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1

Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2011-08-01

2

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2012-04-01

3

Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

Halgamuge, Malka N

2013-05-01

4

PINEAL MELATONIN LEVEL DISRUPTION IN HUMANS DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND ICNIRP LIMITS  

E-print Network

to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. INTRODUCTION Melatonin Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii

Halgamuge, Malka N.

5

Influence of the surface averaging procedure of the current density in assessing compliance with the ICNIRP low-frequency basic restrictions by means of numerical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the calculation of the surface average of the low-frequency current density distribution over a cross-section of 1 cm2 is required by ICNIRP guidelines, no reference averaging algorithm is indicated, neither in the ICNIRP guidelines nor in the Directive 2004/40/EC that is based on them. The lack of a general standard algorithm that fulfils the ICNIRP guidelines' requirements is particularly critical in the prospective of the 2004/40/EC Directive endorsement, since the compliance to normative limits refers to well-defined procedures. In this paper, two case studies are considered, in which the calculation of the surface average is performed using a simplified approach widely used in the literature and an original averaging procedure. This analysis, aimed at quantifying the expected differences and to single out their sources, shows that the choice of the averaging algorithm represents an important source of uncertainty in the application of the guideline requirements.

Zoppetti, N.; Andreuccetti, D.

2009-08-01

6

Zero reference level for right heart catheterisation.  

PubMed

Although in the pulmonary circulation small pressure differences may alter the categorisation of patients, there is no consensus on a standard zero reference level (ZRL). In the supine position, ZRL is mostly set at "5 cm below anterior thorax surface", "1/3 thoracic diameter below anterior thorax surface", "mid-thoracic level" or "10 cm above table level". We retrospectively assessed the distance of these four ZRLs from computed tomography-derived right and left atrial centre levels and from one another in patients undergoing right heart catheterisation and calculated the respective differences in pressure readings. We included 196 consecutive patients. The ZRL at "1/3 thoracic diameter" was most often (98.5%) level with the right atrium, and the ZRL at "mid-thoracic level" was level with the left atrium (97.4%), revealing a median (range) pressure difference of -0.3 (-3.0-1.3) and 0.2 (-2.0-1.3) mmHg from the right and left atrial centre level, respectively. The largest differences (8.0 (2.0-15.4) mmHg) were found between the ZRLs "5 cm below anterior thorax surface" and "10 cm above table level". Accordingly, 59% versus 80% of patients would be classified with pulmonary hypertension and 7% versus 38% with elevated left heart pressures. The choice of ZRL strongly influences pulmonary pressure readings and pulmonary hypertension classification. 1/3 thoracic diameter mostly represents the right atrium while the left atrium is best represented by the mid-thoracic level. PMID:23794468

Kovacs, Gabor; Avian, Alexander; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst

2013-12-01

7

The role of skin conductivity in a low frequency exposure assessment for peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on numerical computations using commercially available finite difference time domain code and a state-of-the art anatomical model of a 5-year old child, the influence of skin conductivity on the induced electric field strength inside the tissue for homogeneous front-to-back magnetic field exposure and homogeneous vertical electric field exposure was computed. Both ungrounded as well as grounded conditions of the body model were considered. For electric field strengths induced inside CNS tissue the impact of skin conductivity was found to be less than 15%. However, the results demonstrated that the use of skin conductivity values as obtainable from the most widely used data base of dielectric tissue properties and recommended by safety standards are not suitable for exposure assessment with respect to peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines in which the use of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin is suggested as a conservative surrogate for peripheral nerve exposure. This is due to the fact that the skin conductivity values derived from these data bases refer to the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the skin, which does not contain any nerve or receptor cells to be protected from stimulation effects. Using these skin conductivity values which are approximately a factor 250-500 lower than skin conductivity values used in studies on which the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines are based on, may lead to overestimations of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin by substantially more than a factor of 10. However, reliable conductivity data of deeper skin layers where nerve and preceptor cells are located is very limited. It is therefore recommended to include appropriate background information in the ICNIRP guidelines and the dielectric tissue property databases, and to put some emphasis on a detailed layer-specific characterization of skin conductivity in near future.

Schmid, Gernot; Cecil, Stefan; Überbacher, Richard

2013-07-01

8

Reference level winds from balloon platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The superpressure balloon was developed to provide a method of obtaining global winds at all altitudes from 5 to 30 km. If a balloon could be made to fly for several weeks at a constant altitude, and if it could be tracked accurately on its global circuits, the balloon would provide a tag for the air parcel in which it was embedded. The Lagrangian data on the atmospheric circulation would provide a superior data input to the numerical model. The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) was initiated in large part based on the promise of this technique coupled with free-floating ocean buoys and satellite radiometers. The initial name proposed by Charney for GARP was SABABURA 'SAtellite BAlloon BUoy RAdiometric system' (Charney, 1966). However, although the superpressure balloon exceeded its designers' expectations for flight duration in the stratosphere (longest flight duration of 744 days), flight duration below 10 km was limited by icing in super-cooled clouds to a few days. The balloon was relegated to a secondary role during the GARP Special Observing Periods. The several major superpressure balloon programs for global wind measurement are described as well as those new developments which make the balloon once again an attractive vehicle for measurement of global winds as a reference and bench-mark system for future satellite systems.

Lally, Vincent E.

1985-01-01

9

Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

Lipin, R., Jr.

1971-01-01

10

Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits.  

PubMed

The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) established eye-safe exposure limits for laser light based on estimates of the 50% exposure dose (ED50) for retinal damage in animals. The ED50 has not been determined for continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) light, as may be used in instruments for spectroscopic analysis of the eye. The purpose of this study is to determine the ED50 of 785-nm light delivered by a Raman spectroscopy instrument on the retinas of pigmented rabbits, and to compare that ED50 to the ICNIRP estimates. Light of varying power was focused into the anterior chambers of rabbits for 4, 20, or 300 s. Estimates of spot size on the retina were determined by modifying the schematic rabbit eye with actual axial length and refractive error measurements. Masked examiners determined retinal burns from fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms made immediately after exposure and again 48-72 h later. Thirty-five of 86 exposed eyes had retinal burns. In 12 of these the burn was not visible until 48-72 h. In 6 the burn was visible on color photographs, but not on fluorescein angiography. The ED50 retinal power density from probit analysis was 14,513 mW cm(-2), 10,369 mW cm(-2), and 5,237 mW cm(-2) for 4-s, 20-s, and 300-s exposures, respectively. Thus, the ED50 for retinal burns from 785-nm light is approximately 7 and 7.5 times the ICNIRP permitted limits for 4- and 20-s exposures, and 5.6 times the limit for 300-s exposures. This is consistent with the ICNIRP intention to set power limits several times less than ED50. PMID:16340602

Borchert, Mark; Lambert, James; Sliney, David

2006-01-01

11

Paragraph-level Switch-reference Markers in Chickasaw Conversation  

E-print Network

Two types of switch-reference markers occur in Chickasaw. The first is a set of suffixes that indicate whether the verb in one clause has the same subject as the verb in a connected reference clause. The second is a set ...

Walker, Cynthia

1999-01-01

12

Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach  

SciTech Connect

A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

Vano, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es; Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Medical Physics (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Radiology (Spain); Verdu, J. F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Department of Radiology (Spain); Garay, M. Gonzalez de [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Radiology (Spain); Azpiazu, A. [Hospital Txagoritxu, Department of Radiology (Spain); Segarra, A. [Hospital Valle de Hebron, Department of Radiology (Spain); Hernandez, M. T. [Hospital Funacion Alcorcon, Department of Radiology (Spain); Canis, M. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Department of Radiology (Spain); Diaz, F. [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology (Spain); Moreno, F. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez (Spain); Palmero, J. [Hospital Clinico de Valencia (Spain)

2009-01-15

13

Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland  

PubMed Central

Objective To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. Methods A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDIvol and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. Results are compared with international DRL data. Results Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2–128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites. Conclusions Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations. PMID:22595497

Foley, S J; McEntee, M F; Rainford, L A

2012-01-01

14

Radiometer calibration procedure and beacon attenuation estimation reference level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objectives are to compare radiometer attenuation with beacon attenuation and to compare sky temperature estimates with calculations using simultaneous meteorological data. Secondary objectives are: (1) noise diode and reference load measurements and (2) to adjust for outside temperature and component temperature changes.

Crane, Robert K.

1994-01-01

15

Instrument quickly transposes ground reference target to eye level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical alignment of equipment is facilitated by a traverse target with a string suspending a plumb bob to transpose the ground level point to eye level operation. This instrument appreciably decreases the time required from the present method but achieves the same degree of precision.

Green, B. E.; Van Deventer, E. L.

1966-01-01

16

Reference Directions for a Sound Level Meter , M.R. Vaabenb  

E-print Network

0 and 90 Reference Directions for a Sound Level Meter E. Aflaloa , M.R. Vaabenb , P. Pourtaua , D the requirements of the IEC 61672 standard on sound level meters taking into account noise incidence from level meter must be pointed at the source according to standard IEC 60651. The purpose of the paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors.  

PubMed

This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats. PMID:9301099

Kristiansen, J; Christensen, J M; Iversen, B S; Sabbioni, E

1997-09-26

18

Establishing a regional reference indoor radon level on the basis of radon survey data.  

PubMed

The establishment of national reference levels is a new requirement of the ICRP radiological protection system. For protection against indoor radon exposure measures based on a common national reference level tend to be less effective in regions where the probability of high indoor radon concentrations is relatively low in comparison with the national average. Therefore it makes sense to establish individual indoor radon reference levels for large sub-national regions as well as for urban agglomerations separately. Analysis of indoor radon surveys of the territory, taking into account the type of building, year of construction, building material, floor and other factors influencing indoor radon concentration, provides essential and important data for defining the reference level. For Ekaterinburg, Russia it is suggested to set the reference indoor radon concentration to a level of 70 Bq m(-3) which corresponds to the 90th percentile of radon concentration in a representative group of buildings constructed in the period 1970-89, in which the lowest average indoor radon concentration was observed. PMID:23482403

Yarmoshenko, I; Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

2013-06-01

19

Reference interval and determinants of the serum homocysteine level in a Korean population.  

PubMed

In this study, we estimated the reference intervals of the serum homocysteine (Hcy) level using two automated immunoassays, and we demonstrated the effects of various factors on the Hcy level in a Korean population. We calculated the gender- and assay-specific reference intervals using the data from 809 healthy Koreans, and we assessed the effects of physiologic and lifestyle factors on the Hcy level. The upper limit was higher in males (19.21 and 19.76??mol/l) than that in females (14.99??mol/l and 15.16??mol/l, AxSym and ADVIA centaur, respectively); the upper limits were comparable between the two assays. Smokers, vitamin nonusers, and persons without regular exercise showed a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. The risk of hyperhomocysteinemia was significantly associated with the male gender (adjusted OR: 5.705, P-value: 0.008) and with the low folate level group (adjusted OR: 10.412, P-value: 0.002) on the multivariate analysis. The Hcy level was significantly different according to various factors, especially in the gender and folate level. The reference interval should be determined for each ethnic population and for each assay. The appropriate cutoff for assessing the risk for cardiovascular disease or stroke should also be validated in each population. PMID:21919064

Moon, Hee-Won; Whang, Dong Hee; Ko, Young Jin; Joo, Shin Young; Yun, Yeo-Min; Hur, Mina; Kim, Jin Q

2011-01-01

20

Determination of safety distance limits for a human near a cellular base station antenna, adopting the IEEE standard or ICNIRP guidelines.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the minimum distance for a human body in the near field of a cellular telephone base station antenna for which there is compliance with the IEEE or ICNIRP threshold values for radio frequency electromagnetic energy absorption in the human body. First, local maximum specific absorption rates (SARs), measured and averaged over volumes equivalent to 1 and to 10 g tissue within the trunk region of a physical, liquid filled shell phantom facing and irradiated by a typical GSM 900 base station antenna, were compared to corresponding calculated SAR values. The calculation used a homogeneous Visible Human body model in front of a simulated base station antenna of the same type. Both real and simulated base station antennas operated at 935 MHz. Antenna-body distances were between 1 and 65 cm. The agreement between measurements and calculations was excellent. This gave confidence in the subsequent calculated SAR values for the heterogeneous Visible Human model, for which each tissue was assigned the currently accepted values for permittivity and conductivity at 935 MHz. Calculated SAR values within the trunk of the body were found to be about double those for the homogeneous case. When the IEEE standard and the ICNIRP guidelines are both to be complied with, the local SAR averaged over 1 g tissue was found to be the determining parameter. Emitted power values from the antenna that produced the maximum SAR value over 1 g specified in the IEEE standard at the base station are less than those needed to reach the ICNIRP threshold specified for the local SAR averaged over 10 g. For the GSM base station antenna investigated here operating at 935 MHz with 40 W emitted power, the model indicates that the human body should not be closer to the antenna than 18 cm for controlled environment exposure, or about 95 cm for uncontrolled environment exposure. These safe distance limits are for SARs averaged over 1 g tissue. The corresponding safety distance limits under the ICNIRP guidelines for SAR taken over 10 g tissue are 5 cm for occupational exposure and about 75 cm for general-public exposure. PMID:12210561

Cooper, Justin; Marx, Bernd; Buhl, Johannes; Hombach, Volker

2002-09-01

21

Reference gene selection for cross-species and cross-ploidy level comparisons in Chrysanthemum spp.  

PubMed Central

The establishment of a (set of) stably expressed reference gene(s) is required to normalize transcription data. Polyploidy is very common in the plant kingdom, but it is not necessarily the case that a reference gene which works well at the diploid level will also work well at the polyploid level. Here, ten candidate reference genes are compared in the context of gene transcription in the genus Chrysanthemum. The robustness of some, but not all, of these was shown to be high across ploidy levels. MTP (metalloprotease) and ACTIN (actin) were the most stable in diploid and tetraploid C. nankingense, while PSAA (photosynthesis-related plastid gene representing photosystem I) and EF-1? (elongation factor-1?) were the most stable in tetraploid and hexaploid C. zawadskii. EF-1? and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase) was the best combination for the complete set of four taxa. These results suggest that when making cross-species comparison of transcript abundance involving different ploidy levels, care needs to be taken in the selection of reference gene(s). PMID:25627791

Wang, Haibin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

2015-01-01

22

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.  

PubMed

About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y?ą based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

Sakai, Kazuo

2013-11-01

23

Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.  

PubMed

High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11?IU for every year of age (1?IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve. PMID:24805832

Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

2014-06-01

24

Pediatric reference intervals for thyroid hormone levels from birth to adulthood: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Age- and sex-specific reference intervals are an important prerequisite for interpreting thyroid hormone measurements in children. However, only few studies have reported age- and sex-specific pediatric reference values for TSHbasal (TSH), free T3 (fT3), and free T4 (fT4) so far. Reference intervals are known to be method- and population-dependent. The aim of our study was to establish reference intervals for serum TSH, fT3, and fT4 from birth to 18 years and to assess sex differences. Methods 2,194 thyroid hormone tests obtained from a hospital-based pediatric population were included into our retrospective analysis. Individuals with diagnoses or medications likely to affect thyroid function were primarily excluded, as well as the diagnostic groups, if different from the purely healthy subgroup (n = 414). Age groups were ranging from 1 day to 1 month, 1 – 12 months, and 1 – 5, 6 – 10, 11 – 14, and 15 – 18 years, respectively. Levels of fT3, fT4 and TSH were measured on Advia® Centaur™ automated immunoassay system. Results The final sample size for reference data creation was 1,209 for TSH, 1,395 for fT3, and 1,229 for fT4. Median and 2.5/10/25/75/90/97.5 percentiles were calculated for each age group. Males had greater mean fT3 concentrations than females (p < 0.001). No sex-differences were found for TSH and fT4 between age-matched serum samples. Median concentrations of fT3, fT4 and TSH were greatest during the first month of life, followed by a continuous decline with age. Conclusion Our results corroborate those of previous studies showing that thyroid hormone levels change markedly during childhood, and that adult reference intervals are not universally applicable to children. Moreover, differences of our reference intervals compared to previous studies were observed, likely caused by different antibody characteristics of various analytical methods, different populations or undefined geographic covariates, e.g. iodine and selenium status. PMID:19036169

Kapelari, Klaus; Kirchlechner, Christine; Högler, Wolfgang; Schweitzer, Katharina; Virgolini, Irene; Moncayo, Roy

2008-01-01

25

A numerically calibrated reference level (MP28) for the terrestrial mammal-based biozonation of the European Upper Oligocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fauna of the Enspel (Westerwald) and the neighbouring Kärlich (Neuwied basin) fossil deposits correspond to the Upper Oligocene Mammal Paleogene (MP) reference level 28 and 28 30, respectively. Basaltic flows and a trachyte tuff terminating and predating the fossil deposit sedimentation allow to numerically calibrate the MP reference levels by radioisotope dating. Laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar step heating on volcanic feldspars yield a time interval of 24.9 24.5 Ma for reference level MP28 at Enspel and a maximum age of 25.5 Ma for the time interval MP28 MP30 at Kärlich. Interpolation between the time intervals determined for the Enspel reference level MP28 and the age of the global Oligocene/Miocene boundary of 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma taken from literature results in time intervals of 24.5 24.2 Ma and 24.2 23.9 Ma for the younger reference levels MP29 and MP30, respectively. These intervals of ? 0.4 m.y. for MP reference levels of the latest Oligocene are short relative to older Oligocene MP reference levels 21 27 between 34 and 25 Ma. Since subdivision into MP reference levels essentially is based on assemblages of mammal taxa and on evolutionary changes in tooth morphology of mammals short MP time intervals during the latest Oligocene indicate a rapid evolutionary change relative to the early Oligocene.

Mertz, Dieter F.; Renne, Paul R.; Wuttke, Michael; Mödden, Clemens

2007-04-01

26

A hospital based study on reference range of serum prostate specific antigen levels  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels are known to vary with race and ethnicity, environmental factors, lifestyle, metabolic and physiologic changes and advancing age. This study was designed to determine age specific serum PSA level in healthy Indian men and its comparison with that reported in different populations of the world. Methods: A total of 1300 adult men who attended Executive Health Check-up programme in a tertiary care hospital in Haryana, India, were included in the study. Forty seven men were excluded from the analysis because of urological conditions affecting PSA values. Overall, 1253 men were analyzed for age specific PSA values. Results: The age specific reference range of serum PSA values was 0.71 ng/ml in those younger than 40 yr; 0.85 ng/ml in 40-49 yr; 1.13ng/ml in 50-59 yr group; 1.45 ng/ml in 60-69 yr group; 1.84 ng/ml in 70-79 yr group and 2.35 ng/ml in men older than 80 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study provided the age-specific reference range of serum PSA in healthy men in India. The data suggested that the PSA levels were associated with increasing age. PMID:25488444

Gupta, Aditi; Gupta, Deepa; Raizada, Arun; Gupta, Narmada Prasad; Yadav, Rajiv; Vinayak, Kamini; Tewari, Vijay

2014-01-01

27

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01

28

Developing a field independent frequency reference by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels  

E-print Network

We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use Lu+ to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many clock candidates.

M. D. Barrett

2014-11-03

29

Developing a field independent frequency reference by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels  

E-print Network

We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use Lu+ to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many clock candidates.

Barrett, M D

2014-01-01

30

Preparation and certification of zearalenone mass concentration of two low-level maize reference materials.  

PubMed

The contamination of maize by fungi, especially by Fusarium species, is a worldwide problem. One of the most prevalent Fusarium mycotoxins frequently found on European maize is zearalenone (ZON), which has been implicated in a range of human and animal diseases. It shows remarkable estrogenic properties and can cause severe infertility problems in farm animals. Currently, 9 countries have set maximum tolerable levels for ZON in food, ranging from 0 to 1000 microg/kg. This paper describes the preparation of 2 maize reference materials (BCR-716 very low level ZON and BCR-717 low level ZON) and the certification of their individual ZON contents (mass concentration and mass fraction). Uncertainties were calculated in compliance with the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement and include uncertainties that are due to possible inhomogeneity and instability. Finally, BCR-716 was certified at a level of <5 microg/kg and BCR-717 at a level of 83 microg/kg with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 9 microg/kg. PMID:15295884

Krska, Rudolf; Josephs, Ralf D; Pettersson, Hans; MacDonald, Susan

2004-01-01

31

Patient doses in paediatric CT: feasibility of setting diagnostic reference levels.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that doses to paediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) examinations are of special concern, only few data or studies for setting of paediatric diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have been published. In this study, doses to children were estimated from chest and head CT, in order to study the feasibility of DRLs for these examinations. It is shown that for the DRLs, patient dose data from different CT scanners should be collected in age or weight groups, possibly for different indications. For practical reasons, the DRLs for paediatric chest CT should be given as a continuous DRL curve as a function of patient weight. For paediatric head CT, DRLs for a few age groups could be given. The users of the DRLs should be aware of the calibration phantom applied in the console calibration for different paediatric scanning protocols. The feasibility of DRLs should be re-evaluated every 2-3 y. PMID:21784731

Järvinen, H; Merimaa, K; Seuri, R; Tyrväinen, E; Perhomaa, M; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Svedström, E; Ziliukas, J; Lintrop, M

2011-09-01

32

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS IN CARDIAC CT IN FRANCE: A NEED FOR PATIENT DOSE OPTIMISATION.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in the context of a large variability in patient radiation dose, and the lack of European recommendations. Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were collected from 460 CCTAs performed over a 3-month period at eight French hospitals. CCTAs (?50 per centre) were performed using the routine protocols of the centres, and 64- to 320-detector CT scanners. ECG gating was prospective (n = 199) or retrospective (n = 261). The large gap in dose between these two modes required to propose specific DRLs: 26 and 44 mGy for CTDIvol, and 370 and 970 mGy cm for DLP, respectively. This study confirms the large variability in patient doses during CCTA and underlines the need for the optimisation of cardiac acquisition protocols. Availability of national DRLs should be mandatory in this setting. PMID:25342609

Mafalanka, F; Etard, C; Rehel, J L; Pesenti-Rossi, D; Amrar-Vennier, F; Baron, N; Christiaens, L; Convers-Domart, R; Defez, D; Douek, P; Gaxotte, V; Georges, J L; Leygnac, S; Ou, P; Sablayrolles, J L; Salvat, C; Schouman-Claeys, E; Sirol, M; Aubert, B

2014-10-23

33

Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

1981-10-01

34

ESTABLISHMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CT TRUNK EXAMINATIONS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA.  

PubMed

Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75th percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm(-1) for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600mGy cm(-1) for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm(-1) for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm(-1) for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm(-1) for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. PMID:25468993

Qurashi, Abdulaziz A; Rainford, Louise A; Foley, Shane J

2014-12-01

35

Articles Levels of Seven Urinary Phthalate Metabolites in a Human Reference Population  

E-print Network

Using a novel and highly selective technique, we measured monoester metabolites of seven commonly used phthalates in urine samples from a reference population of 289 adult humans. This analytical approach allowed us to directly measure the individual phthalate metabolites responsible for the animal reproductive and developmental toxicity while avoiding contamination from the ubiquitous parent compounds. The monoesters with the highest urinary levels found were monoethyl phthalate (95th percentile, 3,750 ppb, 2,610 µg/g creatinine), monobutyl phthalate (95th percentile, 294 ppb, 162 µg/g creatinine), and monobenzyl phthalate (95th percentile, 137 ppb, 92 µg/g creatinine), reflecting exposure to diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and benzyl butyl phthalate. Women of reproductive age (20–40 years) were found to have significantly higher levels of monobutyl phthalate, a reproductive and developmental toxicant in rodents, than other age/gender groups (p phthalates has focused almost exclusively on health risks from exposure to only two phthalates, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-isononyl phthalate. Our findings strongly suggest that health-risk assessments for phthalate exposure in humans should include diethyl, dibutyl, and benzyl butyl phthalates.

Benjamin C. Blount; Manori J. Silva; Samuel P. Caudill; Larry L. Needham; Jim L. Pirkle; Eric J. Sampson; George W. Lucier; Richard J. Jackson; John W. Brock

36

Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height  

PubMed Central

Objective A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels. Methods Totally 1,031 cervical lateral radiographs of different patients were reviewed in single university hospital. Its compositions were 534 of males and 497 females; 86 of second decades (10-19 years-old), 169 of third decades, 159 of fourth decades, 209 of fifth decades, 275 of sixth decades, and 133 of more than seventh decades (>60 years-old). Reference external landmarks (mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricothyroid membrane) with compounding factors were reviewed. Results The reference levels of cervical landmarks were C2.13 with mandible angle, C3.54 with hyoid bone, C5.12 with thyroid cartilage, and C6.01 with cricothyroid membrane. The reference levels of cervical landmarks were differently observed by sex, age, and somatometric measurement (height) accordingly mandible angle from C1 to C3, hyoid bone from disc level of C2 and C3 to C5, thyroid cartilage from disc level of C3 and C4 to C7, and cricothyroid membrane from C4 to disc level of C7 and T1. Conclusion Surface landmarks only provide general reference points, but not correspond to exact levels of the cervical spine. Intraoperative fluoroscopy ensures a more precise placement to the targeted cervical level. PMID:25346765

Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hyun, Dongkeun; Choi, Chun Gil; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Jang, A Reum

2014-01-01

37

Out of Cite! How Reference Managers Are Taking Research to the Next Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Times change, and so do research methods; gone are the days of researching with index cards. While academics may be slow to adopt emerging citation technology, the reference manager field is blazing ahead. This article explains what reference managers are, addresses their emergence in and potential impact on academe, and profiles a newcomer to the…

Muldrow, Jason; Yoder, Stephen

2009-01-01

38

The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

2006-01-01

39

CT radiation dose in children: a survey to establish age-based diagnostic reference levels in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aimed at assessing the doses delivered in Switzerland to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) examinations\\u000a of the brain, chest and abdomen, and at establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for various age groups. Forms were\\u000a sent to the ten centres performing CT on children, addressing the demographics, the indication and the scanning parameters:\\u000a number of series, kilovoltage, tube

Francis R. Verdun; Daniel Gutierrez; John Paul Vader; Abbas Aroua; Leonor Trinidad Alamo-Maestre; François Bochud; François Gudinchet

2008-01-01

40

Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism  

SciTech Connect

A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

2012-02-01

41

Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.  

PubMed

Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

2014-05-01

42

Post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels with reference to the causes of death.  

PubMed

To evaluate pathophysiological significance of post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in determining the cause of death, we investigated 210 forensic autopsy cases, partially in comparison with serum levels. Post-mortem serum myoglobin levels were extraordinary high in most cases possibly due to post-mortem change. Urinary myoglobin levels did not correlate with the serum levels, showing possible post-mortem elevation in cases of a prolonged post-mortem period over 48h. A high (>1000 ng/ml), moderate (100-1000 ng/ml), slight (50-100 ng/ml) and not significant (<50 ng/ml) elevation of urinary myoglobin were observed in 26, 43, 31 and 110 cases, respectively. Half the highly elevated cases were those with a survival time over 24h. In cases of minor muscle injury such as head trauma, elevation of urinary myoglobin level was closely related to longer survival. In acute/subacute deaths with a post-mortem interval within 48h, a significant difference was observed in relation to the blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels of fire victims: myoglobinuria over 100 ng/ml was more frequently and markedly observed in cases with COHb below 60% than over 60%, suggesting muscle damage in fatal burns. Similar elevation was observed in heat stroke victims, and also in some cases of acute and subacute death from polytrauma, asphyxiation, drowning, electricity and spontaneous cerebral bleeding, but not in myocardial infarction. Thus, it was suggested that high post-mortem urinary myoglobin levels in acute and subacute death cases may be a possible indicator of antemortem massive skeletal muscle damage as well as exertional muscle hyperactivity or convulsive disorders associated with hypoxia. PMID:11074173

Zhu, B L; Ishida, K; Quan, L; Taniguchi, M; Oritani, S; Kamikodai, Y; Fujita, M Q; Maeda, H

2001-01-15

43

DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

44

Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.  

PubMed

Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

2014-03-01

45

Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods.  

PubMed

An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the Columbus quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25149773

Mai, Sebastian; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Marquetand, Philipp; Lischka, Hans; González, Leticia

2014-08-21

46

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-04-01

47

Comparison of 12 reference genes for normalization of gene expression levels in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCLs) and skin fibroblasts are often used to establish or confirm the effect of mutations on gene expression levels. Relative quantification of gene expression is usually achieved by comparison of the expression level of a gene of interest with that of a suitable reference gene. Hence, the choice of reference gene is critical in

A. P. M. de Brouwer; J. H. L. M. van Bokhoven; H. Kremer

2006-01-01

48

Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values.  

PubMed

Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight-normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. PMID:24944000

Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

2014-10-01

49

Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values  

PubMed Central

Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2386–2398. PMID:24944000

Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

2014-01-01

50

A Suggested Bibliography of Curriculum Related Books for a Wide Range of Readers and Their Reference Needs. New Multi-Level Books for Classroom and Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography presents brief descriptions of 153 books for children and young people. The wide range of topics, formats, and reading levels of the books is intended to complement curriculum content across grade levels. The books are recent publications (most published in 1999 or 2000) that are authoritative references or that exhibit exemplary…

Sandel, Lenore; Warburton, Barbara

51

On the determination of reference levels for quality assurance of flattening filter free photon beams in radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: New definitions for some dosimetric parameters for use in quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators have been suggested. The present study aims to validate these suggestions and to propose possible reference levels. Methods: The main characteristics of FFF photon beams were described in terms of: field size, penumbra, unflatness, slope, and peak-position parameters. Data were collected for 6 and 10 MV-FFF beams from three different Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed with a 2D-array (Starcheck system from PTW-Freiburg) and with the portal dosimetry method GLAaS utilizing the build-in portal imager of TrueBeam. Data were also compared to ion chamber measurements. A cross check validation has been performed on a FFF beam of 6 MV generated by a Varian Clinac-iX upgraded to FFF capability. Results : All the parameters suggested to characterize the FFF beams resulted easily measurable and little variation was observed among different Linacs. Referring to two reference field sizes of 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, at SDD = 100 cm and d = dmax, from the portal dosimetry data, the following results (averaging X and Y profiles) were obtained. Field size: 9.95 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 6 MV-FFF (9.94 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 10 MV-FFF). Penumbra: 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mm for 6 MV-FFF (3.1 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.3 for 10 MV-FFF). Unflatness: 1.11 ± 0.01 and 1.25 ± 0.01 for 6 MV-FFF (1.21 ± 0.01 and 1.50 ± 0.01 for 10 MV-FFF). Slope: 0.320 ± 0.020%/mm and 0.43 ± 0.015%/mm for 6 MV-FFF (0.657 ± 0.023%/mm and 0.795 ± 0.017%/mm for 10 MV-FFF). Peak Position ?0.2 ± 0.2 and ?0.4 ± 0.2 mm for 6 MV-FFF (?0.3 ± 0.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 mm for 10 MV-FFF). Results would depend upon measurement depth. With thresholds set to at least 95% confidence level from the measured data and to account for possible variations between detectors and methods and experimental settings, a tolerance set of: 1 mm for field size and penumbra, 0.04 for unflatness, 0.1%/mm for slope, and 1 mm for peak position could be proposed from our data. Conclusions : The parameters proposed for the characterization and routine control of stability of profiles of FFF beams appear to be a viable solution with a strong similarity to the conventional parameters used for flattened beams. The results from three different TrueBeams and the cross-validation against a Clinac-iX suggested the possible generalization of the methods and the possibility to use common tolerances for the parameters. The data showed also the reproducibility of beam characteristics among different systems (of the same vendor) and the resulting parameter values could therefore be possibly generalized.

Clivio, Alessandro; Belosi, Maria Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Bolard, Grégory [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland)] [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France)] [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)] [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)

2014-02-15

52

Development of a Provisional Domain Model for the Nursing Process for Use within the Health Level 7 Reference Information Model  

PubMed Central

Objective: Since 1999, the Nursing Terminology Summits have promoted the development, evaluation, and use of reference terminology for nursing and its integration into comprehensive health care data standards. The use of such standards to represent nursing knowledge, terminology, processes, and information in electronic health records will enhance continuity of care, decision support, and the exchange of comparable patient information. As part of this activity, working groups at the 2001, 2002, and 2003 Summit Conferences examined how to represent nursing information in the Health Level 7 (HL7) Reference Information Model (RIM). Design: The working groups represented the nursing process as a dynamic sequence of phases, each containing information specific to the activities of the phase. They used Universal Modeling Language (UML) to represent this domain knowledge in models. An Activity Diagram was used to create a dynamic model of the nursing process. After creating a structural model of the information used at each stage of the nursing process, the working groups mapped that information to the HL7 RIM. They used a hierarchical structure for the organization of nursing knowledge as the basis for a hierarchical model for “Findings about the patient.” The modeling and mapping reported here were exploratory and preliminary, not exhaustive or definitive. The intent was to evaluate the feasibility of representing some types of nursing information consistently with HL7 standards. Measurements: The working groups conducted a small-scale validation by testing examples of nursing terminology against the HL7 RIM class “Observation.” Results: It was feasible to map patient information from the proposed models to the RIM class “Observation.” Examples illustrate the models and the mapping of nursing terminology to the HL7 RIM. Conclusion: It is possible to model and map nursing information into the comprehensive health care information model, the HL7 RIM. These models must evolve and undergo further validation by clinicians. The integration of nursing information, terminology, and processes in information models is a first step toward rendering nursing information machine-readable in electronic patient records and messages. An eventual practical result, after much more development, would be to create computable, structured information for nursing documentation. PMID:14764610

Goossen, William T.F.; Ozbolt, Judy G.; Coenen, Amy; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Mead, Charles; Ehnfors, Margareta; Marin, Heimar F.

2004-01-01

53

Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.  

PubMed

Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

2013-12-01

54

Students in Joint Diploma/Bachelor of Technology programs, or other students who are registered for undergraduate level courses as well as diploma level courses, please refer to the Memorial University academic diary for important dates and deadlines pert  

E-print Network

Students in Joint Diploma/Bachelor of Technology programs, or other students who are registered for undergraduate level courses as well as diploma level courses, please refer to the Memorial University academic Thursday Registration begins online (7:00 P.M.) - Fall Term for Joint Diploma/Bachelor of Technology

deYoung, Brad

55

Normalizing for biology: accounting for technical and biological variation in levels of reference gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) transcripts in fish livers.  

PubMed

Feeding, fasting and re-feeding is a common experimental paradigm for studying growth endocrinology. Herein we demonstrate dynamic changes in the livers of coho salmon under these conditions and how changes in liver composition can influence quantification and interpretation of liver gene expression data. A three-week fast resulted in decreases in hepatosomatic index (liver size), liver glycogen content, and liver DNA concentration. In addition, significant differences were found in liver transcript levels from fed and fasted fish for the reference genes, arp and ef1a, when these were normalized to total RNA. We took the additional step of normalizing reference gene transcript levels to the liver homogenate RNA/DNA ratio to account for differences in RNA yield/cell and the number of cells sampled, normalizing to transcript number per cell rather than transcript number per unit RNA. After this additional step no significant differences in liver transcript levels of reference genes were found. The significance of these results was illustrated by normalizing liver transcript levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) to ef1a transcript levels or ef1a transcript levels by RNA/DNA. The different normalization strategies resulted in differing patterns of change in igf1 transcript levels between fed and fasted fish. The novelty of this work rests in a two-step normalization process, attempting to account for both 1) technical errors in reverse transcription and qPCR reactions, and 2) biological variance in liver samples. PMID:22546511

Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Shimizu, Munetaka; Beckman, Brian R

2012-09-01

56

Development of a Provisional Domain Model for the Nursing Process for Use within the Health Level 7 Reference Information Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSince 1999, the Nursing Terminology Summits have promoted the development, evaluation, and use of reference terminology for nursing and its integration into comprehensive health care data standards. The use of such standards to represent nursing knowledge, terminology, processes, and information in electronic health records will enhance continuity of care, decision support, and the exchange of comparable patient information. As part

William T F Goossen; Judy G Ozbolt; Amy Coenen; Hyeoun-Ae Park; Charles Mead; Margareta Ehnfors; Heimar F Marin

2004-01-01

57

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic

Fabrikant

1982-01-01

58

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

59

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-10-01

60

Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A levels in cadaveric sera with reference to the cause of death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) is an exclusively lung specific protein, and is considered to leak into the blood stream in alveolar septal damage. In this study we examined the serum SP-A level in forensic autopsy materials using an enzyme immunoassay with monoclonal antibodies to assess the postmortem level in relation to the cause and mode of death. Although a

K Ishida; B.-L Zhu; Li Quan; M. Q Fujita; H Maeda

2000-01-01

61

Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC\\/ID-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time,

James. Grainger; Wenlin Huang; Donald G. Patterson; Wayman E. Turner; James Pirkle; Samuel P. Caudill; Richard Y. Wang; Larry L. Needham; Eric J. Sampson

2006-01-01

62

Problems of rising ground-water levels in urban areas with special reference to the Louisville, Kentucky area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rising ground-water levels are a problem for cities such as San Bernadino, California; Greely and Fort Collins, Colorado; New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens; and Louisville, Kentucky. Ground-water levels showed a steeply rising trend in the alluvial aquifer underlying Louisville during the early and middle 1970 's in response to above average precipitation and a decrease in ground-water withdrawals. This rising trend flattened in 1979 and the water levels are stabilizing at 25 to 45 feet below land surface in the downtown area. Basements are generally 20 to 25 feet below land surface and some utility lines are as much as 40 feet below land surface in this area. Because of the shallow depth to water, any resumption of the upward trend would require preventive measures such as selective dewatering to avoid damage to some structures. (USGS)

Whitesides, D.V.; Faust, R.J.; Zettwoch, D.D.

1983-01-01

63

Human exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy mats: A numerical case study with three commercial products.  

PubMed

A previous study found that incident magnetic field exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) mats can exceed ICNIRP 1998 reference levels. Due to the popularity of PMFT mats for private therapeutic use, regulators need to know if the products are compliant with the basic restrictions and how overexposure can be determined. This case study's objective was to test if such products are intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions by evaluating three different commercially-available PMFT products. In the first step, experimentally validated numerical models of these mats were developed. As a second step, the induced fields were evaluated in high-resolution anatomical models of the IT'IS Virtual Population for various lying positions and compared to the safety guidelines. As expected, a strong influence of exposure on the PMFT design, anatomy, lying position and body orientation was found. The maximum exposure of one PMFT exceeds 3.1 times the basic restrictions of ICNIRP 1998 for the central nervous system tissues and 1.36 times the limit of ICNIRP 2010 for the peripheral tissues. Body loops can significantly increase the electric fields close to the skin, e.g., when the hand and thigh are in contact during mat use. In conclusion, PMFT products are not intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions and therefore require special considerations. Bioelectromagnetics. 36:149-161, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25639237

De Santis, Valerio; Douglas, Mark; Nadakuduti, Jagadish; Benkler, Stefan; Chen, Xi Lin; Kuster, Niels

2015-02-01

64

Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling  

SciTech Connect

The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

1980-03-01

65

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

66

Investigating the Levels of Serum Vitamin D in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Referred To Rasoul-Akram Hospital During 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D3 has a role in many autoimmune diseases and appears to play a function in controlling Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum level of vitamin D and RA disease activity score. The serum level of vitamin D in 75 RA patients referred to the rheumatology clinic of Rasoul-Akram hospital was measured. Patients were classified into low, moderate and high RA activity groups based on the DAS-28 criteria (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints) and the mean values of serum vitamin D were compared between the three groups. The mean serum levels of vitamin D in high activity group (17.057±7.7 mg/ml) was significantly less than moderate (30.5±11.3 mg/ml) and low (36.7±19.5 mg/ml) activity groups (P<0.001). The outcome of this study shows that serum level of vitamin D is inversely correlated with the activity of RA. PMID:25242848

Fakharan, Mahdi; Haghighi, Anousheh; Arabi, Mohsen; Loghman, Maryam

2014-01-01

67

Investigating the levels of serum vitamin d in patients with rheumatoid arthritis referred to rasoul-akram hospital during 2011-2012.  

PubMed

Vitamin D3 has a role in many autoimmune diseases and appears to play a function in controlling Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between serum level of vitamin D and RA disease activity score. The serum level of vitamin D in 75 RA patients referred to the rheumatology clinic of Rasoul-Akram hospital was measured. Patients were classified into low, moderate and high RA activity groups based on the DAS-28 criteria (Disease Activity Score in 28 joints) and the mean values of serum vitamin D were compared between the three groups. The mean serum levels of vitamin D in high activity group (17.057±7.7 mg/ml) was significantly less than moderate (30.5±11.3 mg/ml) and low (36.7±19.5 mg/ml) activity groups (P<0.001). The outcome of this study shows that serum level of vitamin D is inversely correlated with the activity of RA. PMID:25242848

Fakharan, Mahdi; Haghighi, Anousheh; Arabi, Mohsen; Loghman, Maryam

2014-09-01

68

Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

Ballesta, Raimundo Jiménez; Bueno, Paz Conde; Rubi, Juan A. Martin; Giménez, Rosario Garcia

2010-12-01

69

Terrestrial photovoltaic performance reference conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rationale behind the selection of key photovoltaic performance reference (reporting) conditions, including the standard Air Mass 1.5 solar spectrum and reference irradiance and cell temperature levels, is investigated. Besides providing a repeatable reference for performance comparisons, it is shown that the choice of reference conditions directly controls the accuracy of array energy output prediction calculations. Conclusions are drawn on the accuracy associated with present reference conditions, and recommendations are made concerning alternative reference conditions with improved accuracy.

Ross, R. G., Jr.

1981-01-01

70

Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

2014-01-01

71

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

72

Palynology References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University

73

Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

Merkus, Henk G.

74

SARS Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amedeo.com, the online Medical Literature Guide, has recently made available the SARS reference -- a "comprehensive and up-to-date overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome" edited by Christian Drosten and Wolfgang Preiser. Offered free of charge to any user, the SARS reference will be updated monthly for the duration of the epidemic. Content includes SARS virology, epidemiology, treatment, a timeline, and a number of other timely and important topics. Users may view chapters individually within their browser, or download the entire publication. Also available in Spanish and Chinese.

Osten, Christian.

75

Levels of 1-hydroxypyrene and other monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in children: A study based on U.S. reference range values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed for 14 monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, metabolites of 7 PAH compounds) and for the first time reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the U.S. population. The purpose of this paper is to explore differences in these

Wenlin Huang; Samuel P. Caudill; James Grainger; Larry L. Needham; Donald G. Patterson

2006-01-01

76

Poroelastic references  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

Christina Morency

77

An accurate, residue-level, pair potential of mean force for folding and binding based on the distance-scaled, ideal-gas reference state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure prediction on a genomic scale requires a simplified energy function that can efficiently sample the conformational space of polypeptide chains. A good energy function at minimum should discriminate native structures against decoys. Here, we show that a recently developed, residue-specific, all-atom knowledge- based potential (167 atomic types) based on distance-scaled, finite ideal-gas reference state (DFIRE-all- atom) can be substantially

CHI ZHANG; SONG LIU; HONGYI ZHOU; YAOQI ZHOU

2004-01-01

78

Survey of RF exposure levels from mobile telephone base stations in Australia.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of an exposure level survey of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy originating from mobile telephone base station antennas. Measurements of CDMA800, GSM900, GSM1800, and 3G(UMTS) signals were performed at distances ranging over 50 to 500 m from 60 base stations in five Australian cities. The exposure levels from these mobile telecommunications base stations were found to be well below the general public exposure limits of the ICNIRP guidelines and the Australian radiofrequency standard (ARPANSA RPS3). The highest recorded level from a single base station was 7.8 x 10(-3) W/m(2), which translates to 0.2% of the general public exposure limit. PMID:16283652

Henderson, S I; Bangay, M J

2006-01-01

79

Evaluation of RF electromagnetic field exposure levels from cellular base stations in Korea.  

PubMed

This article presents the measurement results of human exposure to CDMA800 and CDMA1800 signals at locations in Korea where the general public has expressed concern. Measurements were performed at 50 locations across the country to compare the electromagnetic field levels with the general public exposure compliance limits. At each site, the distances between the nearest single or co-located base station and measurement positions were within a range of approximately 32-422 m. The measured exposure levels were very low compared with the international standard and the Korean human protection notice. The highest field level was 1.5 V/m, which corresponds to 0.15% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for human exposure. PMID:20564176

Kim, Byung Chan; Park, Seong-Ook

2010-09-01

80

Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required. PMID:24718699

Eguchi, Akifumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Qian; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Viet, Pham Hung; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

2014-07-01

81

Enzyme immunoassay of serum beta-2-microglobulin levels in various histological forms of leprosy with special reference to its elevation in type I and type II lepra reactions.  

PubMed Central

The mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum (3,362 +/- 2,494 micrograms/liter) for 76 leprosy patients, including 9 borderline-tuberculoid, 8 borderline-borderline, 9 borderline-lepromatous, and 16 lepromatous-lepromatous patients and 34 patients with type I or type II lepra reactions, was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than that (2,122 +/- 1,844 micrograms/liter) for 35 normal subjects. It decreased significantly (P less than 0.001) as the disease glided down from borderline tuberculoid (3,173 +/- 899 micrograms/liter) to the lepromatous end (1,813 +/- 1,391 micrograms/liter). At the onset of type I or type II reaction, the mean beta-2-microglobulin level in serum increased (4,447 +/- 2,863 micrograms/liter), and it remained unchanged (4,433 +/- 2,623 micrograms/liter) after clinical remission. The beta-2-microglobulin level in serum decreased in 55.5% of the patients tested after subsidence of reaction. The level was significantly higher in patients with type II reactions (5,433 +/- 3,299 micrograms/liter) than in patients with type I reactions (3,558 +/- 2,171 micrograms/liter). PMID:3886698

Saha, K; Bhatnagar, A; Sharma, V K; Chakrabarty, A K

1985-01-01

82

Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe  

PubMed Central

In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

Fujii, Toyonobu

2012-01-01

83

Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at ?196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL?1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 ?L sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL?1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL?1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; D?dina, Ji?í

2013-01-01

84

Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.  

PubMed

Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ?-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. PMID:22986091

Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

2012-11-01

85

Reference Frames and Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

Swartz, Clifford

1989-01-01

86

Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)). PMID:25295286

Barton, James C.; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Barton, J. Clayborn

2014-01-01

87

[Biological effects and health risks of electromagnetic fields at levels classified by INCRIP ans admissible among occupationally exposed workers: a study of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the workers' circulatory system, and to find out to what extent the EMF frequency, short-term (maximum values) and chronic (daily and lifetime doses) exposures influence the type of the observed disorders. The gathered data will help to evaluate whether hygiene standards that limit maximum admissible EMF values (e.g., ICNIRP standards) protect against adverse effects of exposure. The study covered workers employed in transformer and distribution stations, medium wave transmitting stations, radio-service and radio and TV multichannel broadcasting stations. In all the cases, exposure levels were considerably lower than those set as admissible according to the ICNIRP standards. Nevertheless changes in the circulatory system and a significant relationship between blood pressure and neurovegetative regulation disorders and exposure parameters were observed. The frequency of changes in the circulatory system was significantly dependent not only on the maximum EMF value, but also on its dose, which indicates that the hygiene standards for EMF cannot be limited only to short-term exposure maximum values, but they should be supplemented with dose-related standards. PMID:14669585

Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Zmy?lony, Marek

2003-01-01

88

Prescription n-3 fatty acids, but not eicosapentaenoic acid alone, improve reference memory-related learning ability by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is implicated in the decline of cognitive ability. We investigated whether the prescription n-3 fatty acid administration improves cognitive learning ability in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHR-cp) rats, a metabolic syndrome model, in comparison with administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) alone. Administration of TAK-085 [highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation containing EPA ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ethyl ester] at 300 mg/kg body weight per day for 13 weeks reduced the number of reference memory-related errors in SHR-cp rats, but EPA alone had no effect, suggesting that long-term TAK-085 administration improves cognitive learning ability in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. However, the working memory-related errors were not affected in either of the rat groups. TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels of SHR-cp rats, associating with an increase in EPA and DHA in the cerebral cortex. The TAK-085 administration decreased the lipid peroxide levels and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-cp rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. Its administration also increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues of TAK-085-administered rats. The present study suggests that long-term TAK-085 administration is a possible therapeutic strategy for protecting against metabolic syndrome-induced learning decline. PMID:23963508

Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Hossain, Shahdat; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

2013-10-01

89

Live, Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

Kenney, Brian

2002-01-01

90

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

91

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

92

Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)] [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan)] [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)] [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

2011-02-15

93

Tank characterization reference guide  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01

94

Quick Reference Contents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

95

NCI: Resources & References  

Cancer.gov

Reference Services NIH Library Online National Library of Medicine Library Resources NCI Library Reference Center Publications Locator Journals Online In the Loop The NCI Administrative Newsletter Intramural Resources Intramural Organizational and Principal

96

Genetics Home Reference: Pilomatricoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pilomatricoma? benign ; carcinoma ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

97

Genetics Home Reference: Phenylketonuria  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding phenylketonuria? amino acid ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

98

Teachers Reference: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the introduction to the teacher's reference designed to accompany the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. It compares the roles of teachers to that of the mentor in the book (Grampa) and states some of the reference's intended goals, as well as describing the primary content of the reference (text annotations), their arrangements, and their uses.

99

Academic Library Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

Batt, Fred

100

Physics Resource Reference Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physics reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, force diagrams, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

101

Chemistry Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

102

Physical Science Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physical science reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

103

Biology Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable list biology reference material for high school students in the life sciences. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

104

A standard satellite control reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

Golden, Constance

1994-01-01

105

The Shorewood Collection Art Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference guide contains a descriptive critique of each of more than 900 images of paintings and drawings presented in "The Shorewood Collection." This guide is intended to be used as a reference tool in conjunction with Shorewood's art educational programs, which range from grade levels K through 12. Master works from major epochs in the…

1992

106

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-05-31

107

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

108

Indoor air: Reference bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear.

Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

1989-07-01

109

Online Reference Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to become familiar with online reference material. Dictionary Merriam-Webster Dictionary Biographical Dictionary--S9.com Thesaurus Thesaurus Atlas National Geographic Atlas Mapquest Google Earth--look in LMC folder Encyclopedia World Book Encyclopedia Wikipedia What about Wikipedia? Almanac Farmer s Almanac Infoplease Culturegrams Gazetteer U.S. State Gazetteers General Reference Martindale s The Reference Desk Refdesk.com Assessment ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2009-11-21

110

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

1994-01-01

111

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26

112

Genetics Home Reference: Dwarfism  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dwarfism Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome achondrogenesis achondroplasia asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy atelosteogenesis type 2 campomelic dysplasia ...

113

The Automated Reference Desk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three ways in which libraries use computers to enhance reference services: "Answers," the community information and referral service at Memorial Hall Library, Andover, Massachusetts; the Hot Topics File at State University of New York/Oswego, Penfield Library; and features of RLIN and WLN databases which make them valuable reference

Jacobson, Nancy C.; And Others

1984-01-01

114

Nuclear Science References (NSR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database contains references to low and intermediate energy physics research publications listed in the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) Data File at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Users can search via nuclide, target, incident particle, outgoing particle, reaction, author, keynumber list, subject or quantity. Links to abstracts from the American Physical Society are provided.

2004-04-16

115

Martindale's "The Reference Desk"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

Jim Martindale

116

Activities Using References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

Bolger, Charlene

117

Reference Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

118

Automated Periodical Reference Service.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

Ellefsen, David

1985-01-01

119

Online Voucher Quick Reference  

E-print Network

Online Voucher Quick Reference NUFinancials Payments OnlineVoucherQuickReference 12/10/2013 - rb > Online Voucher Entry Page · or NUFinancials Accounts Payable Vouchers Add/Update Online Voucher/letters or barcode# on form). 2. Enter the Invoice Date (from invoice, date of service, or today's date). 3. Look up

Shull, Kenneth R.

120

Rethinking Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

121

Uranium reference materials  

SciTech Connect

The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

1987-07-01

122

Frames of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

123

References: See Enclosure 1  

E-print Network

with (IAW) the authority in DoD Directive 5134.01 (Reference (i)). b. Assigns responsibilities for the execution of the DoD CBRN Survivability Policy. c. Establishes processes for ensuring the survivability of CBRN mission-critical systems in a chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) environment or a nuclear environment. d. Describes how CBRN mission-critical systems will be identified, reviewed, and considered in the context of the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) (Reference (f)), the Defense Acquisition System (References (c) and (d)), the Missile Defense

unknown authors

2009-01-01

124

OA Internet Reference Materials  

Cancer.gov

skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA Contact Us OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10 PSC Codes for Small Business Business

125

Glossaries and Reference Material  

Cancer.gov

Updated: October 5, 2010 Updated: October 5, 2010 Glossaries and Reference Material Glossary of Cancer StatisticsDefinitions of common terms, NCI terminology, and the five key statistical measures of cancer: incidence, mortality, survival, prevalence,

126

Genetics Home Reference: Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

127

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

128

Genetics Home Reference: Sialidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... at which symptoms appear and the severity of features. Sialidosis type I, also referred to as cherry- ... divided into congenital, infantile, and juvenile forms. The features of congenital sialidosis type II can develop before ...

129

Genetics Home Reference: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

130

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

131

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

132

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

133

Genetics Home Reference: Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dementia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease Alzheimer disease cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...

134

Enterprise Reference Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

2011-01-01

135

Membrane reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

1988-01-21

136

Membrane reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1989-01-01

137

Frequency reference in VSAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low cost technique of frequency reference distribution within a VSAT network is discussed. This technique allows the use of a modestly frequency stable oscillator as the master frequency reference in the hub of a star-connected VSAT network. The need for extremely frequency stable OCXOs in VSATs is completely avoided. This technique was successfully incorporated in the early commercial VSAT networks. It contributes partially to the low cost nature of some of the VSAT networks available today.

Cheah, Jonathon Y. C.

1994-02-01

138

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

139

Reference Man anatomical model  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

Cristy, M.

1994-10-01

140

REFERENCES, REGULATIONS, & U. S. CODE General References  

E-print Network

Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR). 1990. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing and False Negatives for Low Background Counting," Health Physics 63(2):198-204. Committee on the Biological and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1992. ATSDR - Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. ATSDR, Atlanta, GA. (PB

141

Interferometer with dynamic reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric testing of optical surfaces is problematic when strong asphericities are present. The spatial frequencies of the interference fringes exceed the detector resolution where the slope difference between test beam and reference beam is too large. CGHs are frequently used to avoid this effect but availability and flexibility is a problem. Alternatively we propose a new method to extend the dynamic range of interferometric measurements. For this purpose the reference beam in an interferometer is adapted. An active element containing a spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to vary the slope of the reference beam within a few degrees in both x- and y-directions. Hereby different areas of the interferogram become evaluable. Furthermore the active element can introduce phase shifts necessary for the phase shift interferometry algorithms. Several interferograms with different reference beam slopes are recorded and finally the phase functions are "stitched" together. By using an SLM for the reference beam tilt, no mechanical motion of any hardware which would limit the accuracy is necessary. A calibration of the tilts can be performed with interferometric accuracy.

Liesener, Jan; Tiziani, Hans J.

2004-02-01

142

MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

1974-01-01

143

Setting reference targets  

SciTech Connect

Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

Ruland, R.E.

1997-04-01

144

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

1983-01-01

145

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

1981-12-30

146

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

Sadoway, D.R.

1988-08-16

147

Reference dosimetry using radiochromic film.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify factors that influence radiochromic film dose response and to determine whether such films are suitable for reference dosimetry. The influence of several parameters that may introduce systematic dose errors when performing reference dose measurements were investigated. The effect of the film storage temperature was determined by comparing the performance of three lots of GAFCHROMIC EBT2 films stored at either 4şC or room temperature. The effect of high (> 80%) or low (< 20%) relative humidity was also determined. Doses measured in optimal conditions with EBT and EBT2 films were then compared with an A12 ionization chamber measurement. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality controls using EBT2 films were also performed in reference dose. The results obtained using reference dose measurements were compared with those obtained using relative dose measurements. Storing the film at 4şC improves the stability of the film over time, but does not eliminate the noncatalytic film development, seen as a rise in optical density over time in the absence of radiation. Relative humidity variations ranging from 80% to 20% have a strong impact on the optical density and could introduce dose errors of up to 15% if the humidity were not controlled during the film storage period. During the scanning procedure, the film temperature influences the optical density that is measured. When controlling for these three parameters, the dose differences between EBT or EBT2 and the A12 chamber are found to be within ± 4% (2? level) over a dose range of 20-350 cGy. Our results also demonstrate the limitation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm for dose calculation of highly modulated treatment plans. PMID:23149793

Girard, Frédéric; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

2012-01-01

148

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Data Type Selection The data type selection is a combination of the data source and statistical calculation. The available data type categories are: SEER Incidence Delay-adjusted SEER Incidence U.S. Mortality Survival Prevalence Risk

149

Reference-Dependent Sympathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

Small, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

150

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

151

Volunteeer's Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

Armstrong, Julie; And Others

152

Reference Collections and Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

Winkel, Lois

1999-01-01

153

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

154

CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual  

E-print Network

CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

155

Hospitality Services Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

156

Teachers Reference: Annotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

157

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection The race/ethnicity groups available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Year Range menu. For year ranges starting before 1992 (e.g. 1975-2006) the Race/Ethnicity selections available

158

Ndiff Reference Manual  

E-print Network

ndiff is an efficient and flexible tool designed to compare unformatted text files with numerical content. It is well suited for regression testing, for validating data versus templates, and for filtering data following templates. This technical note is the reference manual of the ndiff tool initially developed for the MAD-X test system and subsequently extended for data validation.

Deniau, L

2013-01-01

159

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu as follows: Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006, 1992-2006, 2000-2006. Trends in Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006,

160

A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

CARDONA, GEORGE

161

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game health and optimal performance. Many athletes attempt to lose weight or body fat with the hope and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during

162

Cisco Reference Configurations for  

E-print Network

Cisco Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Fast Track Data Warehouse 4.0 with EMC VNX5500 Series Storage Systems White Paper November 2012 #12;© 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public information. Page 2 Contents What You Will Learn

Chaudhuri, Surajit

163

Internet Issues in Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

Tenopir, Carol

1995-01-01

164

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Statistic Type Selection Fast Stats presents the data analysis in a format appropriate for each Statistic Type. The following is a list of the statistic types available in Fast Stats for which data types, and the output formats

165

Nonresident Alien Reference Guide  

E-print Network

- 1 - Nonresident Alien Reference Guide #12;- 2 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen or a Permanent Resident (Resident Alien or Green Card status. These are NOT Immigration categories. United States Citizen Permanent Resident Alien Resident

Adali, Tulay

166

Generating Multimodal References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

2007-01-01

167

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-12-01

168

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-01-01

169

Homework: Additional Selected References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is intended to be an up-date of a previous document entitled "Homework: Selected References" (1984). It lists many of the articles that were generated as a result of the educational report, "A Nation at Risk" (National Commission, 1983). The bibliography includes over 50 books, articles, and research reports on the subject of…

Foyle, Harvey C.

170

Python Reference Introduction  

E-print Network

Python Reference Introduction These notes contain commands useful for analysing and plotting data using the Python programming language, together with the Numpy and Matplotlib libraries. Installation predecessor, the enthought python distribution (free version). Running If you have Canopy, run it. Start up

Francis, Paul

171

This document is a preprint of the final paper: B. Sun, F. Wu, T. Dragicevic, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, "A single phase seven-level grid-connected inverter based on three reference  

E-print Network

order harmonics. The multilevel converters which could offer a small voltage steps and high resolution acoustic noise, multi-level converter attracts more and more attentions[3]. At present, Neutral Point diode-clamped [4], flying capacitor [5] and cascaded H-bridge [6] are applied commonly. Among them, the diode

Vasquez, Juan Carlos

172

Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

2011-12-01

173

The Memory Management Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, created by Ravenbrook Limited, provides a thorough reference guide to memory management regarding computer operating systems. The site keeps you up to date with a news section featuring the latest in the world of memory management. It also features a glossary of more than 400 hundred relevant terms. A list of articles accompanied by a bibliography of books allows beginners to easily research all aspects of the topic. Additionally, the page provides a list of links and also a feedback form to contact the authors. This reference guide acts as a one-stop shop for any and all questions related to memory management. Guides to additional topics are featured through a link at the bottom of the page.

174

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

175

The Celestial Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual basis of reference frames defined by extragalactic objects is straightforwaxd: that the universe as a whole does not rotate so very distant objects cannot have an overall rotational motion. Experimentally, the global rotation of the universe is less than 10(exp -12) arcsecond/yr as inferred from the 3K microwave background radiation. At the distance of 10(exp 8) parsecs, even if an object were moving transversely at the speed of light, its angular velocity would be less than 0.6 x 10(exp -3) arcsecond/yr, while an object moving at a physically more reasonable speed comparable to the Sun would show a motion of 10(exp -6) arcsecond/yr, entirely undetectable by current technology. Since neither systematic universal motion nor random motion at such great distance is measurable, it is reasonable to construct a static celestial reference frame on the basis that such objects axe fixed in the sky.

Ma, Chopo

1999-01-01

176

Alignment reference device  

DOEpatents

An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)

1987-01-01

177

Reference Undulator Measurement Results  

SciTech Connect

The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC; ,

2011-08-18

178

Stable voltage reference sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of well-regulated voltage references are shown, which are readily integrable for use with emitter-coupled logic, threshold logic, or linear circuit arrays. By relying on the relatively well-matched characteristics and the temperature tracking of integrated transistors and resistor ratios, the circuit can provide a large range of output fractions of the power supply. The relationships of the circuit components

D. Hampel

1972-01-01

179

Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

1990-01-01

180

Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

1989-01-01

181

Demonstrative reference and definite descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fregean (or 'description') picture of singular reference, according to which an object is referred to in virtue of its unique possession of the properties associated with the referring expression, has, in the recent literature, been criticized by proponents of an opposing picture inspired by J.S. Mill's remarks on proper names. Singular reference, on the latter view, is thought of

Howard K. Wettstein

1981-01-01

182

Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

183

The role of leptospirosis reference laboratories.  

PubMed

The general goal of reference centres is to support the community, from diagnostic laboratories to research institutions, in the execution of their work by providing reference strains and reagents and giving instructions and recommendations to individual colleagues and national and international organisations on a wide variety of issues. There are different levels of reference centres, from local to international, with an increasing package of tasks and responsibilities. Local reference centres might limit activities to diagnostic confirmation by applying standard testing, while international reference centres cover a wider range of activities from design, validation and harmonisation of diagnostic and reference technologies to international monitoring associated with recommendations on the global burden and distribution of leptospirosis and its prevention and control to national and international health decision makers. This chapter focusses on four major pillars constituting reference tasks in addition to the obvious provision of reference substances, i.e. Research and training, Diagnosis, Identification of Leptospira and Surveillance. Due to financial and organisational constraints, reference centres are restricted in their capacity for basic research and consequently focus on applied research into various aspects of leptospirosis. They offer training, either individually or groupwise, that might vary from standard technologies to novel sophisticated methodologies, depending on the need and requests of the trainee. Most reference centres are involved in the confirmation of preliminary diagnosis obtained at peripheral levels, such as local hospitals and health centres, while other major activities involve the design and validation of diagnostics, their international harmonisation and quality assurance. Identification of causative Leptospira strains (or serovars) is key to the identification of infection sources and is critical for surveillance. Hence, reference centres also focus on the development, application and provision of methods that are required for unambiguous characterisation of new and recognised Leptospira strains and the maintenance of the integrity of strain collections. In line with their central role, reference centres are frequently associated with local, national and/or international surveillance activities linked to an advisory role and the production of guidelines. Such surveillance activities usually comprise collation of morbidity and mortality data, signalling of outbreaks and the investigation of infection sources and risks. PMID:25388139

Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Smythe, Lee D

2015-01-01

184

VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

1992-01-01

185

Listserv List Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Listserv List Reference is a great source for finding information about any of the over 7,500 public listservs on the Internet. It is a Web interface to LISTSERV Lists database at L-Soft International. Lists can be browsed by host site, country, and size if the list subscription exceeds 1,000. Subscriber numbers are kept up to date. Subscription information is provided, as is each list's configuration. While this site is used extensively by list owners, it also provides useful information to potential subscribers to Listserv lists.

186

The Calculator Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you remember the days when calculators were as big as today's laptops, then you'll definitely feel nostalgic when you visit the Calculator Reference. Operated by an avid collector of vintage calculators, the site covers Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard brands, as well as the pioneering Curta. Several other models are included in the Desktop Calculators section. Even some interesting trivia is given on the site, like why calculator key pads are numbered in a different order than telephone key pads. There are many links to other sites and articles related to classic calculator technology.

Furr, Rick.

187

Reference Race Review!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use today's library time to complete these activities. After each activity, close the tab at the top to return to the menu and pick your next activity. Have FUN! Choice #1 This is a review of all the sources we have been learning about. What do you need and when? You will need to find the link that says Play this game. You don't need to log on. Which Reference Source Should I Use? Choice #2 Dictionaries help us identify and label words. Play this game and ...

Mrs. Odd

2010-01-28

188

CARO: The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Canonical Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO) is being developed to facilitate interoperability between existing anatomy ontologies for different species, and will provide a template for building new anatomy ontologies. CARO has a structural axis of classification based on the top-level nodes of the Foundational Model of Anatomy. CARO will complement the developmental process sub-ontology of the GO Biological Process ontology,

D. S. Neuhaus; Duncan Davidson; Richard Baldock

189

Antares Reference Telescope System  

SciTech Connect

Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

1983-01-01

190

Coal data: A reference  

SciTech Connect

This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

Not Available

1995-02-01

191

Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition  

PubMed Central

Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission”) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400?±?14 600 to 5 550?±?3 900 ?g*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500?±?32 000 to 7 300?±?2 400 ?g*sec/m3; p?

2012-01-01

192

Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

B. Pritychenko; E. B?ták; B. Singh; J. Totans

2014-07-08

193

Cataloger's Reference Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library Corporation (TLC) has its collection of 21 MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) manuals and other reference works relating to library technical services freely available on the web. Library of Congress publications and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) were the basis for the content and arrangement of many of the manuals contained at this site. There are cataloging manuals for specific formats, including "archival moving images," looseleaf publications, serials (CONSER), rare books, maps, and graphic materials. In addition, there are guides to USMARC formats for bibliographic, authority, classification, and holdings data. For detailed descriptions and examples of all MARC fields and their subfields, choose "Bibliographic Data" from the main menu and then follow the "Tag List" link. USMARC code lists for countries, geographic areas, and languages are also available.

194

PASCAL/48 reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

1984-01-01

195

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1987-07-30

196

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

Yonco, Robert M. (LaGrange, IL); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1989-01-01

197

Long life reference electrode  

DOEpatents

An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

1989-04-04

198

Nuclear Science References Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B.; B?ták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

2014-06-01

199

Eddy-Current Reference Standard  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic properties of metallic reference standards duplicated and stabilized for eddy-current coil measurements over long times. Concept uses precisely machined notched samples of known annealed materials as reference standards.

Ambrose, H. H., Jr.

1985-01-01

200

Reference Ranges & What They Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... limited. Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: Was this page helpful? Reference ... are really sick. But what does this statement mean, "Out of the normal range"? Is it cause ...

201

EPA Employees TIM Reference Guide  

E-print Network

EPA Employees June 2012 PART 1 TIM Reference Guide (Non-Java Version) #12;EPA Reference Guide Page 2 Table of Contents LOG INTO TIM (NON-JAVA VERSION) .................................................................................................................... 3 LOG OFF TIM

Crews, Stephen

202

Genetics Home Reference: Cowden syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Cowden syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (15 links) ...

203

Genetics Home Reference: Glycine encephalopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding glycine encephalopathy? amino acid ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

204

Genetics Home Reference: CHARGE syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding CHARGE syndrome? anosmia ; atresia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

205

Genetics Home Reference: Biotinidase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding biotinidase deficiency? alopecia ; ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

206

Genetics Home Reference: Acromicric dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding acromicric dysplasia? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

207

Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Tangier disease? arteries ; atherosclerosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

208

Genetics Home Reference: Lactose intolerance  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lactose intolerance? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

209

Genetics Home Reference: Epidermal nevus  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding epidermal nevus? apoptosis ; benign ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

210

Genetics Home Reference: Wolfram syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Wolfram syndrome? apnea ; apoptosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

211

Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding desmoid tumor? cancer ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

212

Genetics Home Reference: Majeed syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Majeed syndrome? anemia ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

213

Genetics Home Reference: Williams syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Williams syndrome? anxiety ; aorta ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (12 links) ...

214

Genetics Home Reference: Isovaleric acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding isovaleric acidemia? acids ; aciduria ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (2 links) ...

215

Genetics Home Reference: Rett syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Rett syndrome? ataxia ; atypical ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

216

Genetics Home Reference: Alagille syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Alagille syndrome? aorta ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (11 links) ...

217

Genetics Home Reference: Meckel syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Meckel syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

218

Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Sandhoff disease? ataxia ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

219

Genetics Home Reference: Adiposis dolorosa  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding adiposis dolorosa? adipose tissue ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

220

Genetics Home Reference: Harlequin ichthyosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding harlequin ichthyosis? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

221

Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding propionic acidemia? acids ; aciduria ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

222

Landscapes as references for design  

E-print Network

This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

Batchelor, James P

1981-01-01

223

Genetics Home Reference: GRACILE syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding GRACILE syndrome? acidosis ; acids ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

224

Genetics Home Reference: Kufs disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Kufs disease? apoptosis ; ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

225

Genetics Home Reference: Björnstad syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Björnstad syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

226

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

227

Reference Tables Videos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Below are videos that show how to use the various pages in your Earth Science Reference Tables Thank you to the Hommocks Middle School Earth Science Teachers for all of their hard work. Check out their other sites too! TIME Front Cover (Page 1) Front Cover Properties fo Water Page 1 Radioactive Decay Page 1 Specific Properties of Common Materials Front Cover Equations Page 1 Ruler Page 1 Chemical Composition Page 2 Page 2 Generalized Landscape Regions Page 3 Page 3 Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State Page 4 Page 4 Page 5 Page 5 Tectonic Plates Page 6 Page 6 Rock Cycle Page 6 Transported Sediments Page 7 Igneous Rocks Page 7 Page 7 Sedimentary Rocks Page 7 Metamorphic Rocks Page 8 9 How to use page 9 Page 10 Page 10 Inferred Properties of Earth s Interior Page 11 Page 11 Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time Page 12 Page 12 Dewpoint and Relative Humidity Page 13 Page 13 Page 13 Temperature and Pressure Page 14 Page 14 Selected Properties of Earth s Atmosphere Page 14 Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts Page 14 Electromagnetic Spectrum Page 15 Page 15 Characteristics of Stars Page 15 Solar System Data Back Cover (Page 16) Page 16 ...

Mr. Teitelbaum

2010-06-09

228

Optical frequency references for laser interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical frequency references for laser standards based on molecular iodine absorption cells represent one of the most used tool for frequency stabilization of lasers operating in a visible spectral range. In the industry oriented laser measurements and similar laser interferometry applications performed at atmospheric conditions, a refractive index of air plays a role of main uncertainty contributor. In these cases there is no need to use technologically complicated and expensive iodine references made of pure fused silica with precise pressure control of absorpbing media. A set of iodine cells made of borosilicate glass was filled with certain amount of absorbing media to define the saturation point of iodine inside. A combination of these two approaches (pyrex material and controlled saturation pressure of iodine) allows us to simplify the laser stabilization setup (there is no need of additional iodine pressure level control) and reduce the overall reference's costs with ensuring of sufficient frequency stability of the system at the same time. Spectral properties of manufactured cells were tested by hyperfine transitions linewidth measurement and comparison with results from traditional fused silica cells was done to investigate the long-term iodine purity inside the references. As the transitions linewidth method shows a very high sensitivity to iodine purity level, this method is proposed to be an alternative approach in investigation of contamination in iodine absorption cells where traditionally used techniques - laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and absolute frequency shifts measurement - can not be used.

Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; ?íp, Ond?ej; Lazar, Josef

2015-01-01

229

The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

2007-01-01

230

CARO – The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO) is being developed to facilitate interoperability between existing anatomy ontologies\\u000a for different species, and will provide a template for building new anatomy ontologies. CARO has a structural axis of classification\\u000a based on the top-level nodes of the Foundational Model of Anatomy. CARO will complement the developmental process sub-ontology\\u000a of the GO Biological Process ontology,

Melissa A. Haendel; Fabian Neuhaus; David Osumi-Sutherland; Paula M. Mabee; L. V. Mejino Jr; Chris J. Mungall; Barry Smith

231

Reference system for cholesterol measurements.  

PubMed

A reference system for cholesterol measurement is necessary to assure accuracy of cholesterol measurements by clinical, research, and manufacturers' laboratories. Such a reference system is based on the collaboration of laboratory and clinical professionals, research groups, professional societies, government groups, and manufacturers of diagnostic products. Essential components include a definitive method, a reference method, and commutable reference materials that are accurately labeled and have long-term stability. A mechanism by which clinical, research, and manufacturers' laboratories can establish traceability to the reference system is also needed. In the United States, the NRS/CHOL was organized as part of the National Reference System for the Clinical Laboratory. The major organizational components of the NRS/CHOL include the National Institute for Standards and Technology, the CDC, the CRMN, the CAP, the AAB, regional reference programs, and manufacturers of cholesterol diagnostic products. The NIST maintains an isotope dilution-mass spectrometer definitive method and distributes certified reference materials. The CDC maintains a modified Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall reference method and offers a CDC-NHLBI Lipid Standardization Program; the CRMN provides reference method analyses on specimens furnished by manufacturers and clinical or research laboratories; CAP, AAB, and regional reference programs provide either proficiency testing, quality assurance programs, or both; and manufacturers assure that results on diagnostic products are the same as those achieved when using fresh patient specimens and the NRS/CHOL reference method. The NRS/CHOL has contributed much to the success of clinical epidemiologic and research and development investigations in coronary heart disease. PMID:2189207

Cooper, G R; Myers, G L

1990-01-01

232

Having a Suitable Reference Place  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to understand reference libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The reference part of libraries was examined from 2008 to 2011. We found that the number of reference librarians should be increased. We found graduate students are the main patrons. We understand interaction with patrons is very important. This study will be helpful for specialist, librarian, and administrators. PMID:23687465

Vahabi, Fataneh; Kolahdouzan, Akbar

2013-01-01

233

Having a suitable reference place.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to understand reference libraries of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The reference part of libraries was examined from 2008 to 2011. We found that the number of reference librarians should be increased. We found graduate students are the main patrons. We understand interaction with patrons is very important. This study will be helpful for specialist, librarian, and administrators. PMID:23687465

Vahabi, Fataneh; Kolahdouzan, Akbar

2013-01-01

234

Optical probe with reference fiber  

DOEpatents

A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

2006-03-14

235

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

236

User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

2007-01-01

237

1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary  

SciTech Connect

This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

238

Specific absorption rate and electric field measurements in the near field of six mobile phone base station antennas.  

PubMed

In this article, the exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields was studied in close proximity (distances of 10, 100, 300, and 600 mm) to six base station antennas. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in 800 mm x 500 mm x 200 mm box phantom as well as unperturbed electric field (E) in air was measured. The results were used to determine whether the measurement of local maximum of unperturbed electric field can be used as a compliance check for local exposure. Also, the conservativeness of this assessment method compared to the ICNIRP basic restriction was studied. Moreover, the assessment of whole-body exposure was discussed and the distance ranges presented in which the ICNIRP limit for local exposure could be exceeded before the limit for whole-body SAR. These results show that the electric field measurement alone can be used for easy compliance check for the local exposure at all distances and for all antenna types studied. However, in some cases when the local peak value of E was compared directly to the ICNIRP reference level for unperturbed E, the exposure was overestimated only very slightly (by factor 1.1) compared to the basic restriction for localized SAR in a human, and hence these results can not be generalized to all antenna types. Moreover, it was shown that the limit for localized exposure could be exceeded before the limit for the whole-body average SAR, if the distance to the antenna was less than 240 mm. PMID:19194889

Toivonen, Tommi; Toivo, Tim; Puranen, Lauri; Jokela, Kari

2009-05-01

239

When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

240

Expert Systems for Reference Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

Parrot, James R.

1986-01-01

241

ESD Toxicology Laboratory Representative References  

E-print Network

1 ESD Toxicology Laboratory Representative References Application Category Literature citation.2: 205-230. #12;ESD Toxicology Laboratory Representative References cont'd 2 Pure-chemical testing: 6th ASTM Symp. on Aquatic Toxicology. Amer. Soc. Testing and Materials. pp 445-459. Milleman, R. E

242

Deictic Reference in Children's Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of deictic reference in the speech of 19 three-year-old Black children. The deictic verbs of motion are examined with reference to other aspects of the deictic system. The data for this study are approximately eight hours of spontaneous speech collected in a pre-school classroom. The hypothesis to…

Keller-Cohen, Deborah

243

Reference intervals: the way forward.  

PubMed

New facts have recently enhanced interest in the topic of reference intervals. In particular, the International Organization for Standardization standard 15189, requesting that 'biological reference intervals shall be periodically reviewed', and the directive of the European Union on in vitro diagnostic medical devices asking manufacturers to provide detailed information on reference intervals, have renewed interest in the subject. This review presents an update on the topic, discussing the theoretical aspects and the most critical issues. The basic approach to the definition of reference intervals proposed in the original International Federation of Clinical Chemistry documents still remain valid. The use of data mining to obtain reference data from existing databases has severe limitations. New statistical approaches to discard outliers and to compute reference limits have been recommended. On the other hand, perspectives opened by the improvement in standardization through the implementation of the concept of traceability suggest new models to define 'common' reference intervals that can be transferred and adopted by different clinical laboratories in order to decrease the proliferation of different reference intervals not always justified by differences in population characteristics or in analytical methodology. PMID:19103955

Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Hinzmann, Rolf; Panteghini, Mauro

2009-01-01

244

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

245

Reference Services: Policies and Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared to provide guidance in the provision of reference service, this statement expresses the understanding between the library administration and the Reference Services Department of Ellis Library at the University of Missouri-Columbia concerning the manner in which the department's responsibilities are to be carried out. The procedures will…

Edwards, Anne G., Ed.; Ross, Betsy A., Ed.

246

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture  

E-print Network

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

Perkins, Richard A.

247

Asian American Reference Data Directory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directory assesses current reference materials relating to the health, education, and social welfare of Asian Americans. The directory also includes reference materials in such areas as demography, socioeconomics, employment and training, culture, immigration, and housing. Intended for use by the Office for Asian American Affairs, state and…

RJ Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

248

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

1976-01-01

249

Pointing to potential reference areas to assess soil mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Several have been performed to evaluate the mutagenicity of soil samples in urban and industrial areas. The use of uncontaminated reference areas has been an obstacle to the study of environmental mutagenesis. The study aimed to indicate a methodology to define reference areas in studies of environmental contamination based on "Ambient Background Concentration" of metallic elements associated with the Salmonella/microsome assay. We looked at three potential reference areas, two of them close by the industrial sources of contamination (Săo Jerônimo reference, near the coal-fired power plant, and Triunfo reference, near the wood preservative plant), but not directly influenced by them and an area located inside a protected area (Itapuă reference). We also carried out chemical analyses of some metals to plot the metal profile of these potential reference areas and define basal levels of these metals in the soils. After examining the mutagenicity of the inorganic extracts using strains TA98, TA97a, and TA100, in the presence and absence of S9 mix, we indicated the Săo Jerônimo reference and the Itapuă reference as two sites that could be used in future studies of mutagenicity of soils in southern Brazil. The association between a mutagenicity bioassay and the "Ambient Background Concentration" seems to be a useful method to indicate the reference areas in studies of contamination by environmental mutagens, where these results were corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis. PMID:25410310

Meyer, D D; Da Silva, F M R; Souza, J W M; Pohren, R S; Rocha, J A V; Vargas, V M F

2014-11-21

250

Reference Team Student Assistant Title: Reference Team Student Assistant  

E-print Network

projects including reference collection maintenance, workshop publicity, and online editing. Applicant, inventorying, data entry, and other duties as assigned. The student will also assist with a variety of special

251

Reference sharing mechanism for watermark self-embedding.  

PubMed

This paper proposes two novel self-embedding watermarking schemes based upon a reference sharing mechanism, in which the watermark to be embedded is a reference derived from the original principal content in different regions and shared by these regions for content restoration. After identifying tampered blocks, both the reference data and the original content in the reserved area are used to recover the principal content in the tampered area. By using the first scheme, the original data in five most significant bit layers of a cover image can be recovered and the original watermarked image can also be retrieved when the content replacement is not too extensive. In the second scheme, the host content is decomposed into three levels, and the reference sharing methods with different restoration capabilities are employed to protect the data at different levels. Therefore, the lower the tampering rate, the more levels of content data are recovered, and the better the quality of restored results. PMID:20716503

Zhang, Xinpeng; Wang, Shuozhong; Qian, Zhenxing; Feng, Guorui

2011-02-01

252

Multi-reference vibration correlation methods.  

PubMed

State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene. PMID:24527903

Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram

2014-02-14

253

Multi-reference vibration correlation methods  

SciTech Connect

State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene.

Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-02-14

254

Yahoo! Do You Google? Virtual Reference Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is fast becoming the world's largest public li brary. Reference librarians are using Web resources rather than print to an swer many reference queries. This article provides an overview of topics relating to virtual reference services: search engines, subject directories, virtual reference desks, the invisible Web, electronic journal publishing, virtual reference services, and reference librarian skills.

Nancy Cannon

2003-01-01

255

Time Reference in Different Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses time references in Russian- and English-speaking cultures by means of Russian translation variants of works by twentieth-century English-language writers. Suggests the different attitudes toward time as manifested by these two distinct cultures. (HB)

Khairullin, Vladimir

1993-01-01

256

Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease  

MedlinePLUS

... ichthyosis ; inherited ; juvenile ; molecule ; nervous system ; neurological ; platelets ; population ; recessive ; splenomegaly ; syndrome ; thrombocytopenia ; toxic You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

257

Subject Location Almanacs Reference Room  

E-print Network

Subject Location Almanacs Reference Room ABA/BNA Lawyers Manual on Professional Conduct KF 305 .A8 Quarterly Almanac JK 1 .C66 Constitution of the Countries of the World JF 11 Constitutional Law KF 4550

Tipple, Brett

258

Genetics Home Reference: MEGDEL syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... These changes, which can be seen with medical imaging, are referred to as Leigh-like disease. Other ... dystonia ; encephalopathy ; failure to thrive ; gene ; hypoglycemia ; hypotonia ; imaging ; inborn errors of metabolism ; inherited ; involuntary ; lactic acid ; ...

259

Genetics Home Reference: Osteoglophonic dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... leads to severe head and face (craniofacial) abnormalities, dwarfism, and other features. The term osteoglophonic refers to ... Registry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Seattle Children's Hospital: Dwarfism and Bone Dysplasias You might also find information ...

260

Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

Eitzen, D. G.

1975-01-01

261

PIRLA DBMS QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook facilitates the use of the PIRLA (Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification) database retrievals by showing all possible inputs, outputs, ranges, and quick reference information that you would want at your fingertips when accessing the PIRLA data. h...

262

Space Station reference configuration description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

1984-01-01

263

Circuit and method for producing a flexible reference voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible reference voltage circuit includes a circuit for producing a first digital signal representative of a range of reference voltage levels; a circuit for producing a second digital signal representative of a selected reference voltage level within the range of reference voltage levels; an adder for adding the first and second digital signals to produce a third digital signal; and a digital to analog converter for providing an output voltage in response to the third digital signal. The method of producing a flexible reference voltage performed by the circuit is also claimed. The invention can be used with a differential protection circuit to provide a series of trip level ranges, with a series of selectable trip levels in each range. This is accomplished in a high accuracy circuit which is relatively simple to construct, thereby minimizing size and complexity of the current sensor module, in differential protection applications, or the circuitry, if used in a power system controller. Standard digital logic components can be used to perform the necessary range/level decoding.

Thornton, Roger D. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

264

Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.  

PubMed

The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level. PMID:20640222

Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

2010-06-01

265

Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles  

PubMed Central

The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level. PMID:20640222

Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

2010-01-01

266

References  

E-print Network

Nowadays, lots of solar panels are installed. A major disadvantage of normal Si-based solar cells is that if one solar cell is shaded, the total energy produced by the string of solar cells is lost. Reducing the efficiency of the total system. In resent years, a new technology has been introduced, using thin film solar cells integrated into roofing. Although partial shading doesn't affect this technique as much as Si-based solar cells, the shaded solar cells do not contribute to the energy production. Some years ago a special kind of robot has been developed that automatically mows the lawn. The goal of this thesis is to build an automatic solar panel cleaning robot using a “robomow ” or other robotic vehicle. This robot has to be adapted for use on solar panels, and of course, has its own solar

unknown authors

2007-01-01

267

References  

E-print Network

Abstract: Threads are sets of messages, which are, directly or indirectly, replies to each other. This paper discusses different ways, in which various e-mail products support threads. This document is available in HTML format at

Recognizing Threads

268

References  

E-print Network

Abstract: Threads are sets of messages, which are, directly or indirectly, replies to each other. This paper discusses different ways, in which various e-mail products support threads. A thread is a set of messages, which are replies to each other. Since there can be more than one reply to a message, a thread is actually often a tree structure, as shown by figure 1: May contain the Message-ID of the message, to which the current message is a reply. (Older mail software sometimes puts other, less useful information into this header.)

unknown authors

1998-01-01

269

Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

Dimbylow, Peter

2005-09-01

270

Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dispersion analysis considering uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission (BRM) 2. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for BRM 2. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a specified level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

Snow, L. S.

1975-01-01

271

Non-monadic Models of Mutable References  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pointers are known as mutable references in pure functional programming languages. In Haskell, IO-references and ST-references are the well-known monadic models of references. This paper propose a model of mutable references based on unique heaps. This model put less restriction on the evaluation order of basic reference operations. Moreover it has simpler, more tractable semantics and it supports features like shared references between heaps and virtual union of heaps.

Diviánszky, Péter

272

Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Estimation for Acetone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent health risk assessments to propose a Reference Dose (RfD) for acetone (Forsyth, 2001; U.S. EPA, 2001) have been based on the results of an oral subchronic study conducted in rats and mice (Dietz et al., 1991; NTP, 1991). These assessments have utilized the traditional concept of establishing the RfD by determining the lowest experimentally determined No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) and

P. Robinan Gentry; Tammie R. Covington; Harvey Clewell; Melvin Anderson

2003-01-01

273

Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

274

Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar…

Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

275

Reference Anytime Anywhere: Towards Virtual Reference Services at Penn State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the service rationale, software and technology considerations taken by the Pennsylvania State University library in planning towards online, real-time reference services and provides an overview of the planned pilot project. Discusses recent trends in academic electronic libraries, including providing value-added services to support…

Moyo, Lesley M.

2002-01-01

276

Model reference adaptive control with a constrained linear reference model  

Microsoft Academic Search

For systems with limited control authority and a control design that does not prevent saturation from occurring, using a linear reference model can introduce problems, especially when the external command is not necessarily conditioned to respect the capabilities of the plant. An example of this is commanding a large step command that cannot really be achieved linearly by the plant

Suresh K. Kannan; Eric N. Johnson

2010-01-01

277

COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide (SSRG)  

E-print Network

COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide (SSRG) Oxygen Therapy #12;This "Slim Skinny Reference Guide: Oxygen Therapy" is part of the COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide series which have been taken from the COPD Big Fat Reference Guide . To access the complete COPD Big Fat Reference Guide

Cooper, Robin L.

278

The Reference Desk Survey: A Management Tool in an Academic Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a survey of the level of reference service requested at service points conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University indicate that, while 20.5 percent of 14,026 questions recorded fall in the reference category, only 0.7 percent required research by professional librarians. Models of reference desk service and…

Kok, Victoria T.; Pierce, Anton B.

1982-01-01

279

Comparing Virtual Reference Exit Survey Results and Transcript Analysis: A Model for Service Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses virtual reference transcripts for which patrons completed exit surveys to seek any correlations between user and librarian satisfaction within virtual reference transactions. By analyzing transcripts with a focus on three elements-technology performance, preferred reference practices, and the demonstrated communication levels of…

Smyth, Joanne B.; MacKenzie, James C.

2006-01-01

280

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

281

Reference ballistic imaging database performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ballistic imaging databases allow law enforcement to link recovered cartridge cases to other crime scenes and to firearms. The success of these databases has led many to propose that all firearms in circulation be entered into a reference ballistic image database (RBID). To assess the performance of an RBID, we fired 4200 cartridge cases from 600 9mm Para Sig Sauer

Jan De Kinder; Frederic Tulleners; Hugues Thiebaut

2004-01-01

282

Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

Penner, Katherine

2011-01-01

283

Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

284

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference  

E-print Network

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 3221. II. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to provide an environment free from potential fire of potential hazards. III. Purpose Prevention of hazards which have the potential of starting fires. IV. Scope

de Lijser, Peter

285

Voice Over IP Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of architectural specifications, network and signaling protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP. Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. There is also a collection of documents containing VoIP references, and in this sections, visitors will find an H.323 tutorial.

286

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first version of the NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (RA). This is a vendor neutral conceptual model that concentrates on the role and interactions of the identified actors in the cloud computing sphere. Five primary actors were identified - Cloud Service Consumer, Cloud Service Provider, Cloud Broker, Cloud Auditor and Cloud Carrier. Their roles and activities

Robert B. Bohn; John Messina; Fang Liu; Jin Tong; Jian Mao

2011-01-01

287

Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a list of materials available for postal delivery, including: Icelandic basalt, Massachusetts marine sediment, Virginia diabase, Wyoming shale, etc. The size and content of each sample, descriptions of the location the reference material is taken from, and total element concentrations are given.

288

Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

1993-01-01

289

Selected Reference Books of 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

McIlvaine, Eileen

2001-01-01

290

Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

291

Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the history of science in America from the viewpoint of access to sources. Considered are a number of specific bibliographic and other reference works, as well as important recent projects and developments that aim to preserve and improve access to archival and other documentation and historical data for future use. (JN)

Elliott, Clark A.

1985-01-01

292

Modular gravitational reference sensor development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS) is targeted as a next generation core instrument for both space gravitational wave detection and an array of other precision gravitational experiments in space. The objectives of the NASA funded program are to gain a system perspective of the MGRS, to develop key component technologies, and to establish important test platforms. Our original program

Ke-Xun Sun; Saps Buchman; Robert Byer; Dan DeBra; John Goebel; Graham Allen; John W. Conklin; Domenico Gerardi; Sei Higuchi; Nick Leindecker; Patrick Lu; Aaron Swank; Edgar Torres; Martin Trittler

2009-01-01

293

Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

294

Genetics Home Reference: Brugada syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... high blood levels of calcium (hypercalcemia) or potassium (hyperkalemia), as well as unusually low potassium levels (hypokalemia), ... arrest ; cell ; channel ; depression ; fainting ; gene ; hormone ; hypercalcemia ; hyperkalemia ; hypokalemia ; inherited ; ions ; ion transport ; muscle cells ; mutation ; ...

295

Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.  

PubMed

Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and have therefore reached high level of attention for safeguards authorities. Furthermore, IRMM initiated and coordinated the development of a Modified Total Evaporation (MTE) technique for accurate abundance ratio measurements of the "minor" isotope-amount ratios of uranium and plutonium in nuclear material and, in combination with a multi-dynamic measurement technique and filament carburization, in environmental samples. Currently IRMM is engaged in a study on the development of plutonium reference materials for "age dating", i.e. determination of the time elapsed since the last separation of plutonium from its daughter nuclides. The decay of a radioactive parent isotope and the build-up of a corresponding amount of daughter nuclide serve as chronometer to calculate the age of a nuclear material. There are no such certified reference materials available yet. PMID:23507450

Jakopi?, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

2013-11-01

296

Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

1977-09-01

297

Temperature Compensated IBAR Reference Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a two-chip automatically temperature-compensated micromechanical IBAR reference oscillator with a temperature drift of 39ppm over 100 ° C. Temperature compensation is provided by a parabolic VPcorrection scheme and provides 10X improvement over previously reported results. Tunable 6MHz, 10MHz, and 20MHz resonators were characterized with 2000– 4500ppm tuning and Q up to 119000. Motional impedances as low as

Gavin K. Ho; Krishnakumar Sundaresan; Siavash Pourkamali; Farrokh Ayazi

2006-01-01

298

Advanced Physics: Rotating Reference Frames  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A ball is shown on a rotating merry-go-round with a frictionless surface. The ball starts at the center of the merry-go-round and moves outward at a constant speed. Views from two reference frames are shown, one where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the ground and the other (shown above) where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the merry-go-round.

Wolfgang Christian

299

National Software Reference Library (NSRL)  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

300

Getting Things Right at the Classroom Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author approaches accountability testing from a more micro level and offers a response to the question, "What can be done to get assessment right at the classroom level?" The author's answer refers back to accountability issues by considering that class of assessments most commonly used for such a purpose, herein referred to…

Shaw, Jerome M.

2005-01-01

301

Ozone reference models for CIRA. [COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data bases and computational techniques used in recent models of the O3 distribution in the earth atmosphere are described, summarizing the results of ongoing efforts to define an O3 reference model for incorporation into CIRA. Consideration is given to the analysis of data from satellite instruments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, TOMS, and SBUV; SME UVS and IR; and AE-2 SAGE) to construct models of total column O3 and vertical O3 structure. The satellite-based model predictions are then compared with balloon, rocket, and umkehr measurements in extensive graphs: good agreement is demonstrated both among the satellite data sets and between satellite and nonsatellite data sets.

Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.; Pitts, M. C.

1987-01-01

302

In situ LTE exposure of the general public: Characterization and extrapolation.  

PubMed

In situ radiofrequency (RF) exposure of the different RF sources is characterized in Reading, United Kingdom, and an extrapolation method to estimate worst-case long-term evolution (LTE) exposure is proposed. All electric field levels satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels with a maximal total electric field value of 4.5 V/m. The total values are dominated by frequency modulation (FM). Exposure levels for LTE of 0.2 V/m on average and 0.5 V/m maximally are obtained. Contributions of LTE to the total exposure are limited to 0.4% on average. Exposure ratios from 0.8% (LTE) to 12.5% (FM) are obtained. An extrapolation method is proposed and validated to assess the worst-case LTE exposure. For this method, the reference signal (RS) and secondary synchronization signal (S-SYNC) are measured and extrapolated to the worst-case value using an extrapolation factor. The influence of the traffic load and output power of the base station on in situ RS and S-SYNC signals are lower than 1 dB for all power and traffic load settings, showing that these signals can be used for the extrapolation method. The maximal extrapolated field value for LTE exposure equals 1.9 V/m, which is 32 times below the ICNIRP reference levels for electric fields. PMID:22271226

Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

2012-09-01

303

Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum  

PubMed Central

Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. (E. songoricum) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Es?-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species. PMID:22837673

Li, Xiao-Shuang; Yang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Wood, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

304

Self-reference and Logic Thomas Bolander  

E-print Network

Self-reference and Logic Thomas Bolander 22nd August 2005 Self-reference is used to denote any situation in which someone or something refers to itself. Object that refer to themselves are called self to something--is potentially self-referential. This covers objects such as sentences, thoughts, computer

Bolander, Thomas

305

Reference Is Better than We Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses measurement techniques for determining good reference service and describes results from a study of 12 public libraries in California that investigated reference service. Topics include inconsistent reference studies that showed reference service giving good results half of the time; and measuring unrelated outcomes of accuracy, utility,…

Richardson, John V., Jr.

2002-01-01

306

33 CFR 241.3 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... References. References cited in paragraphs...MD 20781-1102. References cited in paragraphs...National Information Services, 5285 Port Royal...Springfield, VA 22161. References (a), (b) and...reviewed in your local library or by writing your...Development Act, 1986, Public Law 99-662,...

2010-07-01

307

The Spallation Neutron Source RF Reference System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) RF Reference System includes the master oscillator (MO), local oscillator(LO) distribution, and Reference RF distribution systems. Coherent low noise Reference RF signals provide the ability to control the phase relationships between the fields in the front-end and linear accelerator (linac) RF cavity structures. The SNS RF Reference System requirements, implementation details, and performance are discussed.

M. Piller; M. Champion; M. Crofford; H. Ma; L. Doolittle

2005-01-01

308

Mass storage system reference model, Version 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

Coleman, Sam (editor); Miller, Steve (editor)

1993-01-01

309

GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

2005-01-01

310

Generalized linear models with unspecified reference distribution  

PubMed Central

We propose a new class of semiparametric generalized linear models. As with existing models, these models are specified via a linear predictor and a link function for the mean of response Y as a function of predictors X. Here, however, the “baseline” distribution of Y at a given reference mean ?0 is left unspecified and is estimated from the data. The response distribution when the mean differs from ?0 is then generated via exponential tilting of the baseline distribution, yielding a response model that is a natural exponential family, with corresponding canonical link and variance functions. The resulting model has a level of flexibility similar to the popular proportional odds model. Maximum likelihood estimation is developed for response distributions with finite support, and the new model is studied and illustrated through simulations and example analyses from aging research. PMID:18824517

Rathouz, Paul J.; Gao, Liping

2009-01-01

311

PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference  

SciTech Connect

The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

Dobos, A. P.

2013-10-01

312

Electrolytic cell with reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

Kessie, Robert W. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

313

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28

314

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service contains information for "anyone interested in crime, victim assistance, and public safety." Given the outstanding collection of criminal and juvenile justice data held in the NCJRS Abstracts Database, this site should be one of the first tools used to answer criminal justice queries. The NCJRS Abstracts Database holds over 185,000 entries from within the U.S. and around the world. The Question and Answers link on the site allows the user to formulate a question and provides quick and helpful answers. Sponsored by several Federal organizations, this site holds the most up-to-date information in the field of criminal justice and corrections.

2006-10-30

315

Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations  

PubMed Central

We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb–VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb–VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels. PMID:20033397

Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

2010-01-01

316

The Web as a Reference Tool: Comparisons with Traditional Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study suggests that the same level of timeliness and accuracy can be obtained for answers to reference questions using resources in freely available World Wide Web sites as with traditional print-based resources. Discusses implications for library collection development, new models of consortia, training needs, and costing and…

Janes, Joseph; McClure, Charles R.

1999-01-01

317

Lattice Theoretic Relevance in Incremental Reference Processing Julian Hough  

E-print Network

-critical level from linguistic information. They demonstrated self- repair can speed up semantic processing (orLattice Theoretic Relevance in Incremental Reference Processing Julian Hough 1,2 & Matthew Purver 2 of London julian.hough@uni-bielefeld.de 1 Introduction While there has been substantial work on referential

Purver, Matthew

318

Key ACA Terms A quick reference of frequently used terms  

E-print Network

issued annually by the Department of Health and Human Services. The federal poverty level is usedKey ACA Terms A quick reference of frequently used terms www.ifebp.org/acacentral Accountable Care and a worker uses a tax credit (subsidy) to help pay for insurance through an exchange, the employer must pay

Acton, Scott

319

Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR(wb)) and 58% (SAR(10g)) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR(wb) is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR(10g) values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning. PMID:20463374

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2010-06-01

320

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

1994-05-03

321

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

322

Genetics Home Reference: Transcobalamin deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... impairs the transport of cobalamin (also known as vitamin B12) within the body. Cobalamin is obtained from the ... Genetic Testing Registry: Transcobalamin II deficiency MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Vitamin B12 Level You might also find information on the ...

323

Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the level of positively charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) inside cells, particularly in the endoplasmic reticulum and ... contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions. Calcium ions act as signals for a large ...

324

Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

325

Genetics Home Reference: Stormorken syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... syndrome is caused by a mutation in the STIM1 gene. The protein produced from this gene is ... charged calcium atoms (calcium ions) into cells. The STIM1 protein recognizes when calcium ion levels are low ...

326

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis  

MedlinePLUS

... levels of sodium in fluids inside the body (hyponatremia). Most infants with isolated hyperchlorhidrosis experience one or ... still remains. These individuals may still experience dangerous hyponatremia when they sweat excessively, for example in warm ...

327

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary angioedema  

MedlinePLUS

... underlying causes and levels of a protein called C1 inhibitor in the blood. The different types have ... The SERPING1 gene provides instructions for making the C1 inhibitor protein, which is important for controlling inflammation. ...

328

High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

K. N. Green; R. L. van Alstine

1984-01-01

329

Reference effets -1-Asymmetries in Categorization, Perceptual Discrimination, and Visual Search for Reference and  

E-print Network

similarity and detection of faces that belong in the reference, compared to non- reference, category. #12 Words count: 7584 Keywords: Categorization, Category learning, Face perception Running title: Reference-reference exemplars as being the same (Experiment 1), and were better at detecting reference than non

Indiana University

330

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource "offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide." They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. Visitors who know what they are looking for may wish to start with the "A-Z Publications/Products" area and may also wish to sign up for their biweekly email newsletter, JustInfo. The homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, new reports on improving responses to people with mental illnesses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Those persons looking for grants and funding opportunities will definitely want to look over a special section dedicated to providing information on hundreds of different programs.

2008-01-01

331

ILC Reference Design And Challenges  

SciTech Connect

The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a 500 GeV center-of-mass electron-positron linear collider based on 1.3 GHz superconducting rf. For the past two years, the ILC design has been developed by an international collaboration, the Global Design Effort. A draft Reference Design Report (RDR) for the ILC was released in February 2007 and, after international review, the final draft will be published in mid-July, 2007. This talk will describe the ILC design along with the outstanding R&D and engineering challenges. The next step is to complete an Engineering Design (EDR) by 2010, and plans for this phase will also be discussed.

Raubenheimer, Tor O.; /SLAC

2009-07-06

332

NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

WINCHELL,D.F.

2007-04-01

333

Inertial pseudo star reference unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advanced space systems for earth observation sensing and defense applications share a common objective: high-resolution monitoring. They require subsystems that accurately provide precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing of the monitoring sensor with extreme jitter suppression and a precision attitude control system. To address this objective, Draper has developed a pointing system, the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit (IPSRU). The IPSRU effort is a DARPA and SDI sponsored program at Draper under contract with the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The IPSRU implements a collimated light source mounted on a wide-band, extremely low-noise inertially stabilized platform. The collimated light beam becomes, in effect, a jitter-stabilized pseudo star. In addition, its direction in inertial space can be pointed at a precise rate by commands applied to the platform.

Luniewicz, Michael F.; Woodbury, Dale T.; Gilmore, Jerold P.; Chien, Tze T.

1994-05-01

334

Computational Science Education Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Science Education Reference Desk (CSERD) is part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and it receives funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The aim of the CSERD is "to help students learn about computational science and to help faculty and teachers incorporate it into the classroom." First-time visitors can learn more in the "Getting Started" area and they can also sign up to create their own account to store various resources for future use. Users can dive right in by clicking on the "Featured Collection" on the left-hand side of the page and there's even a "featured Virtual Manipulative" that's worth a look. The site also contains a special area for students ("For Students") and one "For Educators" that includes information about upcoming educational workshops. Also, the Journal of Computational Science Education is worth a look as well. Finally, educators are also encouraged to submit their own resources for inclusion within the CSERD's metadata catalog.

335

Establishment of reference standards in biosimilar studies  

PubMed Central

When an innovative biological product goes off-patent, biopharmaceutical or biotechnological companies may file an application for regulatory approval of biosimilar products. In practice, however, important information on the innovative (reference) product may not be available for assessment. Thus, it is important to first establish a reference standard while assessing biosimilarity between a biosimilar product and the reference product. In this paper, reference standard is established through the biosimilarity index approach based on a reference-replicated study (or R-R study), in which the reference product is compared with itself under various scenarios. The reference standard can then be used for assessing the degree of similarity between the test and reference drugs in biosimilar studies. PMID:24734164

Zhang, Aijing; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Chow, Shein-Chung

2014-01-01

336

DTP Reference Guide for New Users  

Cancer.gov

DTP Reference Guide for New Users Home Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Books/Publications Site Search Data Search What's New Quick Reference Guide Where do I go if I need Funding Samples for my research Individual compounds, compound

337

Designing Optical Mark Forms for Reference Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method for collecting reference desk statistics in machine-readable form using optical marks. Useful data categories are identified, and figures illustrate how data can be recorded for each category. Ten references are listed. (FM)

Hallman, Clark N.

1981-01-01

338

Summer Quarter Quick Reference Table of Contents .  

E-print Network

- #12;#12;Summer Quarter Quick Reference Table of Contents . Academic advising Application form, Summer Quarter ......... inside back cover Course listings .................................................................15 Summer Quarter Bulletin, How to receive .................. 20 Quick Reference Guide to Quarter

Kaminsky, Werner

339

Fortran 90/95 Concise Reference  

E-print Network

Fortran 90/95 Concise Reference Jerrold L. Wagener Published by Absoft Corporation Rochester Hills, Michigan #12;Concise Fortran 90/95 Reference Jerrold L. Wagener, author Absoft Corporation, Publisher 2781 sequence types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 #12;ii Fortran 90

Bittner, Eric R.

340

40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section 1042...MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions... § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2013-07-01

341

40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section 1043...AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2013-07-01

342

40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section 1043...AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2012-07-01

343

40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section 1042...MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions... § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2012-07-01

344

40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section 1042...MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions... § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2011-07-01

345

40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section 1043...AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed...on the availability of this material at NARA, call...

2011-07-01

346

SPA Exempt Employees TIM Reference Guide  

E-print Network

SPA Exempt Employees June 2012 PART 1 TIM Reference Guide (Non-Java Version) #12;SPA Exempt Reference Guide Page 2 Table of Contents LOG INTO TIM (NON-JAVA VERSION) .................................................................................................................... 3 LOG OFF TIM

Crews, Stephen

347

SPA Student & Temporary Employees TIM Reference Guide  

E-print Network

SPA Student & Temporary Employees June 2012 PART 1 TIM Reference Guide (Non-Java Version) #12;SPA Student & Temporary Employee Reference Guide Page 2 Table of Contents LOG INTO TIM (NON-JAVA VERSION) .................................................................................................................... 3 LOG OFF TIM

Crews, Stephen

348

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2...

2010-07-01

349

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2...

2011-07-01

350

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost...

2011-07-01

351

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2...

2012-07-01

352

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost...

2014-07-01

353

33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of...

2010-07-01

354

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost surface of the...

2014-07-01

355

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost surface of the...

2012-07-01

356

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost surface of the...

2013-07-01

357

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2...

2014-07-01

358

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost...

2013-07-01

359

33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of...

2013-07-01

360

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost...

2012-07-01

361

33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of...

2012-07-01

362

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance between the uppermost surface of the...

2011-07-01

363

33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of...

2011-07-01

364

33 CFR 183.210 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of More Than 2 Horsepower General § 183.210 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forward most 2 feet of...

2014-07-01

365

33 CFR 183.310 - Reference areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less General § 183.310 Reference areas. (a) The forward reference area of a boat is the forwardmost 2...

2013-07-01

366

Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

2007-01-01

367

Genetics Home Reference: Focal dermal hypoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding focal dermal hypoplasia? anophthalmia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

368

Genetics Home Reference: Infantile systemic hyalinosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding infantile systemic hyalinosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

369

Genetics Home Reference: Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

370

Genetics Home Reference: Glucose-galactose malabsorption  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding glucose-galactose malabsorption? acidity ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

371

Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Brooke-Spiegler syndrome? apoptosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

372

Genetics Home Reference: Giant congenital melanocytic nevus  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding giant congenital melanocytic nevus? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

373

Genetics Home Reference: Potocki-Shaffer syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Potocki-Shaffer syndrome? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

374

Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Tay-Sachs disease? ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

375

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding juvenile hyaline fibromatosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

376

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

377

Genetics Home Reference: Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pyruvate carboxylase deficiency? acidity ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

378

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary multiple exostoses  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary multiple exostoses? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

379

Genetics Home Reference: Triple A syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding triple A syndrome? adrenal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

380

Genetics Home Reference: Combined pituitary hormone deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding combined pituitary hormone deficiency? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

381

Genetics Home Reference: Epidermolysis bullosa simplex  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding epidermolysis bullosa simplex? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

382

Genetics Home Reference: Polycystic kidney disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding polycystic kidney disease? aneurysm ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (12 links) ...

383

Genetics Home Reference: Beta-ketothiolase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding beta-ketothiolase deficiency? aciduria ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

384

Genetics Home Reference: 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria? aciduria ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

385

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2014-04-01

386

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2011-04-01

387

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2010-04-01

388

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2012-04-01

389

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2013-04-01

390

Genetics Home Reference: Congenital myasthenic syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding congenital myasthenic syndrome? apnea ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

391

Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperCKemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding isolated hyperCKemia? apoptosis ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

392

Genetics Home Reference: GM1 gangliosidosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding GM1 gangliosidosis? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

393

Genetics Home Reference: Atelosteogenesis type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding atelosteogenesis type 1? acids ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

394

Business Process Reference Models: Survey and Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Within the Information Systems field, reference models are well-known for many years. The aim of this paper is to survey and\\u000a to describe reference models for business processes. Our analysis of 30 process reference models is based on a framework consisting\\u000a of criteria such as application domain, used process modeling languages, model’s size, known evaluations and applications\\u000a of process reference

Peter Fettke; Peter Loos; Jörg Zwicker

2005-01-01

395

Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

Zheng, Liange; Jov& #233; Colon, Carlos; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-08-08

396

Genetics Home Reference: Proopiomelanocortin deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... 1. Affected individuals experience excessive hunger and remain obese for life. It is unclear if these individuals are prone to weight-related conditions like cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes. Low levels of ACTH lead to a condition called adrenal ...

397

Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

1992-01-01

398

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

PetroDynamics Inc.

399

Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials  

E-print Network

00-1 Planning Report Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Administration #12;February 2000 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final-006 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final Report February 2000

400

Evaluating Reference Services in the Electronic Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an electronic era, the evaluation of reference and related information services should still be based on the same principles used to evaluate traditional face-to-face reference services and printed reference tools. Traditional research methods can be utilized very effectively in an electronic environment. However, electronic technologies offer…

Whitlatch, Jo Bell

2001-01-01

401

33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum...between the uppermost surface of the submerged...the surface of the water measured at the...there is no deck surface at the centerline...the reference depth is the average...

2010-07-01

402

33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum...between the uppermost surface of the submerged...the surface of the water measured at the...there is no deck surface at the centerline...the reference depth is the average...

2010-07-01

403

Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository  

SciTech Connect

One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the syst

NA

2000-10-07

404

The reorganization of a monographic reference collection.  

PubMed Central

Reference monographs in the Health Sciences Library of the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey were reorganized recently according to form, in order to enable both librarians and patrons to utilize these materials more efficiently. This reorganization reflects the unique characteristics of reference books as differentiated from the regular monographic collection, since reference materials are frequently consulted for quick "look-ups." A reference category scheme was developed and implemented, based on observations of and comparisons with reference collections of eight medical libraries in the New York metropolitan area. The reorganization enhances the retrievability of materials from this collection. Images PMID:938775

Jeuell, C A

1976-01-01

405

Reference measurement procedure for Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in serum.  

PubMed

An isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) reference measurement procedure for Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in serum was developed and validated. The method complies with the concept of a ratio primary reference measurement procedure. The uncertainty was determined for two concentrations of THC in serum (1 ng/mL and 2.4 ng/mL). The calculation procedure is based on the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). The relative expanded uncertainty was found to be less than 2% for both concentration levels, corresponding to a 95% confidence interval. For the reference method, it was shown that the measurement of THC within the concentration range covered by the current threshold values is very accurate. The method has the potential to provide traceability for the methods used in practical forensics. PMID:18398602

Lott, S; Henrion, A; Malz, F; Kessler, A; Güttler, B; Aderjan, R

2008-06-01

406

The Role of a Self-Reference System in Spatial Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-reference system architecture developed to explain the retrieval of spatial knowledge from long-term memory is reviewed\\u000a and expanded to include navigational tracking as one of its operations. A distinction is made between the operation of the\\u000a self-reference system at a perceptual-motor and a representational level, and a case is made that if a representational self-reference\\u000a system is to function

M. Jeanne Sholl

2001-01-01

407

Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene. PMID:25345678

Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

2014-01-01

408

GeneChip, geNorm, and gastrointestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR  

E-print Network

Toolbox GeneChip, geNorm, and gastrointestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR Mark I. GeneChip, geNorm, and gastro- intestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR. Physiol and normal tissues, we identified 8 candidate reference genes and established expression levels by real- time

409

Embodiment of Spatial Reference Frames and Individual Differences in Reference Frame Proclivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial cognitive processes can be based on distinct reference frames centered on the body (egocentric reference frame) or centered on aspects of the surrounding environment independent of the position and orientation of the cognizing subject (allocentric reference frame). Updating of spatial information based on an egocentric reference frame is often believed to be highly automatic while the computation of spatial

Klaus Gramann

2011-01-01

410

Abney Level  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A pocket instrument used in surveying which consists of a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level connected to a pointing arm and an arced scale graduated 0 to 90ş in both directions. When correctly used, the Abney Level is an accurate surveying tool used to measure degrees, percent of grade and...

411

Tear film osmolarity: determination of a referent for dry eye diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine new referents, or cutoff levels for tear film hyperosmolarity in the diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to assess their effectiveness in independent patient groups. Tear hyperosmolarity, defined by a referent of 316 mOsmol\\/L, was superior in overall accuracy to any other single test for dry eye diagnosis (Lactoplate, Schirmer test, and

Alan Tomlinson; Santosh Khanal; Kanna Ramaesh; Charles J. M. Diaper; Angus K. McFadyen

2006-01-01

412

Reference: RGL 83-02 Subject: INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT-DOI/USDA  

E-print Network

Reference: RGL 83-02 Subject: INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT-DOI/USDA Title: IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES/31/85 Originator: DAEN-CWO-N Description: GUIDANCE ON MOA'S WITH USDA AND DOT CONCERNING SIGNATURE LEVEL FOR ELEVATION, ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTATION, AND EARLY COORDINATION. 1. Reference: a. MOA between USDA/DA, dated

US Army Corps of Engineers

413

Three-axis attitude and direction reference instrument has only one moving part  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar vehicle instrument combines the functions of attitude reference, direction reference, and display in a unit having only one moving part. The device, using bubble levels and a calibrated dial, is used as a sextant prior to takeoff, and as a backup navigation system during flight.

Bossler, F. B.

1966-01-01

414

BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

415

The NASA master directory: Quick reference guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a quick reference guide to the NASA Master Directory (MD), which is a free, online, multidisciplinary directory of space and Earth science data sets (NASA and non-NASA data) that are of potential interest to the NASA-sponsored research community. The MD contains high-level descriptions of data sets, other data systems and archives, and campaigns and projects. It provides mechanisms for searching for data sets by important criteria such as geophysical parameters, time, and spatial coverage, and provides information on ordering the data. It also provides automatic connections to a number of data systems such as the NASA Climate Data System, the Planetary Data System, the NASA Ocean Data System, the Pilot Land Data System, and others. The MD includes general information about many data systems, data centers, and coordinated data analysis projects, It represents the first major step in the Catalog Interoperability project, whose objective is to enable researchers to quickly and efficiently identify, obtain information about, and get access to space and Earth science data. The guide describes how to access, use, and exit the MD and lists its features.

Satin, Karen (editor); Kanga, Carol (editor)

1989-01-01

416

Training and Reading Level  

E-print Network

)! - Use personal references We can also help ourselves further by reduci~g the length of paragraphs. Try to get only one mauor thought in each paragraph. This helps to ma~e the "major idea" stick out in our writing. It m~kes it easier for the reader... the writing of the training materials we use. Unfortunately, we normally put absolutely no controls on the level. Too ofte , the available information on a technical subject is written by experts in a field for other technical experts in that field...

Bishop, D. l.

1982-01-01

417

Micron Resolution Electromechanical Liquid Level Measurement System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electromechanical liquid?level measurement system, able to achieve measurements on micron sensitivity, is presented in this study. A simple stepping motor provides vertical movements to electrodes sensing the water level. A microcontroller installed on the system determines the number of steps executed by the motor when electrodes move between an upper reference plane and the level of the liquid

Turkay Onacak

2007-01-01

418

The JWST Calibration Reference Data System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS) will be used during the instrumental calibration phase of JWST data processing to select reference files (e.g. darks, flats, distortion models) to be used to calibrate each dataset. The CRDS will also be used in the delivery and management of reference files within the JWST data archive and to manage the rules that will be used to determine which files are to be used with each science dataset. The CRDS incorporates lessons learned from more than 20 years of use of the HST Calibration Database System (CDBS), allowing for easier management of the reference file mapping rules, web-based reference file delivery and retrieval procedures, on-line access by off-site users who are reprocessing their science data, and easier testing of new reference files in the operations environment.

Bushouse, H.; Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

2012-09-01

419

Alternative Reference Frames in River System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding environmental processes begins with mental conceptualizations of system components and interactions. Conceptualizing rivers begins with adopting one of two reference frames for observing movement: Eulerian, wherein the flux of objects is observed in a spatially bounded area, or Lagrangian, wherein specific objects are tracked through time. Mechanistic studies include Eulerian and Lagrangian data, with some negotiation of how much Eulerian and Lagrangian information may be needed to maximize the accuracy of understanding processes and the efficiency of data collection. Most studies rely on a presupposed reference frame, yet we suspect breakthroughs lurk in explicit alterations of presupposed reference frames. We analyze the importance of reference frames by contrasting the extent to which alternative reference frames have been used and combined in studies of sediment transport, fish migration, and river biogeochemistry. We show how adopting alternative or nonintuitive reference frames can facilitate novel research questions and observations, potentially triggering new research trajectories.

Martin Doyle (University of North Carolina;Department of Geography)

2009-06-01

420

Logic Machine Architecture inference mechanisms: Layer 2 user reference manual  

SciTech Connect

Logic Machine Architecture (LMA) is a package of software tools for the construction of inference-based systems. This is the reference manual for layer 2 of LMA. It contains the information necessary to write LMA-based systems at the level of layer 3. Such systems would include theorem provers, expert system reasoning components, and customized deduction components for a variety of application systems.

Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.

1982-12-01

421

The preliminary SOL (Sizing and Optimization Language) reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sizing and Optimization Language, SOL, a high-level special-purpose computer language has been developed to expedite application of numerical optimization to design problems and to make the process less error-prone. This document is a reference manual for those wishing to write SOL programs. SOL is presently available for DEC VAX/VMS systems. A SOL package is available which includes the SOL compiler and runtime library routines. An overview of SOL appears in NASA TM 100565.

Lucas, Stephen H.; Scotti, Stephen J.

1989-01-01

422

Towards a Refined Realisation of the Terrestrial Reference System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global reference frames provide the framework for scientific investigations of the Earth's system (e.g. plate tectonics, sea level change, seasonal and secular loading signals, atmosphere dynamics, Earth orientation excitation), as well as for many practical applications (e.g. surveying and navigation). Today, space geodetic techniques allow to determine geodetic parameters (e.g. station positions, Earth rotation) with a precision of a few

D. Angermann; H. Drewes; B. Meisel; M. Kruegel; V. Tesmer

2004-01-01

423

Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic vomiting syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Cyclic vomiting syndrome Mitochondrial DNA References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and ...

424

Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

1976-01-01

425

Lessons in Electric Circuits Vol V Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A free series of textbooks on the subjects of electricity and electronics. These books DC, AC, Semiconductors, Electronics, Digital, Reference, and Experiments, and all related files are published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. Chapter 1: USEFUL EQUATIONS AND CONVERSION FACTORS Chapter 2: COLOR CODES Chapter 3: CONDUCTOR AND INSULATOR TABLES Chapter 4: ALGEBRA REFERENCE Chapter 5: TRIGONOMETRY REFERENCE Chapter 6: CALCULUS REFERENCE Chapter 7: USING THE SPICE CIRCUIT SIMULATION PROGRAM Chapter 8: TROUBLESHOOTING -- THEORY AND PRACTICE Chapter 9: CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS Chapter 10: PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2013-06-14

426

Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. Results As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. Conclusions We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO. PMID:25093075

2014-01-01

427

Epistemic levels  

E-print Network

In this dissertation I defend some controversial "level-bridging" principles in epistemology. In the first chapter, I defend the KK principle-the principle that if one knows that P, then one knows that one knows that P. I ...

Greco, Daniel (Daniel Louis)

2012-01-01

428

Hormone levels  

MedlinePLUS

Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

429

Trophic Levels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains how energy cycles in biological communities through the different trophic levels. These include producers, consumers, and decomposers. Key terms are hyperlinked so that students can easily find definitions to unfamiliar words.

2012-06-11

430

Reference Materials for Secondary School Library Media Centers. Library Resources #2 [and] Selected Bibliography of Elementary Reference Materials. Library Resources #25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two annotated bibliographies list reference materials for the secondary school and elementary school levels. Each bibliography contains entries arranged alphabetically by title under Dewey Decimal Classification headings, i.e., 000s through 900s. Entries consist of the title, author/published, publication date, and cost; elementary-level

Estes, Bettie

431

CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets with CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with Mo and Zr removed. Waste streams that contain Mo must be produced in reducing environments to avoid Cs-Mo oxide phase formation. Waste streams without Mo have the ability to be melt processed in air. A path forward for further optimizing the processing steps needed to form the targeted phase assemblages is outlined in this report. Processing modifications including melting in a reducing atmosphere, and controlled heat treatment schedules are anticipated to improve the targeted elemental partitioning.

Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

2012-05-15

432

1December 4, 2008 Mars Design Reference  

E-print Network

1December 4, 2008 Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Study Executive Summary Bret G. Drake December 4, 2008 #12;2December 4, 2008 Presentation Outline Background of the 2007 Mars Architecture Study Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 Overview Decision Packages & Key Rationale Special Topics

Waliser, Duane E.

433

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are

Joyce M. Shaw

1988-01-01

434

Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

435

Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

436

Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

Kristof, Cynthia

437

THE ASCE STANDARDIZED REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION EQUATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the standardization of calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ET) as recommended by the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The purpose of the stan...

438

Patron Preference in Reference Service Points.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavior of patrons choosing between a person sitting at a counter and one sitting at a desk at each of two reference points was observed at the reference department during remodeling at the M. D. Anderson Library of the University of Houston. Results showed a statistically relevant preference for the counter. (Author/JD)

Morgan, Linda

1980-01-01

439

Reference Services for Electronic Records in Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological advancement has changed the way the role of archives, especially electronic records, is viewed by archivists. Based on experiences at the Center for Electronic Records of the National Archives and Records Administration, this article discusses finding aids and reference tools, reference services and electronic records in archives,…

Hull, Theodore J.

1997-01-01

440

COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE GUIDE (Last updated September 2007)  

E-print Network

, 1200­1214 (see p. 12). · Note that the journal Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics is abbreviated Annu- 1 - COMPREHENSIVE REFERENCE GUIDE (Last updated September 2007) The following are guidelines should catch any discrepancies. · Make sure that AMS reference titles are in AMS house style. · Do

441

Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page, "Reference

Kitao, Kenji

2002-01-01

442

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Ĺrup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

443

Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

2013-01-01

444

Graph-Based Generation of Referring Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a new approach to the generation of referring expressions. We propose to formalize a scene (consisting of a set of objects with various properties and relations) as a labeled directed graph and describe content selection (which properties to include in a referring expression) as a subgraph construction problem. Cost functions are used to guide the search process

Emiel Krahmer; Sebastiaan van Erk; Andre Verleg

2003-01-01

445

INVESTIGATION Genotype Imputation Reference Panel Selection  

E-print Network

the problem of a substantial mismatch in ancestry background between the study population and the reference with existing genotype data. GENOTYPE imputation is an essential component of modern genetic association studies Northern European samples alone. Most studies performed to date have selected refer- ence panels from

Rosenberg, Noah

446

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2010-01-01

447

Color, Reference, and Expertise in Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In learning the meaning of a new term, children need to fix its reference, learn its conventional meaning, and discover the meanings with which it contrasts. To do this, children must attend to adult speakers--the experts--and to their patterns of use. In the domain of color, children need to identify color terms as such, fix the reference of each…

Clark, Eve V.

2006-01-01

448

A Guide to Reference Sources on Copyright.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Encyclopedias, subject encyclopedias, dictionaries, indexes, almanacs, directories, handbooks, bibliographies, government documents, and monographs with copyright information are included in this guide to reference sources. It is intended as an introduction to some reference sources on copyright and does not claim to contain all the sources…

Hammond, Theresa M.

449

Guide to Children's Magazines, Newspapers, Reference Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The annotated entries in this bibliography of publications for children are divided into two categories: magazines and newspapers, and reference books. The first section, arranged alphabetically, includes periodicals on sports, science, history, hobbies, and entertainment. The reference books are grouped under the following headings: biography,…

Madden, Peter

450

American Reference Books Annual 1999. Volume 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 30th volume of American Reference Books Annual (ARBA) covers 1,578 books and CD-ROMs published in 1998 (with some from 1997 that were not included in the previous volume). The basic purpose of ARBA is to provide comprehensive coverage of English-language reference books published or distributed in the United States or Canada during a single…

Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.; Strickland, Susan D., Ed.; Graff, Shannon M., Ed.

451

Automating Your Ready-Reference File.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the automation of the ready reference card file at the California State University, Long Beach library. Topics discusses include the use of dBase III Plus software; keyword fields for multiple access points; the source field and other fields; a menu-driven interface; and file creation and maintenance. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

Thomas, Joy; Sottong, Stephen P.

1994-01-01

452

Understanding General Reference Maps (Understanding Documents).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on how to teach general reference cartographic maps (maps that show feature's of the earth's surface easily recognizable by most people). Notes that the content of general reference maps can best be understood in terms of the structure of simple lists. (RS)

Mosenthal, Peter B.; Kirsch, Irwin S.

1990-01-01

453

Spherical reference systems for nonspherical hard interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on three complex systems of hard molecules: linear triatomics, heteronuclear dumbbells, and two-component mixtures of dumbbells. In addition to studying the equation of state generated by the median potential, the Barker-Henderson reference system is also investigated and seen to give results nearly indistinguishable from those obtained from the median system. Both reference systems continue to reproduce the

G. O. Williams; J. L. Lebowitz; J. K. Percus

1984-01-01

454

Sandia\\/NIST reference cell calibration procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photovoltaic Device Measurement Laboratory (PDML) at Sandia in collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed an indoor calibration procedure that improves the accuracy and reduces the time and cost of calibrating photovoltaic reference cells. The calibration procedure involves exposing the reference cell to an accurately known spectral irradiance provided by a 1000 W quartz-tungsten-halogen

David L. King; Bany R Hansen; John K. Jackson

1993-01-01

455

English Language Arts. Delaware Teachers' Desk Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document represents one section of the Delaware Teachers' Desk Reference to Standards and Performance Indicators for Curriculum Planning and Unit Development produced by the Delaware Department of Education. The Desk Reference is part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school…

Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

456

Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues  

PubMed Central

To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

2013-01-01

457

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

458

Staffing levels.  

PubMed

The Safer Nursing Care Tool (SNCT), which was originally developed in 2007 to help managers set appropriate nurse-staffing levels, has been extensively reviewed and recently endorsed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). The SNCT focuses on setting establishments and determining safe and appropriate nurse-staffing levels based on patients' sickness and dependency. It is the only tool of its kind available free to healthcare providers. It is updated regularly to reflect the changing needs of patients, and further developments are in progress to support NICE advice on how to determine nursing requirements on a shift-by-shift basis at ward level. Go to tinyurl.com/mqw2zpt to access the tool and tinyurl.com/pf63h7h to read the NICE endorsement. PMID:25428319

2014-11-27

459

Reference pricing and firms' pricing strategies.  

PubMed

Within a horizontal differentiation model and allowing for heterogeneous qualities, we analyze the effects of reference pricing reimbursement on firms' pricing strategies. With this analysis we find inherent incentives for firms' pricing behavior, and consequently we shed some light on the time consistency of such policy. The analysis encompasses different reference price rules: (i) reference price as the minimum of the observed prices in the market, (ii) reference price as a linear combination of firms' prices. Results show that under the "minimum policy" firms are not able to coordinate on higher prices while the "linear policy", implicitly, provides a coordination device. We have also found that, relatively to the "linear policy", when the reference price is the minimum of observed prices, after policy implementation, total and private expenditures are higher and consumer surplus and firms' profits are lower. With quality differentiation both the minimum and linear policies unambiguously lead to higher prices. PMID:19038465

Miraldo, Marisa

2009-01-01

460

Leveling Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

Bautista, Nazan

2014-01-01

461

Dumpy Level  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Prism level manufactured by C.L. Berger & Sons, serial# 16898. The company was founded by Christian Louis Berger (1842-1922) who was born at Stuttgart, Germany and moved to Boston in 1866. In 1871 he joined with George Louis Buff, and began trading as Buff & Berger. In 1898, after an acrimonious dis...

462

Ghost-free Massive Gravity with a General Reference Metric  

E-print Network

Theories of massive gravity inevitably include an auxiliary reference metric. Generically, they also contain an inconsistency known as the Boulware-Deser ghost. Recently, a family of non-linear massive gravity actions, formulated with a flat reference metric, were proposed and shown to be ghost free at the complete non-linear level. In this paper we consider these non-linear massive gravity actions but now formulated with a general reference metric. We extend the proof of the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost to this case. The analysis is carried out in the ADM formalism at the complete non-linear level. We show that in these models there always exists a Hamiltonian constraint which, with an associated secondary constraint, eliminates the ghost. This result considerably extends the range of known consistent non-linear massive gravity theories. In addition, these theories can also be used to describe a massive spin-2 field in an arbitrary, fixed gravitational background. We also discuss the positivity of the Hamiltonian.

S. F. Hassan; Rachel A. Rosen; Angnis Schmidt-May

2011-09-15

463

A Study of Reference Referral and Super Reference in California. Volume I: Main Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public libraries are currently the conduit for local, state, and federal funds used to support reference referral and other reference-related functions in California. Given potential funding constraints, this 5-month study expanded its original scope--to assess the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the Bay Area Reference Center (BARC) and the…

Robinson, Barbara M.

464

The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus: A Reference Dataset for Bibliographic Research in Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus: A Reference Dataset for Bibliographic Research in Computational@umiacs.umd.edu, {gibsonb,mtjoseph,radev}@umich.edu, {kanmy,tanyeefa}@comp.nus.edu.sg, dongwon@psu.edu Abstract The ACL an enriched and standardized reference corpus derived from the ACL Anthology that can be used for research

Dale, Robert

465

Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

2008-01-01

466

7 CFR 300.4 - Reference Manual B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REFERENCE § 300.4 Reference Manual B. (a) The Reference Manual for Seed Health Testing...Availability. Copies of Reference Manual B: (1) Are available... (2) May be obtained by writing to Phytosanitary Issues...

2010-01-01

467

7 CFR 300.3 - Reference Manual A.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REFERENCE § 300.3 Reference Manual A. (a) The Reference Manual for Administration...Availability. Copies of Reference Manual A: (1) Are available... (2) May be obtained by writing to Phytosanitary Issues...

2010-01-01

468

RPP: Reference Pattern Based Kernel Prefetching Controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional kernel prefetching schemes have focused on taking advantage of sequential access patterns that are easy to detect. However, it is observed that, on random and even sequential references, they may cause performance degradation due to inaccurate pattern prediction and overshooting. To address these problems, we propose a novel approach to work with existing kernel prefetching schemes, called Reference Pattern based kernel Prefetching (RPP). The RPP can reduce negative effects of existing schemes by identifying one more reference pattern, i.e., looping, in addition to random and sequential patterns and delaying starting prefetching until patterns are confirmed to be sequential or looping.

Lee, Hyo J.; Doh, In Hwan; Kim, Eunsam; Noh, Sam H.

469

Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thorium-232 reference materials with a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. Some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material were prepared by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/q. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 + or - 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 + or - 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 + or - 0.3 pCi/g.

Engelder, P. R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R. B.

1985-05-01

470

The initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IERS standards has adopted a description of the Convential Terrestrial Reference System (CTRS) to be used for all IERS activities. In order to facilitate the actual implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) by the various analysis centers which participate to IERS, but also by potential users, this study presents several informations which could be useful for these purposes: 1. A critical description of the latest TRF established by BIH, namely BTS 87. 2. A currently improved combination of BTS 87 input data, following strictly the IERS standards, and to be used as Initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-0). 3. Some suggestions for implementation of the ITRS.

Boucher, C.; Altamimi, Z.

1989-06-01

471

TEPC performance for a reference standard.  

PubMed

A portable tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based system was developed, which will be used as a reference standard in the neutron mixed field for radiation protection. In this paper, microdosimetry of the TEPC system was studied both in neutron ((252)Cf and (241)Am-Be sources) and gamma ((137)Cs and (60)Co sources) reference radiation fields. The measured neutron and gamma-dose equivalent rates were, respectively, compared with those of the reference ambient dose equivalent rate H(*)(10). And the measured microdosimetric spectra were compared with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA simulated results. All of the comparisons primarily agreed well. PMID:24036657

Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yina; Li, Chunjuan; Xiao, Xuefu; Luo, Hailong; Chen, Jun; Li, Wei

2014-01-01

472

New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

1985-06-01

473

Language Proficiency Levels "Can-do" statement LEVELS Listening/Speaking Reading Writing  

E-print Network

Language Proficiency Levels ­ "Can-do" statement LEVELS Listening/Speaking Reading Writing C2 Level 5 CAN advise on or talk about complex or sensitive issues, understanding colloquial references and dealing confidently with hostile questions. CAN understand documents, correspondence and reports

Applebaum, David

474

Plant Chlorophyll Content Imager with Reference Detection Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable plant chlorophyll imaging system is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels is processed using synchronized video cameras. A controller provided in the system compares the level of light of video images reflected from a target plant with a reference level of light from a source illuminating the plant. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio video image which indicates a relative level of plant chlorophyll content and physiological stress. Multiple display modes are described for viewing the video images.

Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

475

A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only nominal compositional ranges for each element are given in the article.

Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

2012-01-01

476

Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination  

E-print Network

In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

Nonato, Rafael

2014-01-01

477

47 CFR 15.605 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...15.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.605 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A and B of this...

2012-10-01

478

47 CFR 15.605 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...15.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.605 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A and B of this...

2010-10-01

479

47 CFR 15.605 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...15.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.605 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A and B of this...

2013-10-01

480

47 CFR 15.605 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...15.605 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Access Broadband Over Power Line (Access BPL) § 15.605 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A and B of this...

2011-10-01

481

WWW Search Tools in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an introduction to World Wide Web search tools for reference services. Discusses characteristics of search services and types of tools available, including search engines/robot-generated databases, directories, metasearch engines, and review/rating sites. (AEF)

Kimmel, Stacey

1997-01-01

482

32 CFR 861.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

2010-07-01

483

32 CFR 861.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

2012-07-01

484

32 CFR 861.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

2014-07-01

485

32 CFR 861.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

2013-07-01

486

32 CFR 861.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

2011-07-01

487

Nuclear Science References WWW Retrieval System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The retrieval system contains references to low and intermediate energy physics research publications listed in the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) Data File at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Users can search via nuclide, target, incident particle, outgoing particle, reaction, author, keynumber list, subject or quantity. Links to abstracts from the American Physical Society are provided. Output formats include HTML or plain text. Searches can be narrowed by specifying range of years for query, primary reference, or a NSR Entry Date. Once past the initial frames interface, the list of references appears in a new, uncluttered window. Note, the retrieval system does not work with Microsoft Internet Explorer or versions of Netscape less than 3.0.

1998-01-01

488

Genetics Home Reference: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia  

MedlinePLUS

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information ...

489

Genetics Home Reference: Kearns-Sayre syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Kearns-Sayre syndrome Mitochondrial DNA Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic ...

490

Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

491

Genetics Home Reference: Mitochondrial complex III deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions ...

492

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith  

E-print Network

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

Smith, Graeme

493

32 CFR 552.161 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.161 References. See appendix E...

2010-07-01

494

32 CFR 552.86 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a) AR 405-70 (Utilization of Real Estate). (b) AR 405-80...

2010-07-01

495

Electromagnetic Radiation REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of  

E-print Network

1 CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Principles REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of the Environment John;2 Electromagnetic Energy Interactions Energy recorded by remote sensing systems undergoes fundamental interactions, creating convectional currents in the atmosphere. c) Electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic

Gilbes, Fernando

496

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2013-01-01

497

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2012-01-01

498

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2011-01-01

499

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2010-01-01

500

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2014-01-01