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1

Simulation of the temperature elevation in children exposed to plane wave electromagnetic fields (10 MHz-1 GHz) at the ICNIRP reference level.  

PubMed

Because of a lack of thermal models, to date, limitation of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) has been based on restricting intracorporal specific absorption rates. To allow convenient compliance checks, reference field values have been defined. If they are met, compliance with basic restrictions is assumed. This article demonstrates that this assumption is not valid in every case. It has therefore been investigated as to whether the biological goal of limiting tissue heating is still met, in particular with regard to children. The thermal solver applied is based on the bioheat equation, with implemented additional improvements that allow consideration of blood flow and metabolic rate as a function of local tissue temperature rise and, in addition, adapt the blood temperature relative to the absorbed power. As a further improvement, heat exchange at the tissue/air boundary has been modeled, with radiation, convection, and sweating considered as well. The mathematical equations describing these additional thermoregulatory mechanisms were taken from the literature and unified in the thermoregulatory model used for this study. For the investigated case of plane wave exposure, the results confirm the violation of the basic restrictions in five of the six models when exposed to reference EMF levels. However, using thermal modeling, it was possible to demonstrate that heating remained within the biological tolerances. In particular, temperature elevation of the body core temperature remained <0.014°C and the local peak temperature did not exceed 1°C. PMID:22691427

Niedermayr, Florian; Leitgeb, Norbert; Siegl, Werner

2012-06-01

2

PINEAL MELATONIN LEVEL DISRUPTION IN HUMANS DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND ICNIRP LIMITS  

E-print Network

PINEAL MELATONIN LEVEL DISRUPTION IN HUMANS DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND ICNIRP LIMITS Malka N to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data

Halgamuge, Malka N.

3

ENRAF gauge reference level calculations  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-06

4

[Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].  

PubMed

This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. PMID:24211195

Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

2013-12-01

5

Analysis of a precise instrument for measuring reference level involute  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference level involute is used for evaluating other involutes, but it is very difficult to measure reference level involute exactly. Nowadays the available methods for measuring precise involute include single base disc mode, electronic generation mode, and CNC three-coordinate mode. But measurement accuracy of the modes above is not suitable for reference level involute. A precise instrument for measuring reference level involute, double base discs instrument, is introduced. It is consistent with generation principle of the involute entirely. Besides having the advantages of single basic disc instrument, the instrument can remove Abbe error caused by the stylus, and has no pressure deforming. The instrument's structure is described. The main sources of measurement errors are analyzed and methods for compensation are presented. Finally, uncertainty of the instrument is given, which meets reference level involute test specification.

Lou, Zhifeng; Wang, Liding; Wang, Xiaodong; Ma, Yong; Zhang, Yuling

2006-11-01

6

Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Objective To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. Methods A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDIvol and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. Results are compared with international DRL data. Results Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2–128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites. Conclusions Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations. PMID:22595497

Foley, S J; McEntee, M F; Rainford, L A

2012-01-01

7

Diagnostic reference levels and effective dose in paediatric cardiac catheterization.  

PubMed

European states within the EEC are required to establish and use diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in X-ray examinations. However, up to now there have been no DRLs for cardiac catheterization in children, nor as a rule is the effective dose estimated. We have evaluated the dose-area products (DAPs) for three different types of angiocardiography systems over a time span of 8 years. For each system DAP increased in proportion to the body weight (BW) over two orders of magnitude. The proportionality constant decreased over the years. To reduce the broad distribution of DAP the doses for cine acquisition (DAPA) and fluoroscopy (DAPF) were indexed with respect to the total numbers of acquired images (AN) and the total times of fluoroscopy (FT). DAPA/AN is directly proportional to BW with a high correlation (r = 0.896, n = 1346). Likewise, DAPF/FT is proportional to BW from 0.1 kg to 100 kg (r = 0.84, n = 2138). Therefore, by normalizing DAP to BW the growth dependent variation of DAP can be eliminated. There are numerous short examinations with very small total DAPs, which were separated from the group of diagnostic examinations. The mean DAP/BW of this group is 0.41 Gycm2 kg(-1) (90th percentile: 0.81 Gycm2 kg(-1), n = 1106). For interventional procedures in congenital heart diseases DAP/BW is significantly higher (p<0.001) (mean: 0.56 Gycm2 kg(-1), 90th percentile: 1.16 Gycm2 kg(-1), n = 883). There are significant differences between different types of interventional procedures, the mean values being between 0.35 Gycm2 kg(-1) (occlusion of patent ductus botalli, n = 165) and 1.30 Gycm2 kg(-1) (occlusion of ventricular septal defect, n = 32). For patients who are catheterized several times over the years, the cumulative effective dose (E) may reach high values, being especially high for patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (typically 11 mSv). E is derived from DAP/BW by use of a constant DAP/BW to E conversion factor, independent of the age of the patient. DAP/BW is appropriate to describe paediatric DRLs and is recommended instead of using mean DAP values for age groups. PMID:16916806

Onnasch, D G W; Schröder, F K; Fischer, G; Kramer, H-H

2007-03-01

8

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

1981-09-01

9

Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

1981-09-01

10

FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1, the safety factor was 11.

Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

2007-08-01

11

FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg(-1) is 0.25 degrees C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 degrees C was 4.5 W kg(-1) in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg(-1), the safety factor was 11. PMID:17671350

Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

2007-08-21

12

Classifying Clinically Referred Adolescent Substance Abusers by Level of Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Results reveals that clinically referred adolescent substance abusers can be meaningfully distinguished on levels of externalizing and…

Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.; Dakof, Gayle A.

2001-01-01

13

Biological reference points based on sustainability in harvested fish stocks under changing productivity levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions for commercial harvesting of fish stocks are changing. The traditional fishery management was based on strategies directed at optimising the yield. The relevant biological reference points were FMAX and F0.1. The emphasis is now on the sustainability of the exploitation, and the biological reference points are Minimum Biological Acceptable Level (MBAL) and FMED. This study investigates the usefulness

Hans Lassen

1999-01-01

14

Monitoring levels required in European Fisheries to assess cetacean bycatch, with particular reference to UK fisheries.  

E-print Network

Monitoring levels required in European Fisheries to assess cetacean bycatch, with particular reference to UK fisheries. August 2003 Final Report to DEFRA (EWD) Simon Northridge1 and Len Thomas2 1 Sea Examples drawn from UK fisheries.....................................................................13

Thomas, Len

15

Choice of reference levels for dissolved organic carbon - a critical step for acidification assessments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quarter of a century ago, Krug and Frink published an article in Science, where they suggested that acid deposition would not acidify lakes and streams, but merely replace the natural organic acidity with strong acids of anthropogenic origin. The decadal trend of rising surface water DOC (dissolved organic carbon) that correlates with declining sulphate deposition is cause for reconsidering that controversial claim. If the observed increase in DOC is actually a recovery to pre-acidification levels, then more recent, higher DOC concentrations may better represent pre-industrial reference conditions than the lower DOC levels during the height of acidification. The choice of DOC reference level is a critical step when assessing acidification status. Here we show that if the pre-industrial reference levels for DOC are higher than they were previously thought to be, then the actual extent of surface water acidification in Sweden is substantially less than previously reported, if still far from unimpacted. We assessed the acidification status of 66 lakes with long-term observations which represent a population of c:a 12,700 acid sensitive lakes in nemoral/boreal Sweden. The lakes were classified by the deviation from the reference (i.e. pre-industrial) pH (?pH). Whereas 30 of the 66 study lakes were classified as severely acidified (?pH ? 0.8) in 1990 using the DOC levels observed then as the pre-industrial reference, only 18 of them would have been classified as severely acidified with the higher DOC observed in 2008 as reference level. Furthermore, by 2008, 17 of the lakes would be classed as significantly acidified (?pH ? 0.4) with the lower DOC reference. With the higher DOC reference, only 7 lakes would be classified as significantly acidified. With further progress in the recovery from acidification, in combination with climate changes, future DOC levels may rise even further. These findings emphasize the need to establish reference levels for DOC, which influences so many aspects of aquatic ecosystems, including acidity. A simple regression approach, where SO4- and Cl-concentrations, precipitation and temperature were used to predict DOC, indicates that pre-industrial levels were 2.6 mg/l (or 21 %) higher in median than what is observed today. Additional efforts with more sophisticated methods, such as hydrogeochemical modeling or paleolimnological reconstructions, are however needed to refine these estimates of DOC reference levels.

Erlandsson, M.; Cory, N.; Fölster, J.; Köhler, S.; Laudon, H.; Weyhenmeyer, G.; Bishop, K.

2009-12-01

16

Classifying Clinically Referred Adolescent Substance Abusers by Level of Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent substance abusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive Substance Abusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive Substance Abusers showed

Cynthia L. Rowe; Howard A. Liddle; Gayle A. Dakof

2001-01-01

17

Nitric Oxide Levels Regulate the Immune Response of Drosophila melanogaster Reference Laboratory Strains to Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains. PMID:25047850

More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

2014-01-01

18

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.  

PubMed

About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y?¹ based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

Sakai, Kazuo

2013-11-01

19

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

20

Benchmark dose estimation of cadmium reference level for hypertension in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Cadmium exposure can cause high blood pressure or hypertension. Benchmark dose has been used to estimate the reference point of cadmium for kidney and bone damage. In this study, we observed the association of blood pressure and cadmium in blood (BCd) and evaluated the reference level of cadmium for hypertension using benchmark dose (BMD) approach. A total of 441 subjects were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from each individual for BCd determination. Blood pressure was measured by electronic sphygmomanometer. BMD and BMDL were calculated using BMD software corresponding to additional risk of 10%. The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of hypertension increased with the increasing of BCd, especially for SBP (?(2)=3.9, p=0.047 in men; ?(2)=4.3, p=0.037 in women). With a benchmark response of 10%, the BMDL10 for hypertension (high SBP) was 0.95?g/L and 1.02?g/L for women and men, respectively; the BMDL10 for hypertension (high DBP) was 1.8?g/L and 1.66?g/L for women and men, respectively. Our data evidenced that BCd was associated with elevation in blood pressure and hypertension, especially for women. The reference level of cadmium for hypertension with high SBP was lower than that of high DBP. PMID:25528411

Chen, Xiao; Wang, Zhongqiu; Zhu, Guoying; Liang, Yihuai; Jin, Taiyi

2015-01-01

21

Re-evaluation of the reference dose for methylmercury and assessment of current exposure levels  

SciTech Connect

Methylmercury (Me-Hg) is widely distributed through freshwater and saltwater food chains and human consumption of fish and shellfish has lead to widespread exposure. Both the US EPA Reference Dose (0.3 [mu]g/kg/day) and the FAO/WHO Permissible Tolerable Weekly Intake (3.3 [mu]g/kg/week) are currently based on the prevention of paraesthesia in adult and older children. However, Me-Hg exposure in utero is known to result in a range of developmental neurologic effects including clinical CNS symptoms and delayed onset of walking. Based on a critical review of development toxicity data from human and animal studies, it is concluded that current guidelines for the prevention of paraesthesia are not adequate to address developmental effects. A dose of 0.07 [mu]g/kg/day is suggested as the best estimate of a potential reference dose for developmental effects. Data on nationwide fish consumption rates and Me-Hg levels in fish/seafood weighted by proportion of the catch intended for human consumption are analyzed in a Monte Carlo simulation to derive a probability distribution of background Me-Hg exposure. While various uncertainties in the toxicologic and exposure data limit the precision with which health risk can be estimated, this analysis suggests that at current levels of Me-Hg exposure, a significant fraction of women of childbearing age have exposures above this suggested reference dose.

Stern, A.H. (New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection and Energy, Trenton (United States))

1993-06-01

22

A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

Kerr, T.A.

1997-04-01

23

A hospital based study on reference range of serum prostate specific antigen levels  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels are known to vary with race and ethnicity, environmental factors, lifestyle, metabolic and physiologic changes and advancing age. This study was designed to determine age specific serum PSA level in healthy Indian men and its comparison with that reported in different populations of the world. Methods: A total of 1300 adult men who attended Executive Health Check-up programme in a tertiary care hospital in Haryana, India, were included in the study. Forty seven men were excluded from the analysis because of urological conditions affecting PSA values. Overall, 1253 men were analyzed for age specific PSA values. Results: The age specific reference range of serum PSA values was 0.71 ng/ml in those younger than 40 yr; 0.85 ng/ml in 40-49 yr; 1.13ng/ml in 50-59 yr group; 1.45 ng/ml in 60-69 yr group; 1.84 ng/ml in 70-79 yr group and 2.35 ng/ml in men older than 80 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study provided the age-specific reference range of serum PSA in healthy men in India. The data suggested that the PSA levels were associated with increasing age. PMID:25488444

Gupta, Aditi; Gupta, Deepa; Raizada, Arun; Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Yadav, Rajiv; Vinayak, Kamini; Tewari, Vijay

2014-01-01

24

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01

25

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

1980-06-01

26

Developing a field independent frequency reference by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels  

E-print Network

We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use Lu+ to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many clock candidates.

M. D. Barrett

2014-11-03

27

Multi-component molecular-level body composition reference methods: evolving concepts and future directions.  

PubMed

Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted 'reference' approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multi-component body volume class of 'reference' models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes 'adjustment' or measurement system approaches for model-required labelled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small, but under some circumstances, important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multi-component body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

Heymsfield, S B; Ebbeling, C B; Zheng, J; Pietrobelli, A; Strauss, B J; Silva, A M; Ludwig, D S

2015-04-01

28

Diagnostic reference levels and patient doses in computed tomography examinations in Greece.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to present a national survey that was performed in Greece for the establishment of national Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) for seven common adult Computed Tomography (CT) examinations. Volumetric computed tomography dose index and dose-length product values were collected from the post-data page of 65 'modern' systems that incorporate tube current modulation. Moreover, phantom dose measurements on 26 'older' systems were performed. Finally, the effective dose to the patient from a typical acquisition during these examinations was estimated. The suggested national DRLs are generally comparable with respective published values from similar European studies, with the exception of sinuses CT, which presents significantly higher values. This fact, along with the large variation of the systems' dose values that were observed even for scanners of the same type, indicates a need for further patient protection optimisation without compromising the clinical outcome. PMID:24891405

Simantirakis, G; Hourdakis, C J; Economides, S; Kaisas, I; Kalathaki, M; Koukorava, C; Manousaridis, G; Pafilis, C; Tritakis, P; Vogiatzi, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

2015-02-01

29

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS IN CARDIAC CT IN FRANCE: A NEED FOR PATIENT DOSE OPTIMISATION.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in the context of a large variability in patient radiation dose, and the lack of European recommendations. Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were collected from 460 CCTAs performed over a 3-month period at eight French hospitals. CCTAs (?50 per centre) were performed using the routine protocols of the centres, and 64- to 320-detector CT scanners. ECG gating was prospective (n = 199) or retrospective (n = 261). The large gap in dose between these two modes required to propose specific DRLs: 26 and 44 mGy for CTDIvol, and 370 and 970 mGy cm for DLP, respectively. This study confirms the large variability in patient doses during CCTA and underlines the need for the optimisation of cardiac acquisition protocols. Availability of national DRLs should be mandatory in this setting. PMID:25342609

Mafalanka, F; Etard, C; Rehel, J L; Pesenti-Rossi, D; Amrar-Vennier, F; Baron, N; Christiaens, L; Convers-Domart, R; Defez, D; Douek, P; Gaxotte, V; Georges, J L; Leygnac, S; Ou, P; Sablayrolles, J L; Salvat, C; Schouman-Claeys, E; Sirol, M; Aubert, B

2014-10-23

30

Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

1981-10-01

31

A numerically calibrated reference level (MP28) for the terrestrial mammal-based biozonation of the European Upper Oligocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fauna of the Enspel (Westerwald) and the neighbouring Kärlich (Neuwied basin) fossil deposits correspond to the Upper\\u000a Oligocene Mammal Paleogene (MP) reference level 28 and 28–30, respectively. Basaltic flows and a trachyte tuff terminating\\u000a and predating the fossil deposit sedimentation allow to numerically calibrate the MP reference levels by radioisotope dating.\\u000a Laser fusion 40Ar\\/39Ar step heating on volcanic feldspars

Dieter F. Mertz; Paul R. Renne; Michael Wuttke; Clemens Mödden

2007-01-01

32

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CT TRUNK EXAMINATIONS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA.  

PubMed

Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75th percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm(-1) for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600mGy cm(-1) for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm(-1) for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm(-1) for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm(-1) for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. PMID:25468993

Qurashi, Abdulaziz A; Rainford, Louise A; Foley, Shane J

2014-12-01

33

Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. However, only few studies have reported age- and sex-specific pediatric reference values for TSHbasal (TSH), free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) so far. Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals

Klaus Kapelari; Christine Kirchlechner; Wolfgang Högler; Katharina Schweitzer; Irene Virgolini; Roy Moncayo

2008-01-01

34

Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach  

PubMed Central

Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

2015-01-01

35

Out of Cite! How Reference Managers Are Taking Research to the Next Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Times change, and so do research methods; gone are the days of researching with index cards. While academics may be slow to adopt emerging citation technology, the reference manager field is blazing ahead. This article explains what reference managers are, addresses their emergence in and potential impact on academe, and profiles a newcomer to the…

Muldrow, Jason; Yoder, Stephen

2009-01-01

36

Benchmark dose for estimation of cadmium reference level for osteoporosis in a Chinese female population.  

PubMed

In this study, the reference level of cadmium in urine and blood related with bone damage was assessed using benchmark dose in a Chinese female population. Total of 338 women was recruited, and urine and blood samples were collected from each individual for determination of cadmium in urine (UCd) and blood (BCd). Bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMD and BMDL were calculated corresponding to additional risk of 5% and 10%. With benchmark response (BMR) of 5%/10%, the BMD of BCd, UCd related with osteoporosis was 1.88?g/L/3.23?g/L and 5.30?g/g crea/9.06?g/g crea, and the BMDL-05 was 1.39?g/L/2.38?g/L and 3.78?g/g crea/6.36?g/g crea; the BMD of BCd, UCd related with low bone mass was 0.95?g/L/3.12?g/L and 3.12?g/g crea/5.87?g/g crea, and the BMDL-05 was 0.72?g/L/1.35?g/L and 2.14?g/g crea/3.99?g/g crea. The BMD of UCd in people over 60years old was much lower than that of people less than 60years old. BMD value was related with ages and effects biomarkers. Our data showed that BMD of UCd associated with osteoporosis was lower than that previously estimated. PMID:23410587

Chen, Xiao; Gan, Caohui; Zhu, Guoying; Jin, Taiyi

2013-05-01

37

Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.  

PubMed

Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

2014-05-01

38

The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

2006-01-01

39

Immunosuppressive acidic protein serum levels in breast cancer patients in a reference to CA 15-3 levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) has been described as a tumor marker in a number of malignant diseases. To evaluate the clinical importance of IAP in breast cancer patients, IAP serum level was determined in 75 breast cancer patients, using single radial immunodiffusion. Serum samples were also tested for CA 15-3. Cut off value for IAP was determined according to IAP

Arnon D. Cohen; Yehuda Shoenfeld; Jacob Gopas; Yoram Cohen

1994-01-01

40

Glucose Levels in Newborns with Special Reference to Hypoglycemia: A Study from Rural India  

PubMed Central

Hypoglycemia is one of the common metabolic problems in neonatal medicine. There is association between blood glucose levels and neurological development. The study involved 100 mothers and neonates blood glucose levels were measured using a standard glucometer in mother delivering babies within half an hour of delivery and in newborns at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of life. Blood glucose levels were low at 0th and 6th h and maximum at 24th h. Neonates born to mothers with high maternal blood glucose levels were hypoglycemic showing a negative correlation. The mean blood glucose levels were low in pre-term and post-term compared with term babies and range of blood glucose levels were wide in preterm and post term babies. PMID:24741538

Dias, Edwin; Gada, Sandeep

2014-01-01

41

Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites  

SciTech Connect

We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population.

Grainger, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)]. E-mail: jag2@cdc.gov; Huang, Wenlin [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Patterson, Donald G. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Turner, Wayman E. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Pirkle, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Caudill, Samuel P. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wang, Richard Y. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Needham, Larry L. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Sampson, Eric J. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

2006-03-15

42

Effect of hypertension and its treatment on lipid, lipoprotein(a), fibrinogen, and bilirubin levels in patients referred for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the serum lipid profile, together with plasma fibrinogen and serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), glucose, bilirubin, and albumin levels in 491 patients (310 men) who were referred for the management of primary dyslipidemia. All these variables have been shown to predict vascular events. The patients were not taking lipid-lowering drugs; hypertension was present in 156 (31.7%) of them.Of the hypertensive

John A. Papadakis; Emmanuel S. Ganotakis; Indera A. Jagroop; Dimitri P. Mikhailidis; Anthony F. Winder

1999-01-01

43

Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism  

SciTech Connect

A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

2012-02-01

44

Post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels with reference to the causes of death.  

PubMed

To evaluate pathophysiological significance of post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in determining the cause of death, we investigated 210 forensic autopsy cases, partially in comparison with serum levels. Post-mortem serum myoglobin levels were extraordinary high in most cases possibly due to post-mortem change. Urinary myoglobin levels did not correlate with the serum levels, showing possible post-mortem elevation in cases of a prolonged post-mortem period over 48h. A high (>1000 ng/ml), moderate (100-1000 ng/ml), slight (50-100 ng/ml) and not significant (<50 ng/ml) elevation of urinary myoglobin were observed in 26, 43, 31 and 110 cases, respectively. Half the highly elevated cases were those with a survival time over 24h. In cases of minor muscle injury such as head trauma, elevation of urinary myoglobin level was closely related to longer survival. In acute/subacute deaths with a post-mortem interval within 48h, a significant difference was observed in relation to the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of fire victims: myoglobinuria over 100 ng/ml was more frequently and markedly observed in cases with COHb below 60% than over 60%, suggesting muscle damage in fatal burns. Similar elevation was observed in heat stroke victims, and also in some cases of acute and subacute death from polytrauma, asphyxiation, drowning, electricity and spontaneous cerebral bleeding, but not in myocardial infarction. Thus, it was suggested that high post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in acute and subacute death cases may be a possible indicator of antemortem massive skeletal muscle damage as well as exertional muscle hyperactivity or convulsive disorders associated with hypoxia. PMID:11074173

Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Taniguchi, M; Oritani, S; Kamikodai, Y; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

2001-01-15

45

Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

1986-01-01

46

Results of a Survey on the Implementation of Diagnostic Reference Levels for X-rays among Dutch Hospitals.  

PubMed

Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for medical x-ray procedures are being implemented currently in the Netherlands. By order of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate, a survey has been conducted among 20 Dutch hospitals to investigate the level of implementation of the Dutch DRLs in current radiological practice. It turns out that hospitals are either well underway in implementing the DRLs or have already done so. However, the DRLs have usually not yet been incorporated in the QA system of the department nor in the treatment protocols. It was shown that the amount of radiation used, as far as it was indicated by the hospitals, usually remains below the DRLs. A procedure for comparing dose levels to the DRLs has been prescribed but is not always followed in practice. This is especially difficult in the case of children, as most general hospitals receive few children. PMID:25706140

Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

2015-04-01

47

Tirapazamine-Doxorubicin Interaction Referring to Heart Oxidative Stress and Ca2+ Balance Protein Levels  

PubMed Central

Doxorubicin (DOX) causes long-term cardiomyopathy that is dependent on oxidative stress and contractility disorders. Tirapazamine (TP), an experimental adjuvant drug, passes the same red-ox transformation as DOX. The aim of the study was to evaluate an effect of tirapazamine on oxidative stress, contractile protein level, and cardiomyocyte necrosis in rats administered doxorubicin. Rats were intraperitoneally injected six times once a week with tirapazamine in two doses, 5 (5TP) and 10?mg/kg (10TP), while doxorubicin was administered in dose 1.8?mg/kg (DOX). Subsequent two groups received both drugs simultaneously (5TP+DOX and 10TP+DOX). Tirapazamine reduced heart lipid peroxidation and normalised RyR2 protein level altered by doxorubicin. There were no significant changes in GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione, cTnI, AST, and SERCA2 level between DOX and TP+DOX groups. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was observed in groups 10TP and 10TP+DOX. PMID:22666522

Sliwinska, Justyna; Dudka, Jaroslaw; Korga, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek; Matysiak, Wlodzimierz; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Mandziuk, Slawomir; Dawidek-Pietryka, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

48

Analyzing the level of knowledge and attitude of the mothers referring the urban health centers of Birjand about nutritional behaviors  

PubMed Central

Background: Achieving a balanced and proper nutrition is one of the most important health objectives in the early years of the child's life. The aim of this study is to determine the level of knowledge and attitude of the mothers covered by the urban health centers of Birjand about nutritional behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the mothers with children less than five years referring the health centers of Birjand, in 1387. A questionnaire was prepared for data collection. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, Chi square, ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests with a accuracy level of P < 0.05. Results: Two hundred ninety four patients were studied. A meaningful difference was observed between the knowledge and attitude scores in terms of the mothers’ education stand (P = 0.002). Eighty three point seven percent, 65.6%, 82.7% and 64.6% of mothers were aware about the importance of iron absorption, the onset of iron supplement drop, the minerals and vitamins in the body, and the effects of vitamin A deficiency, respectively. The mothers’ knowledge and attitude about the nutritional behavior was evaluated at the average and good level, respectively. Conclusions: Considering the average level of the mothers’ knowledge and attitude about children's nutritional behaviors, the retraining of family physicians and health centers staff about the importance of nutritional behaviors is recommended. PMID:25013830

Rezaei, Omolbanin Motamed; Moodi, Mitra; Moazam, Nahid

2014-01-01

49

Derivation of no-effect and reference-level sediment quality values for application at Saskatchewan uranium operations.  

PubMed

To date, the majority of empirical approaches used to derive sediment quality values (SQVs) have focused on metal concentrations in sediment associated with adverse effects on benthic invertebrate communities. Here, we propose the no-effect (NE) approach. This SQV derivation methodology uses metal concentrations in sediment associated with unaffected benthic communities (i.e., from reference sites and lightly contaminated no-effect sites) and accounts for local benthic invertebrate tolerance and potential chemical interactions at no-effect exposure sites. This NE approach was used to propose alternative regional SQVs for uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. Three different sets of NE values were derived using different combinations of benthic invertebrate community effects criteria (abundance, richness, evenness, Bray-Curtis index). Additionally, reference values were derived based solely on sediment metal concentrations from reference sites. In general, NE values derived using abundance, richness, and evenness (NE1 and NE2 values) were found to be higher than the NE values derived using all four metrics (NE3 values). Derived NE values for Cr, Cu, Pb, and V did not change with the incorporation of additional effects criteria due to a lack of influence from the uranium operations on the concentrations of these metals in sediment. However, a gradient of exposure concentrations was apparent for As, Mo, Ni, Se, and U in sediment which allowed for tolerable exposure levels of these metals in sediment to be defined. The findings from this assessment have suggested a range of new, alternate metal SQVs for use at uranium operations in northern Saskatchewan. PMID:23877572

Burnett-Seidel, Charlene; Liber, Karsten

2013-11-01

50

Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the Columbus quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.

Mai, Sebastian; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Marquetand, Philipp; Lischka, Hans; González, Leticia

2014-08-01

51

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-04-01

52

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs  

SciTech Connect

This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific environmental monitoring requirements for final site characterization and certification surveys are beyond the scope of this Addendum. Data collection associated with site reconnaissance and preselection is not specifically addressed, but it is recognized that such data may be useful in designing the preoperational program. Predisposal control measures, quality assurance, and record-keeping (other than inventory records) associated with waste disposal operations are also not addressed. The primary intent of routine environmental surveillance at a LLWBG is to help ensure that site activities do not cause significant transport of radioactivity from the site, resulting in an unacceptable health hazard to people. Preoperational environmental surveillance serves to determine for later comparison the background radioactivity levels, either naturally occurring or the result of man's activities (e.g. world-wide fallout or an adjacent nuclear facility), in and around the proposed burial ground site. The operational environmental surveillance program is used to estimate radiological conditions, both onsite and offsite as a possible result of burial ground activities, including trench closure(s). These data help to determine LLWBG compliance with regulatory requirements. During the post-operational period environmental surveillance should normally be an extension of the program carried out during operations, with appropriate deletions (or modifications) to account for the differences between operational and post-operational activities at the site. During the long-term storage and custodial care period, environmental surveillance serves to verify the radionuclide confinement capability of the burial ground and to identify problem situations requiring remedial action. For waste removal (exhumation), the environmental surveillance program is again modified to account for the greatly increased potential for direct radiation and contamination spread. At the time of decommissioning, "environmental surveillance" takes on a new meaning, from that of an ongoing prog

Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

1981-07-01

53

Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values  

PubMed Central

Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2386–2398. PMID:24944000

Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

2014-01-01

54

On the determination of reference levels for quality assurance of flattening filter free photon beams in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: New definitions for some dosimetric parameters for use in quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators have been suggested. The present study aims to validate these suggestions and to propose possible reference levels. Methods: The main characteristics of FFF photon beams were described in terms of: field size, penumbra, unflatness, slope, and peak-position parameters. Data were collected for 6 and 10 MV-FFF beams from three different Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed with a 2D-array (Starcheck system from PTW-Freiburg) and with the portal dosimetry method GLAaS utilizing the build-in portal imager of TrueBeam. Data were also compared to ion chamber measurements. A cross check validation has been performed on a FFF beam of 6 MV generated by a Varian Clinac-iX upgraded to FFF capability. Results : All the parameters suggested to characterize the FFF beams resulted easily measurable and little variation was observed among different Linacs. Referring to two reference field sizes of 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, at SDD = 100 cm and d = dmax, from the portal dosimetry data, the following results (averaging X and Y profiles) were obtained. Field size: 9.95 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 6 MV-FFF (9.94 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 10 MV-FFF). Penumbra: 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mm for 6 MV-FFF (3.1 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.3 for 10 MV-FFF). Unflatness: 1.11 ± 0.01 and 1.25 ± 0.01 for 6 MV-FFF (1.21 ± 0.01 and 1.50 ± 0.01 for 10 MV-FFF). Slope: 0.320 ± 0.020%/mm and 0.43 ± 0.015%/mm for 6 MV-FFF (0.657 ± 0.023%/mm and 0.795 ± 0.017%/mm for 10 MV-FFF). Peak Position ?0.2 ± 0.2 and ?0.4 ± 0.2 mm for 6 MV-FFF (?0.3 ± 0.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 mm for 10 MV-FFF). Results would depend upon measurement depth. With thresholds set to at least 95% confidence level from the measured data and to account for possible variations between detectors and methods and experimental settings, a tolerance set of: 1 mm for field size and penumbra, 0.04 for unflatness, 0.1%/mm for slope, and 1 mm for peak position could be proposed from our data. Conclusions : The parameters proposed for the characterization and routine control of stability of profiles of FFF beams appear to be a viable solution with a strong similarity to the conventional parameters used for flattened beams. The results from three different TrueBeams and the cross-validation against a Clinac-iX suggested the possible generalization of the methods and the possibility to use common tolerances for the parameters. The data showed also the reproducibility of beam characteristics among different systems (of the same vendor) and the resulting parameter values could therefore be possibly generalized.

Clivio, Alessandro; Belosi, Maria Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Bolard, Grégory [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland)] [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France)] [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)] [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)

2014-02-15

55

Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries  

PubMed Central

Background In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients. The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol. Methods This study included adult patients (?15 years) referred to a Norwegian University Hospital with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries classified according to the Head Injury Severity Scale (HISS). Information on alcohol consumption was recorded, and in most of these patients blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured. Compliance with the abovementioned guidelines was registered. Results The study includes 860 patients. 35.8% of the patients had consumed alcohol, and 92.1% of these patients had a BAC ? 1.00‰. Young age, male gender, trauma occurring during the weekends, mild and moderate head injuries were independent factors significantly associated with being under the influence of alcohol. Guideline compliance was 60.5%, and over-triage was the main violation. The guideline compliance showed no significant correlation to alcohol consumption or to BAC-level. Conclusions This study confirms that alcohol consumption is common among patients with head injuries. The physicians' guideline compliance was not affected by the patients' alcohol consumption, and alcohol influence could therefore not explain the low guideline compliance. PMID:21496318

2011-01-01

56

Relationships Between Spiritual Quotient and Marital Satisfaction Level of Men, Women and Couples Referred to Consultancy Centers of Bandar Abbas  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples’ scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples’ understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples’ spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.–More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None PMID:24644499

Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

2013-01-01

57

Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.  

PubMed

Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

2013-12-01

58

Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.  

PubMed

Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

2012-04-01

59

Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87?gL(-1) for Cd, 9.87?gL(-1) for As, and 29.32?gL(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86?gL(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

2015-06-01

60

Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.  

PubMed

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (?$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ?65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking. PMID:25596656

Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

2015-04-01

61

Genotypic Assessment of Isoniazid and Rifampin Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Blind Study at Reference Laboratory Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in understanding the basis of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RMP) has allowed molecular tests for the detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis to be developed. Consecutive isolates (n 595) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, from a Spanish reference laboratory investigating outbreaks of multidrug- resistanttuberculosis,werecodedandsenttotwoexternallaboratoriesforgenotypicanalysisofINHandRMP resistancebyPCR-single-strandconformationpolymorphism(SSCP)analysisofspecificregionsoffourgenes: part of the coding sequence of katG and the promoter regions of inhA and ahpC for

A. TELENTI; N. HONORE; C. BERNASCONI; J. MARCH; A. ORTEGA; B. HEYM; H. E. TAKIFF; T. COLE; UnitedeGenetique Moleculaire

1997-01-01

62

An epidemiological study of the serum thyrotropin reference range and factors that influence serum thyrotropin levels in iodine sufficient areas of China.  

PubMed

The aims of this study performed in 2007 were to verify the selection criteria proposed by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines, to investigate factors that influence thyrotropin (TSH) levels, and to determine serum TSH reference range in iodine sufficient areas of China. After excluding 291 subjects, a total of 5,348 inhabitants from three iodine sufficient areas of Liaoning province were asked to fulfill the questionnaire, and take TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) measurements and a thyroid ultrasound examination. The distribution of TSH was right skewed in normal people. It has been customary to log transform the values to observe the Gaussian distribution. In the subjects 12-19 years of age, the TSH level was significantly higher than in the other age groups (p<0.001), while there were no significant difference in the TSH values of the other age groups. The TSH levels in females(1.68±1.90mIU/L) were significantly higher than in males (1.45±1.92mIU/L) (p<0.001). Therefore, the normal TSH range in males over age 20 was 0.43-4.74mIU/L, and in females the range was 0.48-5.39 mIU/L. A family history of thyroid disease, abnormal thyroid ultrasound, a thyroid antibody-positive status were the factors that influenced the TSH reference range. Non-thyroid disease did not impact the TSH reference range significantly. We recommend use of a TSH reference range 0.46-5.19mIU/L in iodine sufficient areas of China for males and females over 20 years old. We suggest using a normal thyroid ultrasound as a new criterion in addition to the NACB guidelines to determine the TSH reference range. PMID:21959332

Li, Chenyan; Guan, Haixia; Teng, Xiaochun; Lai, Yaxin; Chen, Yanyan; Yu, Jiashu; Li, Ningna; Wang, Beibei; Jiang, Fengwei; Wang, Jiani; Fan, Chenling; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hongmei; Teng, Weiping; Shan, Zhongyan

2011-01-01

63

Three Dimensional Gamma-Index Analysis and Considerations of the Reference Level Definition for Dosimetric IMRT Plan Verification with 2D Ionisation Chamber Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gamma-Index method is the standard analysis tool for IMRT plan verifications. Usually the analysis is performed on a dose\\u000a grid with two spatial dimensions and the dose. In this work we will introduce a 3D Gamma-Index method using all three spatial\\u000a dimensions and compare different reference level methods for the dose axis of the criteria. It is shown that

B. Poppe; A. Ruehmann; K. Willborn; B. Allgaier; D. Harder

64

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

65

Low Plasma RANTES Levels Are an Independent Predictor of Cardiac Mortality in Patients Referred for Coronary Angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—Our objective was to evaluate the prognostic value of baseline plasma RANTES levels in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. RANTES is a chemokine produced by a variety of cell types including platelets that has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results—Baseline plasma RANTES levels were measured in 389 male patients undergoing coronary angiography at a Veterans Affairs

Erdal Cavusoglu; Calvin Eng; Vineet Chopra; Luther T. Clark; David J. Pinsky; Jonathan D. Marmur

2010-01-01

66

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-10-01

67

Human exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy mats: a numerical case study with three commercial products.  

PubMed

A previous study found that incident magnetic field exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) mats can exceed ICNIRP 1998 reference levels. Due to the popularity of PMFT mats for private therapeutic use, regulators need to know if the products are compliant with the basic restrictions and how overexposure can be determined. This case study's objective was to test if such products are intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions by evaluating three different commercially-available PMFT products. In the first step, experimentally validated numerical models of these mats were developed. As a second step, the induced fields were evaluated in high-resolution anatomical models of the IT'IS Virtual Population for various lying positions and compared to the safety guidelines. As expected, a strong influence of exposure on the PMFT design, anatomy, lying position and body orientation was found. The maximum exposure of one PMFT exceeds 3.1 times the basic restrictions of ICNIRP 1998 for the central nervous system tissues and 1.36 times the limit of ICNIRP 2010 for the peripheral tissues. Body loops can significantly increase the electric fields close to the skin, e.g., when the hand and thigh are in contact during mat use. In conclusion, PMFT products are not intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions and therefore require special considerations. PMID:25639237

De Santis, Valerio; Douglas, Mark; Nadakuduti, Jagadish; Benkler, Stefan; Chen, Xi Lin; Kuster, Niels

2015-02-01

68

[Beneficial effect of zinc supplementation on pruritus in hemodialysis patients with special reference to changes in serum histamine levels].  

PubMed

Persistent pruritus is one of the most common symptoms in hemodialysis patients. The cause of pruritus is not known, and conventional treatment for pruritus is rarely helpful. Some authors thought that release of histamine from increased mast cells in uremic patients was the cause of pruritus. On the other hand, there have been a number of reports suggesting that uremic patients are zinc deficient. In vitro as well as in vivo studies have demonstrated that zinc has an inhibitory effect on various functions of some cells, such as histamine release from mast cells. In this study, we examined the serum zinc and histamine levels in 19 hemodialysis patients with persistent pruritus and the effect of zinc supplementation on the pruritus. In patients with pruritus, the serum zinc level decreased and serum histamine level increased, showing a negative correlation between them. Oral zinc sulfate, 445 mg daily for two months, relieved pruritus subjectively in 53% of the patients. After treatment, serum histamine levels decreased significantly, as well as serum zinc levels increased significantly. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency participates in increased histamine levels in dialysis patients, and subsequently in the development of uremic pruritus. PMID:3448919

Sanada, S; Kuze, M; Yoshida, O

1987-12-01

69

Problems of rising ground-water levels in urban areas with special reference to the Louisville, Kentucky area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rising ground-water levels are a problem for cities such as San Bernadino, California; Greely and Fort Collins, Colorado; New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens; and Louisville, Kentucky. Ground-water levels showed a steeply rising trend in the alluvial aquifer underlying Louisville during the early and middle 1970 's in response to above average precipitation and a decrease in ground-water withdrawals. This rising trend flattened in 1979 and the water levels are stabilizing at 25 to 45 feet below land surface in the downtown area. Basements are generally 20 to 25 feet below land surface and some utility lines are as much as 40 feet below land surface in this area. Because of the shallow depth to water, any resumption of the upward trend would require preventive measures such as selective dewatering to avoid damage to some structures. (USGS)

Whitesides, D.V.; Faust, R.J.; Zettwoch, D.D.

1983-01-01

70

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1983-01-01

71

Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential probiotic strain isolated from homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been sequenced and deposited\\u000a in GenBank. Real-time quantitative PCR is one of the most widely used methods to study related gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data using one or more

Wenjing ZhaoYan; Yan Li; Pengfei Gao; Zhihong Sun; Tiansong Sun; Heping Zhang

72

Combination of Vlbi, GPS and Slr Observations At The Observation Level For The Realization of Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment) has during the last 17 years developed a software system called GEOSAT, for the analysis of any type of high precision space geodetic observations. A unique feature of GEOSAT is the possibility of combining any combination of different space geode- tic data at the observation level with one consistent model and one consistent strategy. This is a much better strategy than the strategy in use today where different types of observations are processed separately using analysis software developed specifically for each technique. The results from each technique are finally combined a posteriori. In practice the models implemented in the software packages differ at the 1-cm level which is almost one order of magnitude larger than the internal precision of the most precise techniques. Another advantage of the new proposed combination method is that for example VLBI and GPS can use the same tropospheric model with common parameterization. The same is the case for the Earth orientation parameters, the geo- center coordinates and other geodetic or geophysical parameters where VLBI, GPS and SLR can have a common estimate for each of the parameters. The analysis with GEOSAT is automated for the combination of VLBI, SLR and GPS observations. The data are analyzed in batches of one day where the result from each daily arc is a SRIF array (Square Root Information Filter). A large number of SRIF arrays can be combined into a multi-year solution using the CSRIFS program (Com- bination Square Root Information Filter and Smoother). Four parameter levels are available and any parameter can, at each level, either be represented as a constant or a stochastic parameter (white noise, colored noise, or random walk). The batch length (i.e. the time interval between the addition of noise to the SRIF array) can be made time- and parameter dependent. GEOSAT and CSRIFS have been applied in the analysis of selected VLBI and SLR data (LAGEOS I &II) from the period January 1993 to July 2001. A selected number of arcs also include GPS data. Earth orientation parameters, geocenter motion, sta- tion coordinates and velocities were estimated simultaneously with the coordinates of the radio sources and satellite orbital parameters. Recent software improvements and 1 results of analyses will be presented at the meeting. 2

Andersen, P. H.

73

GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

2011-01-01

74

Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling  

SciTech Connect

The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

1980-03-01

75

PATIENT DOSE FOR COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXAMINATION: DOSE REFERENCE LEVELS AND EFFECTIVE DOSES BASED ON A NATIONAL SURVEY OF 2013 IN KOREA.  

PubMed

14 620 sets of patient dose data were obtained for 31 different models of computed tomography (CT) equipment (total 73) with 18 types of CT examination in Korea. Specific diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for this study in terms of third quartile volumetric CT dose index in mGy [and dose-length product (DLP) in mGy.cm] are as follows: head, 53 (910); neck, 20 (770); chest, 14 (710); abdomen, 14 (1000); stomach, 14 (1000); liver, 14 (1700); pancreas, 14 (1700); kidney, 14 (2100); cervical spine, 30 (600); lumbar spine, 25 (760); hip, 17 (600); cardiac CT angiography, 45 (1250); head CT angiography, 43 (1900); liver CT angiography, 14 (1400) and thoraco-abdominal CT angiography, 16 (2000). In the present study, DRLs in terms of volumetric CT dose index were below previously published reference levels, partly because the newer CT equipments have improved technology that facilitates lower patient dose. Meanwhile, DRLs in terms of DLP were higher, because multi-phase scanning protocols with prolonged scan coverage have been widely used. PMID:25404691

Kim, Moon Chan; Han, Dong Kyoon; Nam, Yoon Chul; Kim, Yon Min; Yoon, Joon

2014-11-17

76

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

77

A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital Irish National Breast Screening Programme and the Irish Symptomatic Breast Services.  

PubMed

Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95th percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. PMID:22740646

O'Leary, Desiree; Rainford, Louise

2013-03-01

78

A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.  

SciTech Connect

A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

2001-08-01

79

88Sr+ 445-THz single-ion reference at the 10(-17) level via control and cancellation of systematic uncertainties and its measurement against the SI second.  

PubMed

We describe experiments and measurements on a trapped and laser-cooled single ion of (88)Sr(+) which, when probed on its reference 5s (2)S(1/2)?4d (2)D(5/2) transition at 445 THz, provides an optical frequency standard of evaluated accuracy outperforming the current realization of the SI second. Studies are presented showing that micromotion-associated shifts of the standard can be reduced to the 10(-18) level and uncertainties in the blackbody-induced shifts for the current system are at the low 10(-17) level due to the relatively well-known polarizability of the strontium ion system and careful choice of the trap structure. The current evaluated systematic shifts for the ion transition are at a fractional uncertainty of 2×10(-17). An absolute frequency measurement performed over a two-month period relative to a maser referenced to the SI second via Global Positioning System time transfer has determined the center frequency for the transition at ?(SD)=444 779 044 095 485.5±0.9 ?Hz (1?). PMID:23215481

Madej, Alan A; Dubé, Pierre; Zhou, Zichao; Bernard, John E; Gertsvolf, Marina

2012-11-16

80

Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

Ballesta, Raimundo Jiménez; Bueno, Paz Conde; Rubi, Juan A. Martin; Giménez, Rosario Garcia

2010-12-01

81

EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

82

Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.  

PubMed

One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail. PMID:25486919

Elordui-Zapatarietxe, Saioa; Fettig, Ina; Philipp, Rosemarie; Gantois, Fanny; Lalère, Béatrice; Swart, Claudia; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Vanermen, Guido; Boom, Gerard; Emteborg, Håkan

2015-04-01

83

Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

2014-01-01

84

Palynology References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A& M University

85

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

86

Reference Revolutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

Mason, Marilyn Gell

1998-01-01

87

Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression  

PubMed Central

Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs. PMID:23671661

Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

2013-01-01

88

Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H-, 13C- and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the delta values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown delta values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for delta13C and delta15N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: delta2H(nicotine) -162 to -45 per thousand, delta13C(nicotine) -30.05 to +7.72 per thousand, delta15N(nicotine) -6.03 to +33.62 per thousand; delta15N(acetanilide) +1.18 to +40.57 per thousand; delta13C(urea) -34.13 to +11.71 per thousand, delta15N(urea) +0.26 to +40.61 per thousand (recommended delta values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different delta15N values. Comparative delta13C and delta15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials. PMID:19844968

Schimmelmann, Arndt; Albertino, Andrea; Sauer, Peter E; Qi, Haiping; Molinie, Roland; Mesnard, François

2009-11-01

89

Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P.E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

2009-01-01

90

SARS Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amedeo.com, the online Medical Literature Guide, has recently made available the SARS reference -- a "comprehensive and up-to-date overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome" edited by Christian Drosten and Wolfgang Preiser. Offered free of charge to any user, the SARS reference will be updated monthly for the duration of the epidemic. Content includes SARS virology, epidemiology, treatment, a timeline, and a number of other timely and important topics. Users may view chapters individually within their browser, or download the entire publication. Also available in Spanish and Chinese.

Drosten, Christian.

91

Poroelastic references  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

Christina Morency

92

Poroelastic references  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

Christina Morency

2014-12-12

93

References: Grundlagen.  

E-print Network

7. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 7­1 Chapter 7: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2003 7. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

Brass, Stefan

94

References: Grundlagen.  

E-print Network

9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2011 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

Brass, Stefan

95

References: Grundlagen.  

E-print Network

9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2004 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

Brass, Stefan

96

References: Grundlagen.  

E-print Network

9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2006 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

Brass, Stefan

97

An accurate, residue-level, pair potential of mean force for folding and binding based on the distance-scaled, ideal-gas reference state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure prediction on a genomic scale requires a simplified energy function that can efficiently sample the conformational space of polypeptide chains. A good energy function at minimum should discriminate native structures against decoys. Here, we show that a recently developed, residue-specific, all-atom knowledge- based potential (167 atomic types) based on distance-scaled, finite ideal-gas reference state (DFIRE-all- atom) can be substantially

CHI ZHANG; SONG LIU; HONGYI ZHOU; YAOQI ZHOU

2004-01-01

98

Humboldt Bay Vertical Reference System Working Group: unraveling tectonic and eustatic factors of sea level rise in northern California, Humboldt Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea-level rise is a critical factor in managing estuarine ecosystems, maintaining public infrastructure, and mitigating geologic hazards along north coastal California. The coastal region between Fort Bragg, California and Vancouver Island experiences ongoing land-level changes due to Cascadia subduction zone tectonics. These tectonic land-level changes sufficiently modify relative sea level such that sea-level rise cannot be accurately estimated without determining the tectonic contribution. We use tide gages and precise level-loop surveys to observe modern land and water surface elevations around Humboldt Bay. These modern data, combined with historic survey data, will be used to deconfound the various factors contributing to relative sea level change. Independent analysis of existing NOAA tide gages and EarthScope CGPS stations indicate 2.5 mm/yr of land subsidence near Humboldt Bay and 2 mm/yr of land uplift in Crescent City. Presuming the bulk of the strain accumulation is due to the southern portion of the Cascadia subduction zone, these data suggest Humboldt Bay is west of the locked zone, not to the east as previously reported by several researchers.

Williams, T. B.; Anderson, J. K.; Burgette, R. J.; Gilkerson, W.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.; Southwick, E.; Stallman, J.; Weldon, R. J.

2012-12-01

99

Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee’s coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the performance of the non-iterative State-Specific Mul- tireference Coupled Cluster (SS-MRCC) methods accounting for the effect of triply excited cluster amplitudes. The corrections to the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC models based on the manifold of singly and doubly excited cluster amplitudes (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD, respectively) are tested and compared with the exact full configuration interaction results (FCI) for small systems (H2O, N2, and Be3). For larger systems (naphthyne isomers and -carotene), the non-iterative BW-MRCCSD(T) and Mk-MRCCSD(T) methods are compared against the results obtained with the single reference coupled cluster methods. We also report on the parallel performance of the non-iterative implementations based on the use of pro- cessor groups.

Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiri; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Pittner, Jiri; Kowalski, Karol

2012-09-07

100

Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required. PMID:24718699

Eguchi, Akifumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Qian; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-07-01

101

Comparative analysis of risk-based cleanup levels and associated remediation costs using linearized multistage model (cancer slope factor) vs. threshold approach (reference dose) for three chlorinated alkenes  

SciTech Connect

The chlorinated alkenes 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) are common environmental contaminants found in soil and groundwater at hazardous waste sites. Recent assessment of data from epidemiology and mechanistic studies indicates that although exposure to 1,1-DCE, PCE, and TCE causes tumor formation in rodents, it is unlikely that these chemicals are carcinogenic to humans. Nevertheless, many state and federal agencies continue to regulate these compounds as carcinogens through the use of the linearized multistage model and resulting cancer slope factor (CSF). The available data indicate that 1,1-DCE, PCE, and TCE should be assessed using a threshold (i.e., reference dose [RfD]) approach rather than a CSF. This paper summarizes the available metabolic, toxicologic, and epidemiologic data that question the use of the linear multistage model (and CSF) for extrapolation from rodents to humans. A comparative analysis of potential risk-based cleanup goals (RBGs) for these three compounds in soil is presented for a hazardous waste site. Goals were calculated using the USEPA CSFs and using a threshold (i.e., RfD) approach. Costs associated with remediation activities required to meet each set of these cleanup goals are presented and compared.

Lawton, L.J. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Andover, MA (United States); Mihalich, J.P. [Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Langhorne, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

102

Community and species responses to water level fluctuations with reference to soil layers in different habitats of mid-boreal mire complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses water level fluctuations in different parts of boreal mire complexes (eleven localities), mainly\\u000a aapa mire complexes, on the basis of measurements performed by means of shallow observation wells and a few deeper observation\\u000a tubes (piezometers) in the coastal half of the southern aapa mire zone in Finland. The sites represented intact vegetation\\u000a from 12 different habitat

Jarmo Laitinen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

2008-01-01

103

Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe  

PubMed Central

In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

Fujii, Toyonobu

2012-01-01

104

Benchmarking curriculum content in entry-level health professional education with special reference to health promotion practice in physical therapy: a multi-institutional international study.  

PubMed

Health promotion (HP) warrants being a clinical competency for health professionals given the global burden of lifestyle-related conditions; these are largely preventable with lifestyle behavior change. Physical therapists have a practice pattern conducive to HP, including lifestyle behavior change. The extent to which HP content is included in entry-level physical therapy (PT) curricula, and how it is taught however, is unknown. The aim of this study was to benchmark lifestyle behavior HP content within entry-level curricula of international PT programs. The sampling frame included 258 accredited PT academic programs spanning six countries. An internet-based survey was used to assess HP curricular content. Descriptive questions for HP topics (smoking cessation, nutrition, weight control, alcohol consumption, exercise, and stress management) included hours allotted and instructional methods used. Chi square tests examined differences between the proportion of programs in the United States (US) and other countries (combined) for HP topics, and among HP topics regarding instructional methods. The response rate was 48 %. Most programs (>80 %) included all HP topics except alcohol consumption (65.5 % of programs). Instructional methods used were primarily theory-based; few programs (range 2.6-24.1 %) combined theory, practical and attainment of clinical competency for all HP topics (exercise prescription notwithstanding). Proportionally, more US programs included alcohol and nutrition than other countries combined. Overall, HP lifestyle behavior topics were included to varying extent; however, instructional methods used and hours allotted per topic varied across PT curricula. Universal standards of HP practice as a clinical competency are warranted within the profession. PMID:22987193

Bodner, Michael E; Rhodes, Ryan E; Miller, William C; Dean, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

105

Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure water levels and collect water samples from the alluvium. Twenty-three of the holes were cased to seal out water and were used as access tubes to accommodate a neutron-neutron probe for determining the moisture content of the alluvium and tuff. The source of recharge for the perched ground-water body in the alluvium in Mortandad Canyon is the precipitation in the drainage area of the canyon. During the winter of 1960-61, a snowpack 1-2 feet thick accumulated in the narrow shaded upper part of the canyon. The alluvium below the snowpack received some recharge because of diurnal melting during the winter. In March 1961 the snowmelt water saturated most of the thin alluvium in the upper part of the canyon, and a surface stream began to flow on the alluvium. The maximum flow of the stream was about 250 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from the stream infiltrated the alluvium at the front of the stream and in the reach upstream from the front. A ground-water mound was formed beneath the channel by water infiltrating from the stream. The front of the stream and the front of the ground-water mound advanced eastward to about the middle of the area studied. From this point eastward, the alluvium was thick enough to absorb and transmit the amount of flow in 1961. Late in April the front of the stream retreated, and by the first of May the flow stopped. During and after this period the ground-water mound decayed, and ground-water levels declined in the upper part of the canyon as water drained into the channel and downgradient through the alluvium. The amount of recharge was small in the wide lower part of the canyon during the period of study. The rise in ground-water levels and the increase in moisture content of the alluvium in the lower part of the canyon indicate that water moved downgradient by underflow through the alluvium from the recharge area in the upper part of the canyon. Moisture measurements indicate that only a little water moved into the underlyin

Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H., Jr.; Purtyman, W.D.

1963-01-01

106

SPAR reference manual update SPAR level 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Command runstream elements are presented for analyzing structural systems that are composed of a number of cyclically symmetrical sectors. Provisions are included for systems in which each cyclically symmetrical sector also possesses a plane of reflective symmetry. The following types of analysis may be performed: static analysis with and without preload, vibrational analysis with and without preload, and buckling analysis with and without preload.

Whetstone, W. D.

1980-01-01

107

Reference Level Stability Canadian Superconducting Gravimeter Installation  

E-print Network

Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E2 jim.merriam@usask.ca 2 Geodetic Survey Division Natural Resources Canada 615 Booth point for the Canadian Absolute Gravity Station (CAGS) JILA-2 absolute gravimeter. The co was dedicated to rapid sampling of gravity for about a week. From these we have calibrated the superconducting

Merriam, James

108

Reference Service Policy Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

Young, William F.

109

The Great Reference Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article by Anhang and Coffman entitled “The Great Reference Debate” (American Libraries, March 2002) is a challenge for reference librarians in all types of libraries. Three community college reference librarians respond to the issues raised in “The Great Reference Debate” and address the fundamental question, “Are reference librarians toast?”

Myla Stokes Kelly; Jeff Siddons; Lawrence Jenkins

2002-01-01

110

Sample References Business Student  

E-print Network

and follow-up to share updates Additional Resources Making the Best Use of References http://www.wetfeet.com/advice-tools/resume-cover-letter/how-to-make-the-best-use-of-references Obtaining References http

111

Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.  

PubMed

A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat ?-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing. PMID:25629921

Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

2015-02-01

112

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

113

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

114

American Indian Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

1976

115

Ris Energy Report 5 References References for Chapter 3  

E-print Network

: drivers, barriers and policies. The Carbon Trust. 12. kline, S. (1985). Innovation is not a linear process.ucsusa.org References for chapter 5 1. http://www.nrel.gov/features/ 2. OECD. (2006). Innovation in energy. Comparing national innovation systems at the sectoral level. Paris: OECD. 3. Lundvall, B.A (Ed.). (1992). National

116

Tank characterization reference guide  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01

117

Reference Shelf for Russian Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection lists over 65 entries in English and Russian including bibliographical guides, encyclopedias, reference grammars, dictionaries, textbooks, periodicals, histories of literature, and history books. Textbooks cover (1) beginning and intermediate levels, (2) conversation and composition, and (3) readers. The addresses of three…

Mihailovic, M., Comp.

1966-01-01

118

Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)] [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan)] [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)] [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

2011-02-15

119

RAS Reference Reagents  

Cancer.gov

Posted: September 22, 2014 Posted: September 22, 2014 RAS Reference Reagents Reference Reagents Group An important priority of the RAS Initiative is to distribute highly validated materials and methods to the world-wide community of RAS researchers.

120

The Floating Reference Librarian  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The floating librarian'' is one who interprets and adjusts the formal library structure to meet legitimate needs. This is one of the ways the academic reference librarian can gain greater acceptance with students and faculty. (9 references) (Author/NH)

Hernon, Peter; Pastine, Maureen

1972-01-01

121

Directory for Referring Veterinarians  

E-print Network

Directory for Referring Veterinarians Equine Emergency, Specialty, and General Care www new evening continuing education events for veterinarians and technicians. This past year we have continued to focus on client and referring veterinarian service. Among other initiatives, we instituted

122

Directory for Referring Veterinarians  

E-print Network

Directory for Referring Veterinarians Companion Animal Emergency, Specialty & General care www Administration 2 Client & Referring Veterinarian Coordinator 3 Medical Records 3 The Admissions and Discharge new evening continu- ing education events for veterinarians and technicians. This past year we have

Pawlowski, Wojtek

123

NCI: Resources & References  

Cancer.gov

Reference Services NIH Library Online National Library of Medicine Library Resources NCI Library Reference Center Publications Locator Journals Online In the Loop The NCI Administrative Newsletter Intramural Resources Intramural Organizational and Principal

124

Genetics Home Reference: Pilomatricoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pilomatricoma? benign ; carcinoma ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

125

Quick Reference Contents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

126

QuickReferenceContents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

127

Physics Resource Reference Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physics reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, force diagrams, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

128

Physical Science Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physical science reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

129

Chemistry Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

130

Biology Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable list biology reference material for high school students in the life sciences. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

131

Teachers Reference: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the introduction to the teacher's reference designed to accompany the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. It compares the roles of teachers to that of the mentor in the book (Grampa) and states some of the reference's intended goals, as well as describing the primary content of the reference (text annotations), their arrangements, and their uses.

132

A standard satellite control reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

Golden, Constance

1994-01-01

133

Reach for Reference. Grolier's The Civil War  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This column describes Grolier's new ten-volume reference set, "The Civil War." The volumes are easy to handle and the set's appearance is designed to appeal to middle level students. Arrangement is alphabetical from Abolition in volume one to Zouaves in volume ten with reasonable cross references to other relevant articles. Each volume contains a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2005-01-01

134

Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

Whitlatch, Jo Bell

1991-01-01

135

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

136

An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

137

Online Reference Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to become familiar with online reference material. Dictionary Merriam-Webster Dictionary Biographical Dictionary--S9.com Thesaurus Thesaurus Atlas National Geographic Atlas Mapquest Google Earth--look in LMC folder Encyclopedia World Book Encyclopedia Wikipedia What about Wikipedia? Almanac Farmer s Almanac Infoplease Culturegrams Gazetteer U.S. State Gazetteers General Reference Martindale s The Reference Desk Refdesk.com Assessment ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2009-11-21

138

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

1994-01-01

139

Reference, perception, and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examine John Campbell’s claim that the determination of the reference of a perceptual demonstrative requires conscious visual\\u000a object-based selective attention. I argue that although Campbell’s claim to the effect that, first, a complex binding parameter\\u000a is needed to establish the referent of a perceptual demonstrative, and, second, that this referent is determined independently\\u000a of, and before, the application of

Athanasios Raftopoulos

2009-01-01

140

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26

141

NCI: Resources & References  

Cancer.gov

Presentations NCI Orientation NCI IT Services NCI at Frederick Office of Workforce Development Fellows For questions or comments please contact the Resources & References Webmaster. Accessibility Information   |  Privacy Notice

142

Genetics Home Reference: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia alpha thalassemia atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan ...

143

Reference radiographs: History, usage, and future directions  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of industrial radiographs requires that the interpreter compare the radiographic image of a condition against some specified acceptance criteria. The communication of that acceptance criteria can be a challenging task. Written descriptions of distributed conditions, such as porosity, can be extremely difficult to interpret in an objective and consistent manner. Reference radiographs supply a direct visual reference to a range of discontinuity types and severity levels providing a visually communicated basis for evaluating components to an agreed upon acceptance level.

Jones, T.S. [Industrial Quality, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-31

144

Application Protocol Reference Architecture Application Protocol Reference Architecture  

E-print Network

Application Protocol Reference Architecture 165 Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture This chapter proposes an alternative reference architecture for application protocols. The proposed reference architecture consists of the set of possible architectures for application protocols

van Sinderen, Marten

145

Writing More Informative Letters of Reference  

PubMed Central

Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess “intangibles” that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference. PMID:15109330

Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

2004-01-01

146

An Online Reference System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

1984-01-01

147

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE  

E-print Network

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office@caltech.edu http://safety.caltech.edu #12;Hazardous Waste Management Reference Guide Page 2 of 36 TABLE OF CONTENTS Satellite Accumulation Area 9 Waste Accumulation Facility 10 HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAINER MANAGEMENT Labeling

Faraon, Andrei

148

Martindale's "The Reference Desk"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

Jim Martindale

149

Marketing Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

Norman, O. Gene

1995-01-01

150

Rethinking Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

151

Online Voucher Quick Reference  

E-print Network

Online Voucher Quick Reference NUFinancials Payments OnlineVoucherQuickReference 12/10/2013 - rb > Online Voucher Entry Page · or NUFinancials Accounts Payable Vouchers Add/Update Online Voucher/letters or barcode# on form). 2. Enter the Invoice Date (from invoice, date of service, or today's date). 3. Look up

Shull, Kenneth R.

152

Reference Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

153

Activities Using References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

Bolger, Charlene

154

The Great Reference Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that ever-increasing Internet access is rendering the functions of reference librarians obsolete. Presents the points of view of several two-year-college librarians, who insist that libraries will always require experienced reference librarians to act as organizers and guides to information seekers. Also discusses librarians' changing…

Kelly, Myla Stokes; Siddons, Jeff; Jenkins, Lawrence

2002-01-01

155

Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

2013-07-01

156

Hot Experimental Facility reference flowsheet  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a useful set of background information of HEF flowsheets, although many changes have been made in the past three years. The HEF reference flowsheet is a modified high-acid PUREX flowsheet capable of operating in the coprocessing mode or with full partitioning of U and Pu. Adequate decontamination factors are provided to purify high-burnup, fast breeder-reactor fuels to levels required for recycle back to a fuel fabrication facility. Product streams are mixed U-Pu oxide and uranium oxide. No contaminated liquid wastes are intentionally discharged to the environment. All wastes are solidified and packaged for appropriate disposal. Acid and water are recovered for internal recycle. Excess water is treated and discharged from the plant stack. Several changes have been made in the reference flowsheet since that time, and these are noted briefly.

North, E.D.

1982-01-01

157

Inertial reference unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inertial reference unit is a high performance gyro attitude reference system for use on the OAO spacecraft. The IRU is a three axis system, which provides both rate and attitude information for spacecraft control. The purpose of the IRU is to reduce the dependency on gimballed startrackers and, in turn, simplify the OAO ground operations by eliminating the need for the continual programming of gimballed startracker assignments in accordance with computed occultation schedules. During normal operations, it is used to control the pitch and yaw axes during experiment occultations and during spacecraft reorientations. The roll axis is continuously under control of the IRU except during brief periods for attitude update. To provide for these capabilities the IRU must be able to perform two basic functions. One is to maintain an inertially fixed reference for spacecraft control and the second is to accurately reorient the reference upon command.

Kull, F. J.

1973-01-01

158

Virtual Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virtual Reference Desk, a project of the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Information and Technology and the US National Library of Education, was established to connect the K-12 community to digital reference experts in all fields. At the heart of the site is the AskA+ Locator, a metapage that links to interactive ready reference sites in 21 subjects including arts, health, language arts, sciences, social studies and math. Each site is similar in that it takes questions in its field of expertise and answers those questions. Each site annotation contains author, audience, and contact information, as well as a description of the service. Information for organizations interested in starting up AskA services is provided. In addition, VRD maintains a mailing list, Dig_Ref for those interested in digital reference service.

159

Glossaries and Reference Material  

Cancer.gov

Updated: October 5, 2010 Updated: October 5, 2010 Glossaries and Reference Material Glossary of Cancer StatisticsDefinitions of common terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence,

160

OA Internet Reference Materials  

Cancer.gov

skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA Contact Us OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10 PSC Codes for Small Business Business

161

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

162

Genetics Home Reference: Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dementia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease Alzheimer disease cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...

163

Genetics Home Reference: Osteopetrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... develop. Researchers often refer to this condition as OL-EDA-ID, an acronym derived from each of ... a few cases of intermediate autosomal osteopetrosis and OL-EDA-ID have been reported in the medical ...

164

Genetics Home Reference: Sialidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... features. Sialidosis type I, also referred to as cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome, is the less severe ... or night blindness. An eye abnormality called a cherry-red spot, which can be identified with an ...

165

NCI: Resources & References  

Cancer.gov

Enterprise Systems NIH Central Accounting System NIH Data Warehouse NIH Administrative Database Integrates Time and Attendance System (ITAS) For questions or comments please contact the Resources & References Webmaster. Accessibility Information   |

166

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

167

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

168

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

169

Genetics Home Reference: Dwarfism  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dwarfism Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome achondrogenesis achondroplasia asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy atelosteogenesis ...

170

Genetics Home Reference: Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

171

Enterprise Reference Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

2011-01-01

172

Membrane reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1989-01-01

173

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

174

Membrane reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

1988-01-21

175

Reference Man anatomical model  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

Cristy, M.

1994-10-01

176

MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

1974-01-01

177

European Structures of Qualification Levels: A Synthesis Based on Reports on Recent Developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales). Volume 1. CEDEFOP Reference Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

European structures of qualification levels were examined through a review of reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The examination focused on the following topics: the scope of the national frameworks; the definition of standards and qualifications; the definition of levels in…

Westerhuis, Anneke

178

The Collaborative Digital Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The CDRS provides professional "library to library" reference service to researchers any time, anywhere, through an international network of libraries and related institutions. Cooperative Partners include the Library of Congress, OCLC, Reference and Users Services Association of the American Libraries Association, Library Systems and Services (LSSI), and Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) with over 100 participating member libraries. The service uses new technologies to provide the best answers in the best context, by taking advantage of Internet resources, localized print and archival collections, as well as the knowledge of staff in general and specialist libraries. The CDRS process begins when the Requesting Library enters a question (on behalf of their client) into the system with additional "metadata" including keywords, subjects, education level, turnaround time needed, sources already consulted, etc. Once the question has been answered, a notification is sent back to the Requesting Library that an answer is available and waiting. Future enhancements may include other processes like interlibrary loans, information on where to buy cited books, and/or document delivery functions.

179

Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.  

PubMed

Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50?Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4?µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5?µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141?µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189?µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58?kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms. PMID:24615825

Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

2014-05-01

180

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

1981-12-30

181

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

1983-01-01

182

NASCAP programmer's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

1993-01-01

183

International reference ionosphere 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

1990-01-01

184

Reference-Dependent Sympathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

Small, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

185

Digital reference services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a framework for analyzing and evaluating digital reference services (DRSs). Based on systems analysis, the framework consists of about 110 questions related to 18 categories in four broad areas: mission and purpose, structure and responsibilities to client, core functions, and quality control. To illustrate the framework’s usefulness, the study applies the framework’s archive segment to a selective

Marilyn Domas White

2001-01-01

186

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky , C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2004 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

187

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky , C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2008 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

188

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky , C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2006 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

189

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky , C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2010 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

190

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky , C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2011 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

191

References: Addison-Wesley,  

E-print Network

, Robert Cailliau: A Little History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html #15; T1. The Internet 1-1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: #15; Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Socolofsky, C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial. RFC 1180. Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web Universit

Brass, Stefan

192

References: AddisonWesley,  

E-print Network

History of the World Wide Web. http://www.w3.org/History.html . T. Socolofsky, C. Kale: A TCP/IP Tutorial1. The Internet 1­1 Chapter 1: The Internet References: . Rainer Klute: Das World Wide Web. Addison: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2009 1. The Internet 1­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

193

Nonresident Alien Reference Guide  

E-print Network

- 1 - Nonresident Alien Reference Guide #12;- 2 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen or a Permanent Resident (Resident Alien or Green Card status. These are NOT Immigration categories. United States Citizen Permanent Resident Alien Resident

Adali, Tulay

194

(Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide  

E-print Network

- 1 - NRA (Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide #12;- 2 - UMBC'S OFFICES ASSISTING THE NONRESIDENT ALIEN (NRA) Office of International Education Administration Building 2nd floor Arlene Wergin Ext: 5 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen

Adali, Tulay

195

DIRECTORY FOR REFERRING VETERINARIANS  

E-print Network

DIRECTORY FOR REFERRING VETERINARIANS 2013-14UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE-14 University of Illinois Board of Trustees To request additional hard copies of this directory, please call 217 information, view this directory online at vetmed.illinois.edu/4dvms. 4 #12;For the most current information

Gilbert, Matthew

196

Syntax of Programming References  

E-print Network

Syntax of Programming Languages References: ffl Sebesta, sections 3.1--3.5 ffl Sethi, chapter 2 c of a ``language'': a set of strings of symbols from some alphabet. 95 Language Specification Two parts: syntax and semantics. Syntax Definition \\Lambda : (1) The way in which words are put together to form phrases

Stevenson, Suzanne

197

Matrix Reference Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An alphabetical manual, from Abelian group to Zero matrix, that contains reference information about linear algebra and the properties of matrices, divided into the following sections: Properties; Eigenvalues; Special properties; Relations; Decompositions; Identities; Equations; Differentiation; Stochastic (statistical) properties; Signals; Examples; and Formal Algebra. The notation is based on the MATLAB software package.

Brookes, Mike

198

Directory for Referring Veterinarians  

E-print Network

Directory for Referring Veterinarians Farm Animal Emergency, Specialty, and General Care www of more than 80 board-certified veterinarians in specialties ranging from anesthesiology to zoological veterinarians, and clients to heal patients, treating all with respect and understanding. Our patient roster

199

Genetics Home Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... Genetics Home Reference site at informationrx.org . The Web site is produced by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The prescription pad is a joint program by the NLM and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, both of the National Institutes of Health, as ...

200

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after

201

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-01-01

202

The Reference Encounter Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

White, Marilyn Domas

1983-01-01

203

Multimedia Reference Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

Holzberg, Carol S.

2001-01-01

204

Best Reference 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

2007-01-01

205

Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.

206

Key Reference Agilent Technologies  

E-print Network

Key Reference Agilent Technologies E8257D/67D PSG Signal Generators This guide applies: http://www.agilent.com/find/psg Manufacturing Part Number: E8251- 90354 Printed in USA July 2007 © Copyright 2004- 2007 Agilent Technologies, Inc. #12;ii Notice The material in this document is provided "as

Anlage, Steven

207

Key Reference Agilent Technologies  

E-print Network

Key Reference Agilent Technologies PSG Signal Generators This guide applies to the following signal: www.agilent.com/find/psg Manufacturing Part Number: E8251-90254 Printed in USA December 2003 © Copyright 2002, 2003 Agilent Technologies, Inc. #12;ii Notice The material contained in this document

Anlage, Steven

208

Book Catalogs; Selected References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

Brandhorst, Wesley T.

209

A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

CARDONA, GEORGE

210

Hospitality Services Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

211

Teachers Reference: Annotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

212

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu as follows: Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006, 1992-2006, 2000-2006. Trends in Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006,

213

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection The race/ethnicity groups available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Year Range menu. For year ranges starting before 1992 (e.g. 1975-2006) the Race/Ethnicity selections available

214

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Data Type Selection The data type selection is a combination of the data source and statistical calculation. The available data type categories are: SEER Incidence Delay-adjusted SEER Incidence U.S. Mortality Survival Prevalence Risk

215

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Statistic Type Selection Fast Stats presents the data analysis in a format appropriate for each Statistic Type. The following is a list of the statistic types available in Fast Stats for which data types, and the output formats

216

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection Fast Stats statistical analyses are based on data that has been collected from 1975 to the present. Data collected before 1992 is available for the following Races/Ethnicities: All Races White (including

217

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

218

Cisco Reference Configurations for  

E-print Network

Cisco Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Fast Track Data Warehouse 4.0 with EMC VNX5500 Series Storage Systems White Paper November 2012 #12;© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public information. Page 2 Contents What You Will Learn

Chaudhuri, Surajit

219

A reference direction approach to multiple objective integer linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of a reference direction\\/reference point approach to solving multiple objective integer linear programming problems. The reference direction\\/reference point is determined by the aspiration levels for the criteria that the decision-maker wants to improve. Within this framework, two methods are developed, viz., a pure integer method that operates entirely with integer solutions and a continuous\\/integer method that

Jasmina Karaivanova; Pekka Korhonen; Subhash Narula; Jyrki Wallenius; Vassil Vassilev

1995-01-01

220

Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

2011-12-01

221

Mobilization and Involvement of Students and Teachers in Implementing the Adult and Extension Education Programmes at the Grass-Root Level with Special Reference to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, India: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

India has made considerable progress toward universal primary education but has the dubious distinction of having the highest illiteracy rates in the world. Stringent endeavors are being made at the national, state, and district levels to eradicate illiteracy through mass approaches and programs. Extension is recognized as the third dimension of…

Parthasarthy, K.; Balasaravanan, T.

222

OSH technical reference manual  

SciTech Connect

In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

Not Available

1993-11-01

223

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

224

In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxic Effects under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer.  

PubMed

Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. PMID:25853218

Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

2015-01-01

225

Questions in reference interviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterises the questioning behaviour in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behaviour in other types of interviews\\/settings. With one exception, the unit of analysis is the question (N=610), not the interview. The author uses A.C. Graesser‘s typology of questions to analyse type of question and M.D. White’s typology of information

Marilyn Domas White

1998-01-01

226

General and reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROVOCATEUR: IMAGES OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN ADVERTISING by Anthony J. Cortese (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield “Postmodern Social Futures,”; 1999—$35.00\\/24.95, ISBN 0–8476–9174–8 hard, 0–8476–9175–6 paper, 161 pp., photographs, glossary, reference, index)ADVERTISINQ AQE HANDBOOK OF ADVERTISING by Herschell Gordon Lewis and Carol Nelson (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1999—$39.95, ISBN 0–8442–3670–5, 228 pp., photographs, appendices, index)TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE TO THE INTERNET

Eleanor Block; Chris Sterling; Jessica M. Fishman; James K. Bracken

1999-01-01

227

Reference Undulator Measurement Results  

SciTech Connect

The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC; ,

2011-08-18

228

E 127 reference standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASTM E 127 "Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks" was developed to assure consistent ultrasonic measurement of suspected discontinuities in wrought aluminium alloy product. The E127 practice established a consensus methodology for the manufacture, metrological limits and ultrasonic response limits from flat bottom hole (FBH) references manufactured in accordance with the practice. This paper will present a brief history of the development of the standard along with problems encountered in the earliest publications. The early issues were resolved, but as instrumentation and materials changed, problems have again arisen with the consistency of the results. Over the past 20+ years the authors have uncovered the causes of many of the inconsistencies associated with establishing measurement that match the original values prescribed in the practice. Over the years, a multitude of measurements were made on various reference standards covering a manufacture range for the mid 50s to the current time. The measurements have uncovered fundamental causes for the inconsistencies related to the material and measuring systems. The uncovered causes along with a proposal for a revision to the practice will be presented.

Warchol, Mark F. A.; Warchol, Lyudmila V.

2014-02-01

229

The role of leptospirosis reference laboratories.  

PubMed

The general goal of reference centres is to support the community, from diagnostic laboratories to research institutions, in the execution of their work by providing reference strains and reagents and giving instructions and recommendations to individual colleagues and national and international organisations on a wide variety of issues. There are different levels of reference centres, from local to international, with an increasing package of tasks and responsibilities. Local reference centres might limit activities to diagnostic confirmation by applying standard testing, while international reference centres cover a wider range of activities from design, validation and harmonisation of diagnostic and reference technologies to international monitoring associated with recommendations on the global burden and distribution of leptospirosis and its prevention and control to national and international health decision makers. This chapter focusses on four major pillars constituting reference tasks in addition to the obvious provision of reference substances, i.e. Research and training, Diagnosis, Identification of Leptospira and Surveillance. Due to financial and organisational constraints, reference centres are restricted in their capacity for basic research and consequently focus on applied research into various aspects of leptospirosis. They offer training, either individually or groupwise, that might vary from standard technologies to novel sophisticated methodologies, depending on the need and requests of the trainee. Most reference centres are involved in the confirmation of preliminary diagnosis obtained at peripheral levels, such as local hospitals and health centres, while other major activities involve the design and validation of diagnostics, their international harmonisation and quality assurance. Identification of causative Leptospira strains (or serovars) is key to the identification of infection sources and is critical for surveillance. Hence, reference centres also focus on the development, application and provision of methods that are required for unambiguous characterisation of new and recognised Leptospira strains and the maintenance of the integrity of strain collections. In line with their central role, reference centres are frequently associated with local, national and/or international surveillance activities linked to an advisory role and the production of guidelines. Such surveillance activities usually comprise collation of morbidity and mortality data, signalling of outbreaks and the investigation of infection sources and risks. PMID:25388139

Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Smythe, Lee D

2015-01-01

230

Celestial Reference Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for allocating resources to improve celestial frames. A detailed case study of plans for the X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) celestial frame shows error budget concepts in action. Looking to the future of international standards, we discuss the roadmap for the realization of the third generation ICRF (ICRF-3). In closing, we discuss the prospects for the Gaia optical astrometry mission with its potential for sub-100 µas positions for a billion stars and 500,000 quasars at optical wavelengths.

Jacobs, Christopher S.

2013-03-01

231

Celestial Reference Frame  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for allocating resources to improve celestial frames. A detailed case study of plans for the X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) celestial frame shows error budget concepts in action. Looking to the future of international standards, we discuss the roadmap for the realization of the third generation ICRF (ICRF-3). In closing, we discuss the prospects for the Gaia optical astrometry mission with its potential for sub-100 µas positions for a billion stars and 500,000 quasars at optical wavelengths.

Jacobs, Christopher S.

2013-09-01

232

Reference data for the word memory test.  

PubMed

Many studies have evaluated the utility of the Word Memory Test (WMT) as a symptom validity test. However, there is a lack of reference data for the WMT conventional memory subtests. The present study examined the demographic characteristics that influence performance on these subtests, in order to develop demographically corrected reference data. For this purpose, we administered the Dutch version of the WMT to 115 healthy Dutch controls, aged 20-80 years. Furthermore, we demonstrated the equivalence of the English and Dutch language versions of the WMT. Stepwise linear regression analyses of the combined Canadian and Dutch samples (N = 155) showed that the memory scores declined with increasing age. Participants with lower levels of education performed worse than more highly educated subjects. Reference data stratified by age and level of education are presented for use in research and clinical settings. PMID:19617595

Rienstra, A; Spaan, P E J; Schmand, B

2009-05-01

233

Magnifying Devices: A Resource Guide. Reference Circular.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The devices listed in this reference circular are designed to assist people who have visual impairments by magnifying objects and print or graphic materials. Before buying a magnification device, one should consult a low-vision specialist to determine the level of usable vision, the power of magnification needed for a particular eye condition and…

Strauss, Carol, Comp.

234

Connecting terrestrial to celestial reference frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we outline several problems related to the realization of the international celestial and terrestrial reference frames - the ICRF and ITRF - at the millimeter level of accuracy, with emphasis on ICRF issues. We consider here the current status of the ICRF, the interrelationship between the ICRF and ITRF, and considerations for future ICRF realizations.

Malkin, Z.

2015-03-01

235

VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

1992-01-01

236

Listserv List Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Listserv List Reference is a great source for finding information about any of the over 7,500 public listservs on the Internet. It is a Web interface to LISTSERV Lists database at L-Soft International. Lists can be browsed by host site, country, and size if the list subscription exceeds 1,000. Subscriber numbers are kept up to date. Subscription information is provided, as is each list's configuration. While this site is used extensively by list owners, it also provides useful information to potential subscribers to Listserv lists.

237

Reference Race Review!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use today's library time to complete these activities. After each activity, close the tab at the top to return to the menu and pick your next activity. Have FUN! Choice #1 This is a review of all the sources we have been learning about. What do you need and when? You will need to find the link that says Play this game. You don't need to log on. Which Reference Source Should I Use? Choice #2 Dictionaries help us identify and label words. Play this game and ...

Mrs. Odd

2010-01-28

238

Magnetic heading reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading reference for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.

Garner, H. D. (inventor)

1977-01-01

239

Population Reference Bureau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Population Reference Bureau, an organization dedicated to providing information about worldwide population, health, and environment. Materials available here include information on U.S. and international population trends and their implications. There are articles, data sheets, reports, and world statistics on topics such as education, employment, fertility, poverty, race, youth, and many others. The site is also searchable by specific region, state, or variables such as age group. For educators, there are detailed lesson plans that use data from the site, as well as resource guides and standards. Links for additional information are provided as well.

240

Physical Reference Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Physical Reference Data Web site (last mentioned in the August 16, 1996 Scout Report) provides data on physical constants, ionization, x-ray and gamma-ray, radiation dosimetry, nuclear and condensed matter physics, atomic and molecular spectroscopic data, and more. For example, within the searchable physical constants page, visitors can find everything from alpha particle mass to the Wien displacement law constant. Any researcher, professional, or graduate student in related fields will find this readily accessible information invaluable.

1994-01-01

241

Cognition and Identifying Reference  

E-print Network

" and Frege's "two names argument": Willard V. 0. Quine, From a Logical Point of View (New York: Harper and Row, 1961), pp. 139-57; Gottlob Frege, "On Sense and Reference" in Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, eds. Geach... content of being F differs from the cognitive content of being G (cf. Quine, pp. 139-57, Frege, and Ackerman). 55 Here is an example which illustrates this principle. A person may have learned enough arithmetic to know that 2 + 2 = H, but not have...

Rosenkrantz, Gary

242

SEI reference mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The goal of the reference mission is to expand the human presence to the moon and Mars in order to enhance our understanding of the universe, to seek terrestrial benefits from this exploration, and to establish the beginnings of a sustainable spacefaring civilization. Topics covered here include a phased definition of initial programmatic milestones and follow-on capabilities, near-term mission strategy, a lunar mission timeline, and a Mars mission timeline.

Weary, Dwayne

243

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01

244

Antares Reference Telescope System  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

1983-01-01

245

Genetics Home Reference: Phenylketonuria  

MedlinePLUS

... up to harmful levels in the body, causing intellectual disability and other serious health problems. The signs and ... months old. Without treatment, these children develop permanent intellectual disability. Seizures, delayed development, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders ...

246

Genetics Home Reference: Histidinemia  

MedlinePLUS

... condition characterized by elevated blood levels of the amino acid histidine, a building block of most proteins. Histidinemia ... Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding histidinemia? amino acid ; ammonia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; complication ; deficiency ; disability ; ...

247

Genetics Home Reference: Hyperprolinemia  

MedlinePLUS

... individuals with conditions that cause elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidemia) may have hyperprolinemia as well, because lactic acid inhibits the breakdown of proline. How common is ...

248

DDT Reference Manual  

E-print Network

This memo describes the version of DDT used as the command level of the A.I. Laboratory Time Sharing System (ITS). Besides the usual program control, examination, and modification features, this DDT provides many ...

Osman, Eric

1971-09-01

249

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission”) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400?±?14 600 to 5 550?±?3 900 ?g*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500?±?32 000 to 7 300?±?2 400 ?g*sec/m3; p?

2012-01-01

250

Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

2014-07-08

251

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

Yonco, Robert M. (LaGrange, IL); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1989-01-01

252

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1989-04-04

253

Nuclear Science References Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B.; B?ták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

2014-06-01

254

Cataloger's Reference Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library Corporation (TLC) has its collection of 21 MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) manuals and other reference works relating to library technical services freely available on the web. Library of Congress publications and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) were the basis for the content and arrangement of many of the manuals contained at this site. There are cataloging manuals for specific formats, including "archival moving images," looseleaf publications, serials (CONSER), rare books, maps, and graphic materials. In addition, there are guides to USMARC formats for bibliographic, authority, classification, and holdings data. For detailed descriptions and examples of all MARC fields and their subfields, choose "Bibliographic Data" from the main menu and then follow the "Tag List" link. USMARC code lists for countries, geographic areas, and languages are also available.

255

PASCAL/48 reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

1984-01-01

256

A reference tristimulus colorimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(?), y(?) and z(?) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

Eppeldauer, George P.

2002-06-01

257

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1987-07-30

258

External Reference and Residual Magic   

E-print Network

Putnam famously criticizes the traditional theory of meaning and reference, and argues that no internal configuration of a cognitive system is able to capture the intended objects of linguistic reference. Indeed, a ...

Schweizer, Paul

2009-01-01

259

Genetics Home Reference: Biotinidase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding biotinidase deficiency? alopecia ; ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

260

Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lactose intolerance? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

261

Genetics Home Reference: CHARGE syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding CHARGE syndrome? anosmia ; atresia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

262

Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Tangier disease? arteries ; atherosclerosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

263

Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Darier disease? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

264

Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Sandhoff disease? ataxia ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

265

Genetics Home Reference: Acromicric dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding acromicric dysplasia? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

266

Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Alagille syndrome? aorta ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (11 links) ...

267

Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Carney complex? adenoma ; adrenal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

268

Genetics Home Reference: Harlequin ichthyosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding harlequin ichthyosis? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

269

Genetics Home Reference: Cowden syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Cowden syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (15 links) ...

270

Genetics Home Reference: Meckel syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Meckel syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

271

Genetics Home Reference: Epidermal nevus  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding epidermal nevus? apoptosis ; benign ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

272

Genetics Home Reference: Wolfram syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Wolfram syndrome? apnea ; apoptosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

273

Genetics Home Reference: Rett syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Rett syndrome? ataxia ; atypical ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

274

Genetics Home Reference: Adiposis dolorosa  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding adiposis dolorosa? adipose tissue ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

275

Landscapes as references for design  

E-print Network

This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

Batchelor, James P

1981-01-01

276

Gender agreement and multiple referents.  

PubMed

We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use. PMID:21037930

Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

2008-01-01

277

Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks.

Everhart. Mike

278

Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

Singer, Carol A.

2012-01-01

279

Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

2006-01-01

280

Temporal Reference in Mandarin Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how Chinese, a so-called tenseless language, determines its temporal reference. For simplex sentences without time adverb or aspectual marker, I show that temporal reference is correlated with aktionsart or grammatical viewpoint. For sentences with an aspectual marker, I discuss the temporal semantics of le and guo in detail, showing how their tense\\/aspectual meanings contribute to temporal reference.

Jo-wang Lin

2003-01-01

281

Knowledge Management and Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

Gandhi, Smiti

2004-01-01

282

Reference Artifacts for NDE  

SciTech Connect

Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component contains a replica of an inner capsule from a double shell target. The ''inner capsule'' and the bottom portion of the artifact are fabricated as a single piece to ensure dimensional stability. The area between the upper and lower components is filled by a machined piece of CRF aerogel that contains several intentional defects. Each of the components of this artifact can be fabricated on a diamond turning machine. The assembled artifact will contain several features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Outer and inner diameters of the upper hemispherical shell; Diameter of the inner sphere; Concentricity of outer and inner spheres; Step joint characteristics; Total width of step in the lower polystyrene component; Size of air gap at the top of the CRF; Size of air gap below the CRF; and Size and location of groove in the CRF.

Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

2003-02-11

283

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

284

Requirements for Reference (Calibration) Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine  

PubMed Central

In addition to reference measurement procedures and reference materials, reference or calibration laboratories play an integral role in the implementation of measurement traceability in routine laboratories. They provide results of measurements using higher-order methods, e.g. isotope dilution mass spectrometry and may assign values to materials to be used for external quality assessment programs and to secondary reference materials. The requirements for listing of laboratories that provide reference measurement services include a statement of the metrological level or principle of measurement, accreditation as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 15195 and the participation in a proficiency testing system (regular inter-laboratory comparisons) for reference laboratories. Ring trials are currently conducted for thirty well-defined measurands and the results are made available to all laboratories. Through the use of reference laboratory services that are listed by the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine there is the opportunity to further promote traceability and standardisation of laboratory measurements. PMID:18392129

Siekmann, Lothar

2007-01-01

285

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

286

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

Hall, S.H.

1996-02-13

287

Reference Tables Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are videos that show how to use the various pages in your Earth Science Reference Tables Thank you to the Hommocks Middle School Earth Science Teachers for all of their hard work. Check out their other sites too! TIME Front Cover (Page 1) Front Cover Properties fo Water Page 1 Radioactive Decay Page 1 Specific Properties of Common Materials Front Cover Equations Page 1 Ruler Page 1 Chemical Composition Page 2 Page 2 Generalized Landscape Regions Page 3 Page 3 Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State Page 4 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Tectonic Plates Page 6 Page 6 Rock Cycle Page 6 Transported Sediments Page 7 Igneous Rocks Page 7 Page 7 Sedimentary Rocks Page 7 Metamorphic Rocks Page 8 9 How to use page 9 Page 10 Page 10 Inferred Properties of Earth s Interior Page 11 Page 11 Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time Page 12 Page 12 Dewpoint and Relative Humidity Page 13 Page 13 Page 13 Temperature and Pressure Page 14 Page 14 Selected Properties of Earth s Atmosphere Page 14 Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts Page 14 Electromagnetic Spectrum Page 15 Page 15 Characteristics of Stars Page 15 Solar System Data Back Cover (Page 16) Page 16 ...

Mr. Teitelbaum

2010-06-09

288

Global Drug Reference Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Drug Reference Online is a website that Olympic athletes and their support teams from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can check to see if any drug they take is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The purpose, of course, is to make sure the athletes aren't taking any drug that would give an unfair advantage to the athlete. The site allows athletes to make sure any medication they are taking, even for routine health problems, i.e. allergies, doesn't contain any ingredients that are prohibited by WADA. Visitors can do a mock search to see that the "user type", "sport" and "nation of purchase" are all factors in whether the drug is prohibited or not. The "user type" includes "athlete", "coach", "medical professional", "sports administrator", and "parent". Many of the mistakes the athletes could make in regard to determining if the drug is prohibited are mentioned in the "FAQs" section, and the burden of proof is clearly on them.

289

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01

290

The Effects of Life Satisfaction and Job Satisfaction on Reference Librarians and Their Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job satisfaction at the reference desk is an important consideration. It not only affects quality of life and the overall level of life satisfaction experienced by the reference staff; it also affects reference work. Satisfied employees maintain attitudes and engage in activities conducive to reference service effectiveness. Life satisfaction and job satisfaction are related in a reciprocal manner, with life

Marie B. Landry

2000-01-01

291

Optical frequency references for laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical frequency references for laser standards based on molecular iodine absorption cells represent one of the most used tool for frequency stabilization of lasers operating in a visible spectral range. In the industry oriented laser measurements and similar laser interferometry applications performed at atmospheric conditions, a refractive index of air plays a role of main uncertainty contributor. In these cases there is no need to use technologically complicated and expensive iodine references made of pure fused silica with precise pressure control of absorpbing media. A set of iodine cells made of borosilicate glass was filled with certain amount of absorbing media to define the saturation point of iodine inside. A combination of these two approaches (pyrex material and controlled saturation pressure of iodine) allows us to simplify the laser stabilization setup (there is no need of additional iodine pressure level control) and reduce the overall reference's costs with ensuring of sufficient frequency stability of the system at the same time. Spectral properties of manufactured cells were tested by hyperfine transitions linewidth measurement and comparison with results from traditional fused silica cells was done to investigate the long-term iodine purity inside the references. As the transitions linewidth method shows a very high sensitivity to iodine purity level, this method is proposed to be an alternative approach in investigation of contamination in iodine absorption cells where traditionally used techniques - laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and absolute frequency shifts measurement - can not be used.

Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; ?íp, Ond?ej; Lazar, Josef

2015-01-01

292

Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

Mason, Mary, Comp.

293

Terms of Reference IIP Program Coordinator (Research Associate Level)  

E-print Network

the evidence base for strong public health programming for maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition management role. Knowledge of global Maternal Newborn Child Health and Nutrition related technical terms partners and other sub-contractors in project countries (e.g., National Institutes of Public Health

Derisi, Joseph

294

Uranium recovery from low-level aqueous sources. [76 references  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous sources of soluble uranium were surveyed and evaluated in terms of the uranium geochemical cycle in an effort to identify potential unexploited resources. Freshwater sources appeared to be too low in uranium content to merit consideration, while seawater, although very dilute (approx. 3.3 ppB), contains approx. 4 x 10/sup 9/ metric tons of uranium in all the world's oceans. A literature review of recent publications and patents concerning uranium recovery from seawater was conducted. Considerable experimental work is currently under way in Japan; less is being done in the European countries. An assessment of the current state of technology is presented in this report. Repeated screening programs have identified hydrous titanium oxide as the most promising candidate absorbent. However, some of its properties such as distribution coefficient, selectivity, loading, and possibly stability appear to render its use inadequate in a practical recovery system. Also, various assessments of the energy efficiency of pumped or tidal power schemes for contacting the sorbent and seawater are in major disagreement. Needed future research and development tasks are discussed. A fundamental sorbent development program to greatly improve sorbent properties would be required to permit practical recovery of uranium from seawater. Major unresolved engineering aspects of such recovery systems are also identified and discussed.

Kelmers, A.D.; Goeller, H.E.

1981-03-01

295

The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

296

Optical probe with reference fiber  

DOEpatents

A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

2006-03-14

297

Releasing Agency Reference No. Receiving Agency Reference No.  

E-print Network

Releasing Agency Reference No. Receiving Agency Reference No. FDP-411A Property Transfers Texas A Code Acq. Date Rec. Agency Asset # Bldg # Room # Group Cd. Asset Value Sub TotalIf additional lines are needed go to page 2. Grand Total RELEASING DEPARTMENT/AGENCY: _______________________ RECEIVING

Boas, Harold P.

298

REFERENCE CHECK QUESTIONS Candidate Name:_____________________ Date of Reference:_____________  

E-print Network

1 REFERENCE CHECK QUESTIONS Candidate Name:_____________________ Date of Reference / In Person (circle one) About how long have you known or worked with the candidate? What was the candidate's position with your organization? Please describe your reporting relationship with the candidate? If none

Provancher, William

299

Virtual Reference Library (VRL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Toronto Public Library (TPL) offers a host of handpicked and annotated online resources. These are located in the VRL Subject Guide to the Internet (select "Search the Internet"), an index of "about 8,000 - 10,000" sites that can be browsed by subject guide or searched by keyword. While sites produced in Canada are a particular focus, the index contains a large number of international sites. Each of the sites is briefly described, including language used and a Made in Canada flag where appropriate. Top-level subject guides include Arts, Business and Economics, Education, Government, Immigration and Citizenship, and many others. In addition to serving as an Internet gateway, the VRL also hosts a number of the TPL's own collections and indexes, including a digitized version of Toronto City Directories from 1797 to 1900 (up to 1877 now available); Archindont (Architectural Index for Ontario), an index of print articles and books on buildings and architecture in Ontario; and of course, the library's online catalog.

300

When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

301

Reference for radiographic film interpreters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

Austin, D. L.

1970-01-01

302

Early Childhood Development Reference Guide  

E-print Network

Early Childhood Development Reference Guide provided by Public Relations and Communications #12;2 #12;Early Childhood Development Reference Guide provided by Public Relations and Communications Sandia National Laboratories This guide provides activities and web resources to assist parents and families

Fuerschbach, Phillip

303

Technostress and the Reference Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines "technostress" as the stress experienced by reference librarians who must constantly deal with the demands of new information technology and the changes they produce in the work place. Discussion includes suggested ways in which both organizations and individuals can work to reduce stress. (27 references) (LAE)

Kupersmith, John

1992-01-01

304

Moving Reference to the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the possibility of using Web contact center software to offer reference assistance to remote users. Discusses a project by the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System/Santiago Library System consortium to test contact center software and to develop a virtual reference network. (Author/LRW)

McGlamery, Susan; Coffman, Steve

2000-01-01

305

Referent Tracking and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referent tracking (RT) is a new paradigm, based on unique identification, for representing and keeping track of particulars. It was first introduced to support the entry and retrieval of data in electronic health records (EHRs). Its purpose is to avoid the ambiguity that arises when statements in an EHR refer to lesions, disorders, and other entities on the side of

Werner Ceusters; Barry Smith

2007-01-01

306

Reference Service in Law Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten law librarians, at one private and three academic law libraries, were studied to ascertain what types of reference services they provide to their patrons. The current model employed in public libraries today was used as the baseline against which to measure these legal reference services. This model employs five traditional categories of:…

Sasala, Kathleen M.

307

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

1976-01-01

308

Pointing to potential reference areas to assess soil mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Several have been performed to evaluate the mutagenicity of soil samples in urban and industrial areas. The use of uncontaminated reference areas has been an obstacle to the study of environmental mutagenesis. The study aimed to indicate a methodology to define reference areas in studies of environmental contamination based on "Ambient Background Concentration" of metallic elements associated with the Salmonella/microsome assay. We looked at three potential reference areas, two of them close by the industrial sources of contamination (São Jerônimo reference, near the coal-fired power plant, and Triunfo reference, near the wood preservative plant), but not directly influenced by them and an area located inside a protected area (Itapuã reference). We also carried out chemical analyses of some metals to plot the metal profile of these potential reference areas and define basal levels of these metals in the soils. After examining the mutagenicity of the inorganic extracts using strains TA98, TA97a, and TA100, in the presence and absence of S9 mix, we indicated the São Jerônimo reference and the Itapuã reference as two sites that could be used in future studies of mutagenicity of soils in southern Brazil. The association between a mutagenicity bioassay and the "Ambient Background Concentration" seems to be a useful method to indicate the reference areas in studies of contamination by environmental mutagens, where these results were corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis. PMID:25410310

Meyer, D D; Da Silva, F M R; Souza, J W M; Pohren, R S; Rocha, J A V; Vargas, V M F

2015-04-01

309

Water level gauge for a nuclear reactor  

SciTech Connect

A water level gauge for a nuclear reactor includes heat conduction means for absorbing and conducting heat to the outside of the drywell, the heat being supplied to reference water head water inside a reference water head tube defining a reference water level inside a reference water level container, and to water inside a lower part pressure pipe connecting a nuclear reactor pressure vessel with a differential pressure detector. The water level gauge further includes heat exchanger for removing the heat. With this device, the water level of the nuclear reactor may be correctly detected even in the case of leakage accident of the coolant of the nuclear reactor.

Morooka, S.

1983-07-19

310

Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

Dimbylow, Peter

2005-09-01

311

Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

312

Multi-reference vibration correlation methods  

SciTech Connect

State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene.

Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-02-14

313

Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.  

PubMed

The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level. PMID:20640222

Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

2010-06-01

314

Genetics Home Reference: Essential pentosuria  

MedlinePLUS

... cell ; deficiency ; dehydrogenase ; gene ; glucose ; inherited ; metabolism ; molecule ; population ; protein ; recessive You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

315

Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease  

MedlinePLUS

... inheritance pattern ; kinase ; lymph ; lymph node ; mucocutaneous ; mucosa ; population ; predisposition ; syndrome ; tissue ; virus You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

316

Genetics Home Reference: Lynch syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... familial ; gallbladder ; gene ; hereditary ; inherit ; inherited ; intestine ; neoplasms ; population ; rectum ; stomach ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

317

OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number  

E-print Network

-exempt 501(c)(3) organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. Thank youAlumni Fund Donation Form. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number: Thank you for supporting Sheffield

Dixon, Peter

318

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

Eitzen, D. G.

1975-01-01

319

Space Station reference configuration description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

1984-01-01

320

Circuit and method for producing a flexible reference voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible reference voltage circuit includes a circuit for producing a first digital signal representative of a range of reference voltage levels; a circuit for producing a second digital signal representative of a selected reference voltage level within the range of reference voltage levels; an adder for adding the first and second digital signals to produce a third digital signal; and a digital to analog converter for providing an output voltage in response to the third digital signal. The method of producing a flexible reference voltage performed by the circuit is also claimed. The invention can be used with a differential protection circuit to provide a series of trip level ranges, with a series of selectable trip levels in each range. This is accomplished in a high accuracy circuit which is relatively simple to construct, thereby minimizing size and complexity of the current sensor module, in differential protection applications, or the circuitry, if used in a power system controller. Standard digital logic components can be used to perform the necessary range/level decoding.

Thornton, Roger D. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

321

References  

E-print Network

Committee on Coordination/Standing Committee on Nutrition). 2004. Fifth report on the world nutrition situation: Nutrition for improved development outcomes. Geneva. ———. 2000. Fourth report on the world nutrition situation. Geneva: ACC/SCN in collaboration with IFPRI.

Development Series No; Nutrition Policy; H. Alderman; J. Hoddinott; T. Palmer; C. Johnson-welch

322

Reference  

E-print Network

TABLE VI. Volume units for liquids in litres Original values from Table VII in Ricard [1781]: number of units per Amsterdam aam (awn) and cubic inches of France per unit. Litres per unit estimated from the value of one aam in Amsterdam according to Doursther [1840, p. 5

Litres Per

323

Reference and Reference Failures. Technical Report No. 398.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to build robust natural language processing systems that can detect and recover from miscommunication, the investigation of how people communicate and how they recover from problems in communication described in this artificial intelligence report focused on reference problems which a listener may have in determining what or whom a…

Goodman, Bradley A.

324

Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

325

General Reference Tools, Subject Reference Tools in Science and Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication reproduces 87 frames from a computer assisted instruction program designed as a course for library science students or as a refresher course for experienced reference librarians. It is noted that the program itself is run on an Apple II microcomputer and takes about 45 minutes to complete. The frames reproduced present information…

Moseley, James L.

326

The Virtual Reference Librarian: Using Desktop Videoconferencing for Distance Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for Business Information and the Goizueta Business School at Emory University (Georgia) tested desktop videoconferencing as a means to deliver reference services, including consultation, documentation, training, and sharing of CD-ROM databases. Provides a brief overview of the technology, describes project beta testing, and discusses…

Pagell, Ruth A.

1996-01-01

327

SMCA-08-12-0460 1 Abstract--Reference models are an important aid for business  

E-print Network

configurable reference models (C-EPC). These models provide explicit reuse guidance, but allow a limited level by comparing it to C-EPC, a leading approach for reference modeling and reuse, in terms of expressiveness EPC (C-EPC) [16], facilitates configuration of reference models for a specific business process

Reinhartz-Berger, Iris

328

Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y50th, 3y50th, 5y50th, 7y50th, and 20y50th. The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y10th, 5y10th, and 20y10th with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg-1, was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

2012-05-01

329

Photometry of astrometric reference stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UBVRI, DDO, and uvby, H-beta photometry of astrometric reference stars is presented. Spectral types and luminosity classifications made from the colors are used to determine their spectroscopic parallaxes. In this paper, colors for 309 stars in 25 regions are given, and classifications for 210 stars have been made. These stars form reference frames in the Allegheny Observatory Multichannel Astrometric Photometer astrometric program, and in the Praesepe cluster reduced by Russell (1976). It is found that the present photometric spectral types are reliable to within 2.5 spectral subclasses.

Castelaz, Michael W.; Persinger, Tim; Stein, John W.; Prosser, James; Powell, Harry D.

1991-01-01

330

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

331

Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

332

Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

333

Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

334

Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

335

Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

336

Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

Penner, Katherine

2011-01-01

337

Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

338

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference  

E-print Network

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 3221. II. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to provide an environment free from potential fire that they would be able to assist University safety personnel in the prevention, recognition, and mitigation

de Lijser, Peter

339

Human Rights: The Essential Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

340

A Geomagnetic Reference Error Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy of geomagnetic field models, such as the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) and the World Magnetic Model (WMM), has benefitted tremendously from the ongoing series of satellite magnetic missions. However, what do we mean by accuracy? When comparing a geomagnetic reference model with a magnetic field measurement (for example of an electronic compass), three contributions play a role: (1) The instrument error, which is not subject of this discussion, (2) the error of commission, namely the error of the model coefficients themselves in representing the geomagnetic main field, and (3) the error of omission, comprising contributions to the geomagnetic field which are not represented in the reference model. The latter can further be subdivided into the omission of the crustal field and the omission of the disturbance field. Several factors have a strong influence on these errors: The error of commission primarily depends on the time elapsed since the last update of the reference model. The omission error for the crustal field depends on altitude of the measurement, while the omission error for the disturbance field has a strong latitudinal dependence, peaking under the auroral electrojets. A further complication arises for the uncertainty in magnetic declination, which is directly dependent on the strength of the horizontal field. Here, we present an error model which takes all of these factors into account. This error model will be implemented as an online-calculator, providing the uncertainty of the magnetic elements at the entered location and time.

Maus, S.; Woods, A. J.; Nair, M. C.

2011-12-01

341

The Dexter Hypertext Reference Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1989-01-01

342

The Dexter hypertext reference model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Dexter hypertext reference model. The Dexter model is an attempt to capture, both formally and informally, the important abstractions found in a wide range of existing and future hypertext systems. The goal of the model is to provide a principled basis for comparing systems as well as for developing interchange and interoperability standards. The model is

Frank G. Halasz; Mayer D. Schwartz

1994-01-01

343

Reference Point Marking in Emai.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Semantic noun classes in Emai, an Edoid language of Nigeria, are examined with respect to a process of Reference Point Marking (RPM) in order to explore the relationship between discourse and lexical semantics. Across pre- and post-verbal positions subcategorized by verbs like "rere" ("to be far"), these classes are shown to attract RPM in a…

Schaefer, Ronald P.

344

Birth weight references for twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We sought to formulate fetal and birth weight references for twins from longitudinal data. Study Design: This historic cohort study was based on 1831 pregnancies of twins born alive at ?28 weeks’ gestation from Baltimore, Maryland; Miami, Florida; Charleston, South Carolina; and Ann Arbor, Michigan. Results: When we compared singletons and twins, the percentiles of twins fell substantially below

Sung-Joon Min; Barbara Luke; Brenda Gillespie; Linda Min; Roger B. Newman; Jill G. Mauldin; Frank R. Witter; Fawwaz A. Salman; Mary Jo O’Sullivan

2000-01-01

345

Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a list of materials available for postal delivery, including: Icelandic basalt, Massachusetts marine sediment, Virginia diabase, Wyoming shale, etc. The size and content of each sample, descriptions of the location the reference material is taken from, and total element concentrations are given.

346

Selected Reference Books of 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

McIlvaine, Eileen

1993-01-01

347

A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF BENGALI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS PRODUCED FOR THE BENGALI LANGUAGE. THE WORK CONTAINS CHAPTERS ON--(1) SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, (2) HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE, (3) SOURCES OF LEXICAL ITEMS, (4) ORTHOGRAPHY, (5) PHONOLOGY, (6) NOUN INFLECTIONS, (7) VERBS, (8) POSTPOSITIONS, (9) ENCLITICS, (10) NUMERALS, (11) NEGATION, (12) FORMATIVE AFFIXES IN…

RAY, PUNYA SLOKA; AND OTHERS

348

Reference 2001: A Director's Admonitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the professional roles and responsibilities as well as opportunities and challenges facing academic reference librarians in light of new technology. Discusses services to undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty; empowering users; library instruction; information literacy; information technology; electronic information; building…

Seal, Robert A.

2001-01-01

349

The Dynamics of Reference Librarianship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reference environment is constantly changing and hence there is a growing concern for improving the quality of service. Job specific training is an important and viable option for improving these services. This training should be organized and continuing. Basic steps for such a program include (1) providing a positive environment for learning (2) initiating a good orientation program, (3)

Karen Y. Stabler

1990-01-01

350

Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the history of science in America from the viewpoint of access to sources. Considered are a number of specific bibliographic and other reference works, as well as important recent projects and developments that aim to preserve and improve access to archival and other documentation and historical data for future use. (JN)

Elliott, Clark A.

1985-01-01

351

Voice Over IP Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of architectural specifications, network and signaling protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP. Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. There is also a collection of documents containing VoIP references, and in this sections, visitors will find an H.323 tutorial.

352

Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.  

PubMed

Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and have therefore reached high level of attention for safeguards authorities. Furthermore, IRMM initiated and coordinated the development of a Modified Total Evaporation (MTE) technique for accurate abundance ratio measurements of the "minor" isotope-amount ratios of uranium and plutonium in nuclear material and, in combination with a multi-dynamic measurement technique and filament carburization, in environmental samples. Currently IRMM is engaged in a study on the development of plutonium reference materials for "age dating", i.e. determination of the time elapsed since the last separation of plutonium from its daughter nuclides. The decay of a radioactive parent isotope and the build-up of a corresponding amount of daughter nuclide serve as chronometer to calculate the age of a nuclear material. There are no such certified reference materials available yet. PMID:23507450

Jakopi?, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

2013-11-01

353

In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.  

PubMed

In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. PMID:22271226

Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

2012-09-01

354

Levels of maternal care.  

PubMed

In the 1970s, studies demonstrated that timely access to risk-appropriate neonatal and obstetric care could reduce perinatal mortality. Since the publication of the Toward Improving the Outcome of Pregnancy report, more than 3 decades ago, the conceptual framework of regionalization of care of the woman and the newborn has been gradually separated with recent focus almost entirely on the newborn. In this current document, maternal care refers to all aspects of antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum care of the pregnant woman. The proposed classification system for levels of maternal care pertains to birth centers, basic care (level I), specialty care (level II), subspecialty care (level III), and regional perinatal health care centers (level IV). The goal of regionalized maternal care is for pregnant women at high risk to receive care in facilities that are prepared to provide the required level of specialized care, thereby reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. PMID:25620372

Menard, M Kathryn; Kilpatrick, Sarah; Saade, George; Hollier, Lisa M; Joseph, Gerald F; Barfield, Wanda; Callaghan, William; Jennings, John; Conry, Jeanne

2015-03-01

355

Extracting task-level parallelism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic detection of task-level parallelism (also referred to as functional, DAG, unstructured, or thread parallelism) at various levels of program granularity is becoming increasingly important for parallelizing and back-end compilers. Parallelizing compilers detect iteration-level or coarser granularity parallelism which is suitable for parallel computers; detection of parallelism at the statement-or operation-level is essential for most modern microprocessors, including superscalar and

Milind Girkar; Constantine D. Polychronopoulos

1995-01-01

356

Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.  

PubMed

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-12-01

357

Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

2013-01-01

358

Frames of Reference: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Velocity and acceleration always need to be measured relative to some fixed benchmarks, which define a frame of reference. The first section of this resource, The Aberration of Starlight, shows that two frames of reference moving relative to each other with a constant velocity are completely equivalent, and the same laws hold in both. However, this section describes how the motion of the Earth modifies the apparent positions of stars and the arrival direction of the solar wind. There is information about the aberration of starlight and its explanation by James Bradley, who used his observation of the flag on a moving boat as the essential clue. In addition, the student will learn about the aberration of the solar wind and the behavior of comet tails and also about the proposed Solar Probe space mission. The second section contains a brief non-mathematical discussion of the theory of relativity.

David Stern

359

Reference Material for Seebeck Coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a measurement method and a measuring system to determine absolute Seebeck coefficients of thermoelectric bulk materials with the aim of establishing reference materials for Seebeck coefficients. Reference materials with known thermoelectric properties are essential to allow a reliable benchmarking of different thermoelectric materials for application in thermoelectric generators to convert thermal into electrical energy or vice versa. A temperature gradient (1 to 8) K is induced across the sample, and the resulting voltage is measured by using two differential Au/Pt thermocouples. On the basis of the known absolute Seebeck coefficients of Au and Pt, the unknown Seebeck coefficient of the sample is calculated. The measurements are performed in inert atmospheres and at low pressure (30 to 60) mbar in the temperature range between 300 K and 860 K. The measurement results of the Seebeck coefficients of metallic and semiconducting samples are presented. Achievable relative measurement uncertainties of the Seebeck coefficient are on the order of a few percent.

Edler, F.; Lenz, E.; Haupt, S.

2015-03-01

360

National Software Reference Library (NSRL)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

361

The Consumption of Reference Resources  

E-print Network

Under the operational restriction of the U(1)-superselection rule, states that contain coherences between eigenstates of particle number constitute a resource. Such resources can be used to facilitate operations upon systems that otherwise cannot be performed. However, the process of doing this consumes reference resources. We show this explicitly for an example of a unitary operation that is forbidden by the U(1)-superselection rule.

G. A. White; J. A. Vaccaro; H. M. Wiseman

2008-11-22

362

HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-18

363

HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-29

364

Advanced Physics: Rotating Reference Frames  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A ball is shown on a rotating merry-go-round with a frictionless surface. The ball starts at the center of the merry-go-round and moves outward at a constant speed. Views from two reference frames are shown, one where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the ground and the other (shown above) where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the merry-go-round.

Wolfgang Christian

365

Rapidly quantifying reference conditions in modified landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference conditions remain widely used as a benchmark for ecosystem management, but there remains conjecture about the definition of the reference state. Many techniques used to predict reference conditions are difficult to apply operationally because they are resource-intensive, subjective, or applicable for a limited suite of environmental variables or over a narrow range of environmental variation. We defined the reference

Philip Gibbons; S. V. Briggs; Danielle A. Ayers; Stuart Doyle; Julian Seddon; Chris McElhinny; Nigel Jones; Rachel Sims; J. Sean Doody

2008-01-01

366

Building and Maintaining Digital Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital reference services that provide subject expertise and information referral over the Internet to their users. Describes the history of digital reference, how digital reference services work, and explains a six-step process for building and maintaining digital reference services, including training, planning, and evaluating. (LRW)

Wasik, Joann M.

2000-01-01

367

The Art of Collection Development: Reference Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses selecting for a reference collection, creative budgeting, cutting a deal, collection awareness (strengths/needs), Web site reviews, R-Net (reviews from diverse areas and institutions), and print vs. electronic reference products. Reference librarian adhere to high standards for reference book and Web sites, teach assessment techniques,…

Schmitt, John P.

1998-01-01

368

SAR calculations from 20 MHz to 6 GHz in the University of Florida newborn voxel phantom and their implications for dosimetry  

PubMed Central

This paper presents Finite-Difference Time-Domain, FDTD calculations of SAR in the University of Florida newborn female model. The newborn model is based upon a surface representation of the organs of the body, using non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, NURBS. The surface model can then be converted into voxels at any resolution required. This flexibility allows the preparation of voxel models at 2-, 1- and 0.5 mm to investigate the effect of resolution on dispersion and the choice of SAR averaging algorithms as the frequency increases up to 6 GHz. The added advantage of the newborn model is that it is relatively small and so FDTD calculations can be made tractable at the very fine resolution of 0.5 mm. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on whole-body averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure. At 250 MHz, the whole body resonance, the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The reference level is also breached in the range 700 to 2450 MHz by all of the irradiation geometries considered. PMID:20157229

Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley; Lee, Choonsik

2014-01-01

369

Reference genes in real-time PCR.  

PubMed

This paper aims to discuss various aspects of the use of reference genes in qPCR technique used in the thousands of present studies. Most frequently, these are housekeeping genes and they must meet several criteria so that they can lay claim to the name. Lots of papers report that in different conditions, for different organisms and even tissues the basic assumption—the constant level of the expression is not maintained for many genes that seem to be perfect candidates. Moreover, their transcription can not be affected by experimental factors. Sounds simple and clear but a great number of designed protocols and lack of consistency among them brings confusion on how to perform experiment properly. Since during selection of the most stable normalizing gene we can not use any reference gene, different ways and algorithms for their selection were developed. Such methods, including examples of best normalizing genes in some specific cases and possible mistakes are presented based on available sources. Numerous examples of reference genes applications, which are usually in too few numbers in relevant articles not allowing to make a solid fundament for a reader, will be shown along with instructive compilations to make an evidence for presented statements and an arrangement of future qPCR experiments. To include all the pitfalls and problems associated with the normalization methods there is no way not to begin from sample preparation and its storage going through candidate gene selection, primer design and statistical analysis. This is important because numerous short reviews available cover the topic only in lesser extent at the same time giving the reader false conviction of complete topic recognition. PMID:24078518

Kozera, Bart?omiej; Rapacz, Marcin

2013-11-01

370

Mass storage system reference model, Version 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

Coleman, Sam (editor); Miller, Steve (editor)

1993-01-01

371

APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX…

Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

372

General symptom reporting in female fibromyalgia patients and referents: a population-based case-referent study  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and palpation tenderness. In addition to these classic symptoms, fibromyalgia patients tend to report a number of other complaints. What these other complaints are and how often they are reported as compared with related referents from the general population is not very well known. We therefore hypothesized that subjects with fibromyalgia report more of a wide range of symptoms as compared with referents of the same sex and age from the general population. Methods 138 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia in primary health care and 401 referents from the general population matched to the cases by sex, age and residential area responded to a postal questionnaire where information on marital status, education, occupational status, income level, immigrant status, smoking habits physical activity, height and weight history and the prevalence of 42 defined symptoms was sought. Results The cases had lower educational and income levels, were more often unemployed, on sick leave or on disability pension and were more often first generation immigrants than the referents. They were also heavier, shorter and more often had a history of excessive food intake and excessive weight loss. When these differences were taken into account, cases reported not only significantly more presumed fibromyalgia symptoms but also significantly more of general symptoms than the referents. The distribution of symptoms was similar in subjects with fibromyalgia and referents, indicating a generally higher symptom reporting level among the former. Conclusion Subjects with fibromyalgia had a high prevalence of reported general symptoms than referents. Some of these differences may be a consequence of the disorder while others may reflect etiological processes. PMID:19878599

Björkegren, Karin; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Johansson, Saga; Svärdsudd, Kurt

2009-01-01

373

open to below [reference area  

E-print Network

Feodorov Meat Vision (2000) John Feodorov Happy Hunting Ground (1997) Contemporary Native American Art Smith Rescue (2002) Juane Quick to See Smith Humor (1996) Juane Quick to See Smith Wisdom (1996) John][carrels] [study tables] studentstudyrooms staff area [study tables] Upper Level Lower Level John Feodorov Coyote

Queitsch, Christine

374

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28

375

PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference  

SciTech Connect

The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

Dobos, A. P.

2013-10-01

376

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service contains information for "anyone interested in crime, victim assistance, and public safety." Given the outstanding collection of criminal and juvenile justice data held in the NCJRS Abstracts Database, this site should be one of the first tools used to answer criminal justice queries. The NCJRS Abstracts Database holds over 185,000 entries from within the U.S. and around the world. The Question and Answers link on the site allows the user to formulate a question and provides quick and helpful answers. Sponsored by several Federal organizations, this site holds the most up-to-date information in the field of criminal justice and corrections.

377

Reference-assisted chromosome assembly.  

PubMed

One of the most difficult problems in modern genomics is the assembly of full-length chromosomes using next generation sequencing (NGS) data. To address this problem, we developed "reference-assisted chromosome assembly" (RACA), an algorithm to reliably order and orient sequence scaffolds generated by NGS and assemblers into longer chromosomal fragments using comparative genome information and paired-end reads. Evaluation of results using simulated and real genome assemblies indicates that our approach can substantially improve genomes generated by a wide variety of de novo assemblers if a good reference assembly of a closely related species and outgroup genomes are available. We used RACA to reconstruct 60 Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) chromosome fragments from 1,434 SOAPdenovo sequence scaffolds, of which 16 chromosome fragments were homologous to complete cattle chromosomes. Experimental validation by PCR showed that predictions made by RACA are highly accurate. Our results indicate that RACA will significantly facilitate the study of chromosome evolution and genome rearrangements for the large number of genomes being sequenced by NGS that do not have a genetic or physical map. PMID:23307812

Kim, Jaebum; Larkin, Denis M; Cai, Qingle; Asan; Zhang, Yongfen; Ge, Ri-Li; Auvil, Loretta; Capitanu, Boris; Zhang, Guojie; Lewin, Harris A; Ma, Jian

2013-01-29

378

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

379

Nuclear structure references coding manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Structure References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file, are outlined. The structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major topics for which (KEYWORDS) are prepared are ennumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of (KEYNO ), generation of (SELECTRS) and linkage characteristics are also given. A brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors submitting articles to Journals which require Keyword abstracts should follow the illustrations. The scope of the literature covered at NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc. is discussed. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc. is given.

Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1984-02-01

380

Nuclear science references coding manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1996-08-01

381

High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

Green, K. N.; van Alstine, R. L.

382

REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

Langton, C

2009-01-06

383

Genetics Home Reference: Mabry syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... features, increased levels of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase in the blood (hyperphosphatasia), and other signs and ... syndrome. There are many different types of alkaline phosphatase found in tissues; the type that is increased ...

384

Magnetic-heading reference device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inexpensive and reliable device is used in conjunction with fluidic-electronic wing-leveler system. Single magnetometer is placed so pilot can make adjustments in aircraft heading simply by rotating magnetometer itself.

Garner, H. D.

1974-01-01

385

Genetics Home Reference: Menkes syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome? Menkes syndrome is a disorder that affects copper levels in the body. It is characterized by ... not live past age 3. Early treatment with copper may improve the prognosis in some affected individuals. ...

386

Genetics Home Reference: Primary hyperoxaluria  

MedlinePLUS

... Normally, glyoxylate is converted to the amino acid glycine or to a compound called glycolate through the ... enzymes, which prevents the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine or glycolate. As levels of glyoxylate build up, ...

387

Genetics Home Reference: Canavan disease  

MedlinePLUS

... infantile form of Canavan disease severely impair the enzyme's activity, allowing NAA to build up to high levels ... of the disorder have milder effects on the enzyme's activity, leading to less accumulation of NAA. An excess ...

388

The Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B; Singh, B; Totans, J

2013-01-01

389

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource "offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide." They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. Visitors who know what they are looking for may wish to start with the "A-Z Publications/Products" area and may also wish to sign up for their biweekly email newsletter, JustInfo. The homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, new reports on improving responses to people with mental illnesses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Those persons looking for grants and funding opportunities will definitely want to look over a special section dedicated to providing information on hundreds of different programs.

2008-01-01

390

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

2001-01-01

391

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

2001-01-01

392

Computational Science Education Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Science Education Reference Desk (CSERD) is part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and it receives funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The aim of the CSERD is "to help students learn about computational science and to help faculty and teachers incorporate it into the classroom." First-time visitors can learn more in the "Getting Started" area and they can also sign up to create their own account to store various resources for future use. Users can dive right in by clicking on the "Featured Collection" on the left-hand side of the page and there's even a "featured Virtual Manipulative" that's worth a look. The site also contains a special area for students ("For Students") and one "For Educators" that includes information about upcoming educational workshops. Also, the Journal of Computational Science Education is worth a look as well. Finally, educators are also encouraged to submit their own resources for inclusion within the CSERD's metadata catalog.

393

Very preliminary reference Moon model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep structure of the Moon is a missing piece to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Despite the great amount of information brought by the Apollo passive seismic experiment (ALSEP), the lunar structure below deep moonquakes, which occur around 900 km depth, remains largely unknown. We construct a reference Moon model which incorporates physical constraints, and fits both geodesic (lunar mass and polar moment of inertia, and Love numbers) and seismological (body wave arrivals measured by Apollo network) data. In this model, the core radius is constrained by the detection of S waves reflected from the core. In a first step, for each core radius, a radial model of the lunar interior, including P and S wave velocities and density, is inverted from seismic and geodesic data. In a second step, the core radius is determined from the detection of shear waves reflected on the lunar core by waveform stacking of deep moonquake Apollo records. This detection has been made possible by careful data selection and processing, including a correction of the gain of horizontal sensors based on the principle of energy equipartition inside the coda of lunar seismic records, and a precise alignment of SH waveforms by a non-linear inversion method. The Very Preliminary REference MOON model (VPREMOON) obtained here has a core radius of 380 ± 40 km and an average core mass density of 5200 ± 1000 kg/m 3. The large error bars on these estimates are due to the poorly constrained S-wave velocity profile at the base of the mantle and to mislocation errors of deep moonquakes. The detection of horizontally polarized S waves reflected from the core and the absence of detection of vertically polarized S waves favour a liquid state in the outermost part of the core. All these results are consistent, within their error bars, with previous estimates based on lunar rotation dissipation ( Williams et al., 2001) and on lunar induced magnetic moment ( Hood et al., 1999).

Garcia, Raphaël F.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Chevrot, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe

2011-09-01

394

DTP Reference Guide for New Users  

Cancer.gov

DTP Reference Guide for New Users Home Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Books/Publications Site Search Data Search What's New Quick Reference Guide Where do I go if I need Funding Samples for my research Individual compounds, compound

395

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

Welcome to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 ... search program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, ...

396

Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Tay-Sachs disease? ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

397

Genetics Home Reference: Focal dermal hypoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding focal dermal hypoplasia? anophthalmia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

398

Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Brooke-Spiegler syndrome? apoptosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

399

Genetics Home Reference: Infantile systemic hyalinosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding infantile systemic hyalinosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

400

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding juvenile hyaline fibromatosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

401

Genetics Home Reference: 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria? aciduria ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

402

Genetics Home Reference: Potocki-Shaffer syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Potocki-Shaffer syndrome? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

403

Genetics Home Reference: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding epidermolysis bullosa simplex? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

404

Genetics Home Reference: Giant congenital melanocytic nevus  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding giant congenital melanocytic nevus? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

405

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary multiple exostoses  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary multiple exostoses? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

406

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

407

Investigating Motion: Understanding Frame of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students observe and describe motion from different frames of reference and measure the time for the motion. They analyze their findings and develop a working definition of "frame of reference".

408

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2011-07-01

409

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2013-07-01

410

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2012-07-01

411

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2014-07-01

412

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2014-04-01

413

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2011-04-01

414

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2012-04-01

415

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2013-04-01

416

Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

2007-01-01

417

40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reference materials. 94.5 Section...CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM...5 Reference materials. We...Fuels and Aviation Turbine Fuels by Supercritical...94.5—IMO Materials Document No...Technical Code on Control of Emission of...

2010-07-01

418

Native Languages Archives Repository Reference Guide  

E-print Network

#12;Native Languages Archives Repository Project Reference Guide #12;REFERENCE GUIDE SUMMARY Guide ­ Native Language Preservation, Establishing Archives and Repositories - was produced with funding deterioration of any kind to records or materials. The old lines between archives, libraries, museums

Wagner, Diane

419

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2010-07-01

420

Referred muscle pain: Clinical and pathophysiologic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referred pain, that is, pain perceived in an area other than that in which the noxious stimulation takes place, is very frequent\\u000a in the clinical setting. There are various forms of referred muscle pain from viscera and from somatic structures. Examples\\u000a of the latter are referred pain from one muscle to another muscle (as in myofascial pain syndromes) and referred

Leonardo Vecchiet; Jacopo Vecchiet; Maria Adele Giamberardino

1999-01-01

421

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

PetroDynamics Inc.

422

A micromechanical DC-voltage reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prototype of a novel DC voltage reference has been constructed. A characteristic voltage of an electrostatically actuated micromechanical silicon device provides the reference voltage. Its stability relies on elastic properties of monocrystalline silicon. The device is suited for batch fabrication and may prove more stable than Zener voltage references

A. S. Oja; J. Kyynarainen; H. Seppa; T. Lampola

2000-01-01

423

Frames of Reference in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

Grossman, Joshua

2012-01-01

424

A Reference Architecture for Situated Multiagent Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reference architecture integrates a set of architectural pat- terns that have proven their value for a family of applications. Such fam- ily of applications is characterized by specific functionality and quality requirements. A reference architecture provides a blueprint for develop- ing software architectures for applications that share that common base. As such, a reference architecture provides a means for

Danny Weyns; Tom Holvoet

2006-01-01

425

Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

Zheng, Liange; Jové Colon, Carlos; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-08-08

426

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository  

SciTech Connect

One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the syst

NA

2000-10-07

427

Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

2012-01-01

428

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

2004-01-01

429

Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

430

A reference architecture for telemonitoring.  

PubMed

The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme). PMID:15747944

Clarke, Malcolm

2004-01-01

431

Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-05-23

432

High level nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

Crandall, J L

1980-01-01

433

Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene. PMID:25345678

Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

2014-01-01

434

Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division is presented in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. The article examines ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies, and makes recommendations about how these strategies can be applied to the Reference Division and to Internet usage for the reference process

Sara Ryan

1996-01-01

435

Importance of Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Special Reference to Mouse Myocardial Infarction Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. Its reliability is highly dependent upon selection of the appropriate reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization. In this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes in a mouse myocardial infarction model. Methods & Results The expression stability of the 10 reference genes (Actb, B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt, Polr2a, Ppia, Rpl13a, Tbp, Tpt1) was analyzed using the geNorm software. Overall, the combination of Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 was the most stable reference gene set in our experiments. Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb consistently showed the highest gene expression variability and the expression levels of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 were found to be selectively up- or downregulated after myocardial infarction. We normalized the expression of Nppb and Vcam1, using different reference gene strategies and demonstrated that their induction after myocardial infarction was most clearly revealed with the optimal reference gene combination. However, the use of suboptimal reference gene combinations resulted in detrimental effects on gene expression levels and variability with a gradual loss of the expression differences and a significant reduction in statistical power. Conclusions Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 are a set of stably expressed reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies in mice. We found that Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb display high expression variability in mouse myocardial infarction tissues and that loss of statistical power and increase in sample size are the evident consequences of choosing suboptimal combinations of reference genes. We furthermore caution against the use of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 for gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies because of selective up- or downregulation after myocardial infarction, which could potentially lead to biased study outcomes. PMID:21858224

Everaert, Bert R.; Boulet, Gaëlle A.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

2011-01-01

436

Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse  

PubMed Central

To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

2013-01-01

437

BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

438

The NASA master directory: Quick reference guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a quick reference guide to the NASA Master Directory (MD), which is a free, online, multidisciplinary directory of space and Earth science data sets (NASA and non-NASA data) that are of potential interest to the NASA-sponsored research community. The MD contains high-level descriptions of data sets, other data systems and archives, and campaigns and projects. It provides mechanisms for searching for data sets by important criteria such as geophysical parameters, time, and spatial coverage, and provides information on ordering the data. It also provides automatic connections to a number of data systems such as the NASA Climate Data System, the Planetary Data System, the NASA Ocean Data System, the Pilot Land Data System, and others. The MD includes general information about many data systems, data centers, and coordinated data analysis projects, It represents the first major step in the Catalog Interoperability project, whose objective is to enable researchers to quickly and efficiently identify, obtain information about, and get access to space and Earth science data. The guide describes how to access, use, and exit the MD and lists its features.

Satin, Karen (editor); Kanga, Carol (editor)

1989-01-01

439

Alternative Reference Frames in River System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding environmental processes begins with mental conceptualizations of system components and interactions. Conceptualizing rivers begins with adopting one of two reference frames for observing movement: Eulerian, wherein the flux of objects is observed in a spatially bounded area, or Lagrangian, wherein specific objects are tracked through time. Mechanistic studies include Eulerian and Lagrangian data, with some negotiation of how much Eulerian and Lagrangian information may be needed to maximize the accuracy of understanding processes and the efficiency of data collection. Most studies rely on a presupposed reference frame, yet we suspect breakthroughs lurk in explicit alterations of presupposed reference frames. We analyze the importance of reference frames by contrasting the extent to which alternative reference frames have been used and combined in studies of sediment transport, fish migration, and river biogeochemistry. We show how adopting alternative or nonintuitive reference frames can facilitate novel research questions and observations, potentially triggering new research trajectories.

Martin Doyle (University of North Carolina; Department of Geography)

2009-06-01

440

Traceability, Reference Systems and Result Comparability  

PubMed Central

The standardisation of measurements is of high priority in laboratory medicine, its purpose being to achieve closer comparability of results obtained using routine measurement procedures. At present, there is international cooperation in developing reference measurement systems (reference methods, reference materials, and reference laboratory networks) for analytes of clinical significance. These reference systems will reduce, wherever possible, measurement uncertainty and promote the comparability of results. The implementation of measurement traceability through the reference system provides one of the most important tools that supports the standardisation process in laboratory medicine. It aims to achieve result comparability regardless of the measurement procedure (test kit) and the clinical laboratory where analyses are carried out. The aim of this review is to discuss some concepts related to the achievement of standardisation by the implementation of a metrologically-correct measurement system and to provide some examples that illustrate the complexity of this approach and the impact of these activities on patient care. PMID:17909614

Panteghini, Mauro

2007-01-01

441

Reference waste package environment report  

SciTech Connect

One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

Glassley, W.E.

1986-10-01

442

The preliminary SOL (Sizing and Optimization Language) reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sizing and Optimization Language, SOL, a high-level special-purpose computer language has been developed to expedite application of numerical optimization to design problems and to make the process less error-prone. This document is a reference manual for those wishing to write SOL programs. SOL is presently available for DEC VAX/VMS systems. A SOL package is available which includes the SOL compiler and runtime library routines. An overview of SOL appears in NASA TM 100565.

Lucas, Stephen H.; Scotti, Stephen J.

1989-01-01

443

Some reference problems in vertical crustal movement studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Difficulties of establishing a reference system in vertical crustal movement studies are described. The difficulties arise because of sea level changes due to variations to the Earth's gravitational field and displacements of the Earth's mass centre. These displacement cannot be determined by measurements. A possibility is indicated to exclude an influence of remote zones in Strang van Hees' formula by means of results of laser tracking of satellites.

Yurkina, M. I.

1993-12-01

444

Bisphenol A polycarbonate as a reference material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test methods require reference materials to standardize and maintain quality control. Various materials have been evaluated as possible reference materials, including a sample of bisphenol A polycarbonate without additives. Screening tests for relative toxicity under various experimental conditions were performed using male mice exposed to pyrolysis effluents over a 200-800 C temperature range. It was found that the bisphenol A polycarbonate served as a suitable reference material as it is available in large quantities, and does not significantly change with time.

Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Williams, J. B.

1977-01-01

445

A structural SVM approach for reference parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references is essential to\\u000a the affordable creation of large citation databases. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can also\\u000a provide valuable information for extracting other bibliographic data. Therefore, parsing individual reference to extract author,\\u000a title, journal, year, etc. is sometimes a necessary preprocessing step

Xiaoli Zhang; Jie Zou; Daniel X Le; George R Thoma

2011-01-01

446

Information Level and Young Children's Phonological Accuracy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of information level on the production of accuracy of 20 children was examined. Data were children's productions of nouns in sets of utterances referring to triplets of pictures representing noun-verb-noun utterances. (Author/JL)

Goffman, Lisa; And Others

1996-01-01

447

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

448

Abney Level  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A pocket instrument used in surveying which consists of a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level connected to a pointing arm and an arced scale graduated 0 to 90º in both directions. When correctly used, the Abney Level is an accurate surveying tool used to measure degrees, percent of grade and...

449

Lessons in Electric Circuits Vol V Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics. These books DC, AC, Semiconductors, Electronics, Digital, Reference, and Experiments, and all related files are published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. Chapter 1: USEFUL EQUATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Chapter 2: COLOR CODES Chapter 3: CONDUCTOR AND INSULATOR TABLES Chapter 4: ALGEBRA REFERENCE Chapter 5: TRIGONOMETRY REFERENCE Chapter 6: CALCULUS REFERENCE Chapter 7: USING THE SPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION PROGRAM Chapter 8: TROUBLESHOOTING -- THEORY AND PRACTICE Chapter 9: CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS Chapter 10: PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

450

Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

1976-01-01

451

CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

2012-05-15

452

Global Daily Reference ET Modeling and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and reliable Evapotranspiration (ET) data sets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located on selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2000, NOAA's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing 6-hourly climate parameter data sets of the input meteorological variables used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1 degree spatial resolution. USGS at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been producing daily reference ET since 2000 and the results have been used for a variety of models for drought and stream flow monitoring all over the world in an operational basis. With the increasing availability of station-based reference ET estimates over the internet, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CMIS reference ET estimates from over 120 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using the 2004 data. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs ~100 km grid) between the two data sets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.90 on a daily-basis to more than 0.98 on time scales of over 10 days. The effect of elevation in the reference ET estimation at a coarse spatial scale was also investigated. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two data sets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world.

Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Lietzow, R.

2005-12-01

453

Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues  

PubMed Central

To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

2013-01-01

454

DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY I. CHARACTERIZATION OF DATABASE AND DETERMINATION OF NO OBSERVED ADVERSE EFFECT LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicity risk assessment currently relies on the estimation of reference doses or reference concentrations based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELS) and uncertainty factors. he benchmark dose (BMD) has been proposed as an alternative basis for reference va...

455

Epistemic levels  

E-print Network

In this dissertation I defend some controversial "level-bridging" principles in epistemology. In the first chapter, I defend the KK principle-the principle that if one knows that P, then one knows that one knows that P. I ...

Greco, Daniel (Daniel Louis)

2012-01-01

456

Trophic Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy cycles in biological communities through the different trophic levels. These include producers, consumers, and decomposers. Key terms are hyperlinked so that students can easily find definitions to unfamiliar words.

2012-06-11

457

Archaeology: A Student's Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography lists reference sources for research in archaeology. It is arranged in sections by type of reference source with subsections for general works and works covering specific areas. Categorized are handbooks; directories, biographies, and museums; encyclopedias; dictionaries; atlases; guides, manuals, and surveys; bibliographies; and…

Desautels, Almuth, Comp.

458

THE ASCE STANDARDIZED REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION EQUATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the standardization of calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ET) as recommended by the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The purpose of the stan...

459

Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

460

Thermodynamics of chemical references for exergy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exergy references for chemical elements have been discussed in specialized literature for a long time, but so far these data are not included in standard handbooks. One reason is that the development of the reference system took place over many years in a rather small group of scientists; their ideas are still dominant today. Some assumptions and procedures are quite

Willem van Gool

1998-01-01

461

Guide to Children's Magazines, Newspapers, Reference Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated entries in this bibliography of publications for children are divided into two categories: magazines and newspapers, and reference books. The first section, arranged alphabetically, includes periodicals on sports, science, history, hobbies, and entertainment. The reference books are grouped under the following headings: biography,…

Madden, Peter

462

Creating an Instant Messaging Reference System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library digital reference services focuses on the features of instant messaging reference systems and the in-house development of a system that incorporates them at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Summarizes and evaluates library chat system features and compares commercial software that is available. (Author/LRW)

Fagan, Jody Condit; Calloway, Michele

2001-01-01

463

What's Wrong with Collaborative Digital Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the need for collaborative digital reference services among libraries. Discusses the lack of use among networks that have been developed, probably due to easy access to online resources; economic assumptions; setting standards for reference practice; automatic routing software; copyrights; and patron satisfaction. (LRW)

Coffman, Steve

2002-01-01

464

Live Reference: Too Much, Too Fast?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the current trend in libraries toward live, or digital, reference services. Highlights include models for reference, including synchronous versus asynchronous; benefits for users; software packages; user expectations; suitability of the technology; and determining the best service for users and their information needs. (LRW)

Janes, Joe

2002-01-01

465

Reflections on Malpractice of Reference Librarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the legal ramifications of malpractice among librarians and the possible impact on services due to fear of being sued. Topics include identification of potential malpractice areas; cooperative electronic reference services; use of reference standards; insurance; contract; disclaimer; updating library collections; using Internet resources;…

Wan, Ronglin

1994-01-01

466

Spatial reference in multiple object tracking.  

PubMed

Spatial reference in multiple object tracking is available from configurations of dynamic objects and static reference objects. In three experiments, we studied the use of spatial reference in tracking and in relocating targets after abrupt scene rotations. Observers tracked 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 targets in 3D scenes, in which white balls moved on a square floor plane. The floor plane was either visible thus providing static spatial reference or it was invisible. Without scene rotations, the configuration of dynamic objects provided sufficient spatial reference and static spatial reference was not advantageous. In contrast, with abrupt scene rotations of 20°, static spatial reference supported in relocating targets. A wireframe floor plane lacking local visual detail was as effective as a checkerboard. Individually colored geometric forms as static reference objects provided no additional benefit either, even if targets were centered on these forms at the abrupt scene rotation. Individualizing the dynamic objects themselves by color for a brief interval around the abrupt scene rotation, however, did improve performance. We conclude that attentional tracking of moving targets proceeds within dynamic configurations but detached from static local background. PMID:22246062

Jahn, Georg; Papenmeier, Frank; Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus

2012-01-01

467

Virtual Reference Transcript Analysis: A Few Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the introduction of virtual, or digital, reference service at the University of New Brunswick libraries. Highlights include analyzing transcripts from LIVE (Library Information in a Virtual Environment); reference question types; ACRL (Association of College and Research Libraries) information literacy competency standards; and the Big 6…

Smyth, Joanne

2003-01-01

468

Development of an extended straightness measurement reference  

SciTech Connect

The most accurate diamond turning machines have used physical straightness references. These references commonly are made of optical materials, such as Zerodur, and are flat enough to permit straightness measurements with an accuracy of 100--150 nm (4--6 microinches) p-v. In most cases, the flatness error is stable and can be accommodated by using a calibration table. The straightedges for the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine (LODTM) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are 1.1 meters in length and allow a straightness reference accuracy of 25--50 nm (1--2 microinches) p-v after calibration. Fabrication problems become insurmountable when a straightness reference for a length of up to 4 meters is desired. Moreover, the method of calibration by straightedge reversal does not account for gravitational sag when the sensing direction is vertical. Vertical sensing would be required in a four meter system and sag would become unacceptably large. Recent developments published in the literature suggest that the use of a laser beam for a reference may be feasible. Workers at Osaka University have reported a laser beam straightness reference that has a resolution of 3.5 nm, although tests were done only over a 200 mm length. LLNL has begun an investigation on the use of a directionally stabilized laser beam as a straightness measurement reference. The goal of the investigation is to provide a reference that is accurate to 25 nm (1 microinch) over a four meter distance. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Schenz, R.F.; Griffith, L.V. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Sommargren, G.E. (Zygo Corp., Santa Cruz, CA (USA))

1988-09-06

469

A Model of Reference-Dependent Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model that fleshes out, extends, and modifies existing models of reference dependent preferences and loss aversion while accommodating most of the evidence motivating these models. Our approach makes reference-dependent theory more broadly applicable by avoiding some of the ways that prevailing models if applied literally and without ancillary assumptions make variously weak and incorrect predictions. Our model

Botond Koszegi; Matthew Rabin

2004-01-01

470

Evaluation form Confidential Name employee Reference  

E-print Network

form Confidential Name employee Reference February 6, 2012 DPO Evaluation performance in totalEvaluation form Confidential Name employee Reference February 6, 2012 DPO Personal details Date evaluation Evaluation was made by Work contact with employee Daily Regular Occasional 1st evaluator name

Franssen, Michael

471

Economics: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately 84 reference materials on economics located in the McLennan Library, McGill University (Montreal), are cited in this annotated bibliography. The bibliography serves to provide an overview of the printed bibliographic and reference sources useful for the study of economics. Financial and business sources and statistical compendia and…

Mason, Mary, Comp.

472

Temporal Reference Frameworks and Nurses' Work Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on a qualitative study exploring registered nurses' time management in health care institutions in the United Kingdom, this article reports the findings of the research, as far as they relate to the notion of temporal reference frameworks. The research suggests that temporal reference frameworks function to form background expectancies, which are of major influence in the way in which

Susan Waterworth

2003-01-01

473

Going Prime Time with Live Chat Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of the Suffolk Cooperative Library System's live, online chat reference service, a pilot project for public libraries in Suffolk County (New York). Topics include chat software selection; a virtual reference collection; marketing; funding; staffing; evaluation; expanded hours of service; email; and extracting data from…

Hoag, Tara J.; Cichanowicz, Edana McCaffrey

2001-01-01

474

Holographic testing with a double reference beam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image of unstressed object is taken with reflected beam and one reference beam. Object is then stressed and second (double) exposure is made. Developed film plate provides double exposure hologram that can be projected by simultaneous illumination with both reference beams. Appearance of multiple images may be eliminated while manipulating fringe patterns.

Stuckenberg, F. H.

1973-01-01

475

33 CFR 242.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... References. The references in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be obtained from USACE Pub. Depot, CEIM-SP-D, 2803 52d Avenue, Hyattsville, MD 20781-1102. (a) Section 321, Public Law 101-640, 74 Stat. 500 (33...

2010-07-01

476

Reference in Library and Information Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

TECHNOLOGY HAS AFFECTED THE REFERENCE and information culture in libraries. With the increasing scope of information transfer, users have higher service expectations of library and information science profession- als. The emergence of a digital information environment has changed the century-old role of the reference professional. After the rise ofthe Inter- net, many skeptics foresaw the end of a need for

Yvonne J. Chandler

2001-01-01

477

Reference. Advisory List of Instructional Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reference books featured in this annotated bibliography were selected from those titles that publishers submitted to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction for review. As such, it is not a comprehensive list of all reference titles in print. This guide organizes the 33 titles into major subject categories: (1) Arts…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

478

a Letter of Reference Professor Brian Burtch  

E-print Network

#12;Introduction Educators are often asked to supply letters of reference for students seeking for me to write the letter, especially during peak teaching or grading times l Don t overload: e decline a letter of reference request. Why? ·Unfamiliar with student s work ·Unable to write a positive

479

A Structural SVM Approach for Reference Parsing  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEDLINE®, the flagship database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, is a critical source of information for biomedical research and clinical medicine. The automated extraction of bibliographic data, such as article titles, author names, abstracts, and references, is essential to the affordable creation of this citation database. References, typically appearing at the end of journal articles, can provide valuable

Xiaoli Zhang; Jie Zou; Daniel X. Le; George R. Thoma

2010-01-01

480

Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

2013-01-01

481

Milli-Q Reference Water Purification System  

E-print Network

Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System The reference for ultrapure water systems EMD the requirements of the most demanding norms. We've achieved all this with a new purification strategy. Water. This water is sent through a small recirculation loop to the POD pak, where a final purification step

Woodall, Jerry M.

482

User Manual Milli-Q Reference System  

E-print Network

is intended for use with a Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System. This User Manual is a guide for use during the installation, normal operation and maintenance of a Milli-Q Reference Water Purification before attempting installation, normal operation or maintenance of the Water Purification System

Woodall, Jerry M.

483

Teaching Bibliographic Reference in a Reports Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bibliographic reference is here defined as identification of documents by combinations of report numbers, accession numbers, contract numbers, personal authors, and/or corporate authors with subject. Bibliographic reference was taught to a non-professional staff member to service an uncataloged collection of scientific and technical reports. (7…

Rice, Barbara A.

1973-01-01

484

FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References  

E-print Network

-----. .. .-.-..- FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References May 2000 m us Army Corps of Engineers® #12;FLOOD PROOFING TECHNIQUES, PROGRAMS, AND REFERENCES Preface Flood proofing is an important Flood Plain Management technique that can be used to reduce flood damage to buildings

US Army Corps of Engineers

485

Genetics Home Reference: Treacher Collins syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... gene ; inheritance ; micrognathia ; molecule ; mutation ; neural crest ; palate ; pattern of inheritance ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 ...

486

Referent Salience Affects Second Language Article Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of referent salience on second language (L2) article production in real time was explored. Thai (-articles) and French (+articles) learners of English described dynamic events involving two referents, one visually cued to be more salient at the point of utterance formulation. Definiteness marking was made communicatively redundant with…

Trenkic, Danijela; Pongpairoj, Nattama

2013-01-01

487

Optical Technologies and Library Reference Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses advances in microcomputer and optical technologies and how these technologies are being integrated into library reference work. Topics discussed include training of library reference staff; library bibliographic instruction; CD-ROMs; videodiscs; hypertext; bibliographies; library catalogs, including online catalogs; indexing and…

Moscoso, Purificacion; Chen, Ching-chih

1990-01-01

488

Reference Ranges and Determinant Factors for Exhaled Nitric Oxide in a Healthy Korean Elderly Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a useful non-invasive biomarker for asthma diagnosis; however, the literature suggests that exhaled NO levels may be affected by demographic factors. The present analysis investigated determinant factors that present exhaled NO reference levels for Korean elderly adults. Methods For reference levels, we analyzed the baseline data of healthy adult participants in the Ansung cohort. The fraction of exhaled NO (FeNO) was measured by NIOX MINO®. The characterization of the subjects was performed through structured questionnaires, spirometry, and methacholine challenge tests. To validate the diagnostic utility of the determined reference levels, asthma patients were recruited from medical institutions for FeNO measurement. Results A total of 570 healthy subjects were analyzed (mean age, 59.9±12.3; male, 37.0%) for reference levels. FeNO levels significantly correlated with weight, height, body mass index, atopy, or forced expiratory volume in 1 second % predicted by simple linear regression analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis identified gender as an independent determinant for FeNO levels; subsequently, the reference values for FeNO were 18.2±10.6 ppb (5th to 95th percentile, 6.0 to 37.4 ppb) for males and 12.1±6.9 ppb (5th to 95th percentile, 2.5 to 27.0 ppb) for females. The diagnostic utility of FeNO reference levels was validated by receiver operating curve analysis (area under curve, 0.900 for males and 0.885 for females) for diagnosing asthma. The optimal cutoff values for the prediction of asthma were 30.5 ppb for males and 20.5 ppb for females. Conclusions The current analysis presented reference ranges and the diagnostic utility of FeNO levels for asthma in Korean elderly adults. PMID:25374749

Jo, Eun-Jung; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Park, Heung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Bum; Kim, Sang-Heon; Hur, Gyu-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Ho-Joo; Cho, Nam-Ho; Moon, Hee-Bom; Min, Kyung-Up

2014-01-01

489

Quantum parameter estimation with imperfect reference frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum metrology studies quantum strategies which enable us to outperform their classical counterparts. In this framework, the existence of perfect classical reference frames is usually assumed. However, such ideal reference frames might not always be available. The reference frames required in metrology strategies can either degrade or become misaligned during the estimation process. We investigate how the imperfectness of reference frames leads to noise which in general affects the ultimate precision limits in measurement of physical parameters. Moreover, since quantum parameter estimation can be phrased as a quantum communication protocol between two parties, our results provide deeper insight into quantum communication protocols with misaligned reference frames. Our framework allows for the study of noise on the efficiency of such schemes.

Šafránek, Dominik; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Fuentes, Ivette

2015-03-01

490

Spherical reference systems for nonspherical hard interactions  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented on three complex systems of hard molecules: linear triatomics, heteronuclear dumbbells, and two-component mixtures of dumbbells. In addition to studying the equation of state generated by the median potential, the Barker-Henderson reference system is also investigated and seen to give results nearly indistinguishable from those obtained from the median system. Both reference systems continue to reproduce the bulk thermodynamics of the true systems moderately well. Both reference potentials are found to be approximately additive when applied to mixtures. These results continue to suggest that either of these two reference systems may form the basis of a successful perturbation theory for fluids of nonspherical molecules. 15 references, 5 figures, 9 tables.

Williams, G.O.; Lebowitz, J.L.; Percus, J.K.

1984-12-20

491

External and body-centered frames of reference in spatial memory: evidence from touch.  

PubMed

The study reports independent effects of external and body-centered reference cues on spatial coding of an irregular sequence of haptic locations. The aim was to investigate the nature of spatial coding by using a modality that does not provide distal cues routinely. Our method isolates and combines body-centered and external spatial reference cues for irregularly placed locations, scanned along a raised-line route. Disrupting body-centered reference for the locations, by orienting the map differently to the body in the test phase than in the presentation phase, doubled errors in positioning the locations along the route in recall. Adding external reference, by giving instructions to use a surrounding frame for reference when body-centered coding was disrupted, reduced errors to near baseline (no-rotation) levels. Adding external reference cues to intact (not displaced) body-centered reference halved errors, as compared with the baseline. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that accurate spatial coding is determined by the congruence of potential reference cues from diverse sources. The new findings suggest that external and body-centered reference cues have independent additive effects on spatial coding. The sequence of locations had a significant effect in all the reference conditions, suggesting the additional use of fortuitous but distinctive local touch cues on the route. The discussion considers theoretical and practical implications of the results. PMID:15095939

Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

2004-01-01

492

1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements: References. (a) Each reference to the Code of Federal Regulations shall be in terms of the specific...contains a reference to material published in the Code shall include the Code citation as a part of the reference. (c)...

2010-01-01

493

7 CFR 300.4 - Reference Manual B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reference Manual B. 300.4 Section 300...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...REFERENCE § 300.4 Reference Manual B. (a) The Reference Manual for Seed Health...

2010-01-01

494

7 CFR 300.3 - Reference Manual A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reference Manual A. 300.3 Section 300...Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...REFERENCE § 300.3 Reference Manual A. (a) The Reference Manual for Administration,...

2010-01-01

495

Evolution or Entropy? Changing Reference\\/User Culture and the Future of Reference Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses issues that relate to the changing functional relationship between the reference librarian and the user, based on the observation that the advance of information technology, particularly the Internet, has altered the values, attitudes, and beliefs of library users, and, as a consequence, their microculture. Highlights include: the traditional reference desk; the changed reference environment, the creation of

Myoung C. Wilson

2000-01-01

496

Making Pronoun References Clear Pronouns substitute for nouns. The word a pronoun refers to is called  

E-print Network

. Jones abuses substances. The pronoun she does not refer to Nikki but refers to Nikki's case file. In Nikki's case file, Nikki describes how Ms. Jones abuses substances. C. Vague Reference: this, that the braids with ribbons. Possessives cannot serve as antecedents. In Nikki's case file, she describes how Ms

deYoung, Brad

497

Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

2008-01-01

498

Reference Communities: Applying the Community of Practice Concept to Development of Reference Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communities of practice offer reference librarians a conceptual model through which to develop and maintain general and subject specific knowledge. Reference librarians acquire general and subject-specific knowledge in many ways, sometimes independently and sometimes collaboratively. Applying the concept of the "community of practice" to reference

Miller, Robin E.

2011-01-01

499

Local reference dose evaluation in conventional radiography examinations in Iran.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) for conventional radiography examinations in Sistan-Baluchestan province of Iran, using dose area product (DAP) measurements followed by a comparison with international dose levels. DAP factor evaluation was carried out at eight radiography rooms in six public and one private health-care centers. The study employed DAP, exposure, and demographic data (weight, age, height) for 1069 patients who presented for one of the 11 routine radiography examinations: chest (AP, PA, LAT), abdomen (AP), lumbar spine (AP, LAT), pelvis (AP), skull (AP/PA, LAT), and cervical spine (AP, LAT). The data were analyzed statistically and the minimum, median, mean, maximum, and third quartile DAP values were calculated. It was observed that LDRLs for chest PA (0.26 Gy.cm²) and chest LAT (0.66 Gy.cm²) projections were up to 136% and 113% higher, respectively, than their corresponding NRPB 2005 values. Other radiographic procedures had lower recommended reference doses compared with recently recommended national reference doses published in recent NRPB reports and other studies. Wide variations in DAP values and exposure parameters were observed for similar radiographic procedures between patients in different rooms and for different patients in the same room. These and other observations, such as poor radiographic techniques, high rate of radiographic reject/repeat, and lack of modern X-ray machines and equipment, show that the need to carry out quality assurance programs is critical in Iran. PMID:24710442

Shirin Shandiz, M; Bahreyni Toosi, M T; Farsi, S; Yaghobi, K

2014-01-01

500

Reference Values of Maximal Oxygen Uptake for Polish Rowers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes’ fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the “trainability” of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19–22 years (U23 category). PMID:25713672

Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Micha?; ?adyga, Maria; D?ugo??cka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz

2014-01-01