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1

Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2011-07-19

2

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields

J F Bakker; M M Paulides; E Neufeld; A Christ; X L Chen; N Kuster; G C van Rhoon

2012-01-01

3

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm³ contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions. PMID:22411059

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Chen, X L; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2012-03-13

4

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2012-04-01

5

ENRAF gauge reference level calculations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-06

6

Preliminary reference levels in interventional cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  This article describes the European DIMOND approach to defining reference levels (RLs) for radiation doses delivered to patients\\u000a during two types of invasive cardiology procedures, namely coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary\\u000a angioplasty (PTCA). Representative centres of six European countries recorded patients' doses in terms of dose-area product\\u000a (DAP), fluoroscopy time and number of radiographic exposures, using X-ray equipment

V. Neofotistou; E. Vano; R. Padovani; J. Kotre; A. Dowling; M. Toivonen; S. Kottou; V. Tsapaki; S. Willis; G. Bernardi; K. Faulkner

2003-01-01

7

Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) established eye-safe exposure limits for laser light based on estimates of the 50% exposure dose (ED50) for retinal damage in animals. The ED50 has not been determined for continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) light, as may be used in instruments for spectroscopic analysis of the eye. The purpose of this study is to determine the ED50 of 785-nm light delivered by a Raman spectroscopy instrument on the retinas of pigmented rabbits, and to compare that ED50 to the ICNIRP estimates. Light of varying power was focused into the anterior chambers of rabbits for 4, 20, or 300 s. Estimates of spot size on the retina were determined by modifying the schematic rabbit eye with actual axial length and refractive error measurements. Masked examiners determined retinal burns from fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms made immediately after exposure and again 48-72 h later. Thirty-five of 86 exposed eyes had retinal burns. In 12 of these the burn was not visible until 48-72 h. In 6 the burn was visible on color photographs, but not on fluorescein angiography. The ED50 retinal power density from probit analysis was 14,513 mW cm(-2), 10,369 mW cm(-2), and 5,237 mW cm(-2) for 4-s, 20-s, and 300-s exposures, respectively. Thus, the ED50 for retinal burns from 785-nm light is approximately 7 and 7.5 times the ICNIRP permitted limits for 4- and 20-s exposures, and 5.6 times the limit for 300-s exposures. This is consistent with the ICNIRP intention to set power limits several times less than ED50. PMID:16340602

Borchert, Mark; Lambert, James; Sliney, David

2006-01-01

8

Greek dose reference levels in pediatric pelvis computed tomography examinations.  

PubMed

The fact that children do undergo computed tomography (CT) examinations similar to those for adults adults has been a research issue, especially since the former are exposed to greater risk levels (developing stochastic late effects, such as cancer) due to their increased radiosensitivity compared to the latter. In a previous research paper (), the values of dose levels were recorded, analyzed, and compared with the reference values for groups of 0, 1, 5 and 10 y-old children for the regions of head, chest, and abdomen. In this paper, the same age group has been considered for measuring dose levels of the pelvic region. Scanning the pelvic region has been one of the most important CT examination procedures, in which unfortunately part of the lower abdomen region is included without adapting any pediatric protocols. Furthermore, the study determines whether the adjustment of the scanning parameters results in any possible reduction in the radiation dose levels to which the patient is being exposed during the examination. The present work also includes the Greek reference levels for the pelvic CT examination for the 5- and 10-y-old children that have been used for comparison against the European ones. PMID:23439147

Yakoumakis, Emmanouil; Karlatira, Maria; Makri, Triantafillia; Kottou, Sophia; Georgiou, Evangelos

2013-04-01

9

Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach  

SciTech Connect

A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

Vano, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es; Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Medical Physics (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Radiology (Spain); Verdu, J. F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Department of Radiology (Spain); Garay, M. Gonzalez de [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Radiology (Spain); Azpiazu, A. [Hospital Txagoritxu, Department of Radiology (Spain); Segarra, A. [Hospital Valle de Hebron, Department of Radiology (Spain); Hernandez, M. T. [Hospital Funacion Alcorcon, Department of Radiology (Spain); Canis, M. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Department of Radiology (Spain); Diaz, F. [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology (Spain); Moreno, F. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez (Spain); Palmero, J. [Hospital Clinico de Valencia (Spain)

2009-01-15

10

Development of a low-level radon reference atmosphere.  

PubMed

In order to calibrate measurement devices for the activity concentration of Rn-222 (radon) in air below 1,000 Bq/m(3), a constant for long time (>5d), homogeneous reference atmosphere is created by a certified activity in a certified volume. The PTB developed this reference atmosphere from 150 Bq/m(3) to 2,000 Bq/m(3) based on the precisely known emanation of Rn-222 from a Ra-226 activity standard. This set-up reduces uncertainties and increases the range of traceability for commercial radon measurement devices. Thus, a gap in radon metrology is closed. The new primary standard for reference atmospheres is realised with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 1.1%. PMID:23562434

Linzmaier, Diana; Röttger, Annette

2013-03-21

11

Women's and Men's Career Referents: How Gender Composition and Comparison Level Shape Career Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how women's and men's career referents-the people they see as having similar careers-affect career expectations. We raise two questions. First, what is the relative effect of the gender composition and comparison level of career referents on such expectations? Second, what happens to career expectations when women and men identify career referents at the same comparison level? Current

Donald E. Gibson; Barbara S. Lawrence

2010-01-01

12

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

13

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

1981-09-01

14

Women's and Men's Career Referents: How Gender Composition and Comparison Level Shape Career Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how women’s and men’s career referents, the people they see as having similar careers, affect career expectations. We raise two questions. First, what is the relative effect of the gender composition and comparison level of career referents on such expectations? Second, what happens to career expectations when women and men identify career referents at the same comparison

Donald E. Gibson; Barbara S. Lawerence

2009-01-01

15

Reference interval and determinants of the serum homocysteine level in a Korean population.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the reference intervals of the serum homocysteine (Hcy) level using two automated immunoassays, and we demonstrated the effects of various factors on the Hcy level in a Korean population. We calculated the gender- and assay-specific reference intervals using the data from 809 healthy Koreans, and we assessed the effects of physiologic and lifestyle factors on the Hcy level. The upper limit was higher in males (19.21 and 19.76??mol/l) than that in females (14.99??mol/l and 15.16??mol/l, AxSym and ADVIA centaur, respectively); the upper limits were comparable between the two assays. Smokers, vitamin nonusers, and persons without regular exercise showed a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was significantly associated with the male gender (adjusted OR: 5.705, P-value: 0.008) and with the low folate level group (adjusted OR: 10.412, P-value: 0.002) on the multivariate analysis. The Hcy level was significantly different according to various factors, especially in the gender and folate level. The reference interval should be determined for each ethnic population and for each assay. The appropriate cutoff for assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease or stroke should also be validated in each population. PMID:21919064

Moon, Hee-Won; Whang, Dong Hee; Ko, Young Jin; Joo, Shin Young; Yun, Yeo-Min; Hur, Mina; Kim, Jin Q

2011-01-01

16

Arterial Blood Gas Reference Values for Sea Level and an Altitude of 1,400 Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n 5 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n 5 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa O 2 , Pa CO 2

ROBERT O. CRAPO; ROBERT L. JENSEN; MATHEW HEGEWALD; DONALD P. TASHKIN

1999-01-01

17

A contribution to the establishment of diagnostic reference levels in CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT has become the major source of population exposure to diagnostic X-rays. CT dose index (CTDI) and dose-length product (DLP) have been proposed as the appropriate dose quantities for the establishment of diagnostic reference levels for optimizing patient exposure. Dose measurements on 27 CT scanners in Northern Greece involving six routine CT examinations have been performed in order to compare

K Hatziioannou; E PAPANASTASSIOU; M DELICHAS; P BOUSBOURAS

2003-01-01

18

A contribution to the establishment of diagnostic reference levels in CT.  

PubMed

CT has become the major source of population exposure to diagnostic X-rays. CT dose index (CTDI) and dose-length product (DLP) have been proposed as the appropriate dose quantities for the establishment of diagnostic reference levels for optimizing patient exposure. Dose measurements on 27 CT scanners in Northern Greece involving six routine CT examinations have been performed in order to compare their performance with the currently proposed European reference dose values and to produce a preliminary set of data for the establishment of local diagnostic reference levels. All measurements were performed using a pencil shaped ionization chamber introduced into polymethyl methacrylate cylindrical head and body phantoms. The results revealed significant discrepancies in dose values among the CT scanners, which can be mainly attributed to variations in the examination protocols and the different kinds of scanners. Significant overdosing compared with the European reference levels has not been observed, with the exception of the routine head examination, where 47% of the scanners exceeded the corresponding CTDI(w) value. CT scans in the trunk region result in the higher effective doses, which can reach estimated maximal values of the order of 15 mSv. PMID:12893696

Hatziioannou, K; Papanastassiou, E; Delichas, M; Bousbouras, P

2003-08-01

19

Reference levels in the context of fukushima and related lessons learned.  

PubMed

About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

Sakai, Kazuo

2013-11-01

20

Single cell green algae reference materials with managed levels of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three batches of single cell green algal biomass have been produced as model substances for green biomass reference materials\\u000a with the aim of arriving at three different concentration levels for selected heavy metals in the same matrix. The green algal\\u000a biomass is produced in a water based culture medium in open and closed bioreactors. An outdoor open bioreactor technology\\u000a was

R. Zeisler; R. Dekner; E. Zeiller; J. Doucha; P. Mader; J. Ku?era

1998-01-01

21

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

22

Re-evaluation of the reference dose for methylmercury and assessment of current exposure levels  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (Me-Hg) is widely distributed through freshwater and saltwater food chains and human consumption of fish and shellfish has lead to widespread exposure. Both the US EPA Reference Dose (0.3 [mu]g/kg/day) and the FAO/WHO Permissible Tolerable Weekly Intake (3.3 [mu]g/kg/week) are currently based on the prevention of paraesthesia in adult and older children. However, Me-Hg exposure in utero is known to result in a range of developmental neurologic effects including clinical CNS symptoms and delayed onset of walking. Based on a critical review of development toxicity data from human and animal studies, it is concluded that current guidelines for the prevention of paraesthesia are not adequate to address developmental effects. A dose of 0.07 [mu]g/kg/day is suggested as the best estimate of a potential reference dose for developmental effects. Data on nationwide fish consumption rates and Me-Hg levels in fish/seafood weighted by proportion of the catch intended for human consumption are analyzed in a Monte Carlo simulation to derive a probability distribution of background Me-Hg exposure. While various uncertainties in the toxicologic and exposure data limit the precision with which health risk can be estimated, this analysis suggests that at current levels of Me-Hg exposure, a significant fraction of women of childbearing age have exposures above this suggested reference dose.

Stern, A.H. (New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection and Energy, Trenton (United States))

1993-06-01

23

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01

24

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

1980-06-01

25

Inhalation of an essential metal: development of reference exposure levels for manganese.  

PubMed

Exposures to high levels of manganese by ingestion or inhalation can damage the central nervous system. However, the capacity of environmental manganese to cause neurotoxicity is of most concern following inhalation exposure. Reference exposure levels (RELs) are values developed by California EPA's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) to protect the general public from periodic and continual exposures to airborne toxicants. The recently revised guidelines for the development of noncancer RELs encourage the use of benchmark dose methodology where appropriate, and explicitly address the potential susceptibilities associated with early-life exposures (OEHHA, 2008). This paper describes the application of those guidelines to the derivation of RELs to protect the general public from routine 8h and chronic exposures to airborne manganese. The data were amenable to benchmark analysis and the RELs derived reflect the mounting evidence that children represent a population that is differentially susceptible to manganese toxicity. PMID:20176068

Winder, Bruce S; Salmon, Andrew G; Marty, Melanie A

2010-02-20

26

Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

1981-10-01

27

Phylogenetic reference data for systematics and phylotaxonomy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from phylum to species level.  

PubMed

Although the molecular phylogeny, evolution and biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are becoming clearer, phylotaxonomically reliable sequence data are still limited. To fill this gap, a data set allowing resolution and environmental tracing across all taxonomic levels is provided. Two overlapping nuclear DNA regions, totalling c. 3 kb, were analysed: the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (up to 1800 bp) and a fragment spanning c. 250 bp of the SSU rDNA, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (c. 475-520 bp) and c. 800 bp of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Both DNA regions together could be analysed for 35 described species, the SSU rDNA for c. 76 named and 18 as yet undefined species, and the ITS region or LSU rDNA, or a combination of both, for c. 91 named and 16 as yet undefined species. Present phylogenetic analyses, based on the three rDNA markers, provide reliable and robust resolution from phylum to species level. Altogether, 109 named species and 27 cultures representing as yet undefined species were analysed. This study provides a reference data set for molecular systematics and environmental community analyses of AMF, including analyses based on deep sequencing. PMID:22150759

Krüger, Manuela; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Stockinger, Herbert; Schüssler, Arthur

2011-12-09

28

Pay referent comparison and pay level satisfaction : Some differences among employees in the UK food retail sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine satisfaction level among food retail employees concerning their pay and to compare pay referent and pay level satisfaction of employees in supermarkets and discount stores in the UK. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was used to gather data from a sample of 246 higher, middle level management and shop floor staff.

Ola Shittu

2008-01-01

29

Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu  

PubMed Central

Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context.

Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

2011-01-01

30

Towards proposition of a diagnostic reference level for mammographic examination in the greater Khorasan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Although, over the past few years, the application of mammography has risen up sharply in Iran, very little, if any, has been reported of the extent of patient's dose from this type of imaging. The purpose of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference level (DRL) arising from mammography in the great Khorasan province of Iran. It is generally assumed that the glandular tissue is the most vulnerable type of breast tissue. Therefore, the mean glandular dose (MGD) has been widely accepted as the most appropriate dosimetric quantity to predict the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Literary, DRL for mammography is defined as the 75th percentile of MGD distribution. In Khorasan province, 7 out of 40 centres were randomly selected. In this work, 100 patients were studied. Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs). Since, it is difficult to directly measure MGD, Monte Carlo model-based conversion factors were utilised to conclude MGD from ESD. The results have revealed that patients dose is varied widely. The measured ESDs ranged from 0.74 to 19.81 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) view and 1.20 to 25.79 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The average MGDs per image were 0.88 and 1.11 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. Based on the internationally adopted definition, DRL arising from mammography tests for Khorasan is 1.33 mGy. Implementation of a dose reduction programme is suggested because of the large variations observed in patient MGD values. In this study, the DRL value is significantly lower than the corresponding values suggested by other researchers elsewhere. PMID:23209184

Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Zare, H; Bayani Roodi, Sh; Hashemi, M; Akbari, F; Malekzadeh, M

2012-12-02

31

Levels of Complexity in Discourse for Reference Disambiguation and Speech Act Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a discussion of means of describing the discourse and its components which makes speech act interpretation and reference disambiguation possible with minimal search of the knowledge in the database. A portion of this paper will conside...

C. Bullwinkle

1977-01-01

32

Progress towards an alanine\\/ESR therapy level reference dosimetry service at NPL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes work being carried out at the National Physical Laboratory towards the establishment of an alanine reference dosimetry service for radiotherapy applications. A precision fused quartz holder has been constructed to allow precise positioning of alanine dosimeters in the ESR cavity. A novel method of signal analysis based on spectrum fitting has been developed to minimize the effect

P. H. G. Sharpe; K. Rajendran; J. P. Sephton

1996-01-01

33

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground. Volume 1. Main report, technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology, safety and cost information is presented for the conceptual decommissioning of a reference low-level waste burial grounds, both on a dry and wet site. Two basic approaches to decommissioning, stabilization followed by at least 200 years of surveillance and disinterment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs and occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety

E. S. Murphy; G. M. Holter

1980-01-01

34

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground: environmental surveillance programs. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 'Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground,' NUREG\\/CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories

D. H. Denham; P. A. Eddy; K. A. Hawley; R. E. Jaquish; J. P. Corley

1981-01-01

35

Modeling organic carbon burial during sea level rise with reference to the Cretaceous  

Microsoft Academic Search

After three decades of research on the correlation between sea level and various proxies, there has been very little quantification of the first-order influence of sea level change on nutrient inventory, marine productivity, and burial of organic carbon. We present a model aimed at quantifying the burial of organic carbon as a function of sea level rise. The biogeochemical model

C. J. Bjerrum; J. Bendtsen; J. J. F. Legarth

2006-01-01

36

Reevaluation of the reference dose for methylmercury and assessment of current exposure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylmercury (Me-Hg) is widely distributed through freshwater and saltwater food chains and human consumption of fish and shellfish has lead to widespread exposure. Both the US EPA Reference Dose (0.3 [mu]g\\/kg\\/day) and the FAO\\/WHO Permissible Tolerable Weekly Intake (3.3 [mu]g\\/kg\\/week) are currently based on the prevention of paraesthesia in adult and older children. However, Me-Hg exposure in utero is known

Alan H. Stern

1993-01-01

37

Reference curves to diagnose cobalt deficiency in sheep using liver and serum vitamin B12 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference curves demonstrating the relationship between serum or liver vitamin B12 and weight gain were derived from the examination of 16 published and 48 unpublished N.Z. trials. From these curves probability of obtaining an economic reponse (>10g\\/day body weight increase) for any serum or liver vitamin B12 can be determined. No significant (P<0.05) weight gain responses occurred to vitamin B12

R. G. Clark; D. F. Wright; K. R. Millar; J. D. Rowland

1989-01-01

38

Serum Levels of Pancreatitis-Associated Protein in Digestive Diseases with Special Reference to Gastrointestinal Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serum levels of pancreatitis-associatedprotein (PAP) were measured in 196 patients withdigestive diseases and 15 healthy subjects by anenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The serum PAP levelswere significantly elevated in the patients withgastric, colorectal, biliary tract, hepatocellular, orpancreatic cancers compared with the healthy subjects.After curative resection of the tumor, serum PAP levels were significantly decreased. The serumPAP levels were not related to

Yoshiharu Motoo; Yoshitake Satomura; Ikurou Mouri; Hisatsugu Mouri; Koushiro Ohtsubo; Junta Sakai; Tomoharu Fujii; Hiromi Taga; Yasushi Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Watanabe; Takashi Okai; Norio Sawabu

1999-01-01

39

Immunosuppressive acidic protein serum levels in breast cancer patients in a reference to CA 15-3 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) has been described as a tumor marker in a number of malignant diseases. To evaluate the clinical importance of IAP in breast cancer patients, IAP serum level was determined in 75 breast cancer patients, using single radial immunodiffusion. Serum samples were also tested for CA 15-3. Cut off value for IAP was determined according to IAP

Arnon D. Cohen; Yehuda Shoenfeld; Jacob Gopas; Yoram Cohen

1994-01-01

40

Determination of diagnostic reference levels in general radiography in Latin America.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the International Action Plan on Radiation Protection of Patients and the International Commission on Radiological Protection have for some time carried out important efforts to assure that in the medical applications of the ionising radiations, the optimisation of radiological protection of patients is fundamental, to such a point that the IAEA includes it directly as a requirement for these practices (in its International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS)-GSR Part 1, 2011). For this reason, among the objectives of Regional Project RLA/9/057 and Regional Project RLA/9/067, the intention was to establish the dose references in conventional radiology for Latin America, for the purposes of determining whether these doses comply with the requirements of the BSS and to tend to improve practices, in order to minimise the dose received by the patients. PMID:23571690

Blanco, Susana; Mora, Patricia; Almonte, Narkiss; Benavente, Tony; Benson, Nadja; Blanco, Daniel; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz Gómez, Yolanda; Edding, Oscar; Escobar, Carolina; Fonseca, María; Gamarra, Mirtha; García Aguilar, Juan; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Roas Zuniga, Norma; Zaire, Edgar; Nader, Alejandro

2013-04-09

41

Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites  

SciTech Connect

We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population.

Grainger, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)]. E-mail: jag2@cdc.gov; Huang, Wenlin [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Patterson, Donald G. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Turner, Wayman E. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Pirkle, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Caudill, Samuel P. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wang, Richard Y. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Needham, Larry L. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Sampson, Eric J. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

2006-03-15

42

Ostracoda and palaeo-oxygen levels, with particular reference to the Upper Cretaceous of East Anglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the percentage of Platycopina (the sole remaining group of filter-feeding Ostracoda since the global extinction of the Metacopina in the Lower Toarcian) making up a fossil ostracod fauna can be used as a measure of dissolved oxygen in past oceans. High levels of platycopids indicate low oxygen and vice versa. A new scale is introduced

Robin C. Whatley; Rebecca S. Pyne; Ian P. Wilkinson

2003-01-01

43

Zinc and Copper Levels in Ribs of Cadmium-Exposed Persons with Special Reference to Osteomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) were determined in ribs obtained at autopsy from 38 Cd-exposed and 17 nonexposed subjects to determine how levels of these elements in bone are affected by Cd exposure and whether they are associated with the bone lesions due to Cd exposure, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis. Cd in ribs

Ryumon Honda; Ikiko Tsuritani; Masao Ishizaki; Yuichi Yamada

1997-01-01

44

Exercise tolerance and physical activity levels in children referred to a weight reduction clinic.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate exercise tolerance and physical activity levels in children with exogenous obesity. Measures included BMI, waist circumference, exercise tolerance and self reported physical activity. Exercise tolerance was measured by the Modified Balke Treadmill Protocol and results were compared to normal values. Physical activity levels were assessed by measuring energy expended in regular activities each week over the past year and number of hours spent watching TV/video using an adaptation of the 'Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents'. Details on transport to school were also obtained. Forty five children between September 2002 and June 2004 were assessed. This group comprised of 25 girls and 20 boys with mean ages (standard deviation) of 11.9 +/- 3.0 years and 13.7 +/- 2.5 years respectively. Exercise tolerance as a percentage of normal was below minimal levels in 64% girls and 75% boys. Energy expended in regular activity was less than the minimal recommendation in 80% girls and 65% boys. Seventy six percent of girls and 70% of boys spent 2 hours or more per day watching television and 40% of girls and 70% of boys walked to school. The low levels of activity and exercise tolerance need to be addressed in the managemeni of children with obesity PMID:16548219

Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C; Roche, E F; Hoey, H

2006-02-01

45

Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor: Volume 2, REALM user's reference guide: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A User Manual for the Reactor Emergency Action Level Monitor (REALM) expert system prototype is provided in this volume. REALM has been designed to provide expert assistance in the identification of a nuclear power plant emergency situation and the determination of its severity. REALM has been developed as an expert system which can provide sensor interpretation and situation assessment in

Touchton

1988-01-01

46

DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

47

Mangrove forest sedimentation and its reference to sea level rise, Cananeia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a mangrove ecosystem in Cananeia, Brazil, is assessed based on investigations of the site-specific temporal\\u000a rise in relative sea level during the past 50 years, 100-year sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and sources of organic matter\\u000a (OM). Addressing this, three sediment cores were collected in a transect, intertidal mud flat, mangrove margin and well into\\u000a the forest. The net

Christian J. Sanders; Joseph M. Smoak; A. Sathy Naidu; Denise R. Araripe; Lucian M. Sanders; Sambasiva R. Patchineelam

2010-01-01

48

Tirapazamine-doxorubicin interaction referring to heart oxidative stress and Ca²? balance protein levels.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (DOX) causes long-term cardiomyopathy that is dependent on oxidative stress and contractility disorders. Tirapazamine (TP), an experimental adjuvant drug, passes the same red-ox transformation as DOX. The aim of the study was to evaluate an effect of tirapazamine on oxidative stress, contractile protein level, and cardiomyocyte necrosis in rats administered doxorubicin. Rats were intraperitoneally injected six times once a week with tirapazamine in two doses, 5 (5TP) and 10 mg/kg (10TP), while doxorubicin was administered in dose 1.8 mg/kg (DOX). Subsequent two groups received both drugs simultaneously (5TP+DOX and 10TP+DOX). Tirapazamine reduced heart lipid peroxidation and normalised RyR2 protein level altered by doxorubicin. There were no significant changes in GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione, cTnI, AST, and SERCA2 level between DOX and TP+DOX groups. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was observed in groups 10TP and 10TP+DOX. PMID:22666522

Sliwinska, Justyna; Dudka, Jaroslaw; Korga, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek; Matysiak, Wlodzimierz; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Mandziuk, Slawomir; Dawidek-Pietryka, Katarzyna

2012-05-15

49

[Personalizing the reference level: gold standard to evaluate the quality of service perceived.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To know the cutoff point at which in-house Nuclear Medicine Department (MND) customers consider that the quality of service is good (personalized cutoff). MATERIAL AND METHOD: We conducted a survey of the professionals who had requested at least 5 tests to the Nuclear Medicine Department. A total of 71 doctors responded (response rate: 30%). A question was added to the questionnaire for the user to establish a cutoff point for which they would consider the quality of service as good. The quality non-conformities, areas of improvement and strong points of the six questions measuring the quality of service (Likert scale 0 to 10) were compared with two different thresholds: personalized cutoff and one proposed by the service itself a priori. Test statistics: binomial and Student's t-test for paired data. RESULTS: A cutoff value of 7 was proposed by the service as a reference while 68.1% of respondents suggested a cutoff above 7 points (mean 7.9 points). The 6 elements of perceived quality were considered strong points with the cutoff proposed by the MND, while there were 3 detected with the personalized threshold. Thirteen percent of the answers were nonconformities with the service cutoff versus 19.2% with the personalized one, the differences being statistically significant (difference 95% CI 6.44%:0,83-12.06). CONCLUSIONS: The final image of the perceived quality of an in-house customer is different when using the cutoff established by the Department versus the personalized cutoff given by the respondent. PMID:23683831

Rodrigo-Rincón, I; Reyes-Pérez, M; Martínez-Lozano, M E

2013-05-15

50

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folate blood levels in geriatric reference group as measured by two kits.  

PubMed

For serum vitamin B12 levels there was little apparent difference between a geriatric healthy reference group and a hospitalized group for the total population studied; however, the hospitalized males did have an increased prevalence of values less than normal range. The frequency distribution for both sexes of the geriatric reference group gave lower range limits than manufacturer's normal range. (68-632 vs 133-708 pmol/L for Becton Dickinson, and 125-609 vs 179-930 pmol/L for Bio-Rad, using 95% non-parametric limits). For folate there was an increased incidence in values of less than normal in the hospitalized group versus the geriatric reference group, but there was no difference in the ranges calculated for the latter compared to either manufacturer's normal range derived from a younger population. Comparison of results by two manufacturers' kit methods confirmed Bio-Rad's claim to increased low-end sensitivity of standard curve in range of clinical interest. PMID:3986992

Hayes, A N; Willans, D J; Skelton, D

1985-02-01

51

Derivation of no-effect and reference-level sediment quality values for application at Saskatchewan uranium operations.  

PubMed

To date, the majority of empirical approaches used to derive sediment quality values (SQVs) have focused on metal concentrations in sediment associated with adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities. Here, we propose the no-effect (NE) approach. This SQV derivation methodology uses metal concentrations in sediment associated with unaffected benthic communities (i.e., from reference sites and lightly contaminated no-effect sites) and accounts for local benthic invertebrate tolerance and potential chemical interactions at no-effect exposure sites. This NE approach was used to propose alternative regional SQVs for uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. Three different sets of NE values were derived using different combinations of benthic invertebrate community effects criteria (abundance, richness, evenness, Bray-Curtis index). Additionally, reference values were derived based solely on sediment metal concentrations from reference sites. In general, NE values derived using abundance, richness, and evenness (NE1 and NE2 values) were found to be higher than the NE values derived using all four metrics (NE3 values). Derived NE values for Cr, Cu, Pb, and V did not change with the incorporation of additional effects criteria due to a lack of influence from the uranium operations on the concentrations of these metals in sediment. However, a gradient of exposure concentrations was apparent for As, Mo, Ni, Se, and U in sediment which allowed for tolerable exposure levels of these metals in sediment to be defined. The findings from this assessment have suggested a range of new, alternate metal SQVs for use at uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. PMID:23877572

Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

2013-07-23

52

Copper and zinc level in biological samples from healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit in reference to community environment.  

PubMed

Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high. The daily intake of zinc is below the recommended value and its urinary excretion is also high. Both the metals showed a temporal oscillation pattern in blood and urine. A possible chronic zinc deficiency has been anticipated in this particular ethnic group of vegetarian food habit. PMID:4028906

Bhattacharya, R D; Patel, T S; Pandya, C B

53

Ovarian tumors with functioning stroma: a clinicopathologic study with special reference to serum estrogen level, stromal morphology, and aromatase expression.  

PubMed

Ovarian tumors with functioning stroma often show estrogenic manifestations. The range of serum estrogen level, however, has not been analyzed, nor the correlation with the stromal morphology. We reviewed the preoperative serum level of estradiol (E2) in 20 postmenopausal ovarian tumors that contained lutein- or theca-like cells in the stroma. Tumor histology included mucinous (n=7), endometrioid (n=4), clear (n=4), or Brenner tumor (n=2), carcinosarcoma (n=2), and Krukenberg tumor (n=1). Overall, the preoperative serum level of E2 ranged widely from 12.1 to 162.4 pg/mL (reference range, 10-30 pg/mL). The range of serum E2 was 24.9 to 162.4 pg/mL (mean, 58.0 pg/mL) in 7 tumors containing lutein-like cells, and 12.1 to 157.8 pg/mL (mean, 57.0 pg/mL) in 13 tumors containing theca-like cells alone. There was no significant difference in the serum E2 level between the 2 groups. To determine whether the functioning stroma is capable of final conversion of androgens to estrogens, the expression of P450 aromatase was examined immunohistochemically. P450 aromatase was exclusively expressed in the stromal cells, both lutein- and theca-like cells, in 16 tumors. In all tumors, however, it was focally or sparsely distributed, and there was no correlation between the immunoreactivity for P450 aromatase and the serum E2 level. These findings indicate that the functioning stroma, regardless of cell morphology, has a capacity for converting androgens to estrogens, but a significant amount of serum estrogens is finally qualified in the aromatase-rich peripheral tissues. PMID:24071871

Kato, Noriko; Hayasaka, Tadashi; Takeda, Junko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Kurachi, Hirohisa

2013-11-01

54

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-04-01

55

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs  

SciTech Connect

This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific environmental monitoring requirements for final site characterization and certification surveys are beyond the scope of this Addendum. Data collection associated with site reconnaissance and preselection is not specifically addressed, but it is recognized that such data may be useful in designing the preoperational program. Predisposal control measures, quality assurance, and record-keeping (other than inventory records) associated with waste disposal operations are also not addressed. The primary intent of routine environmental surveillance at a LLWBG is to help ensure that site activities do not cause significant transport of radioactivity from the site, resulting in an unacceptable health hazard to people. Preoperational environmental surveillance serves to determine for later comparison the background radioactivity levels, either naturally occurring or the result of man's activities (e.g. world-wide fallout or an adjacent nuclear facility), in and around the proposed burial ground site. The operational environmental surveillance program is used to estimate radiological conditions, both onsite and offsite as a possible result of burial ground activities, including trench closure(s). These data help to determine LLWBG compliance with regulatory requirements. During the post-operational period environmental surveillance should normally be an extension of the program carried out during operations, with appropriate deletions (or modifications) to account for the differences between operational and post-operational activities at the site. During the long-term storage and custodial care period, environmental surveillance serves to verify the radionuclide confinement capability of the burial ground and to identify problem situations requiring remedial action. For waste removal (exhumation), the environmental surveillance program is again modified to account for the greatly increased potential for direct radiation and contamination spread. At the time of decommissioning, "environmental surveillance" takes on a new meaning, from that of an ongoing prog

Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

1981-07-01

56

Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water, in a human reference population.  

PubMed Central

Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), a known mouse liver carcinogen and a possible human carcinogen, is found in chlorinated drinking water. We measured TCAA in archived urine samples from a reference population of 402 adults using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TCAA was detected in 76% of the samples examined at concentrations ranging from < 0.5 micro g TCAA/L to more than 25 micro g/L; the 90th percentile concentration was 23 micro g/L (22 micro g TCAA/g creatinine); and the geometric mean and median concentrations were 2.9 micro g/L (2.6 micro g/g creatinine) and 3.3 micro g/L (3.2 micro g/g creatinine), respectively. The frequency of detection of TCAA in urban areas was higher than in rural areas (p = 0.00007), and sex and place of residence (i.e., urban vs. rural) were found to have a significant interaction in modulating the levels of TCAA (p = 0.012). Urban residents had higher mean levels of TCAA (men, 5.3 micro g/L, 3.8 micro g/g creatinine; women, 2.9 micro g/L, 2.8 micro g/g creatinine) than did rural residents (men, 2.2 micro g/L, 1.7 micro g/g creatinine; women, 2.6 micro g/L, 2.7 micro g/g creatinine). The higher frequency of detection of TCAA in urban than in rural areas and higher levels of TCAA among urban than among rural residents may reflect the fact that urban residents use primarily chlorinated water from public water supplies, whereas those in rural areas are more likely to obtain water from private wells, which typically are not chlorinated.

Calafat, Antonia M; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Caudill, Samuel P; Ashley, David L

2003-01-01

57

Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries  

PubMed Central

Background In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients. The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol. Methods This study included adult patients (?15 years) referred to a Norwegian University Hospital with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries classified according to the Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS). Information on alcohol consumption was recorded, and in most of these patients blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured. Compliance with the abovementioned guidelines was registered. Results The study includes 860 patients. 35.8% of the patients had consumed alcohol, and 92.1% of these patients had a BAC ? 1.00‰. Young age, male gender, trauma occurring during the weekends, mild and moderate head injuries were independent factors significantly associated with being under the influence of alcohol. Guideline compliance was 60.5%, and over-triage was the main violation. The guideline compliance showed no significant correlation to alcohol consumption or to BAC-level. Conclusions This study confirms that alcohol consumption is common among patients with head injuries. The physicians' guideline compliance was not affected by the patients' alcohol consumption, and alcohol influence could therefore not explain the low guideline compliance.

2011-01-01

58

A contribution to the establishment of reference values for total mercury levels in hair and fish in amazonia.  

PubMed

Studies on mercury levels in the Amazonian Region have typically lacked background or reference parameters. A sectional study on Hg concentration in hair and fish was conducted, together with an assessment of the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to Hg poisoning, in four communities in the Amazon Basin not impacted by gold mining, located either by a river course (Santana do Ituqui and Caxiuanã) or by a lake (Aldeia do Lago Grande and Vila do Tabatinga). Mercury determinations in hair and fish were made by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mean total Hg in hair was 4.33 microg/g (0.40-11.60 microg/g) in 321 individuals from Santana do Ituqui, 3.98 microg/g (0.40-11.76 microg/g) for 316 persons in Aldeia do Lago Grande, 5.46 microg/g (0.37-49.85 microg/g) for 504 individuals from Vila do Tabatinga and 8.58 microg/g (0.61-45.59 microg/g) for 203 inhabitants from Caxiuanã. Fish consumption was very high in all those communities but no signs or symptoms associated with Hg poisoning were found. Mean Hg concentration in fish varied from 0.006 to 2.529 microg/g for carnivores and from 0.008 to 0.871 microg/g for noncarnivores. These values suggest that further studies including a larger number of communities would eventually lead to values of "normal" Hg concentration in the Amazonian Region quite above the limits suggested by the World Health Organization. PMID:12359185

Santos, E C O; Câmara, V M; Jesus, I M; Brabo, E S; Loureiro, E C B; Mascarenhas, A F S; Fayal, K F; Sá Filho, G C; Sagica, F E S; Lima, M O; Higuchi, H; Silveira, I M

2002-09-01

59

Evaluation of a Balanced 300-mb Height Analysis as a Reference Level for Satellite-Derived Soundings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique is developed and evaluated for using wind observations through application of the balance equation to improve the accuracy of objective height analysis in regions between height observations to provide reliable reference heights for satellite ...

A. Thomasell

1976-01-01

60

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: Reference site details; Waste inventory details; Radiation dose methodology; Environmental surveillance and records maintenance details; Payments needed to finance decommissioning; Site\\/waste stabilization decommissioning activity details; Waste relocation decommissioning activity details; Cost assessment details; Radiological safety details.

E. S. Murphy; G. M. Holter

1980-01-01

61

Pulse wave velocity as marker of preclinical arterial disease: reference levels in a uruguayan population considering wave detection algorithms, path lengths, aging, and blood pressure.  

PubMed

Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American) population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV) disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender); asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n = 429) were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time). All subjects represented the "reference population"; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the "normal population." Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes. PMID:22666551

Farro, Ignacio; Bia, Daniel; Zócalo, Yanina; Torrado, Juan; Farro, Federico; Florio, Lucía; Olascoaga, Alicia; Alallón, Walter; Lluberas, Ricardo; Armentano, Ricardo L

2012-05-16

62

Normalizing for biology: accounting for technical and biological variation in levels of reference gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) transcripts in fish livers.  

PubMed

Feeding, fasting and re-feeding is a common experimental paradigm for studying growth endocrinology. Herein we demonstrate dynamic changes in the livers of coho salmon under these conditions and how changes in liver composition can influence quantification and interpretation of liver gene expression data. A three-week fast resulted in decreases in hepatosomatic index (liver size), liver glycogen content, and liver DNA concentration. In addition, significant differences were found in liver transcript levels from fed and fasted fish for the reference genes, arp and ef1a, when these were normalized to total RNA. We took the additional step of normalizing reference gene transcript levels to the liver homogenate RNA/DNA ratio to account for differences in RNA yield/cell and the number of cells sampled, normalizing to transcript number per cell rather than transcript number per unit RNA. After this additional step no significant differences in liver transcript levels of reference genes were found. The significance of these results was illustrated by normalizing liver transcript levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) to ef1a transcript levels or ef1a transcript levels by RNA/DNA. The different normalization strategies resulted in differing patterns of change in igf1 transcript levels between fed and fasted fish. The novelty of this work rests in a two-step normalization process, attempting to account for both 1) technical errors in reverse transcription and qPCR reactions, and 2) biological variance in liver samples. PMID:22546511

Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Shimizu, Munetaka; Beckman, Brian R

2012-04-23

63

Development of a Provisional Domain Model for the Nursing Process for Use within the Health Level 7 Reference Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSince 1999, the Nursing Terminology Summits have promoted the development, evaluation, and use of reference terminology for nursing and its integration into comprehensive health care data standards. The use of such standards to represent nursing knowledge, terminology, processes, and information in electronic health records will enhance continuity of care, decision support, and the exchange of comparable patient information. As part

William T F Goossen; Judy G Ozbolt; Amy Coenen; Hyeoun-Ae Park; Charles Mead; Margareta Ehnfors; Heimar F Marin

2004-01-01

64

Endogenous steroid hormone levels in early pregnancy and risk of testicular cancer in the offspring: a nested case-referent study.  

PubMed

According to the leading hypothesis on testicular cancer (TC) etiology exposure to a specific pattern of steroid hormones in utero, in particular, to high levels of estrogens and low levels of androgens is the major determinant of TC risk in the offspring. We performed a case-referent study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal endogenous steroid hormones with regard to the risk of TC. TC cases and referents were aged between 0 and 25 years. For each case-index mother pair, three or four matched referent-referent mother pairs were identified using national population registries. First trimester or early second trimester sera were retrieved from the index mothers of 73 TC cases and 286 matched referent mothers, and were tested for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Offspring of mothers with high DHEAS levels had a significantly decreased risk of TC (OR for highest vs. lowest DHEAS quartile, 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.58). In contrast, offspring of mothers with high androstenedione levels had an increased risk of TC (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-12.0). High maternal total estradiol level also tended to be associated with an increased risk of TC in the offspring (OR 32; 95% CI 0.98-1,090). We report the first direct evidence that interplay of maternal steroid hormones in the early pregnancy is important in the etiology of TC in the offspring. PMID:19330837

Holl, Katsiaryna; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Koskela, Pentti; Dillner, Joakim; Hallmans, Göran; Wadell, Göran; Olafsdottir, Gudridur H; Ogmundsdottir, Helga M; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Stattin, Pär; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2009-06-15

65

Significance of non-level walking on transtibial prosthesis fitting with particular reference to the effects of anterior- posterior alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that non-level walking is known to be important for prosthesis fitting, its clinical significance has not been investigated. In this study, the acceptable prosthesis alignment ranges of six subjects with transtibial amputation on level and non-level walking were determined and compared. With the aid of a recently developed alignment jig, prosthesis fitting was performed for each subject

S. W. Sin; Daniel H. K. Chow; Jack C. Y. Cheng

66

Mathematical approach to some methodological difficulties in settling newborn IgE reference levels (study in a Portuguese population).  

PubMed

The authors used statistical procedures to attempt to solve the usual methodological difficulties inherent in the determination of neonatal IgE reference values. The problem of un detectable values was overcome by theoretical estimation of their distribution, through the regression of the probits of the cummulative frequencies of the determinations on the natural logarithms of the known concentrations. Thus, the geometrical mean and 95% confidence limits were established, and population selection was replaced by exclusion of aberrant observations in successive steps, with recalculation of reference values. The final geometrical mean obtained was 0.21 I.U./ml with 95% confidence limits of 0.03 and 1.54 I.U./ml. These results have been compared with the work presented by other authors, observed differences probably reflecting distinct methodologies. PMID:6670659

Lopes dos Santos, J M; de Carvalho, M Q; Maia, J C; Souto, M A; Centeno, M J; Coutada, E F

67

Genotypic Assessment of Isoniazid and Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Blind Study at Reference Laboratory Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in understanding the basis of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) has allowed molecular tests for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis to be developed. Consecutive isolates (n 595) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, from a Spanish reference laboratory investigating outbreaks of multidrug- resistanttuberculosis,werecodedandsenttotwoexternallaboratoriesforgenotypicanalysisofINHandRMP resistancebyPCR-single-strandconformationpolymorphism(SSCP)analysisofspecificregionsoffourgenes: part of the coding sequence of katG and the promoter regions of inhA and ahpC for

A. TELENTI; N. HONORE; C. BERNASCONI; J. MARCH; A. ORTEGA; B. HEYM; H. E. TAKIFF; T. COLE; UnitedeGenetique Moleculaire

1997-01-01

68

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

69

Free Thyroxine Level in the High Normal Reference Range Prescribed for Nonpregnant Women May Reduce the Preterm Delivery Rate in Multiparous  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the most common reason for perinatal morbidity and mortality in the western world. It has been shown that in euthyreotic pregnant women with thyroid autoimmune antibodies, L-Thyroxine replacement reduces preterm delivery rate in singleton pregnancies. We investigated in a nonrandomized retrospective observational study whether L-Thyroxine replacement, maintaining maternal free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women also influences the rate of preterm delivery in women without thyroid autoimmune antibodies. As control group for preterm delivery rate, data from perinatal statistics of the State of Baden-Württemberg from 2006 were used. The preterm delivery rate in the study group was significantly reduced. The subgroup analysis shows no difference in primiparous but a decline in multiparous by approximately 61% with L-Thyroxine replacement. Maintaining free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women may reduce the preterm delivery rate.

Torremante, P.; Flock, F.; Kirschner, W.

2011-01-01

70

Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 Levels of Turkish Children during Childhood and Adolescence: Establishment of Reference Ranges with Emphasis on Puberty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/Methods: We established age- and sex-related reference ranges for serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in 807 healthy Turkish children (428 boys, 379 girls), and constructed a model for calculation of standard deviation scores of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 according to age, sex and pubertal stage. Results: Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations tended to

Abdullah Bereket; Serap Turan; Anjumanara Omar; Mustafa Berber; Ahmet Ozen; Cengiz Akbenlioglu; Goncagul Haklar

2006-01-01

71

Validation of Reference Genes for the Determination of Platelet Transcript Level in Healthy Individuals and in Patients with the History of Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

RT-qPCR is the standard method for studying changes in relative transcript level in different experimental and clinical conditions and in different tissues. No validated reference genes have been reported for the normalization of transcript level in platelets. The very low level of platelet RNA and the elimination of leukocyte contamination represented special methodological difficulties. Our aims were to apply a simple technique to separate platelets for transcript level studies, and select the most stable reference genes for platelets from healthy individuals and from patients with the history of myocardial infarction. We developed a simple, straightforward method of platelet separation for RNA isolation. Platelet activation was inhibited by using acid-citrate-dextrose for anticoagulation and by prostaglandin E1. Leukocyte contamination was eliminated by three consecutive centrifugations. Samples prepared by this method were free of leukocytes, showed no inhibition in PCR reaction and no RNA degradation. The assay demands low blood volume, which complies with the requirements of everyday laboratory routine. Seventeen potential reference genes were investigated, but eight of them were excluded during optimization. The stability of the remaining genes, EEF2, EAR, ACTB, GAPDH, ANAPC5, OAZ1, HDGF, GNAS, and CFL1, were determined by four different descriptive statistics. GAPDH, GNAS, and ACTB were shown to be the most stable genes in platelets of healthy individuals, while HDGF, GNAS, and ACTB were the most stable in platelets of patients with the history of myocardial infarction. The results confirm that data normalization needs assessment of appropriate reference genes for a particular sample set.

Zsori, Katalin S.; Muszbek, Laszlo; Csiki, Zoltan; Shemirani, Amir H.

2013-01-01

72

Problems of rising ground-water levels in urban areas with special reference to the Louisville, Kentucky area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rising ground-water levels are a problem for cities such as San Bernadino, California; Greely and Fort Collins, Colorado; New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens; and Louisville, Kentucky. Ground-water levels showed a steeply rising trend in the alluvial aquifer underlying Louisville during the early and middle 1970 's in response to above average precipitation and a decrease in ground-water withdrawals. This rising trend flattened in 1979 and the water levels are stabilizing at 25 to 45 feet below land surface in the downtown area. Basements are generally 20 to 25 feet below land surface and some utility lines are as much as 40 feet below land surface in this area. Because of the shallow depth to water, any resumption of the upward trend would require preventive measures such as selective dewatering to avoid damage to some structures. (USGS)

Whitesides, D. V.; Faust, R. J.; Zettwoch, D. D.

1983-01-01

73

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-10-01

74

Thyroid hormone levels within reference range are associated with heart rate, cardiac structure, and function in middle-aged men and women.  

PubMed

Background: Triiodothyronine (T3) has many effects on the heart, and marked changes in cardiac function and structure occur in patients with (subclinical) thyroid disease. We investigated whether between-subject variation in thyroid hormone levels within the euthyroid range is also associated with heart rate and echocardiographic heart function and structure. Methods: Subjects were selected from the Asklepios study (n=2524), a population-representative random sample of patients aged between 35 and 55 years, free from overt cardiovascular disease at baseline. Analyses were restricted to 2078 subjects (1013 women and 1065 men), not using antihypertensive or thyroid medication nor having antithyroperoxidase antibody levels above clinical cut-off or thyrotropin (TSH) levels outside the reference range. All subjects were phenotyped in-depth and underwent comprehensive echocardiography, including diastolic evaluation. Thyroid function parameters were determined by automated electrochemiluminescence. Results: Heart rate was robustly positively associated with (quartiles of) free T3 (FT3) and T3, both in subjects with TSH levels within reference (0.27-4.2??U/L) and in narrow TSH range (0.5-2.5??U/L; p<0.0001). FT3 and T3 were negatively associated with left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume but positively associated with relative wall thickness. Total T3 (TT3) was associated with enhanced ventricular contraction (as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging). Free thyroxine, FT3, and TT3 were positively associated with late ventricular filling, and TT3 was associated with early ventricular filling. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a strong positive association between thyroid hormone levels within the euthyroid range and heart rate, and more subtle effects on cardiac function and structure. More specifically, we suggest a smaller LV cavity size (with increased relative wall thickness), an enhanced atrial and ventricular contraction, and LV relaxation with higher circulating thyroid hormones. These results illustrate that variation in thyroid hormone levels, even within the reference range, exerts effects on the heart. PMID:23339744

Roef, Greet L; Taes, Youri E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Daele, Caroline M; De Buyzere, Marc L; Gillebert, Thierry C; Rietzschel, Ernst R

2013-07-17

75

SERUM GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE IN ALCOHOLICS, MODERATE DRINKERS AND ABSTAINERS: EFFECT ON GT REFERENCE INTERVALS AT POPULATION LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To clarify in the association between amount of ethanol consumption and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GT) levels. Methods: GT values were measured from 195 individuals with a wide variety of well-documented ethanol consumption assessed by detailed personal interviews using a time-line follow-back technique. These included 103 heavy drinkers (90 men, 13 women) and 92 healthy volunteers (54 men, 38 women)

JOHANNA HIETALA; KATRI PUUKKA; HEIDI KOIVISTO; PETRA ANTTILA; ONNI NIEMELA

76

Factors affecting serum levels of CA 19-9 with special reference to benign hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In order to elucidate the factors affecting the serum levels of CA 19-9, we analyzed sera of 79 patients with pancreatic cancer\\u000a and 169 with non-malignant diseases, chiefly consisting of hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Serum CA 19-9 values in\\u000a patients with pancreatic cancer had no relation to the location of the tumor or presence of jaundice. Similarly, no tendency\\u000a was

Norio Sawabu; Yasuhiro Takemori; Daishu Toya; Manabu Yoneshima; Hisashi Kidani; Yoshitake Satomura; Hideki Ohta; Nobu Hattori

1986-01-01

77

Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition.  

PubMed

Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ?DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f(anti)) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f(anti) values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ?DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r(2) = 0.41, p < 0.0001). These results suggested that DP residue levels could influence its isomeric composition in the piscivorous bird. PMID:23246747

Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

2012-12-14

78

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1983-01-01

79

GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-comparison of Ground-based Lightning Reference Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

Cummins, K. L.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; Cecil, D. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.

2011-12-01

80

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, acting at the spinal cord level, participates in bladder hyperactivity and referred pain during chronic bladder inflammation.  

PubMed

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin (NT) known to participate in chronic somatic pain. A recent study has indicated that BDNF may participate in chronic cystitis at the peripheral level. However, the principal site of action for this NT is the central nervous system, most notably the spinal cord. The effects of centrally-acting BDNF on bladder function in normal animals and its central role during chronic cystitis are presently unknown. The present study was undertaken to clarify this issue. For that purpose, control non-inflamed animals were intrathecally injected with BDNF, after which bladder function was evaluated. This treatment caused short-lasting bladder hyperactivity; whereas chronic intrathecal administration of BDNF did not elicit this effect. Cutaneous sensitivity was assessed by mechanical allodynia as an internal control of BDNF action. To ascertain the role of BDNF in bladder inflammation, animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis received intrathecal injections of either a general Trk receptor antagonist or a BDNF scavenger. Blockade of Trk receptors or BDNF sequestration notably improved bladder function. In addition, these treatments also reduced referred pain, typically observed in rats with chronic cystitis. Reduction of referred pain was accompanied by a decrease in the spinal levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, a marker of increased sensory barrage in the lumbosacral spinal cord, and spinal BDNF expression. Results obtained here indicate that BDNF, acting at the spinal cord level, contributes to bladder hyperactivity and referred pain, important hallmarks of chronic cystitis. In addition, these data also support the development of BDNF modulators as putative therapeutic options for the treatment of chronic bladder inflammation. PMID:23313710

Frias, B; Allen, S; Dawbarn, D; Charrua, A; Cruz, F; Cruz, C D

2013-01-08

81

Reference Expert Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delivery of library reference service can be practically supplemented through the appropriate incorporation and use of software tools commonly referred to as expert systems. The level of support such systems can afford the reference service organization is dependent on the degree of complexity characteristic of the rule-based programming techniques used to develop a particular system and the size of

Dana E. Smith

1989-01-01

82

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

83

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

84

Standardized centile curves and reference intervals of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in a normal Japanese population using the LMS method.  

PubMed

Measurements of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are useful not only for diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone (GH)-related disorders but also for assessing nutritional status. We reported population-based references of serum IGF-I in 1996. However, they did not properly reflect data in the transition period from puberty to maturity. The aim of the present study was to re-establish a set of normative data for IGF-I for the Japanese population. The study included 1,685 healthy Japanese subjects (845 males, 840 females) from 0 to 83 years old. Subjects suffering from diseases that could affect IGF-I levels were excluded. Obese or extremely thin adult subjects were also excluded. IGF-I concentrations were determined by commercially available immunoradiometric assays. The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method. Median IGF-I levels reached 310 ng/mL in males at the age of 14 years and 349 ng/mL in females at the age of 13 years, falling to 124 ng/mL and 103 ng/mL, respectively, by the age of 70 years. The mean pretreatment IGF-1 SD scores in patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) obtained from the database of the Foundation for Growth Science and from clinical studies for adult GHD were -2.1±1.6 and -4.9±2.5, respectively. The present study established age- and gender-specific normative IGF-I data for the Japanese population and showed the utility of these references for screening patients with severe GHD. PMID:22673406

Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Yokoya, Susumu; Chihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Teramoto, Akira; Tatsumi, Ke-ita; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Horikawa, Reiko

2012-05-19

85

A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital Irish National Breast Screening Programme and the Irish Symptomatic Breast Services.  

PubMed

Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95th percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. PMID:22740646

O'Leary, Desiree; Rainford, Louise

2012-06-27

86

Fish oil supplementation of control and (n-3) fatty acid-deficient male rats enhances reference and working memory performance and increases brain regional docosahexaenoic acid levels.  

PubMed

Most previous studies have focused on improved reference memory and recovery of whole brain docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] levels in DHA-deficient animals supplemented with fish oil (FO) or switched to an adequate DHA-enriched diet. The aims of this study were to determine whether reference and working memory performance can be enhanced in control male rats and improved in (n-3) fatty acid-deficient male rats given an FO supplement and whether brain DHA accumulation, deficiency, and recovery are region specific. From the embryo to postnatal d 140, 4 groups of rats were fed a nonpurified or sunflower oil-based (n-3) fatty acid-deficient diet alone or supplemented with (n-3) fatty acids from FO representing approximately 0.3% of the energy source. The male rats were tested at postnatal d 102-130 for spatial learning memory performance in the Morris water maze. The fatty acid composition of different brain regions was analyzed by GC. Rats fed the (n-3) fatty acid-deficient diet showed significantly poorer reference and working memory, and FO supplementation partially rescued both memory performances. Furthermore, FO supplementation during brain development and adulthood in normal rats resulted in significant enhancement of both memories. Following dietary DHA repletion, the hippocampus and olfactory bulbs accumulated more DHA, were more resistant to dietary DHA deprivation, and showed better DHA recovery than the visual cortex, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. These results suggest that DHA is critical for the development and maintenance of learning memory performance. PMID:18492851

Chung, Wan-Ling; Chen, Jen-Jui; Su, Hui-Min

2008-06-01

87

A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.  

SciTech Connect

A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

2001-08-01

88

Palynology References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University

89

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

90

Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2012-10-15

91

Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

Ballesta, Raimundo Jiménez; Bueno, Paz Conde; Rubi, Juan A. Martin; Giménez, Rosario Garcia

2010-12-01

92

EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

93

On Referring and Not Referring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though it's based on a bad argument, there's something to Strawson's dictum. He might have likened 'referring expression' to phrases like 'eating utensil' and 'dining room': just as utensils don't eat and dining rooms don't dine, so, he might have argued, expressions don't refer. Actually, that wasn't his argument, though it does make you wonder. Rather, Strawson exploited the

KENT BACH; P. F. Strawson

2004-01-01

94

Reference Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most electrochemical measurements, it is necessary to keep one of the electrodes in an electrochemical cell at a constant potential. This so-called reference electrode allows control of the potential of a working electrode (e.g. in voltammetry) or the measurement of an indicator electrode (e.g. in potentiometry, see Chap. II.9). The standard hydrogen electrode plays the role of a basic reference element in electrochemical devices; however, in practice, it is difficult to handle. Therefore, secondary reference electrodes are preferred in most experiments. A secondary reference electrode must fulfil the following criteria: (i) it should be chemically and electrochemically reversible, i.e. its potential is governed by the Nernst equation and does not change in time; (ii) the potential must remain almost constant when a small current passes through the electrode and reverse to its original value after such small current flow (i.e. a non-polarisable electrode); and (iii) the thermal coefficient of potential should be small.

Kahlert, Heike

95

End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) cause toxicological renal effects, but the clinical relevance at low-level exposures in general populations is unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in relation to Cd, Pb, and Hg exposure. Methods A total of 118 cases who later in life developed end-stage renal disease, and 378 matched (sex, age, area, and time of blood sampling) referents were identified among participants in two population-based prospective cohorts (130,000 individuals). Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in prospectively collected samples. Results Erythrocyte lead was associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease (mean in cases 76 ?g/L; odds ratio (OR) 1.54 for an interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.00), while erythrocyte mercury was negatively associated (2.4 ?g/L; OR 0.75 for an interquartile range increase, CI 0.56-0.99). For erythrocyte cadmium, the OR of developing end-stage renal disease was 1.15 for an interquartile range increase (CI 0.99-1.34; mean Ery-Cd among cases: 1.3 ?g/L). The associations for erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte mercury, but not for erythrocyte cadmium, remained after adjusting for the other two metals, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. Gender-specific analyses showed that men carried almost all of the erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte cadmium associated risks. Conclusions Erythrocyte lead is associated with end-stage renal disease but further studies are needed to evaluate causality. Gender-specific analyses suggest potential differences in susceptibility or in exposure biomarker reliability.

2013-01-01

96

Differential responses of sexual and asexual Artemia to genotoxicity by a reference mutagen: Is the comet assay a reliable predictor of population level responses?  

PubMed

The impact of chronic genotoxicity to natural populations is always questioned due to their reproductive surplus. We used a comet assay to quantify primary DNA damage after exposure to a reference mutagen ethyl methane sulfonate in two species of crustacean with different reproductive strategies (sexual Artemia franciscana and asexual Artemia parthenogenetica). We then assessed whether this predicted individual performance and population growth rate over three generations. Artemia were exposed to different chronic concentrations (0.78mM, 1.01mM, 1.24mM and 1.48mM) of ethyl methane sulfonate from instar 1 onwards for 3 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days and percentage tail DNA values were used for comparisons between species. The percentage tail DNA values showed consistently elevated values up to 7 days and showed a reduction from 14 days onwards in A. franciscana. Whilst in A. parthenogenetica such a reduction was evident on 21 days assessment. The values of percentage tail DNA after 21 days were compared with population level fitness parameters, growth, survival, fecundity and population growth rate to know whether primary DNA damage as measured by comet assay is a reliable biomarker. Substantial increase in tail DNA values was associated with substantial reductions in all the fitness parameters in the parental generation of A. franciscana and parental, F1 and F2 generations of A. parthenogenetica. So comet results were more predictive in asexual species over generations. These results pointed to the importance of predicting biomarker responses from multigenerational consequences considering life history traits and reproductive strategies in ecological risk assessments. PMID:23414719

Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

2013-02-13

97

Eustatic sea level changes interpreted from seismic stratigraphy: a critique of the methodology with particular reference to the North Sea Jurassic record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic stratigraphic methods for interpreting eustatic sea level change are based on generalized stratigraphic models and chronostratigraphic interpretations that have not been substantiated by publication of the necessary basic supportive data. Chronostratigraphic correlations of sea level change curves between basins are based partly on circular reasoning. Onlap and offlap seismic models may not indicate sea level change but flexural subsidence,

Andrew D. Miall

1986-01-01

98

SAR and averaged power density near a UMTS base-station antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a numerical electromagnetic calculation (based on FDTD method) is used to compare reference levels and basic restrictions defined by the ICNIRP. A typical UMTS base-station antenna, operating at 2140MHz, is simulated at different distances of a human body model composed of 31 different tissues. As expected, we show that compliance with reference levels (power density) ensures compliance

Fabrice Lacroux; Albert Cortel Carrasco; Azeddine Gati; Man-Fai Wong; J. Wiart

2006-01-01

99

Levels of available micro-nutrient metals in some Japanese soils as measured by aspergillus niger with special reference to their threshold values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the levels of available amounts of zinc, copper, and molybdenum as measured by Asp. niger (Mulder strain) in soils of Japan with special regard to their threshold values. Results obtained are as follow: 1) Levels of available zinc in soils examined ranged from 0.4 to 27 ppm. The threshold value for available zinc is adequelty represented as

Michihiko Yatazawa; Hirofumi Tanaka

1965-01-01

100

Eustatic sea level changes interpreted from seismic stratigraphy: a critique of the methodology with particular reference to the North Sea Jurassic record  

SciTech Connect

Seismic stratigraphic methods for interpreting eustatic sea level change are based on generalized stratigraphic models and chronostratigraphic interpretations that have not been substantiated by publication of the necessary basic supportive data. Chronostratigraphic correlations of sea level change curves between basins are based partly on circular reasoning. Onlap and offlap seismic models may not indicate sea level change but flexural subsidence, facies shifts, or changes in sea level in the opposite direction to that proposed. Resolution of some of these problems may be achieved by publication of basic data now in confidential industry files. The widely acclaimed Vail curves should not be used as templates for basin correlation until such data have been provided, and such use should be supported by appropriate conventional lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic documentation from each new basin. Where such data have been made available, as with the North Sea Jurassic, serious questions of interpretation are raised.

Miall, A.D.

1986-02-01

101

Community and species responses to water level fluctuations with reference to soil layers in different habitats of mid-boreal mire complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses water level fluctuations in different parts of boreal mire complexes (eleven localities), mainly\\u000a aapa mire complexes, on the basis of measurements performed by means of shallow observation wells and a few deeper observation\\u000a tubes (piezometers) in the coastal half of the southern aapa mire zone in Finland. The sites represented intact vegetation\\u000a from 12 different habitat

Jarmo Laitinen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

2008-01-01

102

A mixture model with a reference-based automatic selection of components for disease classification from protein and/or gene expression levels  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic selection of extracted components to be retained for classification analysis remains an open issue. Results The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to extract components for disease prediction. It achieves average sensitivities of: 96.2 (sd = 2.7%), 97.6% (sd = 2.8%) and 90.8% (sd = 5.5%) and average specificities of: 93.6% (sd = 4.1%), 99% (sd = 2.2%) and 79.4% (sd = 9.8%) in 100 independent two-fold cross-validations. Conclusions We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained factorization on a sample-by-sample basis. As opposed to that, existing methods factorize complete dataset simultaneously. The sample model is composed of a reference sample representing control and/or case (disease) groups and a test sample. Each sample is decomposed into two or more components that are selected automatically (without using label information) as control specific, case specific and not differentially expressed (neutral). The number of components is determined by cross-validation. Automatic assignment of features (m/z ratios or genes) to particular component is based on thresholds estimated from each sample directly. Due to the locality of decomposition, the strength of the expression of each feature across the samples can vary. Yet, they will still be allocated to the related disease and/or control specific component. Since label information is not used in the selection process, case and control specific components can be used for classification. That is not the case with standard factorization methods. Moreover, the component selected by proposed method as disease specific can be interpreted as a sub-mode and retained for further analysis to identify potential biomarkers. As opposed to standard matrix factorization methods this can be achieved on a sample (experiment)-by-sample basis. Postulating one or more components with indifferent features enables their removal from disease and control specific components on a sample-by-sample basis. This yields selected components with reduced complexity and generally, it increases prediction accuracy.

2011-01-01

103

Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and non–obese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of non–obese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and non–obese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in non–obese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyper–insulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders.

Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

2013-01-01

104

Reference Frames and Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

Swartz, Clifford

1989-01-01

105

Occupational exposure to radiofrequency fields in antenna towers.  

PubMed

Exposure of workers to radiofrequency fields was assessed in two medium-sized antenna towers. Towers had transmitting antennas from different networks, e.g. mobile phone networks, radio and digital TV sub-stations and amateur radio. The levels of radiofrequency fields were measured close to the ladders of the towers. All measured values were below ICNIRP occupational reference levels. PMID:17166878

Alanko, T; Hietanen, M

2006-12-13

106

Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ?-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. PMID:22986091

Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

2012-09-15

107

Assessment of losses in honey yield due to the chalkbrood disease, with reference to the determination of its economic injury levels in Egypt.  

PubMed

In Egypt, the chalk brood (CHB) disease caused by the fungus, Ascosphaera apis Maassen started again infesting the honeybee, Apis melifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies after a cessation pause of seven to nine years. For the first time, an attempt has been made to look into the problem of the CHB disease from the view point of assessing losses in both clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) and chinus (Chinus molus) honey yields. In this regard, two techniques were adopted. Under the natural conditions of the experimental apiary (first technique), loss in clover honey was 18.412 +/- 0.663%, on average, whereas the average loss in chinus honey was 18.332 +/- 1.536%. In the second technique of loss appraisal (artificial infection). The tested honeybee colonies were artificially infected with four sources of A. apis infection, I.e. black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains and water, in addition to controls to create the so-called "different levels of infection". The mean percentages of losses in clover honey were 30.06 +/- 1.807, 27.95 +/- 1.062; 21.13 +/- 0.987; 16.96 +/- 0.672 and 0.00 +/- 0.00 for black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains, water and control, respectively. Taking into account the relationship between number of resulted mummies in each source of infection and % loss in clover honey, it could be concluded that as the resulted mummies increased, the corresponding clover honey yield decreased in each source of infection. It was noticed that the % loss in clover honey differed as the used technique differed. For example, the percentage loss in clover honey produced from colonies exposed to the natural conditions was relatively less than that of the artificially infected ones. This has been discussed in the text. However, the causative pathogen of CHB disease resulted in serious decrease in honey production. Loss appraisal is a perquisite step for the determination of the economic injury levels (EILs). By regressing % loss in clover honey yield against the total number of fallen mummies, the linear equation was worked out to be: Y = 0.242 + 0.040 x (r2 = 0.99, F = 62408.865). Depending on the total costs of controlling CHB disease, the EIL values were 31.875 and 11.250 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, subsequently. As to the chinus honey the corresponding EILs were 18.940 and 6.683 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, in respect, as a result of adopting the regression formula: Y = -6.762 + 0.101 X. As for the clover honey (artificial infection) the EIL values were 39.844 and 14.063 mummies/ colony in case of using cedar oil and thymol grains, subsequently. These values were worked out using the formula Y = 5.871 + 0.032 X. From the practical point of view, apiarists should not use thymol or cedar oil as fallen mummies don't reach the suggested EILs values to minimize control costs as much as possible. PMID:16628907

Zaghloul, O A; Mourad, A K; El Kady, Magda B; Nemat, F M; Morsy, M E

2005-01-01

108

References in Narrative Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The propositional content of a reference is the proposition attributing to the referent theproperties that correspond to the nouns and modifiers in the reference (for example, thepropositional content of `Mary\\

Janyce M. Wiebe

1991-01-01

109

Magnetic Heading References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper addresses the most common system for providing aircraft heading reference: the magnetic heading reference system. It begins briefly explaining the importance of a magnetic heading reference. It then addresses the fundamental characteristics of ...

D. L. Moore

1995-01-01

110

Verifying Reference Counted Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a pervasive resource management idiom where each resource contains a count of the number of clients that hold a reference to it, and each client increments (resp., de cre- ments) the count on acquiring (resp., releasing) the resour ce. If the reference count falls to zero, the system can reclaim the res ource. Reference counting is often

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Rupak Majumdar

2007-01-01

111

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

112

Live, Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

Kenney, Brian

2002-01-01

113

Reference governor for constrained piecewise affine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a methodology for designing reference tracking controllers for constrained, discrete-time piecewise affine systems. The approach follows the idea of reference governor techniques where the desired set-point is filtered by a system called the “reference governor”. Based on the system current state, set-point, and prescribed constraints, the reference governor computes a new set-point for a low-level controller so that

Francesco Borrelli; Paolo Falcone; Jaroslav Pekar; Greg Stewart

2009-01-01

114

Genetics Home Reference: Arrhythmia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Arrhythmia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Andersen-Tawil ... You may also search Genetics Home Reference for "Arrhythmia" for additional information. Published: September 23, 2013 Lister ...

115

Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) with an emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications.

N. Zacharias

2006-01-01

116

38 CFR - References:  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false References: Cross Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans...service requires that the initial infection must have occurred during active...Authority: 38 U.S.C. 105(a)) Cross-References: In line of duty....

2010-07-01

117

Verifying Reference Counting Implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference counting is a widely-used resource management idiom which maintains a count of references to each resource by incrementing the count upon an acquisition, and decrementing upon a release; resources whose counts fall to zero may be recycled. We present an algorithm to verify the correctness of reference counting with minimal user interaction. Our algorithm performs com- positional verification through

Michael Emmi; Ranjit Jhala; Eddie Kohler; Rupak Majumdar

2009-01-01

118

Academic Library Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

Batt, Fred

119

Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC) observing program was completed in 2004 and reductions toward the final UCAC3 release are in progress. This all-sky reference catalogue will have positional errors of 15 to 70 mas for stars in the 10 to 16 mag range, with a high degree of completeness. Proper motions for the about 60 million UCAC stars will be derived by combining UCAC astrometry with available early epoch data, including yet unpublished scans of the complete set of AGK2, Hamburg Zone astrograph and USNO Black Birch programs. Accurate positional and proper motion data are combined in the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset (NOMAD) which includes Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC2, USNO-B1, NPM+SPM plate scan data for astrometry, and is supplemented by multi-band optical photometry as well as 2MASS near infrared photometry. The Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (MAPS) mission is currently being planned at USNO. This is a micro-satellite to obtain 1 mas positions, parallaxes, and 1 mas/yr proper motions for all bright stars down to about 15th magnitude. This program will be supplemented by a ground-based program to reach 18th magnitude on the 5 mas level.

Zacharias, N.

2006-08-01

120

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

121

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo'' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-03-05

122

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26

123

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1992-12-31

124

Additional Reference Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Additional Reference Article Information. Grace Chai, Laura Governale, Patty Greene, Hina Mehta, Vicky Borders-Hemphill, David Money. ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/pediatricadvisorycommittee

125

Martindale's "The Reference Desk"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

Martindale, Jim

126

Reference Service Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

Mielke, John; Young, William

127

Art Reference, SCLS 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help librarians answer patrons' questions about art works, especially paintings, the procedures followed by the reference division of the Suffolk Cooperative Library System are outlined, and a list of reference materials is suggested. Topics covered include biographical information about artists, identification of paintings, location of…

Lukac, Milan

128

Reference Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

129

Activities Using References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

Bolger, Charlene

130

Marketing Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

Norman, O. Gene

1995-01-01

131

Leading Education Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This annotated bibliography focuses on, but is not limited to, reference sources on education found in the library at St. Bonaventure University, New York. The ERIC database leads the list of leading education reference sources. Also mentioned are the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" and the Academic Index (InfoTrak) computer system. Other…

Spencer, Michael D.

132

Reference Service Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

Mielke, John; Young, William

133

The Reference Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)|

King, Geraldine B.

1972-01-01

134

Ethical reference practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss whether the outcomes of a reference transaction can be improved by focusing on the ethical dimension of the conversation between user and librarian. The aim is to provide a better understanding of the ethical implications of the reference interview. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The starting point is the ethical questions raised by

Synnøve Ulvik; Gunhild Salvesen

2007-01-01

135

IPL General Reference Collection: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though the Internet Public Library's Education meta-page is not as comprehensive in any of its categories as more specialized meta-pages, it covers all grade level education resources, including adult, alternative, K-12, higher ed., and vocational. The home page contains a brief list of major education information and meta-sites. Resources listed have been annotated and the entire IPL Ready Reference Collection is searchable.

136

The Shorewood Collection Art Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference guide contains a descriptive critique of each of more than 900 images of paintings and drawings presented in "The Shorewood Collection." This guide is intended to be used as a reference tool in conjunction with Shorewood's art educational programs, which range from grade levels K through 12. Master works from major epochs in the…

1992

137

The subduction reference framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plate tectonic reconstructions are essential for determining the spatial and temporal context for geological and geophysical data and help distinguish competing models for regional plate kinematic histories and the relationships between tectonic features and events. Plate reconstructions, a series of relative plate motions anchored to an absolute reference frame via a plate circuit, can act as surface boundary constraints for mantle convection models, allowing us to link surface processes to the deep earth. One of the limitations in global plate motion models has been to accurately determine the positions of plates through time. Traditionally, this has been based on either palaeomagnetic or hotspot reference frames, however both these methodologies have some shortcomings. Palaeomagnetic reference frames can determine latitudes but not longitudes, with additional inaccuracies due to true polar wander. Hotspot reference frames can only be confidently tied back to about 130 Ma and there is evidence that mantle plumes have moved relative to each other. New “hybrid” reference frames are emerging, which consist of fixed or moving hotspot reference frames merged with true polar wander (TPW) corrected palaeomagnetic reference frames. We have devised a methodology to link plate reconstructions to mantle convection back to Pangaea breakup time to converge on a solution that correctly aligns slab material in the mantle to the locations of subduction zones in the past. We aim to construct a “Subduction Reference Frame” for plate motions since 200 Ma by iteratively matching forward geodynamic models with tomographically imaged slabs in the mantle. Our forward models involve coupling global plate kinematics, the thermal structure of the oceanic lithosphere and slab assimilation to a spherical mantle convection code, CitcomS. Preliminary results have been obtained for a plate motion model using a moving hotspot reference frame to 100 Ma and a TPW corrected reference frame for times prior to 100 Ma. Focussing on the Farallon slab and the palaeo-subduction east of Australia, we find that our models reasonably reproduce the present-day location of the Farallon slab. However, there is a mismatch between the slab east of Australia and the predicted location of subduction based on the TPW-corrected reference frame. Further models will allow us to test new alternative reference frames to achieve a correct alignment with the location of slabs imaged in the mantle and the location of subduction along continental margins in the past.

Seton, M.; Müller, D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Whittaker, J.

2010-12-01

138

Frames of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

139

International Reference Ionosphere 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet condition...

D. Bilitza K. Rawer L. Bossy I. Kutiev K. Oyama

1990-01-01

140

Virtual Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Reference Desk, a project of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Information and Technology and the US National Library of Education, was established to connect the K-12 community to digital reference experts in all fields. At the heart of the site is the AskA+ Locator, a metapage that links to interactive ready reference sites in 21 subjects including arts, health, language arts, sciences, social studies and math. Each site is similar in that it takes questions in its field of expertise and answers those questions. Each site annotation contains author, audience, and contact information, as well as a description of the service. Information for organizations interested in starting up AskA services is provided. In addition, VRD maintains a mailing list, Dig_Ref for those interested in digital reference service.

1997-01-01

141

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

142

Genetics Home Reference: Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Stroke Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: antiphospholipid syndrome ... cerebral amyloid angiopathy mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes You may also search Genetics Home ...

143

Genetics Home Reference: Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... deafness permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus Tangier disease thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome type 1 diabetes Wolfram syndrome ... Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute an endorsement. See Selection Criteria ...

144

Genetics Home Reference: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... REN-related kidney disease sickle cell disease thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome X-linked sideroblastic anemia X- ... Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute an endorsement. See Selection Criteria ...

145

Reference Service Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designed as a policy statement for staff and an orientation document for the new staff member, this manual presents reference service guidelines for user assisted access to the library collections and library instruction. The manual sets forth the purpose...

1980-01-01

146

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 ... syndrome aspartylglucosaminuria ataxia neuropathy spectrum benign familial ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification fucosidosis juvenile myoclonic ...

147

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

148

NASA's ESDS Reference Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades, advances in geophysical measurement technologies have led to an explosion in the volume and scope of Earth Science data sets. Implementation of the instrument systems that acquire these measurements requires commensurate development in data systems to enable the collection, processing, archiving and distribution of the resultant large volumes of data. As more and more of the data systems come on line, their common features have become increasingly apparent. NASA's Earth Science Data System Working Group (ESDSWG) recognizes these trends and needs and has asked its Standards Process Group (SPG) to develop a reference architecture for NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS's). That reference architecture is introduced in this presentation. The NASA ESDS Reference Architecture describes those common features and patterns, and thus provides guidelines for individuals and teams who plan to construct and interact with new NASA ESDS's.

Burnett, M.; Weiss, B.; Law, E.

2011-12-01

149

Setting reference targets  

SciTech Connect

Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

Ruland, R.E.

1997-04-01

150

Educational Outreach: References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, the Educational Outreach Web site contains a References page for teachers. The materials provided are "intended to be used by teachers as refresher information prior to teaching a given subject... and are not meant to be comprehensive, but should provide adequate depth in the subject for use by most K-12 teachers." Titles of the materials include Atmospheric Water Vapor and its Importance, Common Meteorological Variables, The Seasons, Earth's Energy Budget, Cloud Development, Precipitation, High and Low Pressure Systems, and several others related to weather and climate. Other sections of the site include lessons, references, a glossary, and other helpful educational materials for teachers and students.

151

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

1983-01-01

152

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

1981-12-30

153

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

1988-01-01

154

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

Sadoway, D.R.

1988-08-16

155

COSY INFINITY reference manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and parti...

M. Berz

1990-01-01

156

COSY INFINITY reference manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple

Berz

1990-01-01

157

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

158

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

159

The Unreliability of References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

Barden, Dennis M.

2008-01-01

160

Best Reference 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

2007-01-01

161

Generating Multimodal References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

2007-01-01

162

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Output Selection Most of the statistics presented in Fast Stats can be viewed as either a graph or a data table. The statistics presented for prevalence estimates and the risk of developing or dying from cancer are only available

163

Antares reference telescope system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended

V. K. Viswanathan; E. Kaprelian; T. Swann; J. Parker; P. Wolfe; G. Woodfin; D. Knight

1983-01-01

164

Reference-Dependent Sympathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

Small, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

165

References to racial issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the readiness with which the issue of race comes to the minds of ordinary Americans—the “accessibility” of racial issues—by assessing the frequency with which ordinary Americans refer to racial issues when talking about politics. Explicitly racial issues have declined dramatically in accessibility among the general public over the past thirty years. Coinciding with the decrease in the

Michael G. Hagen

1995-01-01

166

Teachers Reference: Annotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

167

Digital Reference Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)|

Mon, Lorri

2000-01-01

168

CLU Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document serves both as an introduction to CLU and as a language reference programming manual. Sections 1 through 4 present an overview of the programming language. These sections highlight the essential features of CLU, and discuss how CLU differs f...

B. Liskov R. Atkinson T. Bloom E. Moss C. Schaffert

1979-01-01

169

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-12-01

170

Accurate Optical Reference Catalogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current and near future all-sky astrometric catalogs on the ICRF are reviewed with the emphasis on reference star data at optical wavelengths for user applications. The standard error of a Hipparcos Catalogue star position is now about 15 mas per coordinate. For the Tycho-2 data it is typically 20 to 100 mas, depending on magnitude. The USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog

Norbert Zacharias

2006-01-01

171

REFERENCE AREA REALITY CHECK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of revegetation success criteria regulations during initial permitting of surface coal mining operations in Colorado predominantly required the use of reference areas; small enclosures (0.8-2.0 ha) of native vegetation communities which would provide the parameter values for vegetation cover, herbaceous production, woody plant density, and species composition during a liability release evaluation. During the past two decades of revegetation

Michael S. Savage

2000-01-01

172

ACT Reference Catalog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Naval Observatory has completed the compilation of the ACT Reference Catalog, containing 988,758 stars covering the entire sky. The motivation behind the ACT was to provide accurate proper motions for the majority of the stars in the Tycho Catalo...

S. E. Urban T. E. Corbin G. L. Wycoff

1998-01-01

173

The Collaborative Digital Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The CDRS provides professional "library to library" reference service to researchers any time, anywhere, through an international network of libraries and related institutions. Cooperative Partners include the Library of Congress, OCLC, Reference and Users Services Association of the American Libraries Association, Library Systems and Services (LSSI), and Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) with over 100 participating member libraries. The service uses new technologies to provide the best answers in the best context, by taking advantage of Internet resources, localized print and archival collections, as well as the knowledge of staff in general and specialist libraries. The CDRS process begins when the Requesting Library enters a question (on behalf of their client) into the system with additional "metadata" including keywords, subjects, education level, turnaround time needed, sources already consulted, etc. Once the question has been answered, a notification is sent back to the Requesting Library that an answer is available and waiting. Future enhancements may include other processes like interlibrary loans, information on where to buy cited books, and/or document delivery functions.

2001-01-01

174

Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4ºC or room temperature. The effect of high (> 80%) or low (< 20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4ºC improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ± 4% (2? level) over a dose range of 20-350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PMID:23149793

Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

2012-11-08

175

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

176

Reference Undulator Measurement Results  

SciTech Connect

The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

Wolf, Z

2011-08-18

177

Celestial Reference Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for allocating resources to improve celestial frames. A detailed case study of plans for the X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) celestial frame shows error budget concepts in action. Looking to the future of international standards, we discuss the roadmap for the realization of the third generation ICRF (ICRF-3). In closing, we discuss the prospects for the Gaia optical astrometry mission with its potential for sub-100 µas positions for a billion stars and 500,000 quasars at optical wavelengths.

Jacobs, Christopher S.

2013-03-01

178

The Electronic Reference Desk: Reference Service in an Electronic World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes changes in reference services in academic libraries prompted by new electronic formats and services. Four main areas are discussed: (1) changes in the philosophy of reference services and the types of reference services offered; (2) accessing reference services, including greater direct access by patrons; (3) physical configurations of…

Cargill, Jennifer

1992-01-01

179

Dietary reference intervals for vitamin D.  

PubMed

Dietary reference intervals relate to the distribution of dietary requirement for a particular nutrient as defined by the distribution of physiological requirement for that nutrient. These have more commonly been called Dietary Reference Values (DRV) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), amongst other names. The North American DRI for vitamin D are the most current dietary reference intervals and arguably arising from the most comprehensive evaluation and report on vitamin D nutrition to date. These are a family of nutrient reference values, including the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), the Adequate Intake, and Tolerable Upper Intake Level. In particular, the EAR is used for planning and assessing diets of populations; it also serves as the basis for calculating the RDA, a value intended to meet the needs of nearly all people. The DRVs for vitamin D in the UK and the European Community have been in existence for almost two decades, and both are currently under review. The present paper briefly overviews these three sets of dietary reference intervals as case studies to highlight both the similarities as well as possible differences that may exist between reference intervals for vitamin D in different countries/regions. In addition, it highlights the scientific basis upon which these are based, which may explain some of the differences. Finally, it also overviews how the dietary reference intervals for vitamin D may be applied, and especially in terms of assessing the adequacy of vitamin D intake in populations. PMID:22536775

Cashman, Kevin D

2012-04-01

180

Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

2011-12-01

181

Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, the official publications organ for the Wisconsin Legislature, posts on this site the last two versions (1997-1998 and 1999-2000) of the Wisconsin Blue Book, the 1,000 page comprehensive guide to all three branches of Wisconsin government and the state's Constitution. In addition to the Blue Book, the Bureau publishes research briefs and informational bulletins on issues currently pending before the legislature as well as budget briefs, legislative briefs (giving two page summaries of individual bills), and annotated bibliographies on selected issues. The site links to the homepage of the Wisconsin State Legislature.

182

Physical Reference Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Physical Reference Data Web site (last mentioned in the August 16, 1996 Scout Report) provides data on physical constants, ionization, x-ray and gamma-ray, radiation dosimetry, nuclear and condensed matter physics, atomic and molecular spectroscopic data, and more. For example, within the searchable physical constants page, visitors can find everything from alpha particle mass to the Wien displacement law constant. Any researcher, professional, or graduate student in related fields will find this readily accessible information invaluable.

1994-01-01

183

The Calculator Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you remember the days when calculators were as big as today's laptops, then you'll definitely feel nostalgic when you visit the Calculator Reference. Operated by an avid collector of vintage calculators, the site covers Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard brands, as well as the pioneering Curta. Several other models are included in the Desktop Calculators section. Even some interesting trivia is given on the site, like why calculator key pads are numbered in a different order than telephone key pads. There are many links to other sites and articles related to classic calculator technology.

Furr, Rick.

1997-01-01

184

Listserv List Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Listserv List Reference is a great source for finding information about any of the over 7,500 public listservs on the Internet. It is a Web interface to LISTSERV Lists database at L-Soft International. Lists can be browsed by host site, country, and size if the list subscription exceeds 1,000. Subscriber numbers are kept up to date. Subscription information is provided, as is each list's configuration. While this site is used extensively by list owners, it also provides useful information to potential subscribers to Listserv lists.

185

Enhancing Reference Services Through Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology makes it possible for library users to ask reference questions using e-mail or forms on the web and for librarians to conduct reference interviews using chat or videoconferencing software. This article explores each of these technologies and their current and potential use in reference services. A discussion of how technology has changed the way librarians find answers to reference

Beth Smith

2001-01-01

186

Magnetic field from spot welding equipment--is the basic restriction exceeded?  

PubMed

A point measurement of the magnetic field (MF) near a typical spot welding machine showed that the magnetic flux density was above the ICNIRP reference level. To investigate if the basic restrictions were exceeded, the induced body currents in a full 3D human model were calculated. It was found that at an operator position of 34 cm away from the machine the maximum induced current density was below the ICNIRP basic restriction. But if the operator was closer to the machine, the basic restriction was exceeded. An important finding of the present article is that the basic restriction can be exceeded although the MF spatially averaged over the whole body is well below the reference level. PMID:15114637

Nadeem, Mohammad; Hamnerius, Yngve; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Persson, Mikael

2004-05-01

187

Antares Reference Telescope System  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

1983-01-01

188

Antares reference telescope system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antares is a 24 beam, 40 TW carbon dioxide laser fusion system currently nearing completion. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target. It is to position the targets to within 10 (SIGMA)m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares reference telescope system is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares reference telescope system consists of two similar electrooptical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9% optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and tradeoffs are discussed. The final system chosen and its current status are described.

Viswanathan, V. K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

189

Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates  

SciTech Connect

Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

1995-07-01

190

Energy policy. [60 pages of references  

SciTech Connect

Academic literature on energy policy in general as well as specific and related areas of energy, the environment, and the economy make up this bibliography, which includes journal articles and books published since 1970. The bibliography begins with a reference section of bibliographies, directories, and assessments, and continues with a general section of references on the nature of energy policy and approaches to solving energy problems. This is followed by a section on specific energy policy at the federal, regional, state, and local levels and intergovernmental relations; a section on US public opinion and political participation; references comparing US policies with those of other countries; references on energy as an issue in international relations; and a final section on methods of analyzing energy policy.

Danforth, S.C.

1982-01-01

191

Standard Reference Materials: Guide to United States Reference Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized is a list of reference materials produced and distributed by U.S. manufacturers, both public and private. Extensive tables are indexed by use to which reference materials may be put. Properties covered include: chemical composition (analytical ...

J. P. Cali T. Plebanski

1978-01-01

192

Linkage of dynamical reference frame and optical celestial reference frame.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a short history of the linkage of the dynamical reference frame and the fundamental celestial reference frame and results of comparisons of the planetary ephemerides with meridian observations of the Sun and inner planets.

Niimi, Y.

193

Reference Sources in Research Literature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I looked at statistically large samples of references in the Astrophysical Journal and Astronomy & Astrophysics at approximately decade intervals from 1952 to 2009. They show an increase of references to journals from 76% to 90.0% at the expense of references to monographs (down to 3.4%), conference papers (down to 2.6%), in-house papers (down to 1.2%), theses (down to 0.3%), and private communications (0.0%). References to preprints (1.3%) and review papers (1.2%) have also increased. The general conclusion is that references that are available online are increasing in usage while the remaining references are decreasing.

Abt, Helmut A.

2009-05-01

194

A structural SVM approach for reference parsing  

PubMed Central

Background Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author, title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step in building citation-indexing systems. The regular structure in references enables us to consider reference parsing a sequence learning problem and to study structural Support Vector Machine (structural SVM), a newly developed structured learning algorithm on parsing references. Results In this study, we implemented structural SVM and used two types of contextual features to compare structural SVM with conventional SVM. Both methods achieve above 98% token classification accuracy and above 95% overall chunk-level accuracy for reference parsing. We also compared SVM and structural SVM to Conditional Random Field (CRF). The experimental results show that structural SVM and CRF achieve similar accuracies at token- and chunk-levels. Conclusions When only basic observation features are used for each token, structural SVM achieves higher performance compared to SVM since it utilizes the contextual label features. However, when the contextual observation features from neighboring tokens are combined, SVM performance improves greatly, and is close to that of structural SVM after adding the second order contextual observation features. The comparison of these two methods with CRF using the same set of binary features show that both structural SVM and CRF perform better than SVM, indicating their stronger sequence learning ability in reference parsing.

2011-01-01

195

Reference Books for a Regional Reference Collection. Revised Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The special purpose of this list of reference books is to strengthen regional reference library collections. It does not attempt to cover the range of titles required for a research or special library. Reference books for a children's library are not incl...

E. C. Nelson

1967-01-01

196

Reference Artifacts for NDE  

SciTech Connect

Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component contains a replica of an inner capsule from a double shell target. The ''inner capsule'' and the bottom portion of the artifact are fabricated as a single piece to ensure dimensional stability. The area between the upper and lower components is filled by a machined piece of CRF aerogel that contains several intentional defects. Each of the components of this artifact can be fabricated on a diamond turning machine. The assembled artifact will contain several features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Outer and inner diameters of the upper hemispherical shell; Diameter of the inner sphere; Concentricity of outer and inner spheres; Step joint characteristics; Total width of step in the lower polystyrene component; Size of air gap at the top of the CRF; Size of air gap below the CRF; and Size and location of groove in the CRF.

Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

2003-02-11

197

COSY INFINITY reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple calculation of high order effects. At the same time, it allows the computation of dependences on system parameters, which is often interesting in its own right and can also be used for fitting. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual user. At the same time, it offers the demanding user a very flexible and powerful tool for the study and design of systems, and more generally, the utilization of DA methods. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language and are very compact. The approach also considerably facilitates the implementation of new features because they are incorporated with the same commands that are used for design and study. 26 refs.

Berz, M.

1990-07-01

198

International Reference Ionosphere 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is an international project sponsored by the Committee on Space research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) that has as its goal the development and improvement of a data-based model of ionospheric densities, temperatures, and velocities using all available and reliable data sources for these ionospheric parameters. The model is widely recognized as the international standard for the specification of ionospheric parameters and recently was accepted by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) as Technical Specification TS 16457. This presentation will discuss the new version of the model, IRI-2010, which includes several important improvements and additions. The electron and ion densities in the lower ionosphere were significantly improved by using a large volume of ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional parameter IRI-2010 includes the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Network based models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. For high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity.

Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; McKinnell, L. A.

2010-12-01

199

Global Drug Reference Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Drug Reference Online is a website that Olympic athletes and their support teams from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can check to see if any drug they take is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The purpose, of course, is to make sure the athletes aren't taking any drug that would give an unfair advantage to the athlete. The site allows athletes to make sure any medication they are taking, even for routine health problems, i.e. allergies, doesn't contain any ingredients that are prohibited by WADA. Visitors can do a mock search to see that the "user type", "sport" and "nation of purchase" are all factors in whether the drug is prohibited or not. The "user type" includes "athlete", "coach", "medical professional", "sports administrator", and "parent". Many of the mistakes the athletes could make in regard to determining if the drug is prohibited are mentioned in the "FAQs" section, and the burden of proof is clearly on them.

200

Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks.

Mike, Everhart.; Oceans Of Kansas, Sternberg M.

201

Knowledge Management and Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

Gandhi, Smiti

2004-01-01

202

Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

Singer, Carol A.

2012-01-01

203

Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

2006-01-01

204

Knowledge Management and Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.|

Gandhi, Smiti

2004-01-01

205

Temporal Reference in Mandarin Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how Chinese, a so-called tenseless language, determines its temporal reference. For simplex sentences without time adverb or aspectual marker, I show that temporal reference is correlated with aktionsart or grammatical viewpoint. For sentences with an aspectual marker, I discuss the temporal semantics of le and guo in detail, showing how their tense\\/aspectual meanings contribute to temporal reference.

Jo-wang Lin

2003-01-01

206

Reference Dependence and Market Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the implications of consumer reference dependence for market competition. If consumers take some product (e.g., the first product they consider) as the reference point when evaluating others and they exhibit loss aversion, then the more “prominent” firm whose product is taken as the reference point by more consumers will randomize between a high and a low price.

Jidong Zhou

2011-01-01

207

Web Reference: A Virtual Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital reference services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web reference columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual reference desks. (LRW)|

Foster, Janet

1999-01-01

208

Gender agreement and multiple referents  

PubMed Central

We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.*

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

2010-01-01

209

Having a suitable reference place.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to understand reference libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The reference part of libraries was examined from 2008 to 2011. We found that the number of reference librarians should be increased. We found graduate students are the main patrons. We understand interaction with patrons is very important. This study will be helpful for specialist, librarian, and administrators. PMID:23687465

Vahabi, Fataneh; Kolahdouzan, Akbar

2013-01-01

210

User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

2007-01-01

211

Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2005-01-01

212

Is the 1975 Reference Man still a suitable reference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objective:In 1975, a Reference Man for the estimation of radiation doses without adverse health effects was created. However, during the past few decades, considerable changes in body weight and body composition were observed, as a result of which, new in vivo technologies of body composition analysis are now available. Thus, the Reference Man might be outdated as adequate standard to

W Later; A Bosy-Westphal; E Kossel; C-C Glüer; M Heller; M J Müller

2010-01-01

213

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)|

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

214

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

215

Genetics Home Reference: Cohen syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome obesity-hypotonia syndrome Pepper syndrome prominent incisors-obesity-hypotonia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming ...

216

Characterization of the Low Level Waste Reference Glass (LRM)  

SciTech Connect

'The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has participated in a round robin testing program which was conducted under the auspices of the Department of Energy''s (DOE) Tanks Focus Area (TFA) for Immobilization.'

Peeler, D.

1999-05-10

217

Are Reference Desks Dying Out?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making…

Carlson, Scott

2007-01-01

218

When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

219

Dedicated online virtual reference instruction.  

PubMed

To facilitate nursing students' information literacy skills and enhance traditional library user services, academic librarians have developed synchronous (real-time) online virtual reference instruction in nursing research classes. The authors discuss collaborative efforts of nursing and library faculty in planning, implementing, and evaluating a discipline-specific virtual reference pilot program. PMID:16292145

Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Plaisance, Louise

220

Mycobacterium intracellulare Reference Precipitation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a Mycobacterium intracellulare reference precipitation system for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis analyses are presented. The system was produced by the initiative of the International Working Group on Mycobacterial Taxonomy, and the purpose is to permit comparisons of precipitinogenic patterns of mycobacteria obtained in different laboratories. The reference material, consisting of an antigen preparation and a corresponding antiserum, is available

MALIN RIDELL; SOTIROS D. CHAPARAS; PHILIPPE DESMETTRE; ARNE LIND; ORJAN OUCHTERLONY; MARIE-FRANCOISE THOREL; LAWRENCE G. WAYNE

221

A reference model for database security proxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to protect the database, the kernel resources of information warfare, is becoming more and more important since the rapid\\u000a development of computer and communication technology. As an application-level firewall, database security proxy can successfully\\u000a repulse attacks originated from outside the network, reduce to zerolevel damage from foreign DBMS products. We enhanced the\\u000a capability of the COAST's firewall reference model

Cai Liang; Yang Xiao-hu; Dong Jin-xiang

2002-01-01

222

GGSP: Realisation and maintenance of the Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The realisation and maintenance of a Galileo Terrestrial Reference Frame (GTRF) is the main function of the Galileo Geodetic Service Provider (GGSP). The GTRF shall be compatible with the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) within a precision level of 3cm (2 sigma). The connection to the ITRF is realized and validated by stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS)

G. Gendt; Z. Altamimi; R. Dach; W. Söhne; T. Springer

2011-01-01

223

Comparison of two command and control reference models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of Command and Control (C2) reference modeling is to facilitate interoperability between Armed Force systems by proposing a framework model to define the interfaces between interacting C2 entities. Applying C2 reference models should help to define the information and intelligence exchange needs at each Canadian Forces' command level, thus facilitating external interoperability within coalition deployments. Two candidate

David Demers; Valdur Pille

1998-01-01

224

Accurate Optical Positions of Extragalactic Radio Reference Frame Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical positions on the 50 mas level in the Hipparcos system have been obtained for 327 extragalactic, radio reference frame sources for both hemispheres from a 2-step procedure. Positions of secondary reference stars in the 10<=V<=14 magnitude range were obtained from photographic plates taken at the Hamburg astrograph (Northern Hemisphere) and the US Naval Observatory astrograph at Black Birch (Southern

N. Zacharias; M. I. Zacharias; D. M. Hall; K. J. Johnston; C. de Vegt; L. Winter

1999-01-01

225

Current level detector  

DOEpatents

A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

Kerns, Cordon R. (Wheaton, IL)

1977-01-01

226

Hazard Communication Project: Reference Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information ...

1989-01-01

227

Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

deHaas, Pat

1983-01-01

228

Sports Reference: A Core Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reasons for including sports books in school library reference collections, explains why they should not be found only in public library collections, and provides six annotated bibliographies of sports books suitable for intermediate or middle school library collections. (LRW)

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2003-01-01

229

Reference on the Internet: Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a selective annotated list of sports-related Web sites for reference use. Includes sports indexes/links; media sites (networks and periodicals); recreation sites; and professional organizations. (Author)

Weaver, Bruce

1997-01-01

230

Reduced Reference Video Calibration Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes four Reduced Reference (RR) video calibration algorithms of low computational complexity. RR methods are useful for performing end-to-end in-service video quality measurements since these methods utilize a low bandwidth network conne...

M. H. Pinson S. Wolf

2006-01-01

231

Reduced Reference Video Calibration Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes four Reduced Reference (RR) video calibration algorithms of low computational complexity. RR methods are useful for performing end-to-end in-service video quality measurements since these methods utilize a low bandwidth network conne...

M. H. Pinson S. Wolf

2005-01-01

232

Virtual reference: chat with us!  

PubMed

Virtual chat services represent an exciting way to provide patrons of medical libraries with instant reference help in an academic environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation, marketing process, use, and development of a virtual reference service initiated at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and its three-campus libraries. In addition, this paper will discuss practical recommendations for the future improvement of the service. PMID:19384714

Lapidus, Mariana; Bond, Irena

2009-01-01

233

An Integrated Inertial Reference-Inertial Navigation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application described and disclosed herein consists of, but is not limited to, a unique integrated inertial reference-inertial navigational system including a local-level inertial platform system, an inertially referenced gyro system, an accura...

F. W. McDonald

1975-01-01

234

Reference values for thrombotic markers in children.  

PubMed

Thromboembolic events are an increasingly common problem encountered in children. The laboratory diagnosis of thrombotic disorders in children differs from that in adults. To establish the normal reference of natural anticoagulant parameters in children of different age groups, plasma from healthy children between the ages of 2 months and 16 years (n = 127) and adults (n = 30) were assayed for a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 domain 13 (ADAMTS-13), von Willebrand factor collagen-binding activity (vWF:CB), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), homocyteine and natural anticoagulants. Children were divided into four age groups: less than 1 year, 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-16 years. The reference values for ADAMTS 13, homocysteine, and protein C activity were significantly lower in children of all age groups compared with those in the adults. Similarly, those for protein C antigen, total protein S, free protein S and antithrombin III (AT III) for children less than 1 year were significantly lower than in the adults. On the contrary, TFPI levels were significantly higher in the children for all age groups when compared with the adults. vWF:CB levels were comparable across all groups. There are age-related physiologic differences in ADAMTS-13, TFPI, homocysteine and natural anticoagulants between children and adults. Our data will provide physicians with a useful reference guide in interpreting test results of inhibitors of hemostatic parameters in children suspected of thrombotic disorders. PMID:22322138

Sosothikul, Darintr; Kittikalayawong, Yaowaree; Aungbamnet, Pattramon; Buphachat, Chatchai; Seksarn, Panya

2012-04-01

235

Reference Inflow Characteristics for River Resource Reference Model: Reference Model 2 (RM2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a bas...

V. S. Neary

2011-01-01

236

Reference group effects in the measurement of personality and attitudes.  

PubMed

Reference-group effects (discovered in cross-cultural settings) occur when responses to self-report items are based not on respondents' absolute level of a construct but rather on their level relative to a salient comparison group. In this article, we examine the impact of reference-group effects on the assessment of self-reported personality and attitudes. Two studies illustrate that a reference-group effect can be induced by small changes to instruction sets, changes that mirror the instruction sets of commonly used measures of personality. Scales that specified different reference groups showed substantial reductions in criterion-related validities for academic performance, self-reported counterproductive behaviors, and self-reported health outcomes relative to reference-group-free versions of those scales. PMID:20706925

Credé, Marcus; Bashshur, Michael; Niehorster, Sarah

2010-09-01

237

Quantum reference frames and deformed symmetries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of constrained quantum mechanics, reference systems are used to construct relational observables that are invariant under the action of the symmetry group. Upon measurement of a relational observable, the reference system undergoes an unavoidable measurement “back-action” that modifies its properties. In a quantum-gravitational setting, it has been argued that such a back-action may produce effects that are described at an effective level as a form of deformed (or doubly) special relativity. We examine this possibility using a simple constrained system that has been extensively studied in the context of quantum information. While our conclusions support the idea of a symmetry deformation, they also reveal a host of other effects that may be relevant to the context of quantum gravity, and could potentially conceal the symmetry deformation.

Girelli, Florian; Poulin, David

2008-05-01

238

Asthma management pocket reference 2008.  

PubMed

Asthma is one of the most common chronic airways diseases worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing. Family doctors (sometimes called 'primary care physicians' or 'general practitioners') are frequently an asthma patient's first point of contact with healthcare systems. Disease management that follows evidence-based practice guidelines yields better patient results, but such guidelines are often complicated and may recommend the use of resources not available in the family practice setting. A joint expert panel of the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca), International Primary Care Airways Group (IPAG) and the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) offers support to family doctors worldwide by distilling the globally accepted, evidence-based recommendations from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) into this brief reference guide. This guide provides tools intended to supplement a thorough history taking and the clinician's professional judgment in order to provide the best possible care for patients with asthma. Diagnostic Questionnaires developed for children and adults specifically focus the physician's attention on key symptoms and markers of asthma. When questionnaire responses suggest a diagnosis of asthma, Diagnosis Guides then lead the clinician through a series of investigations commonly available in primary care to support the diagnosis. In patients >40 years who smoke, COPD is an important alternative diagnosis, and some key aspects of differential diagnosis are illuminated. According to GINA, the goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain control of the disease symptoms long-term. The physician must first assess the patient's current level of asthma control, then treat asthma in a stepwise manner to achieve and maintain symptom control. Both of these aspects are summarized in figures included in this guide. Finally, the guide also presents a flow chart summarizing management of asthma exacerbations in the acute care setting, and a glossary of asthma medications to assist the clinician in making medication choices for each individual patient. Finally, many patients with asthma also have concomitant allergic rhinitis, and this must be checked. The World Organization of Family Doctors has been delegated by WHO as the group that will be taking primary responsibility for education about chronic respiratory diseases among primary care physicians globally. This document will be a major resource in this educational program. PMID:18691302

van Weel, C; Bateman, E D; Bousquet, J; Reid, J; Grouse, L; Schermer, T; Valovirta, E; Zhong, N

2008-08-01

239

New Danish reference values for spirometry.  

PubMed

Introduction:? International recommendations state that reference values for lung function should derive from cross-sectional studies of healthy nonsmokers and be renewed from time to time because of cohort effect and newer, more accurate, technical equipment. In 1986, the Danish Lung Society published reference values for spirometry based on 570 individuals aged 30-70 years. Objectives:? To produce new reference values for lung function and to extend the existing values by including individuals between 20 and 30 years of age and older than 70 years of age. Methods:? Two similar but independent studies was used: The 2001-2003 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the 2003-2010 examination of the Copenhagen General Population Study. Of a total of 69?822 individuals, we included 11?288 healthy never-smoking white individuals to produce the reference values: 6307 women and 4981 men, 20 years of age or older with adequate lung function. Results:? We used sex-stratified multiple linear regression analysis to find prediction formulas for forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV(1) ), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1) /FVC adjusted for age and height. The cutoff value of normal lung function was defined as the fifth percentile (also named the 5% quantile) according to gender, age and height. The robustness of the data was tested and validated in several ways. Conclusion:? Compared with the 1986 data, our 2001-2010 material contributes with a substantial number of individuals in the more extreme groups of age and height, and in general, our dataset shows that in most subgroups, the lung function level has improved during the last two decades. Please cite this paper as: Løkke A, Marott JL, Mortensen J, Nordestgaard BG, Dahl M and Lange P. New Danish reference values for spirometry. Clin Respir J DOI:10.1111/j.1752-699X.2012.00297.x. PMID:22583805

Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis; Mortensen, Jann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Dahl, Morten; Lange, Peter

2012-05-14

240

International Geomagnetic Reference Field-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of geomagnetic field modellers associated with the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group 8, periodically examines various geomagnetic field representations from which the Earth's main field and its secular variation can be computed. They produce a set of coefficients to represent the main field at a particular epoch, usually every 5 years, and name it the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Also, if a previous IGRF is re-derived using new data not available at the time of its production and agreed upon when it is clear that no additional data are likely to emerge, it is called a Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF). For similar reasons, no DGRF model for 1995 has yet been adopted by the IAGA, Division V Working Group 8. Note that, when referring to these models, the designation “IGRF” refers to all available models, viewed collectively. If a particular model is intended, the reference must be specific; i.e., IGRF2000 or DGRF1990, rather than simply IGRF or DGRF

IAGA, Division V, Working Group 8,

241

Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

242

Reference Anywhere, Anytime: Recent Works on Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The topic of virtual reference has been a popular one in the past year, and this column highlights a range of those articles. Included are overviews of the topic, articles addressing specific technological solutions and concerns, and pieces that explore the intricacies of delivering and assessing a "traditional" service through a different…

Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

2008-01-01

243

Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

244

Photometry of astrometric reference stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UBVRI, DDO, and uvby, H-beta photometry of astrometric reference stars is presented. Spectral types and luminosity classifications made from the colors are used to determine their spectroscopic parallaxes. In this paper, colors for 309 stars in 25 regions are given, and classifications for 210 stars have been made. These stars form reference frames in the Allegheny Observatory Multichannel Astrometric Photometer astrometric program, and in the Praesepe cluster reduced by Russell (1976). It is found that the present photometric spectral types are reliable to within 2.5 spectral subclasses.

Castelaz, Michael W.; Persinger, Tim; Stein, John W.; Prosser, James; Powell, Harry D.

1991-12-01

245

A Stellar Tracking Reference System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stellar attitude reference system concept for satellites was studied which promises to permit continuous precision pointing of payloads with accuracies of 0.001 degree without the use of gyroscopes. It is accomplished with the use of a single, clustered...

B. Klestadt

1971-01-01

246

Optical frequency\\/wavelength references  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than 100 years, optical atomic\\/molecular frequency references have played important roles in science and technology, and provide standards enabling precision measurements. Frequency-stable optical sources have been central to experimental tests of Einstein's relativity, and also serve to realize our base unit of length. The technology has evolved from atomic discharge lamps and interferometry, to narrow atomic resonances in

L. Hollberg; C. W. Oates; G. Wilpers; C. W. Hoyt; Z. W. Barber; S. A. Diddams; W. H. Oskay; J. C. Bergquist

2005-01-01

247

Referent Tracking for Corporate Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate memories (CM) are information systems designed to keep track of the history and evolution of an enterprise with the goal of using past experience to enhance performance in the future. Well designed CMs should contain data about both the enterprise and the environment in which it operates. The former, traditionally embodied in what is referred to as an 'enterprise

Werner CEUSTERS; Barry SMITH

248

Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life.…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

249

Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

250

Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

251

Hydrogen Slush Density Reference System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hydrogen slush density reference system is described. The density of the hydrogen was calculated by a nuclear radiation attenuation densitometer up to and past its triple point. The method has been used to measure the density of liquified slush hydrogen...

D. H. Weitzel C. F. Sindt D. E. Daney

1968-01-01

252

A Geomagnetic Reference Error Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of geomagnetic field models, such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the World Magnetic Model (WMM), has benefitted tremendously from the ongoing series of satellite magnetic missions. However, what do we mean by accuracy? When comparing a geomagnetic reference model with a magnetic field measurement (for example of an electronic compass), three contributions play a role: (1) The instrument error, which is not subject of this discussion, (2) the error of commission, namely the error of the model coefficients themselves in representing the geomagnetic main field, and (3) the error of omission, comprising contributions to the geomagnetic field which are not represented in the reference model. The latter can further be subdivided into the omission of the crustal field and the omission of the disturbance field. Several factors have a strong influence on these errors: The error of commission primarily depends on the time elapsed since the last update of the reference model. The omission error for the crustal field depends on altitude of the measurement, while the omission error for the disturbance field has a strong latitudinal dependence, peaking under the auroral electrojets. A further complication arises for the uncertainty in magnetic declination, which is directly dependent on the strength of the horizontal field. Here, we present an error model which takes all of these factors into account. This error model will be implemented as an online-calculator, providing the uncertainty of the magnetic elements at the entered location and time.

Maus, S.; Woods, A. J.; Nair, M. C.

2011-12-01

253

Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to…

Penner, Katherine

2011-01-01

254

Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

255

Sense and reference in translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article borrows from the German scholar Gottlob Frege the idea of linguistic meaning as a combination of sense and reference and attempts to put it to work in the translation of several excerpts from English into Romanian, with the twofold purpose of verifying its usefulness in the practice of translation and its status as a potential point of departure

Paul Movileanu

2011-01-01

256

Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

257

Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

258

The Timing of Referred Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "dreaded resits," or referred examinations to give them their full title. Hated by everyone: (1) the students (when they start the course they think they won't need them); (2) the academic staff (they think the students should have worked harder first time around); and (3) the administrative staff (they have seen it all before and really would…

Slater, Robert

2009-01-01

259

Selected Reference Books of 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)|

McIlvaine, Eileen

1999-01-01

260

The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1989-01-01

261

The Dexter hypertext reference model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1994-01-01

262

Supplementary Reference Sequence VSB System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the supplementary reference sequence (SRS) part of the advanced VSB (A-VSB) system which is proposed for the terrestrial television broadcast system. The SRS VSB system offers more frequent training signals than VSB system to mitigate dynamic multipaths.

Eui Jun Park; Hae Joo Jeong; Yong Deok Chang

2007-01-01

263

Labor Surplus Area Zipcode Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The labor surplus area (LSA) program gives preference of priority to businesses located in areas with high unemployment in the award of Federal contracts. The Labor Surplus Area Zipcode Reference file makes it possible to use the zip code in a firm's addr...

P. Kogan J. Simko

1982-01-01

264

Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a list of materials available for postal delivery, including: Icelandic basalt, Massachusetts marine sediment, Virginia diabase, Wyoming shale, etc. The size and content of each sample, descriptions of the location the reference material is taken from, and total element concentrations are given.

265

A Computerized Reference Retrieval System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An automated retrieval system for reference works was constructed as a prototype in order to illustrate the capabilities and potentialities of future retrieval systems. More than 170 biographical works were indexed and stored in a computer disk to form a biographical data base, and a computer program was written to match patron queries.…

Harline, N. La Var

266

Collective Management of Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a one-year experiment with collective management--i.e., management in which decision-making rests with the department as a whole--in the Oberlin College Library reference department. The planning process, problems, and advantages and disadvantages of this style of management are discussed. Several questions are raised about the…

Comer, Cynthia H.; And Others

1988-01-01

267

Reference Services in Developing Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the development of reference services in developing countries and describes some of the functions of libraries and information services. Topics discussed include meeting users' needs; criteria for the planning and organization of services; and technology, including electronic dictionaries, computerized community information files,…

Velho Lopes, Roseanne R.

1992-01-01

268

Selected Reference Books of 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

McIlvaine, Eileen

2001-01-01

269

Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles  

PubMed Central

The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

2010-01-01

270

Refined approaches for terrestrial reference frame computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geodetic space techniques allow to determine station positions with precisions of a few millimeters. The underlying reference frame requires thus the same level of accuracy. The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) is up to date realised by epoch positions and linear velocities for all the included stations. Detailed analyses, however, show that linear velocities do not fit the time dependent positions with the required accuracy. To improve the time evolution we study weekly solutions of the station positions and datum parameters. We use GPS, SLR, VLBI and DORIS solutions that are obtained from the corresponding IERS technique centres or computed at DGFI. Time series of station coordinates and datum parameters (scale, translation) are computed by aligning each individual solution to a multi-year reference (ITRF2000). The time series are analysed to detect systematic effects such as jumps or periodic signals (esp. seasonal periods). Additionally the covariance information of the networks and the station positions are investigated. As a refined approach we then combine the weekly normal equations to a multi-year TRF solution. Thereby an important aspect is the parameterisation (e.g. to include an annual period for station positions and the datum parameters). The results are discussed and compared with existing TRF solutions and geophysical models.

Meisel, B.; Angermann, D.; Drewes, H.; Gerstl, M.; Kelm, R.; Kruegel, M.; Mueller, H.; Tesmer, V.

271

Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities To meet the needs of all users such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended NRLMSISE-00 and Horizontal Wind Model HWM-93 empirical reference models The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere providing estimates of neutral temperature density and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location day of year time of day and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region The less mature HWM-93 model based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model The availability of several new long term data sets including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS

Drob, D. P.; Emmert, J. T.; Picone, J. M.

272

Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.  

PubMed

In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. PMID:19194889

Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

2009-05-01

273

Energy efficient motors reference guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motor reference guide is the result of data and information collected and organized by the Industrial and Large Commercial staff of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The information was collected over several months from motor manufacturers, technical papers, textbooks, and files of former TVA engineers. Additionally, computer simulations were performed to develop data not currently available in literature. The guide is not intended to be a textbook on motors, but a quick and ready reference for the TVA field staff to assist in the technical and economic evaluation of energy-efficient motors versus standard motors. However, chapters on motor related topics such as rotating fields, power factor correction, and impact of power quality on motor performances have also been included to complement the text.

Sadanandan, N. D.; Eltom, A. H.

1992-03-01

274

Frames of Reference: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Velocity and acceleration always need to be measured relative to some fixed benchmarks, which define a frame of reference. The first section of this resource, The Aberration of Starlight, shows that two frames of reference moving relative to each other with a constant velocity are completely equivalent, and the same laws hold in both. However, this section describes how the motion of the Earth modifies the apparent positions of stars and the arrival direction of the solar wind. There is information about the aberration of starlight and its explanation by James Bradley, who used his observation of the flag on a moving boat as the essential clue. In addition, the student will learn about the aberration of the solar wind and the behavior of comet tails and also about the proposed Solar Probe space mission. The second section contains a brief non-mathematical discussion of the theory of relativity.

Stern, David

275

Advanced Physics: Rotating Reference Frames  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A ball is shown on a rotating merry-go-round with a frictionless surface. The ball starts at the center of the merry-go-round and moves outward at a constant speed. Views from two reference frames are shown, one where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the ground and the other (shown above) where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the merry-go-round.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-19

276

Northern Astrographic Catalog reference stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high density reference star catalog is being compiled at the U.S. Naval Observatory for the purpose of making new reductions of the Astrographic Catalog. The first version of this catalog will contain 215,000 stars on the system of FK4. The northern half is completed and contains 130,000 positions and proper motions with mean errors less than 0\\

T. E. Corbin; S. E. Urban

1989-01-01

277

Inertial pseudo star reference unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The authors present the development of a precision pointing system, the inertial pseudo-star reference unit (IPSRU). The IPSRU implements a collimated light source mounted on an inertially stabilized platform that is configured using a centrally located two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) flexure assembly. The platform inertial sensing is achieved through the combined use of a precision, low-noise 2-DOF dry-tuned

J. P. Gilmore; T. T. Chien; R. Wingler

1992-01-01

278

Saving the intuitions: polylithic reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

My main aim in this paper is to clarify the concepts of referential success and of referential continuity that are so crucial\\u000a to the scientific realism debate. I start by considering the three dominant theories of reference and the intuitions that\\u000a motivate each of them. Since several intuitions cited in support of one theory conflict with intuitions cited in support

Ioannis Votsis

2011-01-01

279

HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-18

280

HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-29

281

On the celestial reference pole.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definitions of the celestial reference pole (CRP), or instantaneous celestial pole, related to the adopted nutation series are discussed in this paper. It is suggested that the CRP related to Woolard series may be defined as the angular momentum pole (AMP) of the earth, and the CRP related to Atkinson's proposal may be defined as the AMP corrected for the luni-solar polar motion. The dependence of CRP on the liquid core of the earth is also discussed.

Xu, B.-X.

282

The neurobiology of reference-dependent value computation.  

PubMed

A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., "absolute") value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations. PMID:19321780

De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J

2009-03-25

283

The Neurobiology of Reference-Dependent Value Computation  

PubMed Central

A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., “absolute”) value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations.

De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J.

2009-01-01

284

Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.  

PubMed

Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and have therefore reached high level of attention for safeguards authorities. Furthermore, IRMM initiated and coordinated the development of a Modified Total Evaporation (MTE) technique for accurate abundance ratio measurements of the "minor" isotope-amount ratios of uranium and plutonium in nuclear material and, in combination with a multi-dynamic measurement technique and filament carburization, in environmental samples. Currently IRMM is engaged in a study on the development of plutonium reference materials for "age dating", i.e. determination of the time elapsed since the last separation of plutonium from its daughter nuclides. The decay of a radioactive parent isotope and the build-up of a corresponding amount of daughter nuclide serve as chronometer to calculate the age of a nuclear material. There are no such certified reference materials available yet. PMID:23507450

Jakopi?, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

2013-03-15

285

Preparation and certification of rice flour-unpolished reference material.  

PubMed

Rice flour-unpolished reference material was prepared from unpolished rice collected from three locations in Japan. This reference material is certified for elemental composition and consists of three samples containing low-level (0.023 microgram/g), medium-level (0.32 microgram/g) and high-level (1.82 micrograms/g) of Cd. The unpolished rice was pulverized, oven-dried, homogenized and finally packaged into 1000 glass bottles. The prepared material satisfied the homogeneity criteria for a reference material. Collaborative analytical studies on the elemental composition of the rice flour-unpolished reference material were conducted using various analytical techniques which lead to the certification. Stable isotope dilution/ICP-MS was successfully applied to the accurate determination of Cu, Zn, Mo and Cd in the reference material. Certified values are provided for Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Rb and Zn, based on results of determinations by at least three independent analytical techniques. Reference values are reported for Al, As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Hg, Se and Sr. The elemental compositions of the three rice flour-unpolished samples are very similar, except for Cd, and are considered typical of Japanese unpolished rice. PMID:1785053

Okamoto, K

1991-09-01

286

Self-Reference Effect and the Group-Reference Effect in the Recall of Shared and Unshared Information in Nominal Groups and Interacting Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how variables that have been studied at the individual level may apply at the group level. Specifically, we examined how the self-reference effect (SRE) and the group-reference effect (GRE) impacted total information recall by examining the difference between interacting groups and nominal groups. Additionally, we also examined how the SRE and GRE might impact upon the recall of

Dennis D. Stewart; Cheryl B. Stewart; Jason Walden

2007-01-01

287

Teachers' Domain: Frames of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from the American Museum of Natural History, users explore how the apparent motion of an object depends on the observer's frame of reference. An animation of a basketball player bouncing a ball shows how the perceived motion of the ball depends on your point of view. Teachers' Domain is an NSF-funded pathway of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). It is a growing collection of more than 1,000 free educational resources compiled by researchers and experienced teachers to promote the use of digital resources in the classroom.

2009-08-06

288

Empirical Reference Models for COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Openly distributed atmospheric reference models are an essential tool for scientific research and operational activities. To meet the needs of all users, such models must utilize rigorous statistical methods and the most comprehensive and reliable data sets in their development. Two such models that meet these requirements are the Naval Research Laboratory, Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter Extended (NRLMSISE-00) and Horizontal Wind Model (HWM-93) empirical reference models. The NRLMSISE-00 model and its predecessors are based on 35 years of empirical modeling experience and over 40 years of research measurements. These global models are well documented and extend from the ground to the exosphere, providing estimates of neutral temperature, density, and major neutral species composition as a function of geographic location, day of year, time of day, and geomagnetic and solar activity conditions. Relative to the most comprehensive span of datasets available these models have the smallest bias and root mean square deviations of any climatological reference model built to date, although there are a few limitations in the 80 to 120 km region. The less advanced HWM-93 model, based on the same statistical methodologies and general mathematical formulation of the NRLMSISE-00 model, provides climatological estimates of the horizontal wind fields over the same variables and range of conditions as the NRLMSISE-00 model. The availability of several new long term data sets, including satellite wind measurements from the WINDII instrument onboard the UARS satellite, as well as ground-based optical Fabery-Perot measurements, provide the opportunity to make significant refinements to the existing model. Initial results from an improved HWM will be shown for altitudes between 100 and 500 km. Improvement in the model's ability to represent the seasonal changes, solar forcing, geomagnetic forcing, diurnal variation, and vertical structure of horizontal winds of the region is presented. Few or no wind measurements, or wind measurement techniques, exist currently for the 100 to 200 km region, particularly at night-time and at high latitudes. The need for additional wind measurements in these regions are discussed in the context of the performance of the model.

Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; Picone, Michael

289

A new world for virtual reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine the emerging field of reference in virtual worlds and attempts to determine its place among existing reference services. The virtual world of Second Life is the focus for these virtual world services. Advantages of virtual world reference are highlighted and drawbacks are discussed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines two existing virtual world reference

Krista Godfrey

2008-01-01

290

Reference service in Second Life: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of how reference service is provided in the 3D virtual world, Second Life (SL), and to further the professional understanding of the newest reference “frontier” and its impact on the library reference world. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey study was conducted to examine the nature and practice of reference

Lili Luo

2008-01-01

291

Sex references in the mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the mass media's coverage of sexual topics during the years 1950, 1960, and 1970. An examination is made of the quantity of references to sex, the percentage of liberal references, and the coverage of specific sexual activities. It is ascertained that specific references to extramarital sex and noncoital sex decreased from 1950 to 1970. References both to

Joseph E. Scott; Jack L. Franklin

1973-01-01

292

Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)|

Wasik, Joann M.

2000-01-01

293

The Shape of E-Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As question answering services in the commercial sector proliferate, libraries are innovating with new forms of electronic reference (e-reference). The Library of Congress' Collaborative Digital Reference Service (CDRS) extends worldwide. Discussion includes reference service developments; "reclaiming" users; growth of library interest in…

Oder, Norman

2001-01-01

294

Instant Messaging Reference: How Does It Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares a digital reference service that uses instant messaging with traditional, face-to-face reference based on experiences at the Southern Illinois University library. Addresses differences in reference questions asked, changes in the reference transaction, student expectations, bibliographic instruction, and librarian attitudes and…

Desai, Christina M.

2003-01-01

295

Media Reference Sources for an Academic Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the surface many media reference questions seem simple to answer. However, the lack of reference tools often hinders the reference librarian's ability to answer even the most straightforward query. In some cases, the library simply has an inadequate collection, lacking necessary sources. In other cases, the reference tools simply do not exist. Experienced academic media librarians develop toolkits, consisting

Kristine R. Brancolini

1999-01-01

296

Chat Reference: Training and Competencies for Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chat reference is an increasingly popular service. This article introduces chat reference as a new concept that is not extensively used in libraries in Iran, and discusses the knowledge and competencies that librarians must use in the process. Training courses in chat reference that have been used are noted and suggestions are made for including chat reference training in LIS

Atefeh Noorizadeh Ghasri; Mozhdeh Dehghani

2009-01-01

297

Librarians' Perceptions of the Reference Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article identifies librarians' perceptions of challenges providing reference services in the context of mental health. The reference interview will be discussed in context of mental health questions. Topics discussed include the reference interview process, ethics and barriers to information access and challenges of the reference interview. The information included in the article is based on discussions held at National

Michelle L. Eberle

2005-01-01

298

Reference-assisted chromosome assembly  

PubMed Central

One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed “reference-assisted chromosome assembly” (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map.

Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M.; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A.; Ma, Jian

2013-01-01

299

Nuclear science references coding manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1996-08-01

300

Reference toxins for antivenin standardization*  

PubMed Central

Potency determinations in mice of venom samples from snakes of the species Bothrops jararaca, which had been caught in an area of less than 10 000 km2, gave the following principal results: (1) Various methods of drying—i.e., closed and continuous vacuum-drying at 5° and 37°C and freeze-drying (lyophilization)—had no different effect on the potency of venoms. (2) Venom samples which display no differences in the final results of intravenous assay may be distinguishable if the observation time is limited to one or two hours. (3) Venom samples obtained from snakes caught no more than about 50 km apart may be of different potencies. (4) Different titres may be obtained for an antivenin, if different samples of venom from the same snake species are employed as reference preparations in the assay. From physiological experiments on dogs and rabbits, in conjunction with observations made in tests on mice, it is evident that B. jararaca venom causes death in circulatory collapse through a mechanism which is as yet unknown. Two physiologically (and probably immunologically) distinct hypotensory factors seem to be present in this venom. The conclusions drawn from the investigation is that consistent and reproducible reference preparations of snake venoms for antivenin assay can probably be obtained only from snakes that are bred and kept in captivity under constant environmental conditions.

Schottler, W. H. A.

1958-01-01

301

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

302

Reference limits for serum thyrotropin in a Japanese population.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to establish new reference intervals for serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels in Japanese subjects without antithyroid antibodies. We reviewed the serum TSH level of all patients 20 years of age and over who attended the outpatient clinic of our hospital between January 1, 2003, and September 20, 2010. The thyroid gland of every patient was examined by ultrasonography, and subjects found to have a normal thyroid were chosen. The following subjects were excluded: subjects with past history of thyroid diseases; subjects whose serum was positive for antithyroid antibodies; pregnant women; patients taking medication that might affect their free thyroxine (fT(4)) level or TSH levels. Ultimately, 1388 subjects were included in the reference population. The serum TSH levels shifted to higher ranges as the age of the groups increased. The calculated reference range was 0.39-4.29 mIU/L in the 20-29-year-old group, 0.34-3.90 mIU/L in the 30-39-year-old group, 0.56-5.02 mIU/L in the 40-49-year-old group, 0.51-5.30 mIU/L in the 50-59-year-old group, 0.60-4.85 mIU/L in the 60-69-year-old group, 0.62-6.15 mIU/L in the over 70-year-old group. The results of this study showed that the upper limit of the normal range of serum TSH levels increased with age in a Japanese population. Since the number of elderly reference subjects was relatively small, further study is needed. Setting the age- and race-specific reference limits for serum TSH levels is important in order to prevent significant misclassifications of patients with abnormal TSH levels. PMID:21551957

Yoshihara, Ai; Noh, Jaeduk Yoshimura; Ohye, Hidemi; Sato, Shiori; Sekiya, Kenichi; Kosuga, Yuka; Suzuki, Miho; Matsumoto, Masako; Kunii, Yo; Watanabe, Natsuko; Mukasa, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Ito, Koichi

2011-05-07

303

Effect of overlay APC control on cascading levels: pertrubations of the reference level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driven by overlay shrinks and increasing product diversification in advanced fabs, automatic control of correctable overlay coefficients has become critical to semiconductor manufacturing. Although numerous reports have shown the compelling benefits of automatic run-to-run feedback control, one important issue has received very little attention to date. In many state-of-the-art fabs, reticle to wafer alignment is performed against marks that were

Timothy H. Conway; Manish Misra; Alan P. Carlson; David A. Crow

2003-01-01

304

Comparing Virtual Reference Exit Survey Results and Transcript Analysis: A Model for Service Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses virtual reference transcripts for which patrons completed exit surveys to seek any correlations between user and librarian satisfaction within virtual reference transactions. By analyzing transcripts with a focus on three elements-technology performance, preferred reference practices, and the demonstrated communication levels of…

Smyth, Joanne B.; MacKenzie, James C.

2006-01-01

305

Auditory Warnings, Signal-Referent Relations, and Natural Indicators: Re-Thinking Theory and Application  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In auditory warning design the idea of the strength of the association between sound and referent has been pivotal. Research has proceeded via constructing classification systems of signal-referent associations and then testing predictions about ease of learning of different levels of signal-referent relation strength across and within different…

Petocz, Agnes; Keller, Peter E.; Stevens, Catherine J.

2008-01-01

306

A comparison of dietary reference values for energy of different countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary reference values for food energy for population groups are set at the level of average energy requirement without a safety margin to avoid any risk of inadequate energy intake. Average energy requirements and hence reference values for energy can be determined from either energy intake data or energy expenditure. In this article, the present reference values for energy of

Monika Neuhäuser-Berthold; Ulrike Hauber; A. Bruce

1997-01-01

307

Euclid mission: building of a reference survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Euclid is an ESA Cosmic-Vision wide-field-space mission which is designed to explain the origin of the acceleration of Universe expansion. The mission will investigate at the same time two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (in particular Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, BAO). The extreme precision requested on primary science objectives can only be achieved by observing a large number of galaxies distributed over the whole sky in order to probe the distribution of dark matter and galaxies at all scales. The extreme accuracy needed requires observation from space to limit all observational biases in the measurements. The definition of the Euclid survey, aiming at detecting billions of galaxies over 15 000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, is a key parameter of the mission. It drives its scientific potential, its duration and the mass of the spacecraft. The construction of a Reference Survey derives from the high level science requirements for a Wide and a Deep survey. The definition of a main sequence of observations and the associated calibrations were indeed a major achievement of the Definition Phase. Implementation of this sequence demonstrated the feasibility of covering the requested area in less than 6 years while taking into account the overheads of space segment observing and maneuvering sequence. This reference mission will be used for sizing the spacecraft consumables needed for primary science. It will also set the framework for optimizing the time on the sky to fulfill the primary science and maximize the Euclid legacy.

Amiaux, J.; Scaramella, R.; Mellier, Y.; Altieri, B.; Burigana, C.; Da Silva, Antonio; Gomez, P.; Hoar, J.; Laureijs, R.; Maiorano, E.; Magalhães Oliveira, D.; Renk, F.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Tereno, I.; Auguères, J. L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cropper, M.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kitching, T.; Meneghetti, M.; Percival, W.; Warren, S.

2012-09-01

308

Reference condition approach to restoration planning  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecosystem restoration planning requires quantitative rigor to evaluate alternatives, define end states, report progress and perform environmental benefits analysis (EBA). Unfortunately, existing planning frameworks are, at best, semi-quantitative. In this paper, we: (1) describe a quantitative restoration planning approach based on a comprehensive, but simple mathematical framework that can be used to effectively apply knowledge and evaluate alternatives, (2) use the approach to derive a simple but precisely defined lexicon based on the reference condition concept and allied terms and (3) illustrate the approach with an example from the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) using hydrologic indicators. The approach supports the development of a scaleable restoration strategy that, in theory, can be expanded to ecosystem characteristics such as hydraulics, geomorphology, habitat and biodiversity. We identify three reference condition types, best achievable condition (A BAC), measured magnitude (MMi which can be determined at one or many times and places) and desired future condition (ADFC) that, when used with the mathematical framework, provide a complete system of accounts useful for goal-oriented system-level management and restoration. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nestler, J. M.; Theiling, C. H.; Lubinski, K. S.; Smith, D. L.

2010-01-01

309

Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... lipids (fats) properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

310

Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder characterized by significantly reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood. HDL transports cholesterol ... for Tangier disease? A-alphalipoprotein Neuropathy alpha High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency Disease Analphalipoproteinemia Cholesterol thesaurismosis Familial High ...

311

Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

312

Genetics Home Reference: Malignant hyperthermia  

MedlinePLUS

... malignant hyperthermia may experience muscle rigidity, breakdown of muscle fibers (rhabdomyolysis), a high fever, increased acid levels in ... in calcium ion concentration inside muscle cells stimulates muscle fibers to contract. Mutations in the RYR1 or CACNA1S ...

313

Genetics Home Reference: Multiminicore disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the sensation of pain, and with a particular type of muscle relaxant. If given these drugs, people at risk for malignant hyperthermia may experience muscle rigidity, breakdown of muscle fibers (rhabdomyolysis), a high fever, increased acid levels in ...

314

Background stratospheric aerosol reference model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

McCormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

1989-12-01

315

Hazard Communication Project: reference manual  

SciTech Connect

This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

Not Available

1989-03-01

316

NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

WINCHELL,D.F.

2007-04-01

317

Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... The ATP2A2 gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme abbreviated as SERCA2. This enzyme acts as a pump that helps control the ... gene result in insufficient amounts of functional SERCA2 enzyme. A lack of SERCA2 enzyme reduces calcium levels ...

318

Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

319

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-05-23

320

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01

321

A reference architecture for telemonitoring.  

PubMed

The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme). PMID:15747944

Clarke, Malcolm

2004-01-01

322

Remeasurement of ?-Ray reference lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last several years, we have established a new and significantly improved measurement chain connecting ?-ray lines with visible reference standards. This chain has three links: First, a Si lattice repeat distance is determined by combined X-ray and optical interferometry. Second, this crystal calibration is transferred to other specimens suited to ?-ray diffraction. Finally, these crystals are used in a transmission double-crystal instrument to determine ?-ray wavelengths via the Bragg-Laue equation. To obtain the required precision and accuracy, the spectrometer is fitted with angle interferometers of considerable sensitivity (˜0.05 marcsec) and these are calibrated by summing to closure the external interfacial angles of a 72-sided optical polygon. This report focuses on the apparatus and methodology of the third step but includes descriptions of the first two also. Results are presented from tests of closure using cascade-crossover relations and inter-order comparisons. Energies for ?-transitions in 198Au, 192Ir, 170Tm, 169Yb, together with the X-ray transition W K?1 are included. ?-Ray wavelength accuracies are estimated to be near 0.5 ppm.

Deslattes, R. D.; Kessler, E. G.; Sauder, W. C.; Henins, A.

1980-10-01

323

Coaxial Reference Standard for Microwave Power.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design and construction details are given for the bolometer (thermistor) mounts used by NIST as working reference standards for microwave power calibrations in coaxial transmission line. The effective efficiency of these reference standards can be measure...

F. R. Clague P. G. Voris

1993-01-01

324

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2013-07-01

325

33 CFR 242.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Section 242.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY § 242.3 References. The references in...

2013-07-01

326

Acquisition of Pronominal Reference: A Longitudinal Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study examined the acquisition of pronominal reference by a Moroccan learner of Dutch with little formal education. It details the subject's acquisition of Dutch pronouns and their use in standard-like and nonformulaic conversation. (eight references) (MDM)|

Broeder, Peter

1995-01-01

327

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2011-04-01

329

Affirmative Action and Seniority: Selected References.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography contains a selection of references to books and articles on the subject of affirmative action and seniority. Most of the references are annotated. The bibliography addresses the legal aspects of the controversy between affirmative action ...

I. D. Powell

1979-01-01

330

General symptom reporting in female fibromyalgia patients and referents: a population-based case-referent study  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and palpation tenderness. In addition to these classic symptoms, fibromyalgia patients tend to report a number of other complaints. What these other complaints are and how often they are reported as compared with related referents from the general population is not very well known. We therefore hypothesized that subjects with fibromyalgia report more of a wide range of symptoms as compared with referents of the same sex and age from the general population. Methods 138 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia in primary health care and 401 referents from the general population matched to the cases by sex, age and residential area responded to a postal questionnaire where information on marital status, education, occupational status, income level, immigrant status, smoking habits physical activity, height and weight history and the prevalence of 42 defined symptoms was sought. Results The cases had lower educational and income levels, were more often unemployed, on sick leave or on disability pension and were more often first generation immigrants than the referents. They were also heavier, shorter and more often had a history of excessive food intake and excessive weight loss. When these differences were taken into account, cases reported not only significantly more presumed fibromyalgia symptoms but also significantly more of general symptoms than the referents. The distribution of symptoms was similar in subjects with fibromyalgia and referents, indicating a generally higher symptom reporting level among the former. Conclusion Subjects with fibromyalgia had a high prevalence of reported general symptoms than referents. Some of these differences may be a consequence of the disorder while others may reflect etiological processes.

Bjorkegren, Karin; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Johansson, Saga; Svardsudd, Kurt

2009-01-01

331

Business Process Reference Models: Survey and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within the Information Systems field, reference models are well-known for many years. The aim of this paper is to survey and\\u000a to describe reference models for business processes. Our analysis of 30 process reference models is based on a framework consisting\\u000a of criteria such as application domain, used process modeling languages, model’s size, known evaluations and applications\\u000a of process reference

Peter Fettke; Peter Loos; Jörg Zwicker

2005-01-01

332

Natural motion statistics for no-reference video quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the motion statistics of video sequences, towards the development of no-reference video quality indices that take into account spatial as well as temporal characteristics of video signals. Here we explore the temporal characteristics of undistorted as well as distorted IP video sequences; (distorted by varying levels of packet loss rate) as extracted from optical flow vectors. We present

Michele A. Saad; Alan C. Bovik

2009-01-01

333

Development of a Standard Reference Material for Rainwater Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the development of Standard Reference Material, SRM 2694, 'Simulated Rainwater,' intended to aid in the analysis of acidic rainfall. Details of the formulation and preparation of the two levels of solutions (2694-I and 2694-II) are giv...

W. F. Koch G. Marinenko R. C. Paule

1985-01-01

334

Development of a standard reference material for rainwater analysis  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the development of Standard Reference Material, SRM 2694, Simulated Rainwater, intended to aid in the analysis of acidic rainfall. Details of the formulation and preparation of the two levels of solutions (2694-I and 2694-II) are given. The 10 analytical techniques used to measure the 12 components in the solutions are described in brief.

Koch, W.F.; Marinenko, G.; Paule, R.C.

1985-10-09

335

Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources  

PubMed Central

Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

2005-01-01

336

Using XML technologies to organize electronic reference resources.  

PubMed

Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results. PMID:16779278

Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A

2005-01-01

337

A Note on the Social Referents of Dreams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social as well as personal referents appear in dreams and, when recognized as such, provide insight into how unresolved social issues seep into the personal domain at an unconscious level. Dream-sharing groups (because of the time available and other factors) offer a particularly favorable opportunity to observe this interplay. The truth-telling nature of dreaming consciousness not only exposes disconnects from

Montague Ullman

2001-01-01

338

Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual describes the basic principles of the Military Grid Reference System and the non-standard reference systems. It describes the method for determining references on maps and charts at scales of 1:1,000,000 and larger. It contains identifications...

J. W. Hager L. L. Fry S. S. Jacks D. R. Hill

1992-01-01

339

WEATHER TEST REFERENCE YEARS OF GREENLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe the construction of two test reference years of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Sisimiut located in the central part of Greenland

J. Kragh; F. Pedersen; S. Svendsen

340

Rethinking Job References: A Networking Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Can job references play an active role in shaping one's career plans? Would individuals consider their references as part of their personal and professional network? Although most professionals may respond with a resounding "Yes, of course!" to these questions, the author realized that many of his students were skeptical about job references. To…

Muir, Clive

2009-01-01

341

Frames of Reference in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

Grossman, Joshua

2012-01-01

342

Using Google Scholar at the Reference Desk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Google Scholar has multiple uses as a reference tool of last resort, including citation completion, an alternative when catalogs are down, and interdisciplinary metasearching and database suggestion. During the reference desk transaction, users can be taught effective Google Scholar search techniques such as advanced search functionality and the nuances of results' groupings. In addition, reference desk interactions with Google Scholar

Karen Bronshteyn; Kathryn Tvaruzka

2008-01-01

343

Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents

Pankhurst, Anne

1995-01-01

344

American Reference Books Annual 1975. Volume 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sixth volume of American Reference Books Annual (ARBA 75) covers 1974 imprints plus some 1973 reference books that were received too late for the previous volume. It reviews all reference books published or distributed in the United States in all areas of knowledge. ARBA 75 contains 1,855 reviews, and the individual reviews are markedly longer…

Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.

345

Reference samples for the earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised list of reference samples of interest to geoscientists has been extended to include samples for the agronomist, the archaeologist and the environmentalist. In addition to the source from which standard samples may be obtained, references or pertinent notes for some samples are included. The number of rock reference samples is now almost adequate, and the variety of ore

F. J. Flanagan

1974-01-01

346

DIGITAL REFERENCE SERVICES IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference and information services have always been the main component of library services. They provide personalized assistance to library users in accessing suitable information resources to meet their needs. This paper attempts to describe the paradigm of reference and information services in the digital library environment. This paper highlights the emerging formats and models of digital reference services, including e-

Wan Ab; Kadir Wan Dollah; Diljit Singh

347

Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males’ Facebook Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each

Katie G. Egan; Megan A. Moreno

2011-01-01

348

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

Inc., Petrodynamics

349

Quality Standards for Digital Reference Consortia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies a working set of standards by which to assess individual digital reference services (Internet-based human-mediated information services) and to define membership within a collaborative network of digital reference services. The standards are designed for the Virtual Reference Desk AskA Consortium. (Author/LRW)|

Kasowitz, Abby; Bennett, Blythe; Lankes, R. David

2000-01-01

350

Applying Information Competency to Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a case for applying information competency (IC) standards to digital reference services at academic libraries. Practical reasons for applying standards or guidelines to e-mail and online chat reference services are given with some insight to the nature of digital reference interactions. The standards that arose from the…

Ellis, Lisa; Francoeur, Stephen

351

Reference Inaccuracies in Two Counseling Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Searched article, book, and dissertation entries in reference lists in one volume year for two counseling journals, for accuracy. Found 44.9 percent of the verified references contained at least one error. Some errors could be explained as typographical. Concludes that with reference list preparation, writers in the counseling field seem to be…

White, Arden

1987-01-01

352

Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

2013-01-01

353

REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

Langton, C

2009-01-06

354

Expanding the reference vocabulary : A methodology for applying Bloom's taxonomy to increase instruction in the reference interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine potential instructional benefits from, and methods for, incorporating concepts from Bloom's taxonomy into reference interactions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper analyzes chat transcripts and assigns each question asked by a librarian to one of the six levels of Bloom's taxonomy, and also codes it as open (divergent) or closed (convergent). Findings – Three of

David Ward

2011-01-01

355

Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y50th, 3y50th, 5y50th, 7y50th, and 20y50th. The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y10th, 5y10th, and 20y10th with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg-1, was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

2012-05-01

356

Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR.  

PubMed

Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y(50th), 3y(50th), 5y(50th), 7y(50th), and 20y(50th). The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y(10th), 5y(10th), and 20y(10th) with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg(-1), was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public. PMID:22508943

Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

2012-04-17

357

Reference drug programs: Effectiveness and policy implications?  

PubMed Central

In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs (RDPs) or similar therapeutic substitution programs. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs and presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety. RDPs for pharmaceutical reimbursement are based on the assumption that drugs within specified medication groups are therapeutically equivalent and clinically interchangeable and that a common reimbursement level can thus be established. If the evidence documents that a higher price for a given drug does not buy greater effectiveness or reduced toxicity, then under RDP such extra costs are not covered. RDPs or therapeutic substitutions based on therapeutic equivalence are seen as logical extensions of generic substitution that is based on bioequivalence of drugs. If the goal is to achieve full drug coverage for as many patients as possible in the most efficient manner, then RDPs in combination with prior authorization programs are safer and more effective than simplistic fiscal drug policies, including fixed co-payments, co-insurances, or deductibles. RDPs will reduce spending in the less innovative but largest market, while fully covering all patients. Prior authorization will ensure that patients with a specified indication will benefit from the most innovative therapies with full coverage. In practice, however, not all patients and drugs will fit exactly into one of the two categories. Therefore, a process of medically indicated exemptions that will consider full coverage should accompany an RDP. In the current economic environment, health care systems are constantly struggling to contain rapidly rising costs. Drug costs are targeted by a wide variety of measures. Many jurisdictions have implemented reference drug programs, and others are considering them. This paper summarizes the mechanism and rationale of RDPs, presents evidence of their economic effectiveness and clinical safety, and concludes with some practical implications of implementing RDP policies.

Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2010-01-01

358

The reorganization of a monographic reference collection.  

PubMed

Reference monographs in the Health Sciences Library of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey were reorganized recently according to form, in order to enable both librarians and patrons to utilize these materials more efficiently. This reorganization reflects the unique characteristics of reference books as differentiated from the regular monographic collection, since reference materials are frequently consulted for quick "look-ups." A reference category scheme was developed and implemented, based on observations of and comparisons with reference collections of eight medical libraries in the New York metropolitan area. The reorganization enhances the retrievability of materials from this collection. PMID:938775

Jeuell, C A

1976-07-01

359

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository  

SciTech Connect

One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the syst

NA

2000-10-07

360

Caesarean section among referred and self-referred birthing women: a cohort study from a tertiary hospital, northeastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The inequity in emergency obstetric care access in Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Despite an existing national obstetric referral system, many birthing women bypass referring facilities and go directly to higher-level care centres. We wanted to compare Caesarean section (CS) rates among women formally referred to a tertiary care centre versus self-referred women, and to assess the effect of referral status on adverse outcomes after CS. Methods We used data from 21,011 deliveries, drawn from the birth registry of a tertiary hospital in northeastern Tanzania, during 2000-07. Referral status was categorized as self-referred if the woman had bypassed or not accessed referral, or formally-referred if referred by a health worker. Because CS indications were insufficiently registered, we applied the Ten-Group Classification System to determine the CS rate by obstetric group and referral status. Associations between referral status and adverse outcomes after CS delivery were analysed using multiple regression models. Outcome measures were CS, maternal death, obstetric haemorrhage ? 750 mL, postpartum stay > 9 days, neonatal death, Apgar score < 7 at 5 min and neonatal ward transfer. Results Referral status contributed substantially to the CS rate, which was 55.0% in formally-referred and 26.9% in self-referred birthing women. In both groups, term nulliparous singleton cephalic pregnancies and women with previous scar(s) constituted two thirds of CS deliveries. Low Apgar score (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and neonatal ward transfer (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35) were significantly associated with formal referral. Early neonatal death rates after CS were 1.6% in babies of formally-referred versus 1.2% in babies of self-referred birthing women, a non-significant difference after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.87-2.16). Absolute neonatal death rates were > 2% after CS in breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries in both referral groups. Conclusions Women referred for delivery had higher CS rates and poorer neonatal outcomes, suggesting that the formal referral system successfully identifies high-risk birth, although low volume suggests underutilization. High absolute rates of post-CS adverse outcomes among breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries suggest the need to target self-referred birthing women for earlier professional intrapartum care.

2011-01-01

361

Fine resolution calculations of SAR in the human body for frequencies up to 3 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 100 MHz to 3 GHz at the basic 2 mm resolution of the voxel (volume pixel) model NORMAN without any rescaling to larger cell sizes. The reduction in the voxel size from previous work allows SAR to be calculated at higher frequencies. Additionally, the calculations have been extended down to 10 MHz, covering the whole-body resonance regions at a resolution of 4 mm. As well as for the adult phantom, SAR values are calculated for scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children for both grounded and isolated conditions. External electric field levels are derived from limits of whole-body averaged SAR and localized SAR in the ankle, and compared with NRPB investigation levels and ICNIRP reference levels. The ICNIRP field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of the localized SAR exposure in the leg for grounded conditions. It would be necessary to invoke the secondary reference level on limb current to provide compliance with basic restrictions on localized SAR averaged over 10 g.

Dimbylow, P. J.

2002-08-01

362

Laser ultrasonic signal processing: A model-reference approach  

SciTech Connect

A model-reference approach is developed to solve the signal enhancement problem of a laser ultrasonics application for nondestructive evaluation. In this problem a sophisticated laser thermoelastic propagation model is used to synthesize the surface displacement of the specimen under test. Once synthesized, this model response is used as the reference signal in an optimal (minimum error variance) signal enhancement scheme. Both fixed and adaptive processors are considered in this application where it is shown that a significant improvement in signal levels can be achieved over the usual methods to enhance noisy data acquired from a Michelson interferometric measurement system and increase its overall sensitivity.

Candy, J.V.; Thomas, G.H.; Chinn, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-437, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Spicer, J.B. [The Johns Hopkins University, Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

1996-07-01

363

Local ties between the reference points at the Fundamentalstation Wettzell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local ties between reference points of the geodetic space observation systems and the geodetic local network markers have been derived through terrestrial local survey and GPS observations. The local survey consists of direction, distance and levelling observations, which were analysed with the adjustment program PANDA. GPS observations were carried out for the orientation of the local network within the global reference frame. The GPS observations were analysed using the Bernese GPS Software. Both results were combined by making use of the Bernese GPS Software. The results finally were made available in the SINEX format for further application.

Schlüter, Wolfgang; Zernecke, Rudolf; Becker, Swetlana; Klügel, Thomas; Thaller, Daniela

364

A proposed international tropical reference atmosphere up to 80 km  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based upon previous standard reference atmosphere, which are usually inspired by temperature regions, a proposal is made for an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA). It is a modification of the Indian Standard Tropical Atmosphere (ISIA). The data at the available longitudinal stations in the tropics was considered in formulating the present proposal. Balloonsonde, rocketsonde, and grenade and falling sphere data was used in developing the temperature data bse fromt he stratosphere, troposphere and mesosphere. Temperature distribution and mean sea level pressures up to 80 km altitudes is discussed.

Ananthasayanam, M. R.; Narasimha, R.

1985-07-01

365

Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division is presented in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. The article examines ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies, and makes recommendations about how these strategies can be applied to the Reference Division and to Internet usage for the reference process

Sara Ryan

1996-01-01

366

Alternative Reference Frames in River System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding environmental processes begins with mental conceptualizations of system components and interactions. Conceptualizing rivers begins with adopting one of two reference frames for observing movement: Eulerian, wherein the flux of objects is observed in a spatially bounded area, or Lagrangian, wherein specific objects are tracked through time. Mechanistic studies include Eulerian and Lagrangian data, with some negotiation of how much Eulerian and Lagrangian information may be needed to maximize the accuracy of understanding processes and the efficiency of data collection. Most studies rely on a presupposed reference frame, yet we suspect breakthroughs lurk in explicit alterations of presupposed reference frames. We analyze the importance of reference frames by contrasting the extent to which alternative reference frames have been used and combined in studies of sediment transport, fish migration, and river biogeochemistry. We show how adopting alternative or nonintuitive reference frames can facilitate novel research questions and observations, potentially triggering new research trajectories.

Martin Doyle (University of North Carolina;Department of Geography)

2009-06-01

367

Handwritten Signature Verification by Multiple Reference Sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for on-line handwritten signature verification, which exploits the potential of multiple reference sets. Preliminarily, system performance is estimated using different sets of reference signatures for each writer. Successively, reference sets leading to diverse system behaviors are enrolled into the personal knowledge-base and used in a multi-stage verification process. The experimental results show the effectiveness

D. Impedovo; R. Modugno; G. Pirlo; E. Stasolla

368

Identifier-tracking model reference adaptive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model reference adaptive control is a major design method for controlling plants with uncertain parameters. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a new design approach for a differentiator-free model reference adaptive control of a single-input single-output linear time-invariant plant. The proposed method, called the “Identifier-tracking model reference adaptive control”, uses a stacked identifier structure that is new

K. S. Yeung; W. D. Chung; H. Yu

2008-01-01

369

BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

370

A reference printer and color management architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A colour management strategy based on a reference printer and reference medium is described. Additional printers and media are then defined in terms of this reference printer. This makes it possible to estimate new transforms for a given a printer and media with no new measurements, even when there is no characterization data available for this combination of printer and media. A simple method of estimating the new transform was implemented and evaluated, and it was found to give good results when the target printing condition was similar in gamut and colorant primaries to the reference printer. This approach can be extended by applying more complex empirical models.

Green, P. J.

2007-01-01

371

Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

1976-01-01

372

Reference design description for a geologic repository: Revision 01  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the current design expectations for a potential geologic repository that could be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This Reference Design Description (RDD) looks at the surface and subsurface repository and disposal container design. Additionally, it reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. In accordance with current legislation, the reference design for the potential repository does not include an interim storage option. The reference design presented allows the disposal of highly radioactive material received from government-owned spent fuel custodian sites; produces high-level waste sites, and commercial spent fuel sites. All design elements meet current federal, state, and local regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and protection of the public and the environment. Due to the complex nature of developing a repository, the design will be created in three phases to support Viability Assessment, License Application, and construction. This document presents the current reference design. It will be updated periodically as the design progresses. Some of the details presented here may change significantly as more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements are identified.

NONE

1997-09-01

373

Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR(wb)) and 58% (SAR(10g)) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR(wb) is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR(10g) values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning. PMID:20463374

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2010-05-12

374

CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

2012-05-15

375

Guide to Children's Magazines, Newspapers, Reference Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The annotated entries in this bibliography of publications for children are divided into two categories: magazines and newspapers, and reference books. The first section, arranged alphabetically, includes periodicals on sports, science, history, hobbies, and entertainment. The reference books are grouped under the following headings: biography,…

Madden, Peter

376

So You Want To Do Virtual Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the practical details of setting up live online reference services in libraries. Topics include choosing software; differences between licensed and hosted applications; models used to implement virtual reference services; how libraries are using these services in day to day operations; and marketing strategies. (Author/LRW)

Coffman, Steve

2001-01-01

377

Points of Reference in Technical Communication Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies 163 texts from a database of over 25,000 citations collected from five technical communication journals between 1988 and 1997. Notes that the texts--points of reference--represent the research, theory, and practice of technical communication. Concludes that the points of reference demonstrate that technical communication has an identity…

Smith, Elizabeth Overman

2000-01-01

378

Floating reference frames for flexible spacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Floating reference frames which move with the flexible body under dynamic analysis offer the advantages of a linear vibration analysis in the presence of large system rotations. When the deformations of an elastic continuum are expanded in terms of the free-free modes on an unconstrained system, the rigid body modes are found to be fixed in a reference frame called

J. R. Canavin; P. W. Likins

1977-01-01

379

Old Testament biblical references to tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Two probable references to tuberculosis are found in Old Testament books of the Bible dating to a time when the Israelites lived in Egypt, which is known from archeological evidence to be an area where tuberculosis was then prevalent. Other putative biblical references to tuberculosis are less credible. PMID:10585812

Daniel, V S; Daniel, T M

1999-12-01

380

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

381

Comparison of stable isotope reference samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of light stable isotope ratio measurements has proliferated in the past decade. The need for procuring additional stable isotope reference materials was recognized at an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) consultants' meeting convened in 19761. This group recommended acquisition of two carbonates, two carbon dioxide samples, a biotite, a sulphate, and other reference materials. We report here on the

Tyler B. Coplen; Carol Kendall; Jessica Hopple

1983-01-01

382

Canadian Reference Sources; A Selective Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to provide librarians and students with a guide to Canadian reference material divided into the following fields: General reference works, the humanities, science, and the social sciences. It is a selective guide only, and does...

D. E. Ryder

1973-01-01

383

References intervals for fetal biometrical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish normal reference intervals for biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and length of femur, a cross-sectional study. Study design: Five hundred singleton fetuses for each week at gestations between 23 and 41 weeks with a total of 9500 fetuses. Antenatal ultrasound measurements from all consecutive pregnant women referred to the ultrasound unit for scanning of fetal condition

Francesc Figueras; Margarita Torrents; Ana Muñoz; Carmina Comas; Eugenia Antol??n; Mónica Echevarr??a; Josep Mallafré; José M Carrera

2002-01-01

384

Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

2013-01-01

385

Flexible Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These references on flexible educational facilities are abstracted by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities. College material includes an experimental learning center, a college health center, a fine arts center, and university library design. References on schools include secondary school design, flexible high school design, standard…

Wakefield, Howard E.

386

Annotated References on Mental Health Needs Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annotated bibliography was meant to provide those involved in the assessment of mental health needs and the planning of mental health services with a useful reference source that concentrates on the most current studies. A number of the references ci...

R. W. Redick

1976-01-01

387

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are

Joyce M. Shaw

1988-01-01

388

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)|

Shaw, Joyce M.

1988-01-01

389

Economics: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 84 reference materials on economics located in the McLennan Library, McGill University (Montreal), are cited in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography serves to provide an overview of the printed bibliographic and reference sources useful for the study of economics. Financial and business sources and statistical compendia and…

Mason, Mary, Comp.

390

Ready Reference Collections: Thoughts on Trends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What is a ready reference collection? A stack of reference books selected according to personal interests? Each institution is unique in its needs and so are the collections that each library carries. The curricula and programs determine the collection development policies and the student population justifies the needs for their implementation.…

Fernandes, Maria Isabel

2008-01-01

391

Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on…

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

2013-01-01

392

40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...incorporated by reference in this part. (1) ASTM material. The following table sets...number and name 40 CFR part 91 reference ASTM D86-93: Standard Test Method for Distillation...Products Appendix A to Subpart D. ASTM D323-90: Standard Test Method...

2013-07-01

393

Jewish Studies: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An annotated bibliography to the reference sources for Jewish Studies in the McLennan Library of McGill University (Canada) is presented. Any titles in Hebrew characters are listed by their transliterated equivalents. There is also a list of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings. General reference sources listed are: encyclopedias,…

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

394

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

Shaw, Joyce M.

1988-01-01

395

A Guide to Reference Sources on Copyright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encyclopedias, subject encyclopedias, dictionaries, indexes, almanacs, directories, handbooks, bibliographies, government documents, and monographs with copyright information are included in this guide to reference sources. It is intended as an introduction to some reference sources on copyright and does not claim to contain all the sources…

Hammond, Theresa M.

396

Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

397

Injected Coded Reference for Adaptive Array Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application provides a means and method of providing to an existing communications system a reference signal that can be used to provide an adaptive processor (adaptive array or adaptive filter) with a reference signal for adaption. A source of...

P. M. Hansen

1976-01-01

398

Digital Reference Services in Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the proportion of libraries conducting digital reference service and to examine the characteristics of those services, we conducted a survey of 150 academic library Web sites. Approximately 45 percent of the surveyed libraries offered digital reference services, with higher proportions among larger and more comprehensive institutions. We also examined: direct links from library homepages, ways in which users

Joseph Janes; David Carter; Patricia Memmott

1999-01-01

399

Digital Reference Services in Malaysian Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technologies are changing the provision of library services. One such change is the submission of questions to a library through electronic means, and having them answered by a library staff member, i.e., digital reference services. The purpose of this study was to identify the existing status of digital reference services (DRS) in selected academic libraries in Malaysia. The researchers

Wan Ab; Kadir Wan Dollah; Diljit Singh

2007-01-01

400

CD-ROM and the Reference Librarian  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the traditional role of the reference librarian and considers changes as the result of information technology. It is argued that CD-ROM's are revolutionising the way reference services are organised; they change the priorities and even affect the basic skills of the staff. The changes that occur are evident in five major areas: the range of databases in

Richard Biddiscombe

1993-01-01

401

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2 feet of the top surface of the hull or deck as illustrated in Figure 9. (b) The aft reference area of a boat is the aftmost two feet of the top surface of the hull or deck, as illustrated in Figure...

2013-07-01

402

Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

403

Gastronomic Reference, Synecdoche, and Political Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines gastronomic reference, or mention of what public figures eat, as synecdoche. Illustrates how use of this rhetorical device contributed to public figures and public images in the 1980 presidential campaign. Argues that interest in gastronomic reference leads to a broader concern for how synecdoche functions in public discourse. (PD)

Brummett, Barry

1981-01-01

404

Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

1987-06-01

405

So You Want To Do Virtual Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the practical details of setting up live online reference services in libraries. Topics include choosing software; differences between licensed and hosted applications; models used to implement virtual reference services; how libraries are using these services in day to day operations; and marketing strategies. (Author/LRW)|

Coffman, Steve

2001-01-01

406

Interactive Reference Retrieval in Large Files  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On-line reference retrieval is seen as replacing tape driven systems within a few years. Design criteria are discussed including minimizing the number of disc accesses, use of hash coding for searching a thesaurus and searching with precise terms first and common terms last. (6 references) (Author/SJ)

Carville, M.; And Others

1971-01-01

407

A Model for Multimodal Reference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of the interpretation of multimodal messages is the ability to identify when the same object in the world is the referent of symbols in different modalities. To understand the caption of a picture, for instance, one needs to identify the graphical symbols that are referred to by names and pronouns in the natural language text. One way

Luis Pineda; Gabriela Garza

1997-01-01

408

Assessing Quality in Digital Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a study to develop methods to assess the quality of digital reference services, test and refine measures and quality standards to describe digital reference services, and to produce a guidebook that describes how to collect and report data for these measures and standards. (Author/AEF)|

Lankes, R. David; Mcclure, Charles R.; Gross, Melissa

2001-01-01

409

Creating an Instant Messaging Reference System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of library digital reference services focuses on the features of instant messaging reference systems and the in-house development of a system that incorporates them at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Summarizes and evaluates library chat system features and compares commercial software that is available. (Author/LRW)|

Fagan, Jody Condit; Calloway, Michele

2001-01-01

410

Live Reference: Too Much, Too Fast?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the current trend in libraries toward live, or digital, reference services. Highlights include models for reference, including synchronous versus asynchronous; benefits for users; software packages; user expectations; suitability of the technology; and determining the best service for users and their information needs. (LRW)|

Janes, Joe

2002-01-01

411

What's Wrong with Collaborative Digital Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questions the need for collaborative digital reference services among libraries. Discusses the lack of use among networks that have been developed, probably due to easy access to online resources; economic assumptions; setting standards for reference practice; automatic routing software; copyrights; and patron satisfaction. (LRW)|

Coffman, Steve

2002-01-01

412

Virtual Reference Transcript Analysis: A Few Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the introduction of virtual, or digital, reference service at the University of New Brunswick libraries. Highlights include analyzing transcripts from LIVE (Library Information in a Virtual Environment); reference question types; ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) information literacy competency standards; and the Big…

Smyth, Joanne

2003-01-01

413

The Reference Interview: Theories and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference librarian's task is to translate the patron's question into one that can be answered with the library's resources. The first element of that task is to know what the patron wants; the second is to know what resources the library has and how to use them. Reference librarians must learn continuously throughout their careers, both because new resources

Stephanie Willen Brown

2008-01-01

414

Privacy and Accountability at the Reference Desk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questions of expectation of privacy by the patron and the accountability of he reference librarian to ensure privacy are explored. Discussion reveals lhat different patron types have different expectations of confidentiality. Librarians have an ethical accountability based on ALA Codes of Ethics, but social and personal conflicts may arise. The reference librarian has no legal accountability to protect the

Rosemary A. Del Vecchio

1992-01-01

415

Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males' Facebook Profiles  

PubMed Central

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use.

Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.

2011-01-01

416

SynRGen: an extensible file reference generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

SynRGen, a synthetic file reference generator operating at the system call level, is capable of modeling a wide variety of usage environments. It achieves realism through trace-inspired micromodels and flexibility by combining these micromodels stochastically. A micromodel is a parameterized piece of code that captures the distinctive signature of an application. We have used SynRGen extensively for stress testing the

Maria R. Ebling; M. Satyanarayanan

1994-01-01

417

Hydrostatic Leveling Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 200-BeV proton synchrotron being proposed by the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory is about 1 mile in diameter. The tolerance for accuracy in vertical placement of magnets is ±0.002 inches. Because conventional high-precision optical leveling to this accuracy is very time consuming, an alternative method using an extended mercury-filled system has been developed at LRL. This permanently installed reference system is

Pierre F. Pellissier

1965-01-01

418

Deciphering Reference Questions Through the Reference Interview: Report and Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reference interview is one of the most delicate operations of the reference librarian. This report, which provides a review of the literature, touches on several major topics: (1) conficts in communication initiated by lack of adequate client knowledg...

O. G. Norman

1978-01-01

419

Referring Physicians' Knowledge of Hand Surgery  

PubMed Central

Hand surgeons rely on referrals from general providers. Appropriate referral is dependent upon referring physicians having an understanding of the problem and available treatments. This study evaluates the referring physicians’ knowledge and perceptions of basic hand problems and their treatment. This study also evaluates the impact of a brief lecture on our referring physicians’ understanding of hand issues. A survey instrument was administered to referring physicians. The instrument addressed general hand knowledge and perceptions toward hand surgery. The physicians also attended a lecture on general hand problems and their treatments. The survey was repeated 2 weeks post-lecture. Subjects had a pre-lecture knowledge score of 65% correct and post-lecture a score of 85%, p?referring physicians had less positive views about surgical interventions, such as surgery to help the pain of basilar thumb arthritis. After the lecture, the responders had significantly more favorable attitudes toward surgery. This study found that referring physicians had variable knowledge about common hand problems, and they had doubts relating to the efficacy of some hand surgeries. This study also found that a directed lecture improved these providers’ knowledge and their perceptions of hand surgical interventions. Hand surgeons can improve their referring physicians understanding and perceptions of hand surgery through a directed grand rounds type lecture.

Yao, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

420

Reference Model For Late Cretaceous Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a basis for comparisons we have run a reference model for the Late Cretaceous climate using Cenomanian/Turonian paleogeography with a high stand of sea level, savannah vegetation on all land areas, atmospheric carbon dioxide at 1881.6 ppm,(6.7x preindustrial; 5x present), circular orbit, an obliquity of 23.5 and a solar constant of 1337 W/m^2. This model produces a global mean temperature of 20.7C,ocean temperatures > 32C in the equatorial region, and temperatures above freezing in the polar regions during winter. Precipitation is higher than today, and very high in the equatorial region. Deserts are limited to relatively small areas of South America, Africa, and eastern Asia. Low pressure systems evelop over the polar regions in winter, replaced by weak highs during summer. Westerly wind systems are well developed only during hemispheric winters. Summer winds are light and variable. Direct surface runoff is largely confined to high latitudes and mountainous regions. Infiltration of soil moisture into the groundwater system occurs everywhere except in the desert regions. In contrast to today, when rivers are about 2/3 surface runoff and 1/3 groundwater, the Late Cretaceous rivers would have been largely fed by groundwater. The results of this simulation are consistent with interpretations of high latitude floral assemblages, the distribution of calcareous ocean plankton, and the geochemical peculiarities of Late Cretaceous sediments when chalk deposition was widespread. A major difference between this and earlier models of the Late Cretaceous climate is the development of atmospheric low pressure systems during winter in the polar regions. This development of polar lows appears to be the result of the higher carbon dioxide content assigned to the atmosphere and the positive feedback with water va- por content. The slow thermal adjustment of the polar oceans to changing insolation produces the seasonal alternation of polar highs and lows.

Hay, W. W.; Floegel, S.; Deconto, R. M.; Soeding, E.

421

Accurate Optical Positions of Extragalactic Radio Reference Frame Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical positions on the 50 mas level in the Hipparcos system have been obtained for 327 extragalactic, radio reference frame sources for both hemispheres from a 2-step procedure. Positions of secondary reference stars in the 10<=V<=14 magnitude range were obtained from photographic plates taken at the Hamburg astrograph (Northern Hemisphere) and the US Naval Observatory astrograph at Black Birch (Southern Hemisphere) using Hipparcos stars for astrometric plate solutions. Positions of the optical counterparts of compact, extragalactic, radio reference frame sources were then obtained from CCD direct imaging at the KPNO and CTIO 0.9 m telescopes, using the secondary reference star positions and correcting for field distortions. Several previously unknown counterparts could be identified, and several previously suspected identifications turned out to be empty fields. CCD images are available on the World Wide Web to serve as finding charts. A comparison between the optical and radio positions reveals systematic offsets of 10 to 40 mas per coordinate as a function of the observing run. Corrections for Galactic rotation and solar motion have been attempted because of a lack of individual proper motions for the secondary reference stars. Neither 0.9 m telescope is an astrometric instrument, and limitations are clearly seen in remaining systematic errors. Orientation angles between the radio system and our optical data are zero within an accuracy of 4 mas (standard error). A significant reduction of the systematic errors will be achieved with new wide-field CCD imaging currently been taken in parallel to new 0.9 m observations, to provide more secondary reference star positions with higher precision at a common epoch, which will allow extended modeling of the mapping properties of 0.9 m observations.

Zacharias, N.; Zacharias, M. I.; Hall, D. M.; Johnston, K. J.; de Vegt, C.; Winter, L.

1999-11-01

422

Waste package reference conceptual designs for a repository in salt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the reference conceptual waste package designs for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to baseline these designs, thereby establishing the configuration and interface controls necessary, within the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, formerly the National Waste Terminal Storage Program, to proceed in an orderly manner with preliminary design. Included are designs for the current reference defense high-level waste form from the Savannah River Plant, an optimized commercial high-level waste form, and spent fuel which has been disassembled and compacted into a circular bundle containing either 12 pressurized-water reactor or 30 boiling-water reactor assemblies. For compacted spent fuel, it appears economically attractive to standardize the waste package diameter for all fuel types. The reference waste packages consist of the containerized waste form, a low carbon steel overpack, and, after emplacement, a cover of salt. The overpack is a hollow cylinder with a flat head welded to each end. Its design thickness is the sum of the structural thickness required to resist the 15.4-MPa lithostatic pressure plus the corrosion allowance necessary to assure the required structural thickness will exist through the 1000-year containment period. Based on available data and completed analyses, the reference concepts described in this report satisfy all requirements of the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with reasonable assurance. In addition, sufficient design maturity exists to form a basis for preliminary design; these concepts can be brought under configuration control to serve as reference package designs. Development programs are identified that will be required to support these designs during the licensing process. 19 refs., 37 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1986-02-01

423

Characterization of a bovine serum reference material for major, minor, and trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A bovine serum pool was collected, homogenized, and aliquoted under carefully controlled conditions to minimize contamination with trace elements. The composition was established for metals present at high levels (Na, K, Ca, Mg), low levels (Fe, Cu, Zn), and trace levels (Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V), by the authors and 12 collaborating laboratories, using several analytical methods. Excellent agreement was obtained in almost all cases, permitting the authors to suggest recommended concentrations and estimated uncertainties for these 15 metals. Matrix components, physical properties, and trace element levels of bovine serum are very similar to those of human serum. The Al, Co, and Mn levels are slightly higher, the Mo level substantially higher, and the Se level lower than those usually observed in human serum. This material will be made available to the scientific community through the National Bureau of Standard's Office of Standard Reference Materials as Reference Material 8419. 30 references, 7 tables.

Veillon, C.; Lewis, S.A.; Patterson, K.Y.; Wolf, W.R.; Harnly, J.M.; Versieck, J.; Vanballenberghe, L.; Cornelis, R.; O'Haver, T.C.

1985-09-01

424

Analysis of Calvert Cliffs reference station measurements (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report applies a 'reference station method' developed for comparison of physical hydrographic variables between pre- and postoperational conditions at the Calvert Cliffs Power Plant site in the Chesapeake Bay. The analysis also evaluates the applicability of using reference station data in defining discharge mixing zones. The method can provide data on which to base regulatory standards at measurable levels,

Obremski

1974-01-01

425

VERSO Graphic Interface to Reference Sources: A Project of Quinnipiac University's Arnold Bernhard Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Librarians at the Arnold Bernhard Library of Quinnipiac University were concerned with the usage levels of their electronic reference titles. They added the titles to the library's Web page, made individual records in the online catalog, and even established links between an OPAC keyword search and a search through electronic reference titles. It was still felt that the collection was

Terry Ballard

2008-01-01

426

Dietary Reference Intakes for the macronutrients and energy: considerations for physical activity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the North American reference standards for nutrients in the diets of healthy individuals. The macronutrient DRI report includes the standards for energy, fat and fatty acids, carbohydrate and fiber, and protein and amino acids. Equations used to identify the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) were also developed based on individual characteristics including levels of physical

Gordon A. Zello

2006-01-01

427

Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

2008-01-01

428

Evolution or Entropy? Changing Reference\\/User Culture and the Future of Reference Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses issues that relate to the changing functional relationship between the reference librarian and the user, based on the observation that the advance of information technology, particularly the Internet, has altered the values, attitudes, and beliefs of library users, and, as a consequence, their microculture. Highlights include: the traditional reference desk; the changed reference environment, the creation of

Myoung C. Wilson

2000-01-01

429

Reference Communities: Applying the Community of Practice Concept to Development of Reference Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities of practice offer reference librarians a conceptual model through which to develop and maintain general and subject specific knowledge. Reference librarians acquire general and subject-specific knowledge in many ways, sometimes independently and sometimes collaboratively. Applying the concept of the “community of practice” to reference librarians may inform understanding of how librarians can work together to build knowledge and develop

Robin E. Miller

2011-01-01

430

Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

2008-01-01

431

Deciphering Reference Questions Through the Reference Interview: Report and Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reference interview is one of the most delicate operations of the reference librarian. This report, which provides a review of the literature, touches on several major topics: (1) conflicts in communication initiated by lack of adequate client knowledge of the depth of the collection and reference tools available, lack of ease in formulating…

Norman, O. Gene

432

Best Practices in Chat Reference Used by Florida's Ask a Librarian Virtual Reference Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chat reference has presented a unique set of problems for reference librarians. Lacking the visual and auditory cues of face-to-face or telephone reference interactions, librarians providing service for the virtual desk have developed digital techniques and resourceful maneuvers to help them navigate this new frontier. Still, many chat librarians find it difficult to conduct a meaningful transaction using just words,

Joyce Ward; Patricia Barbier

2009-01-01

433

47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICECarriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53Reference points...identify the boundaries of the major and smaller television markets (defined in § 76.5)....

2012-10-01

434

47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICECarriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53Reference points...identify the boundaries of the major and smaller television markets (defined in § 76.5)....

2011-10-01

435

Astronomical catalog desk reference, 1994 edition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference is designed to aid astronomers in locating machine readable catalogs in the Astronomical Data Center (ADC) archives. The key reference components of this document are as follows: A listing of shortened titles for all catalogs available from the ADC (includes the name of the lead author and year of publication), brief descriptions of over 300 astronomical catalogs, an index of ADC catalog numbers by subject keyword, and an index of ADC catalog numbers by author. The heart of this document is the set of brief descriptions generated by the ADC staff. The 1994 edition of the Astronomical Catalog Desk Reference contains descriptions for over one third of the catalogs in the ADC archives. Readers are encouraged to refer to this section for concise summaries of those catalogs and their contents.

1994-01-01

436

Handbook of Reference Sources. Second Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designed to serve as a selection aid for small public libraries and to list important sources available through the major resource centers of the Texas Library System, this bibliography lists 804 annotated reference sources with 126 additional works named...

M. I. Nichols

1979-01-01

437

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: TERMINOLOGY REFERENCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a general reference manual on the terminology used to enter and retrieve information from the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of interrelated computerized data bases that describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial process...

438

World Reference Center and Arbovirus Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Yale Arbovirus Research Unit serves as the arbovirus reference center for the world. Any virus suspected of being biologically transmitted by arthropods is accepted for identification and characterization. A collection of over 400 already characterize...

R. E. Shope

1980-01-01

439

32 CFR 518.2 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and related...

2013-07-01

440

32 CFR 516.2 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to...

2013-07-01

441

Frames of reference in social cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

references. Abstract contains 146 words. * Correspondence should be addressed to: Frédérique de Vignemont, Institut Jean-Nicod 1bis avenue de Lowendal 75007 Paris Email: fvignemont@isc.cnrs.fr Author manuscript, published in \\

Frédérique de Vignemont

2007-01-01

442

Exp 99 Tc Vegetation Reference Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past several years participants at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Department of Energy Conference on Analytical Chemistry in Energy Technology discussed the need for environmental standards/reference materials for exp 99 Tc. Past efforts at i...

M. S. Feiner

1984-01-01

443

World Reference Center and Arbovirus Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The World Reference Center for Arboviruses identified over 400 viruses and revised the taxonomy of Bunyaviridae, Orbivirus, Rhabdoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Togaviridae. Outbreaks were diagnosed such as Rift Valley fever in Egypt in 1977. Rapid and early ...

R. E. Shope

1984-01-01

444

Published References Relative to International Mobility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|References published by the United Nations and the British Council concerning international educational exchange and study abroad programs, international scholarships and financial aid for study abroad, and comparisons of systems, degrees, and qualifications are described. (MSE)|

Higher Education in Europe, 1985

1985-01-01

445

Temporal references in dreams and autobiographical memory.  

PubMed

In an attempt to determine whether temporal references identified in dreams follow the same temporal distributions as those documented for autobiographical memories, 28 younger women (18-35 years of age) and 30 older women (60-77 years of age) kept a home dream diary for 1 week and then slept 1 night in the laboratory for rapid eye movement sleep dream collection. The following morning, they identified temporal references in their dreams and produced a sample of autobiographical memories using the semantic cuing method. For both groups, there was a linear decrease in temporal references identified in dreams and autobiographical memories with increased remoteness for the last 30 years. As predicted, for the older group, there were similar cubic trends reflecting a disproportionately higher number of both temporal references identified in dreams and autobiographical memories from adolescence/early adulthood compared with adulthood and childhood. The results support the notion of continuity between waking and dreaming memory processes. PMID:16028583

Grenier, Jean; Cappeliez, Philippe; St-Onge, Mélanie; Vachon, Julie; Vinette, Sophie; Roussy, Francine; Mercier, Pierre; Lortie-Lussier, Monique; de Koninck, Joseph

2005-03-01

446

Selected Reference Books of 1997-98.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an annotated selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of religion and mythology, literature, architecture, dance, film and television, women's studies, political science, and history, as well as new editions and supplements. (LRW)|

McIlvaine, Eileen

1998-01-01

447

International Reference Preparation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Serum  

PubMed Central

The National Institute for Medical Research, London, England, was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to arrange a collaborative study of the serum pool they had obtained, to determine its suitability to serve as an international reference preparation of rheumatoid arthritis serum. A batch of this serum was assayed by 11 laboratories in 7 countries against 30 test preparations. On the basis of the results obtained, the serum has been established as the International Reference Preparation of Rheumatoid Arthritis Serum and the International Unit of Rheumatoid Arthritis Serum has been defined as the activity contained in 0.171 mg of the international reference preparation. A description is also given of the British reference preparation of rabbit antibody to sheep red blood cells (amboceptor) and this material was also tested in the collaborative study.

Anderson, S. G.; Bentzon, M. W.; Houba, V.; Krag, P.

1970-01-01

448

Visual performance fields: frames of reference.  

PubMed

Performance in most visual discrimination tasks is better along the horizontal than the vertical meridian (Horizontal-Vertical Anisotropy, HVA), and along the lower than the upper vertical meridian (Vertical Meridian Asymmetry, VMA), with intermediate performance at intercardinal locations. As these inhomogeneities are prevalent throughout visual tasks, it is important to understand the perceptual consequences of dissociating spatial reference frames. In all studies of performance fields so far, allocentric environmental references and egocentric observer reference frames were aligned. Here we quantified the effects of manipulating head-centric and retinotopic coordinates on the shape of visual performance fields. When observers viewed briefly presented radial arrays of Gabors and discriminated the tilt of a target relative to homogeneously oriented distractors, performance fields shifted with head tilt (Experiment 1), and fixation (Experiment 2). These results show that performance fields shift in-line with egocentric referents, corresponding to the retinal location of the stimulus. PMID:21931727

Corbett, Jennifer E; Carrasco, Marisa

2011-09-08

449

Text Messaging at Reference: A Preliminary Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article relates the results of a survey of academic libraries using text messaging as a means for delivering reference services. Information concerning the hardware, software, costs, staffing, hours of operation, service life, and patron use is presented.

Steven K. Profit

2008-01-01

450

Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)|

McIlvaine, Eileen

1999-01-01

451

Scanning Reference Electrode Techniques in Localized Corrosion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized c...

H. S. Isaacs B. Vyas

1979-01-01

452

Technology Reference Guide for Radiologically Contaminated Surfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) developed this Technology Reference Guide For Radiologically Contaminated Surfaces to help identify surface decontamination technologies that can effectively remove ...

E. Feltcorn

2006-01-01

453

36 CFR 328.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false References. 328.3 Section 328.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATION OF SEAPLANE OPERATIONS AT CIVIL WORKS WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF...

2011-07-01

454

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower...surface of the submerged reference area of a boat and the surface of the water measured...

2013-07-01

455

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less...surface of the submerged reference area of a boat and the surface of the water measured...

2013-07-01

456

References for the Identification of Freshwater Macroinvertebrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the research work involved in protecting the environment, macroinvertebrates are used as indicators of freshwater pollution. The references included in the bibliography were chosen as being particularly pertinent to aid the field and laboratory...

P. A. Lewis

1972-01-01

457

A Guide to Reference Sources on Copyright.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Encyclopedias, subject encyclopedias, dictionaries, indexes, almanacs, directories, handbooks, bibliographies, government documents, and monographs with copyright information are included in this guide to reference sources. It is intended as an introducti...

T. M. Hammond

1970-01-01

458

43 CFR 2650.0-7 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Alaska Native Selections: Generally § 2650.0-7 References. (a) Native...

2012-10-01

459

Visual Performance Fields: Frames of Reference  

PubMed Central

Performance in most visual discrimination tasks is better along the horizontal than the vertical meridian (Horizontal-Vertical Anisotropy, HVA), and along the lower than the upper vertical meridian (Vertical Meridian Asymmetry, VMA), with intermediate performance at intercardinal locations. As these inhomogeneities are prevalent throughout visual tasks, it is important to understand the perceptual consequences of dissociating spatial reference frames. In all studies of performance fields so far, allocentric environmental references and egocentric observer reference frames were aligned. Here we quantified the effects of manipulating head-centric and retinotopic coordinates on the shape of visual performance fields. When observers viewed briefly presented radial arrays of Gabors and discriminated the tilt of a target relative to homogeneously oriented distractors, performance fields shifted with head tilt (Experiment 1), and fixation (Experiment 2). These results show that performance fields shift in-line with egocentric referents, corresponding to the retinal location of the stimulus.

Corbett, Jennifer E.; Carrasco, Marisa

2011-01-01

460

Precision Tiltmeter as a Reference for Slope MeasuringInstruments  

SciTech Connect

The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron lasers require extremely high-performance x-ray optical systems for proper focusing. The necessary optics cannot be fabricated without the use of precise optical metrology instrumentation. In particular, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP) based on the pencil-beam interferometer is a valuable tool for low-spatial-frequency slope measurement with x-ray optics. The limitations of such a device are set by the amount of systematic errors and noise. A significant improvement of LTP performance was the addition of an optical reference channel, which allowed to partially account for systematic errors associated with wiggling and wobbling of the LTP carriage. However, the optical reference is affected by changing optical path length, non-homogeneous optics, and air turbulence. In the present work, we experimentally investigate the questions related to the use of a precision tiltmeter as a reference channel. Dependence of the tiltmeter performance on horizontal acceleration, temperature drift, motion regime, and kinematical scheme of the translation stage has been investigated. It is shown that at an appropriate experimental arrangement, the tiltmeter provides a slope reference for the LTP system with accuracy on the level of 0.1 {micro}rad (rms).

Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

2007-08-01

461

Quantum communication, reference frames, and gauge theory  

SciTech Connect

We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.

Enk, S. J. van [Bell Labs, Lucent Technologies, 600-700 Mountain Avenue, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974 (United States)

2006-04-15

462

The International Celestial Reference Frame: ICRF  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The radio source catalogue which was adopted as the official International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) by the IAU at\\u000a its General Assembly in 1997 belongs to the category of conventional fundamental catalogues. It does not differ fundamentally\\u000a from the numerous radio catalogues produced during the preceding two decades. This catalogue is merely another member of the\\u000a category of reference frames

Hans G. Walter; Ojars J. Sovers

463

Automotive Stirling reference engine design report  

SciTech Connect

The Reference Stirling Engine System, which was to provide the best possible fuel economy while meeting or exceeding all other program objectives is described. It was designed to meet the requirements of a Reference Vehicle, which is a 1984 GM Pontiac Phoenix (X-body). This design utilizes all new technology that can reasonably be expected to be developed by 1984 and that is judged to provide significant improvement, relative to development risk and cost.

Not Available

1981-06-01

464

Spencerism and the Causal Theory of Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spencer’s heritage, while almost a forgotten chapter in the history of biology, lives on in psychology and the philosophy\\u000a of mind. I particularly discuss externalist views of meaning, on which meaning crucially depends on a notion of reference,\\u000a and ask whether reference should be thought of as cause or effect. Is the meaning of a word explained by what it

W. Hinzen

2006-01-01

465

Game Semantics for Good General References  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new fully abstract and effectively pre- sentable denotational model for RefML, a paradigmatic higher- order programming language combining call-by-value evaluation and general references in the style of ML. Our model is built using game semantics. In contrast to the previous model by Abramsky, Honda and McCusker (3), it provides a faithful account of reference types, and the

Andrzej S. Murawski; Nikos Tzevelekos

2011-01-01

466

Cross Reference Analysis of Fortran (CRAFT)  

SciTech Connect

Cross Reference Analysis of Fortran (Craft) is a set of programs which extract cross reference data from listing files generated by the Cray Research cft77 Fortran compiler. The data is separated into a number of files by a preprocessor written in C. These data files are sorted and then post processed by a Fortran program to generate various summary reports as requested by the user. 7 refs.

Marshall, N.H.; Marwil, E.S.

1991-07-01

467

Different Approaches to the Reference Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops two models of reference interview behavior: the Needs-Oriented Model and the Question-Oriented Model. They differ in their objectives, the perceptions or assumptions that underpin them, and their content. Their existence is tested by a reanalysis of a sample of reference interviews in public libraries analyzed ori$inally in Lynch's dissertation on interviews in the public library settmg. The

Marilyn Domas White

1990-01-01

468

US Army Armor Reference Data in Three Volumes. Volume III. Division 86 Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This text is a reference handbook for students and instructors of the US Army Armor School. It contains data on organizations , details of equipment, and tables pertinent to armor operations. The text reflects organizations of division level and below, as...

1981-01-01

469

1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false General requirements: References. 21.21 Section 21.21 General...DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General References § 21.21 General requirements: References. (a) Each reference to the...

2010-01-01

470

Building complex reference objects from dual sets  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions.

Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

2011-01-01

471

A virtual printer and reference printing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a late binding workflow, data is commonly prepared in an output-referred state based on a reference intermediate RGB colour encoding. Such encodings may have a larger gamut than the target printing condition, and so there is some ambiguity over how to preview the data before it has been converted to the target printing condition. Here we propose an additional intermediate encoding, referred to as a 'virtual printer' which bridges the gap between three-component reference RGB or PCS encodings, and reference CMYK printing conditions. The virtual printer has a large colour gamut which represents a superset of most available print gamuts. It is defined here in terms of the reflectance and colorimetric coordinates of the virtual colorants, and associated colour mixing model. When used in a colour reproduction workflow, documents can be initially rendered to the printer-like gamut of the virtual printer, and channel preferences (such as black generation) can be defined. Re-rendering to a reference printing condition and associated colour gamut is deferred, thus supporting re-purposing of the document.

Green, Phil; Revie, W. C.; McDowell, David Q.

2011-01-01

472

Cortisol level  

MedlinePLUS

A cortisol level is a blood test that measures the amount of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol levels vary throughout the day. The health care provider ...

473

Triglyceride level  

MedlinePLUS

The triglyceride level is a laboratory test to measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are a type of ... more calories than your body needs, your triglyceride level may be high. See also: High blood cholesterol ...

474

Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in peach using real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR in such studies requires the use of reference gene(s) as an internal control to normalize mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of gene expression level. However, recent studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for

Zhaoguo Tong; Zhihong Gao; Fei Wang; Jun Zhou; Zhen Zhang

2009-01-01

475

Neural Substrates of Visuospatial Processing in Distinct Reference Frames: Evidence from Unilateral Spatial Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence for different levels of visuospatial processing with their own frames of reference: viewer-centered, stimulus-centered, and object-centered. The neural locus of these levels can be explored by examining lesion location in subjects with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) manifest in these reference frames. Most studies regarding the neural locus of USN have treated it as a homogenous syndrome, resulting

Jared Medina; Vijay Kannan; Mikolaj A. Pawlak; Jonathan T. Kleinman; Melissa Newhart; Cameron Davis; Jennifer E. Heidler-Gary; Edward H. Herskovits; Argye E. Hillis

2009-01-01

476

Stability of Reference Masses I: Evidence for Possible Variations in the Mass of Reference Kilograms Arising from Mercury Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples of Pt-10% Ir have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to assess environmental contamination of reference kilogram masses. Samples were sputtered clean and distributed to four places where reference kilograms are kept at the NPL. All four specimens showed carbon and oxygen contamination which will be reported elsewhere in detail. All four specimens additionally showed mercury contamination, with levels that varied from venue to venue. Of all metals, mercury has the highest vapour pressure, is commonly used in laboratories and reacts with platinum; with hindsight our results are not surprising. The most contaminating venue studied, leading to an effective mass increase of a reference kilogram due to mercury of 0,26 ?g/day, was the case enclosing the UK primary balance. The mercury is not removed by washing or by scrubbing with a chamois leather soaked in ethanol and ether. The mercury level is therefore probably stable after a period following manufacture, unless the mass is exposed to a venue with a higher mercury level than previously. Similar studies with stainless steels showed no effect. This problem is, therefore, probably confined to the Pt and Pt-Ir masses only. We recommend that in relation to Pt or Pt-Ir masses (i) all equipment containing mercury be removed from weighing laboratories, (ii) venues be monitored for mercury by XPS, and (iii) further work be done to determine whether best mass stability would be achieved by controlled mercury saturation after the reference mass is made, or by storage in a rigorously contaminant-free environment.

Cumpson, P. J.; Seah, M. P.

1994-01-01

477

Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference waters need to be analyzed simultaneously using state-of-the-art TC/EA methodology. A large difficulty is loading water reference samples into silver capsules with minimal evaporation and no leakage. A technique has been developed to seal 250-nL water samples in smooth walled silver capsules using a specially modified crimping tool, thereby minimizing the aforementioned difficulties and consequent errors when combining and comparing water and solid reference materials. It is anticipated that this new technique will improve the agreement of oxygen isotopic reference materials substantially.

Coplen, T.

2007-12-01

478

Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues  

PubMed Central

To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta.

Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

2013-01-01

479

Construction of the TYCHO Reference Catalogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC) project, as proposed in 1992 by the present authors, aimed to extend the Hipparcos reference system to fainter magnitudes. To assure rigidity of the reference system realization, the project relied on the Tycho Catalogue that provides highly-accurate positions of more than one million stars on the Hipparcos system. To maintain the precision of the reference system over longer periods of time, high-precision proper motions must be derived from Tycho and earlier ground-based measurements, most notably the century-old Astrographic Catalogue (AC). The recently published first version of the Tycho Reference Catalogue provides highly-accurate positions and proper motions for 990 182 stars of the Tycho Catalogue. It realizes the ICRS/Hipparcos system in the optical domain with a median accuracy of 45 mas at epoch J2000.0. The realization is based on stars of median magnitude B_{{T}=11.25 mag, providing an average of 24 reference stars per square degree. The median accuracy of the TRC proper motions, estimated from external comparisons as 2.4 mas/yr, ensures a reference system realization with an accuracy better than 100 mas over the time span of a few decades. Highly-accurate astrometry combined with homogeneous two-colour Tycho photometry makes TRC an ideal choice for a wide range of astronomical applications. The present paper covers the major steps of the TRC construction, including the Astrographic Catalogue reduction onto the Hipparcos system, identification of the Tycho Catalogue stars in the AC, derivation of proper motions, a posteriori systematic corrections of the proper motions to account for residual AC systematic errors, and the TRC quality assessment. The relation of the TRC with the recently published ACT catalogue is outlined. A future version of the TRC, to be based on the new Tycho data processing and a global block adjustment of the Astrographic Catalogue, is briefly discussed.

Kuzmin, A.; Høe, G.; Bastian, U.; Fabricius, C.; Kuimov, K.; Lindegren, L.; Makarov, V. V.; Röser, S.

1999-05-01

480

[Necessity to define thyroid reference values for better clinical interpretation].  

PubMed

Discordances were observed with thyroid reference range from BCF Access 2 analyser. The purpose of this study was to establish specific reference range value for free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) in adult Meaux Hospital population. Samples from 308 adults aged from 18 to 65 years were studied. Patients (no pregnancy and no iodine contrast media used) after informed consent, were exempted of thyroidal, cardiac, renal, multiple-organ-failure illnesses. Thyroid assays, anti-TPO and anti-TG levels were measured on the BCF Access2 immunoassay system. This work exposes difficulties to define range values in order to better use the biomarker in the clinical context. PMID:21463999

Plouvier, Elisabeth; Alliot, Laurent; Bigorie, Basile; Kowalski, Caroline; Medeau, Virginie; Thuillier, François

481

Approach of virtual observations generation of a multi-reference GPS station network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of virtual reference station observations to relay the corrections to the rover receiver for use with standard RTK software is one of important architectures of reference station networks RTK positioning. The approach of virtual observations generation based on a multi-reference GPS station network is presented in this paper. Ambiguities for the baselines in the reference network are determined firstly. The inter-reference-station differential spatially-correlated errors are estimated using highly accurate coordinates of the reference stations and resolved ambiguities. These spatially-correlated errors are interpolated among the network region as corrections. These network-generated corrections are used to correct the zero-differential observables of one reference station, which is usually the closest one to the rover (the so-called primary reference station). These corrected zero-differential observables, named virtual observations, are processed using conventional single reference station differential GPS algorithms. A test conducted using regional reference networks in Jiangsu(China) demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to reduce the time to integer ambiguity resolution, and to increase the distance over which centimeter level accuracies can be achieved.

Yu, Guorong

2007-11-01

482

Development of solid radium-226 reference materials  

SciTech Connect

Radium-226 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil or tailings samples are not available in sufficient quantity for use by remedial-action contractors to calibrate their laboratory gamma-ray spectrometers. Such reference materials are needed to provide uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial-action contractors. A task, therefore, was undertaken to prepare about 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of radium-226 reference materials by diluting tailings with high-purity silica. Target values for radium-226 content were 50, 15, and 5 pCi/g. The radium-226 content of the reference materials was measured by C.W. Sill of EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, using a high- resolution alpha spectrometry technique standardized with National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard 4961. A summary of this technique is provided in Appendix A of this report. An independent measurement of the radium-226 content was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), Grand Junction, Colorado, using a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector, which was calibrated using the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) 100-A Series standards. The Ge(Li) detector has also been used to determine the radium-226 content in the calibration models at the Grand Junction facility; these models are used by remedial-action contractors for calibration of borehole logging gamma-ray probes. 8 references, 12 tables.

Chessmore, R.B.; Engelder, P.R.; Sill, C.W.

1983-11-01

483

Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.  

PubMed

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

2011-03-15

484

Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames  

SciTech Connect

Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

Kamalov, Timur F. [Physics Department, Moscow State Open University, Korchagina, 22, Moscow, 107996 (Russian Federation)

2010-12-22

485

Improved watermarking scheme by reference signal mingling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various watermarking schemes were developed in an attempt to address the piracy issue. One of the most important requisites for an effective watermarking scheme is its robustness. A robust watermarking scheme means the embedded watermark can still be extracted successfully from an attacked watermarked data. Regardless of the motivations, the attacked watermarked data should have an acceptable quality, that is, an attacker can't remove the embedded watermark without penalty. In this paper, we propose the robustness can be improved by mingling a reference signal during watermark embedding. The knowledge of reference signal at receiver end makes better channel estimation and lower probability of detection error. To show the performance improved by mingling reference watermark, we applied it to quantization-based image watermarking in discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain and watermarked image was attacked by JPEG compression. The simulation results will show mingling reference signals really achieved better performance. Having the same quality of attacked watermarked image, probability of error with reference signals mingling could be lower than without it.

Pei, Soo-Chang; Chen, Jun-Horng

2002-04-01

486

Evaluation of candidate reference genes for QPCR during ontogenesis and of immune-relevant tissues of European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression level of mRNA can vary significantly in different experimental conditions, such as stress, infection, devel