they represent major journals from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, management and administration, and human services such as social work and…

Riggar, T. F.; Beardsley, M.

433

Ensuring Quality in a Virtual Reference Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Soon after AskALibrarian, Florida's Statewide Virtual Reference Desk, began to offer Chat Reference to the public in 2003, a Quality Assurance Workgroup was established to ensure that the service patrons received would be friendly, accurate, and adequate. To make certain that best practices were used in answering the real time questions, two…

Barbier, Pat; Ward, Joyce

2004-01-01

434

An intercomparison of tantalum pentoxide reference studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements on carefully calibrated tantalum pentoxide films grown on polycrystalline tantalum foil in each of our three laboratories are subsequently intercompared in order to provide an accurate calibration of the oxide thicknesses on the two NPL\\/BCR reference foils. In the exchange between NPL and the University of Paris, the NPL\\/BCR reference foils are calibrated in Paris by nuclear reaction analysis

M. P. Seah; M. W. Holbourn; C. Ortega; J. A. Davies

1988-01-01

435

Development of an extended straightness measurement reference  

SciTech Connect

The most accurate diamond turning machines have used physical straightness references. These references commonly are made of optical materials, such as Zerodur, and are flat enough to permit straightness measurements with an accuracy of 100--150 nm (4--6 microinches) p-v. In most cases, the flatness error is stable and can be accommodated by using a calibration table. The straightedges for the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are 1.1 meters in length and allow a straightness reference accuracy of 25--50 nm (1--2 microinches) p-v after calibration. Fabrication problems become insurmountable when a straightness reference for a length of up to 4 meters is desired. Moreover, the method of calibration by straightedge reversal does not account for gravitational sag when the sensing direction is vertical. Vertical sensing would be required in a four meter system and sag would become unacceptably large. Recent developments published in the literature suggest that the use of a laser beam for a reference may be feasible. Workers at Osaka University have reported a laser beam straightness reference that has a resolution of 3.5 nm, although tests were done only over a 200 mm length. LLNL has begun an investigation on the use of a directionally stabilized laser beam as a straightness measurement reference. The goal of the investigation is to provide a reference that is accurate to 25 nm (1 microinch) over a four meter distance. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Schenz, R.F.; Griffith, L.V. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sommargren, G.E. (Zygo Corp., Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

1988-09-06

436

Jewish Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An annotated bibliography to the reference sources for Jewish Studies in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Canada) is presented. Any titles in Hebrew characters are listed by their transliterated equivalents. There is also a list of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings. General reference sources listed are: encyclopedias,…

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

437

Points of Reference in Technical Communication Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies 163 texts from a database of over 25,000 citations collected from five technical communication journals between 1988 and 1997. Notes that the texts--points of reference--represent the research, theory, and practice of technical communication. Concludes that the points of reference demonstrate that technical communication has an identity…

Smith, Elizabeth Overman

2000-01-01

438

Reflections on Malpractice of Reference Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the legal ramifications of malpractice among librarians and the possible impact on services due to fear of being sued. Topics include identification of potential malpractice areas; cooperative electronic reference services; use of reference standards; insurance; contract; disclaimer; updating library collections; using Internet resources;…

Wan, Ronglin

1994-01-01

439

On reference models for collaborative networked organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing number of collaborative networked organizations can be found in industry, services, and research. However, the lack of a reference model that could synthesize and formalize the base concepts, principles, and recommended practices, is an obstacle for an easier and more consistent development of the area. Therefore, after a clarification of concepts and terminology, the ARCON reference modeling approach

Luis M. Camarinha-Matos; Hamideh Afsarmanesh

2008-01-01

440

33 CFR 263.12 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false References. 263.12 Section 263.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters...AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS General § 263.12 References. (a) ER 11-2-201...Post-Authorization Studies. (k) ER 1165-2-18 Reimbursement...

2013-07-01

441

Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males' Facebook Profiles  

PubMed Central

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use.

Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.

2011-01-01

442

Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

2012-01-01

443

Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the\\u000a levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine,\\u000a N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements\\u000a performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology

L. C. Sander; K. Putzbach; B. C. Nelson; C. A. Rimmer; M. Bedner; J. Brown Thomas; B. J. Porter; L. J. Wood; M. M. Schantz; K. E. Murphy; K. E. Sharpless; S. A. Wise; J. H. Yen; P. H. Siitonen; R. L. Evans; A. Nguyen Pho; M. C. Roman; J. M. Betz

2008-01-01

444

Clinical biospecimens: reference materials, certified for nominal properties?  

PubMed

This report makes the case for clinical biospecimens to be certified for nominal properties, in particular the diagnosis, and to attain the level of Reference Materials. Clinical certified biospecimens that are collected, processed, characterized, stored, and distributed by biobanks are urgently needed to facilitate diagnostic test development, evaluation, and quality assurance. Four examples are provided to illustrate this purpose and the certification approaches that could be applied are proposed. PMID:24749878

Betsou, Fay

2014-04-01

445

Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

2008-01-01

446

Selection of reference genes for expression studies with fish myogenic cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Relatively few studies have used cell culture systems to investigate gene expression and the regulation of myogenesis in fish. To produce robust data from quantitative real-time PCR mRNA levels need to be normalised using internal reference genes which have stable expression across all experimental samples. We have investigated the expression of eight candidate genes to identify suitable reference genes

Neil I Bower; Ian A Johnston

2009-01-01

447

Tailored reference limits for urine corticoid:creatinine ratio in dogs to answer distinct clinical questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish reference intervals for the urinary corticoid:creatinine ratio (UCCR) determined by chemiluminometric immunoassay, UCCR was measured by this method in 50 healthy dogs. To assess the diagnostic performance of different cut-off levels, the UCCR of 66 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and 87 dogs with diseases mimicking hyperadrenocorticism were used to construct a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The upper reference

F. Zeugswetter; N. Bydzovsky; D. Kampner; I. Schwendenwein

2010-01-01

448

Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

Bossler, F. B.

1966-01-01

449

Enhancing Access Control with SysGuard, Reference Monitor Supporting Portable and Composable Kernel Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

To install security modules or reference monitors into operating system kernels is a common and effective way for enhancing access control for networks. However, security modules in conventional kernel-level reference monitors are usually not portable to other kernels and require detailed knowledge about kernel internals. Furthermore, different security modules are often not composable and conflict with each other. This paper

Yasushi Shinjo; Kotaro Eiraku; Atsushi Suzuki; Kozo Itano; Calton Pu

2002-01-01

450

The JWST Science Operations Design Reference Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a sample observing program for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) that represents 1.7 years of operations and have used that program in studies of possible operations scenarios. The Science Operations Design Reference Mission (SO-DRM) is comprised of science, calibration, and observatory maintenance programs that we developed from the JWST Science Working Group Science Requirements Document. Our programs are comprised of observations that are specified at a level of detail sufficient to plan and schedule observations (similar to HST Phase II specifications). These observations meet the science requirements of each program, the operational limitations imposed by the spacecraft design, and ground system rules. We have also developed a computer application, JWST Mission Simulator (JMS), to represent the execution of the observing program and to create a feasible and optimized schedule of observations. Furthermore, we have modified a version of the HST long-range planning and scheduling application, Spike, to carry out JWST planning and scheduling studies. Using these tools we have carried out several science systems engineering studies to demonstrate the feasibility of operational scenarios and their parametric sensitivity. To those ends, we have created schedules of SO-DRM observations that represent a typical one-year observing cycle using a greedy scheduling algorithm, or planning preferences for maximum S/N and minimum solar torque. We have studied the oversubscription of the observing pool necessary to achieve a high rate of utilization of the observatory. We have studied perturbations of these processes in order to quantify the stability of observing schedules. Results from these studies are presented.

Petro, L.; Balzano, V.; Boia, J.; Gardner, J. P.; Giuliano, M.; Jones, D.; Kinzel, W.; Lucas, R.; Meixner, M.; Purves, L.; Rager, R.; Regan, M.; Roman, A.; Royle, P.; Rumpl, W.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Soderblom, D.; Stiavelli, M.; Stys, J.; Valenti, J.; Whitman, R.

2005-12-01

451

Physiology and its importance for reference intervals.  

PubMed

Reference intervals are ideally defined on apparently healthy individuals and should be distinguished from clinical decision limits that are derived from known diseased patients. Knowledge of physiological changes is a prerequisite for understanding and developing reference intervals. Reference intervals may differ for various subpopulations because of differences in their physiology, most obviously between men and women, but also in childhood, pregnancy and the elderly. Changes in laboratory measurements may be due to various physiological factors starting at birth including weaning, the active toddler, immunological learning, puberty, pregnancy, menopause and ageing. The need to partition reference intervals is required when there are significant physiological changes that need to be recognised. It is important that laboratorians are aware of these changes otherwise reference intervals that attempt to cover a widened inter-individual variability may lose their usefulness. It is virtually impossible for any laboratory to directly develop reference intervals for each of the physiological changes that are currently known, however indirect techniques can be used to develop or validate reference intervals in some difficult situations such as those for children. Physiology describes our life's journey, and it is only when we are familiar with that journey that we can appreciate a pathological departure. PMID:24659833

Sikaris, Kenneth A

2014-02-01

452

TEPC performance for a reference standard.  

PubMed

A portable tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based system was developed, which will be used as a reference standard in the neutron mixed field for radiation protection. In this paper, microdosimetry of the TEPC system was studied both in neutron ((252)Cf and (241)Am-Be sources) and gamma ((137)Cs and (60)Co sources) reference radiation fields. The measured neutron and gamma-dose equivalent rates were, respectively, compared with those of the reference ambient dose equivalent rate H(*)(10). And the measured microdosimetric spectra were compared with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA simulated results. All of the comparisons primarily agreed well. PMID:24036657

Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yina; Li, Chunjuan; Xiao, Xuefu; Luo, Hailong; Chen, Jun; Li, Wei

2014-01-01

453

Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thorium-232 reference materials with a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. Some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material were prepared by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/q. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 + or - 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 + or - 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 + or - 0.3 pCi/g.

Engelder, P. R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R. B.

1985-05-01

454

Reference Books in Special Media. Reference Circular No. 82-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on information contained in producers' catalogs and on responses to a survey conducted by the Reference Section of the Library of Congress National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, this publication lists reference materials produced in braille or in large type, and sound recordings of reference works available…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

455

Reference Communities: Applying the Community of Practice Concept to Development of Reference Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities of practice offer reference librarians a conceptual model through which to develop and maintain general and subject specific knowledge. Reference librarians acquire general and subject-specific knowledge in many ways, sometimes independently and sometimes collaboratively. Applying the concept of the "community of practice" to reference

Miller, Robin E.

2011-01-01

456

Low voltage CMOS bandgap references with temperature compensated reference current output  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for designing low voltage bandgap references providing both reference voltage and current outputs are proposed. By modifying the bandgap load or the bandgap core, the temperature dependences of the voltage output and the current output can be compensated separately. Based on the proposed techniques, a IV bandgap reference was designed in a conventional 0.18um CMOS process. Opamp was not

Edward K. F. Lee

2010-01-01

457

Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry.  

PubMed

The use of mobile phone telecommunication has increased in recent years. In parallel, there is growing concern about possible adverse health effects of cellular phone networks. We used personal dosimetry to investigate the association between exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults. A random population-based sample of 329 adults living in four different Bavarian towns was assembled for the study. Using a dosimeter (ESM-140 Maschek Electronics), we obtained an exposure profile over 24 h for three mobile phone frequency ranges (measurement interval 1 s, limit of determination 0.05 V/m). Exposure levels over waking hours were totalled and expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Each participant reported acute symptoms in a day-long diary. Data on five groups of chronic symptoms and potential confounders were assessed during an interview. The overall exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields was markedly below the ICNIRP reference level. We did not find any statistically significant association between the exposure and chronic symptoms or between the exposure and acute symptoms. Larger studies using mobile phone dosimetry are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:18393264

Thomas, Silke; Kühnlein, Anja; Heinrich, Sabine; Praml, Georg; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

2008-09-01

458

The impact of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields on chronic well-being in young people--a cross-sectional study based on personal dosimetry.  

PubMed

A possible influence of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure on health outcomes was investigated in various studies. The main problem of previous studies was exposure assessment. The aim of our study was the investigation of a possible association between RF EMF and chronic well-being in young persons using personal dosimetry. 3022 children and adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian cities in Germany (participation 52%). Personal interview data on chronic symptoms, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. A 24-h radio frequency exposure profile was generated using a personal dosimeter. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Half of the children and nearly every adolescent owned a mobile phone which was used only for short durations per day. Measured exposure was far below the current ICNIRP reference levels. The most reported chronic symptom in children and adolescents was fatigue. No statistically significant association between measured exposure and chronic symptoms was observed. Our results do not indicate an association between measured exposure to RF EMF and chronic well-being in children and adolescents. Prospective studies investigating potential long-term effects of RF EMF are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:20619895

Heinrich, Sabine; Thomas, Silke; Heumann, Christian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

2011-01-01

459

Measurement of Magnetic Field From an Induction Heating Hob and Estimation of Induced Current Density in Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields around induction heating hobs are measured and evaluated with regard to the compliance with safety guidelines of human exposure. The magnetic flux density distributions are highly inhomogeneous and the maximum can exceed the reference levels of the guideline at the very proximity to the device. The induced current densities in human body exposed to these magnetic fields are estimated by numerical calculations by means of impedance method with an anatomical human model. The results indicate that induced currents are sufficiently lower than the basic restriction of the ICNIRP guideline. It is shown that the spatially peak incident field does not provide a relevant reference to compare with the reference level of guideline because it is too conservative but spatially averaged incident magnetic field provides much more relevant reference.

Suzuki, Yukihisa; Taki, Masao

460

Reference Ranges for Serum Uric Acid among Healthy Assamese People.  

PubMed

This study was designed to establish reference ranges for serum uric acid among healthy adult Assamese population. Samples from 1470 aged 35-86 years were used to establish age and sex related reference range by the centile method (central 95 percentile) for serum uric acid level. There were 51% (n = 754) males and 49% (n = 716) females; 75.9% (n = 1115) of them were from urban area and the rest 24.1% (n = 355) were from the rural area. Majority of the population were nonvegetarian (98.6%, n = 1450) and only 1.4% (n = 20) were vegetarian. The mean age, weight, height, and uric acid of the studied group were 53.6 ± 11.3 years, 62.6 ± 10.5?kg, 160 ± 9.4?cm, and 5.5 ± 1.4?mg/dL, respectively. There is a statistically significant difference in the mean value of the abovementioned parameters between male and female. The observed reference range of uric acid in the population is 2.6-8.2?mg/dL which is wider than the current reference range used in the laboratory. Except gender (P < 0.0001), we did not find any significant relation of uric acid with other selected factors. PMID:24672726

Das, Madhumita; Borah, N C; Ghose, M; Choudhury, N

2014-01-01

461

10 CFR 851.27 - Reference sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), P.O. Box 2300 Fairfield, NJ 07007. Telephone: 800-843-2763, or got to: http://www.asme.org. (b) List of standards incorporated by reference. (1) American National Standards...

2011-01-01

462

10 CFR 851.27 - Reference sources.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), P.O. Box 2300 Fairfield, NJ 07007. Telephone: 800-843-2763, or got to: http://www.asme.org. (b) List of standards incorporated by reference. (1) American National Standards...

2012-01-01

463

33 CFR 242.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References... (b) Corps of Engineers Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100... (c) Corps of Engineers Engineering Pamphlet 37-1-4, Cost of Doing...

2013-07-01

464

Precast concrete: a bibliography. [Over 250 references  

SciTech Connect

References to precast concrete include books, articles, conference papers, and government publications on the use of concrete in buildings, highways, tunnels, bridges, and other uses. The information covers engineering aspects and applications, equipment, composites, and concrete finishing. (DCK)

Vance, M.

1983-01-01

465

33 CFR 230.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.3 References. (a) Executive Order 12291...Memorandum to Agencies Containing Answers to 40 Most Asked Questions on NEPA Regulations (46 FR 34263-68, July 28, 1983). (m)...

2013-07-01

466

World Reference Center and Arbovirus Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Reference Center for Arboviruses identified over 400 viruses and revised the taxonomy of Bunyaviridae, Orbivirus, Rhabdoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Togaviridae. Outbreaks were diagnosed such as Rift Valley fever in Egypt in 1977. Rapid and early ...

R. E. Shope

1984-01-01

467

40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.100 Reference materials....

2013-07-01

468

Genetics Home Reference: Glutathione synthetase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Glutathione synthetase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry ...

469

Genetics Home Reference: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria  

MedlinePLUS

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

470

Genetics Home Reference: Li-Fraumeni syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Li-Fraumeni syndrome Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases Additional NIH ...

471

Genetics Home Reference: Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing ...

472

Genetics Home Reference: Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Educational resources Information pages Patient support For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry ...

473

Genetics Home Reference: Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

474

Genetics Home Reference: Beta-ketothiolase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Beta-ketothiolase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

475

47 CFR 1.761 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Specific Types of Applications Under Title II of Communications Act § 1.761 Cross reference. Specific types of applications under Title III of the Communications Act...

2013-10-01

476

40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CFR part 90 reference SAE J1930 September 1991, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of...

2010-07-01

477

40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CFR part 90 reference SAE J1930 September 1991, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE Paper 770141, Optimization of a Flame Ionization Detector for Determination of...

2009-07-01

478

Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

479

Genetics Home Reference: Mitochondrial complex III deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions ...

480

Genetics Home Reference: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia  

MedlinePLUS

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information ...

481

Genetics Home Reference: Kearns-Sayre syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Kearns-Sayre syndrome Mitochondrial DNA Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic ...

482

The Complex Nature of Opening Reference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to review communication theory models and some of the literature from philosophy and linguistics in an attempt to supply a rational explanation for the generality of opening reference questions. (Author)

Eichman, Thomas Lee

1978-01-01

483

Scanning Reference Electrode Techniques in Localized Corrosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized c...

H. S. Isaacs B. Vyas

1979-01-01

484

Standard Reference Materials and Meaningful Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents the proceedings of the 6th Materials Research Symposium on 'Standard Reference Materials and Meaningful Measurement' held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland, on October 29 through November 2, 1973. The symposium...

R. W. Seward

1975-01-01

485

Mass Storage System Reference Model System Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

System Management is the collection of functions that are primarily concerned with the control, performance and utilization of the Mass Storage System defined by the Mass Storage System Reference Model. These functions are often very site-dependent, invol...

B. Collins T. McLarty

1988-01-01

486

Selected Reference Books of 1979-80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents book reviews of recently published scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The listing includes a brief roundup of new editions of standard works, continuations, and supplements. (RAA)

Sheehy, Eugene P.