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Sample records for icnirp reference level

  1. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (Tbody, incr) under 1 C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (Tincr, max) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate Tincr, max in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used Tincr, max as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on Tincr, max for specified durations of exposure.

  2. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2??2??2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

  3. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of disruption of melatonin due to exposure to weak EMFs, which may possibly lead to long-term health effects in humans. PMID:23051584

  4. Quandaries in the application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies uncertainties and problems in the practical application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density. This quantity should be averaged over a cross-section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the current direction. The rationale and the sensitivity of the current density average are investigated. There are difficulties in finding a square centimetre of spinal cord over which to average. The consequences of including neighbouring tissues in the averages are investigated in the male and female voxel models NORMAN and NAOMI for applied uniform electric and magnetic fields at 50 Hz. Also the case of the non-uniform magnetic field from a horizontal current carrying conductor adjacent to the back of the body is investigated. The maximum and 99th percentile current density values are compared with the 1 cm2 average in the derivation of external field reference levels.

  5. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  6. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  7. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82-0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15-3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47-1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger samples to verify our observations. Furthermore, this new method could be useful as a reference for researchers and industry professionals without direct access to the necessary equipment. PMID:25996887

  8. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    PubMed Central

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger samples to verify our observations. Furthermore, this new method could be useful as a reference for researchers and industry professionals without direct access to the necessary equipment. PMID:25996887

  9. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Va Carruana, E; Fernndez Soto, J M; Snchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morn, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. PMID:24211195

  10. Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N W; Chapple, C L; Kotre, C J

    2000-12-01

    Following the release of European Directive EU 97/43, radiodiagnostic facilities within the European Union are required to implement a system of patient dose reviews based on comparisons with European, national and local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Establishing these levels for typical interventional radiology examinations presents a problem as definition of 'typical' examinations can be difficult, patient numbers are limited and these procedures are often performed at a few specialist centres. This paper uses dose-area product (DAP) gathered over a period of 3 years from 40 fluoroscopy rooms to investigate potential difficulties when it comes to forming diagnostic reference levels for interventional radiology. Comparison of DAP distributions with standard complex (fluoroscopy based) examinations such as barium enema reveals considerably more variation for interventional procedures. Two methods of forming a DRL are compared: pooled patient DAP distributions versus a distribution of DAP per room. The bootstrap resampling method is then applied to DAP distributions to form a confidence interval for the chosen DRL statistic. Potential error on a DRL formed at a local level from a limited number of patient dose readings and x-ray rooms is significant. The results are reviewed in the wider context of DRLs in general radiology. For complex examinations, it is suggested that the function of the DRL is best served by setting DRLs based on pooled size-corrected patient DAP distributions rather than distributions of average DAP per room. PMID:11131203

  11. Zero reference level for right heart catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Gabor; Avian, Alexander; Olschewski, Andrea; Olschewski, Horst

    2013-12-01

    Although in the pulmonary circulation small pressure differences may alter the categorisation of patients, there is no consensus on a standard zero reference level (ZRL). In the supine position, ZRL is mostly set at "5 cm below anterior thorax surface", "1/3 thoracic diameter below anterior thorax surface", "mid-thoracic level" or "10 cm above table level". We retrospectively assessed the distance of these four ZRLs from computed tomography-derived right and left atrial centre levels and from one another in patients undergoing right heart catheterisation and calculated the respective differences in pressure readings. We included 196 consecutive patients. The ZRL at "1/3 thoracic diameter" was most often (98.5%) level with the right atrium, and the ZRL at "mid-thoracic level" was level with the left atrium (97.4%), revealing a median (range) pressure difference of -0.3 (-3.0-1.3) and 0.2 (-2.0-1.3) mmHg from the right and left atrial centre level, respectively. The largest differences (8.0 (2.0-15.4) mmHg) were found between the ZRLs "5 cm below anterior thorax surface" and "10 cm above table level". Accordingly, 59% versus 80% of patients would be classified with pulmonary hypertension and 7% versus 38% with elevated left heart pressures. The choice of ZRL strongly influences pulmonary pressure readings and pulmonary hypertension classification. 1/3 thoracic diameter mostly represents the right atrium while the left atrium is best represented by the mid-thoracic level. PMID:23794468

  12. The role of skin conductivity in a low frequency exposure assessment for peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Cecil, Stefan; berbacher, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Based on numerical computations using commercially available finite difference time domain code and a state-of-the art anatomical model of a 5-year old child, the influence of skin conductivity on the induced electric field strength inside the tissue for homogeneous front-to-back magnetic field exposure and homogeneous vertical electric field exposure was computed. Both ungrounded as well as grounded conditions of the body model were considered. For electric field strengths induced inside CNS tissue the impact of skin conductivity was found to be less than 15%. However, the results demonstrated that the use of skin conductivity values as obtainable from the most widely used data base of dielectric tissue properties and recommended by safety standards are not suitable for exposure assessment with respect to peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines in which the use of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin is suggested as a conservative surrogate for peripheral nerve exposure. This is due to the fact that the skin conductivity values derived from these data bases refer to the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the skin, which does not contain any nerve or receptor cells to be protected from stimulation effects. Using these skin conductivity values which are approximately a factor 250-500 lower than skin conductivity values used in studies on which the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines are based on, may lead to overestimations of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin by substantially more than a factor of 10. However, reliable conductivity data of deeper skin layers where nerve and preceptor cells are located is very limited. It is therefore recommended to include appropriate background information in the ICNIRP guidelines and the dielectric tissue property databases, and to put some emphasis on a detailed layer-specific characterization of skin conductivity in near future.

  13. Circuit automatically calibrates flowmeter against liquid-level gage reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Turbine-type flowmeter uses the flow of liquid from a tank with reed-type liquid level switches as a calibration reference. A circuit to generate a reliable gate signal consists of an input and switch identification stage, monostable and bistable multivibrators, and a signal inverter and pulse output stage.

  14. Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Mark; Lambert, James; Sliney, David

    2006-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) established eye-safe exposure limits for laser light based on estimates of the 50% exposure dose (ED50) for retinal damage in animals. The ED50 has not been determined for continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) light, as may be used in instruments for spectroscopic analysis of the eye. The purpose of this study is to determine the ED50 of 785-nm light delivered by a Raman spectroscopy instrument on the retinas of pigmented rabbits, and to compare that ED50 to the ICNIRP estimates. Light of varying power was focused into the anterior chambers of rabbits for 4, 20, or 300 s. Estimates of spot size on the retina were determined by modifying the schematic rabbit eye with actual axial length and refractive error measurements. Masked examiners determined retinal burns from fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms made immediately after exposure and again 48-72 h later. Thirty-five of 86 exposed eyes had retinal burns. In 12 of these the burn was not visible until 48-72 h. In 6 the burn was visible on color photographs, but not on fluorescein angiography. The ED50 retinal power density from probit analysis was 14,513 mW cm(-2), 10,369 mW cm(-2), and 5,237 mW cm(-2) for 4-s, 20-s, and 300-s exposures, respectively. Thus, the ED50 for retinal burns from 785-nm light is approximately 7 and 7.5 times the ICNIRP permitted limits for 4- and 20-s exposures, and 5.6 times the limit for 300-s exposures. This is consistent with the ICNIRP intention to set power limits several times less than ED50. PMID:16340602

  15. Reference hearing threshold levels for short duration signals.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Torben; Legarth, Sren Vase

    2008-10-01

    Hearing thresholds for clicks and tonebursts were measured on 26 otologically normal persons (age 18-25 years) using the earphones Sennheiser HDA 200 and Telephonics TDH 39. The test signals are specified in IEC 60645-3 and in ISO 389-9. The acoustic test signals were presented both as a single stimulus and as repeated stimuli with the repetition rate of 20 Hz. The frequencies used for the toneburst were: 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000, and 8000 Hz. Test signals and measurement methods were all in accordance with the recommendations given in ISO 389-9: Preferred test conditions for the determination of reference hearing threshold levels. The results are given as peak-to-peak equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (peETSPL). The results are in good agreement with other sparse results from literature and are part of the basis for the ISO 389-6 standard from 2007. PMID:18923987

  16. The low-level radioactivity ocean sediment standard reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Inn, K.G.W.; Lin, Z.; Liggett, W.S.; Krey, P.W.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past decades, on the order of 10{sup 15} Becquerel nuclear waste have been stored in the oceans. Potential contamination of the oceans from leaking nuclear waste has caused world wide concern. Currently, early warning of ocean contamination near the waste dumping sites rely on monitoring systems being set up by different countries and agencies. Because the determination of low-level radioactivity in ocean sediment is a difficult technical task, a basis for measurement quality assurance, methods verification, and data comparability is needed. The recently certified NIST ocean sediment Standard Reference Material (SRM-4355) is a composite of 1% contaminated Irish Sea sediment and 99% of Chesapeake Bay sediment by weight. The sediments were blended, pulverized to a median particle size of 8 {mu}m, and reblended to achieve acceptable sample homogeneity. A statistical assessment of the intercomparison results from 19 laboratories has shown the material to be homogeneous down to 10 grams. The certified radionuclide concentration range from 0.4 to 230 mBq/g. A variety of radiochemical procedures and detection techniques have been used in the measurements to minimize possible systematic bias. Twelve radionuclides including {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup (239+240)}Pu were certified. The mean values were reported for an additional 10 uncertified radionuclides: {sup 129}I, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 241}Am. The standard reference material in unit quantities of about 100 gram each will be available by the end of 1995.

  17. Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vano, Eliseo Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M.; Gallego, J. J.; Verdu, J. F.; Garay, M. Gonzalez de; Azpiazu, A.; Segarra, A.; Hernandez, M. T.; Canis, M.; Diaz, F.; Moreno, F.; Palmero, J.

    2009-01-15

    A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

  18. Radiometer calibration procedure and beacon attenuation estimation reference level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Robert K.

    1994-01-01

    The primary objectives are to compare radiometer attenuation with beacon attenuation and to compare sky temperature estimates with calculations using simultaneous meteorological data. Secondary objectives are: (1) noise diode and reference load measurements and (2) to adjust for outside temperature and component temperature changes.

  19. Instrument quickly transposes ground reference target to eye level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. E.; Van Deventer, E. L.

    1966-01-01

    Optical alignment of equipment is facilitated by a traverse target with a string suspending a plumb bob to transpose the ground level point to eye level operation. This instrument appreciably decreases the time required from the present method but achieves the same degree of precision.

  20. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  1. Power noise rejection and device noise analysis at the reference level of ramp ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Peter; Um, JiYong; Choi, EunJung; Park, HyunMook; Gou, JaSeung; Cho, KwangJun; Seo, KangBong; Yoo, SangDong

    2015-03-01

    Sources of noise that corrupt the reference level VREF during a ramp ADC operation are identified and analyzed. For power noise analysis, PSR of bandgap reference and current generator are investigated through small signal circuits. For device noise appearing at the reference level, noise contribution from each device is expressed in terms of design variables. The identified design variables are arranged in a table to serve as a guide for low noise CMOS imager design.

  2. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic

  3. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  4. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1, the safety factor was 11.

  5. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  6. Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, J; Christensen, J M; Iversen, B S; Sabbioni, E

    1997-09-26

    This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats. PMID:9301099

  7. Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W/sq m can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.

  8. Nature of Environmental Education in Bangladesh: A School Level Assessment with Reference to the National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, M. A. Taiyeb

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the nature of formal environmental education in Bangladesh at school level with particular reference to the national curriculum. The main objective of the study is to assess the contents of the school textbooks for each standard, and to see whether the diversified themes covered are a good representation of…

  9. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    PubMed

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures. PMID:25987585

  10. Development of a chronic inhalation reference level for respirable crystalline silica.

    PubMed

    Collins, James F; Salmon, Andrew G; Brown, Joseph P; Marty, Melanie A; Alexeeff, George V

    2005-12-01

    Chronic inhalation exposure of workers to crystalline silica can result in silicosis. The general public can also be exposed to lower levels of crystalline silica from quarries, sand blasting, and entrained fines particles from surface soil. We have derived an inhalation chronic reference exposure level for silica, a level below which no adverse effects due to prolonged exposure would be expected in the general public. Incidence of silicosis and silica exposure data from a cohort of 2235 white South African gold miners yielded a reference level of 3 microg/m3) for respirable silica (particle size as defined occupationally) using a benchmark concentration approach. Data from cohorts of American gold miners, Chinese tin miners, diatomaceous earth workers, and black South African gold miners yielded similar results with a range of 3-10 microg/m3. Strengths of the chronic reference exposure level include the availability of several large long-term studies of inhalation in workers at varying exposure concentrations, adequate histopathological and radiologic analysis, adequate follow-up of exposed workers, a dose-response effect in several studies, observation of a No Observed Adverse Effect Level in the key study, and the power of the key study to detect a small effect. Uncertainties include the general underestimation of silicosis by radiography alone and the uncertainties in exposure estimation. PMID:16185799

  11. Local diagnostic reference levels for angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures: Australian practice.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Brendan J; Brady, Zoe; Marshall, Elissa M

    2014-03-01

    Although diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures are amongst the highest dose examinations performed in radiology, these procedures currently lack established national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Australia. In this absence, local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) are proposed for a wide range of diagnostic and interventional angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures based upon data collected from 11,000 examinations, performed over a 2.5year period at a major Australian public, teaching hospital. Each procedure type assessed included a minimum of 50 cases. LDRLs were defined for each procedure in terms of the 75th percentile of the dose area product and median fluoroscopic times have also been provided. The detailed categories of procedures used in this study may inform the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency when establishing national DRLs for angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures. Until national DRLs for these complex procedures are available, these LDRLs may provide guidance to other institutions on achievable dose levels. PMID:24430258

  12. Nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of Drosophila melanogaster reference laboratory strains to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Eleftherianos, Ioannis; More, Kareen; Spivack, Stephanie; Paulin, Ethan; Khojandi, Arman; Shukla, Sajala

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in Drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. We used five standard D. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (Oregon R, w1118, Canton-S, Cinnabar Brown, and Yellow White [YW]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus luminescens and Enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus). We detected high sensitivity among YW flies to bacterial infections and increased bacterial growth compared to the other strains. We also found variation in the transcription of certain antimicrobial peptide genes among strains, with Oregon and YW infected flies showing the highest and lowest gene transcription levels in most cases. We show that Oregon and w1118 flies possess more circulating hemocytes and higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the other strains upon infection with the nonpathogenic bacteria. We further observed reduced fat accumulation in YW flies infected with the pathogenic bacteria, which suggests a possible decline in physiological condition. Finally, we found that nitrite levels are significantly lower in infected and uninfected YW flies compared to w1118 flies and that nitric oxide synthase mutant flies in YW background are more susceptible to bacterial infection compared to mutants in w1118 background. Therefore, increased sensitivity of YW flies to bacterial infections can be partly attributed to lower levels of nitric oxide. Such studies will significantly contribute toward a better understanding of the genetic variation between D. melanogaster reference strains. PMID:25047850

  13. Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y⁻¹ based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

  14. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm. PMID:25833896

  15. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  16. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for common multi-detector computed tomography examinations in Iran.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohsen; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Mohsen; Kardan, Mohammad Reza

    2015-12-01

    In order to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), four routine CT examinations were identified and a computer program was developed to collect data from 19 MDCT scanners in Iran. Mean values of Volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) in each site were calculated and the DRLs were defined as the 75th percentile of the distribution of the CTDIvol/DLP values for each examination. In terms of DLP, the DRLs of adult age group are 700, 290, 330, and 550mGycm for the Brain, Sinus, Chest, and Abdomen and Pelvis protocols, respectively. Although DRLs of this study are comparable to other international DRLs and in most cases are less than the international reference values, the great extent of dose distributions indicates that the CT imaging procedures in Iran should be optimized by applying diagnostic reference levels in order to decrease the radiation dose to patient undergoing CT examination. PMID:26507898

  17. Re-evaluation of the reference dose for methylmercury and assessment of current exposure levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A.H. )

    1993-06-01

    Methylmercury (Me-Hg) is widely distributed through freshwater and saltwater food chains and human consumption of fish and shellfish has lead to widespread exposure. Both the US EPA Reference Dose (0.3 [mu]g/kg/day) and the FAO/WHO Permissible Tolerable Weekly Intake (3.3 [mu]g/kg/week) are currently based on the prevention of paraesthesia in adult and older children. However, Me-Hg exposure in utero is known to result in a range of developmental neurologic effects including clinical CNS symptoms and delayed onset of walking. Based on a critical review of development toxicity data from human and animal studies, it is concluded that current guidelines for the prevention of paraesthesia are not adequate to address developmental effects. A dose of 0.07 [mu]g/kg/day is suggested as the best estimate of a potential reference dose for developmental effects. Data on nationwide fish consumption rates and Me-Hg levels in fish/seafood weighted by proportion of the catch intended for human consumption are analyzed in a Monte Carlo simulation to derive a probability distribution of background Me-Hg exposure. While various uncertainties in the toxicologic and exposure data limit the precision with which health risk can be estimated, this analysis suggests that at current levels of Me-Hg exposure, a significant fraction of women of childbearing age have exposures above this suggested reference dose.

  18. Patient dosimetry and a novel approach to establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher; van der Putten, Wil

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels provide a method of ensuring that patient doses in medical procedures are kept at acceptable levels. Their application in dentistry can provide an indication of current dose levels and can assist in potentially significant dose reduction in Ireland given the number of patients screened annually. This study involved retrospective analyses of entrance surface dose and dose-width-product measurements obtained in Irish Dental Practices for both Intra-Oral and Panoramic units respectively, followed by comparisons with Monte-Carlo generated computer models of these procedures. Analysis was performed on data from 33 Intra-Oral units for an Adult Mandibular Molar entrance surface dose, 198 readings for a proposed mGy/mAs reference level and 50 Panoramic machines for a dose-width product investigation. The third quartile value of the entrance surface dose for a standard Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph is (2.40 0.92)mGy, compared to a computer-modelled value of 2.60 mGy. The third quartile mGy/mAs value for Intra-Oral procedures is (1.03 0.38)mGy/mAs, compared to a computer-modelled value of 0.75 mGy/mAs. The third quartile dose width product for an Adult Panoramic radiograph is (59.89 20.97)mGymm, compared to a computer-modeled value of 62.40 mGymm. It is proposed to introduce Diagnostic Reference Levels of 2.4 mGy for an Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph and 60 mGymm for an Adult Panoramic radiograph. The use of a new reference quantity in Intra-Oral radiology is also suggested. This has a value of 1 mGy/mAs and may be introduced alongside established procedures. These levels can be taken as guides to acceptable doses, but it should be noted that further reductions are practical under ALARA principles. PMID:21216646

  19. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

  20. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  1. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  2. Children's level of word knowledge predicts their exclusion of familiar objects as referents of novel words.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Susanne; Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children's productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children's receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion. PMID:26322005

  3. A numerically calibrated reference level (MP28) for the terrestrial mammal-based biozonation of the European Upper Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Dieter F.; Renne, Paul R.; Wuttke, Michael; Mödden, Clemens

    2007-04-01

    The fauna of the Enspel (Westerwald) and the neighbouring Kärlich (Neuwied basin) fossil deposits correspond to the Upper Oligocene Mammal Paleogene (MP) reference level 28 and 28 30, respectively. Basaltic flows and a trachyte tuff terminating and predating the fossil deposit sedimentation allow to numerically calibrate the MP reference levels by radioisotope dating. Laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar step heating on volcanic feldspars yield a time interval of 24.9 24.5 Ma for reference level MP28 at Enspel and a maximum age of 25.5 Ma for the time interval MP28 MP30 at Kärlich. Interpolation between the time intervals determined for the Enspel reference level MP28 and the age of the global Oligocene/Miocene boundary of 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma taken from literature results in time intervals of 24.5 24.2 Ma and 24.2 23.9 Ma for the younger reference levels MP29 and MP30, respectively. These intervals of ≤ 0.4 m.y. for MP reference levels of the latest Oligocene are short relative to older Oligocene MP reference levels 21 27 between 34 and 25 Ma. Since subdivision into MP reference levels essentially is based on assemblages of mammal taxa and on evolutionary changes in tooth morphology of mammals short MP time intervals during the latest Oligocene indicate a rapid evolutionary change relative to the early Oligocene.

  4. Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) generally uses reference doses (RfDs) or reference concentrations (RfCs) to assess risks from exposure to toxic substances for noncancer health end points. RfDs and RfCs are supposed to represent lifetime inhalation or ingestion exposure with minimal appreciable risk, but they do not include information about the estimated risk from exposures equal to the RfD/RfC. We used results from benchmark dose modeling approaches recently adopted for use in developing RfDs/RfCs to estimate the risk levels associated with exposures at the RfD/RfC. We searched the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database and identified 11 chemicals with oral RfDs and 12 chemicals with inhalation RfCs that used benchmark dose modeling. For assessments with sufficient model information, we found that 16 of 21 (76%) of the dose-response models were linear or supralinear. We estimated the risk from exposures at the established RfDs and RfCs for these chemicals using a linear dose-response curve to characterize risk below the observed data. Risk estimates ranged from 1 in 10,000 to 5 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfDs, and from 1 in 10,000 to 3 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfCs. Risk estimates for exposures at the RfD/RfC values derived from sublinear dose-response curves ranged from 3 in 1,000,000,000 to 8 in 10,000. Twenty-four percent of reference values corresponded to estimated risk levels greater than 1 in 1,000; 10 of 14 assessments had points of departure greater than the no-observed-adverse-effect levels. For policy development regarding management of cancer risks, the U.S. EPA often uses 1 in 1,000,000 as a de minimis risk level. Although noncancer outcomes may in some instances be reversible and considered less severe than cancer, our findings call into question the assumption that established RfD and RfC values represent negligibly small risk levels. PMID:12896853

  5. No-reference image noise estimation based on noise level accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Guangmang; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a method of no-reference image noise assessment is presented, which utilizes the estimated noise level accumulation (NLA) index value. The affine reconstruction model is applied after segmenting the noisy image into several patches. Boundary blur process is conducted to smooth the segmentation edges. For each image patch the mean value standing for brightness and the standard deviation value indicating the noise standard deviation are computed to give the noise samples estimation. The accurate image noise standard deviation is estimated by integrating NLA index value of several overlapped intervals combined with different visual weights. Experiment results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed method performs well for images with different contents over a large range of noise levels both monotonously and accurately. Comparisons against other conventional approaches are also carried out to exhibit the superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

  6. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Korir, Geoffrey K; Wambani, Jeska S; Korir, Ian K; Tries, Mark A; Boen, Patrick K

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examinations per 1000 people was estimated to be 3 procedures. The volume-weighted CT dose index, dose length product, effective dose and NDRLs were determined for 20 types of adult and paediatric CT examinations. Additionally, the CT annual collective effective dose and effective dose per capita were approximated. The radiation exposure during CT examinations was broadly distributed between the facilities that took part in the study. This calls for a need to develop and implement diagnostic reference levels as a standardisation and optimisation tool for the radiological protection of patients at all the CT facilities nationwide. PMID:25790825

  7. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies. PMID:25963653

  8. Diagnostic reference levels and patient doses in computed tomography examinations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Simantirakis, G; Hourdakis, C J; Economides, S; Kaisas, I; Kalathaki, M; Koukorava, C; Manousaridis, G; Pafilis, C; Tritakis, P; Vogiatzi, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a national survey that was performed in Greece for the establishment of national Dose Reference Levels (DRLs) for seven common adult Computed Tomography (CT) examinations. Volumetric computed tomography dose index and dose-length product values were collected from the post-data page of 65 'modern' systems that incorporate tube current modulation. Moreover, phantom dose measurements on 26 'older' systems were performed. Finally, the effective dose to the patient from a typical acquisition during these examinations was estimated. The suggested national DRLs are generally comparable with respective published values from similar European studies, with the exception of sinuses CT, which presents significantly higher values. This fact, along with the large variation of the systems' dose values that were observed even for scanners of the same type, indicates a need for further patient protection optimisation without compromising the clinical outcome. PMID:24891405

  9. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  10. Assessing data availability for the development of REDD-plus national reference levels

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Data availability in developing countries is known to be extremely varied and is one of the constraints for setting the national reference levels (RLs) for the REDD-plus (i.e. 'Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries') under the UNFCCC. Taking Thailand as a case study country, this paper compares three types of RLs, which require different levels of datasets, including a simple historic RL, a projected forest-trend RL, and a business-as-usual (BAU) RL. Results Other than the finding that different RLs yielded different estimations on future deforestation areas, the analysis also identified the characteristics of each RL. The historical RL demanded simple data, but can be varied in accordance with a reference year or period. The forest-trend RL can be more reliable than the historical RL, if the country's deforestation trend curve is formed smoothly. The complicated BAU RL is useful as it can demonstrate the additionality of REDD-plus activities and distinguish the country's unintentional efforts. Conclusions With the REDD-plus that involves widespread participation, there should be steps from which countries choose the appropriate RL; ranging from simpler to more complex measures, in accordance with data availability in each country. Once registered with REDD-plus, the countries with weak capacity and capability should be supported to enhance the data collection system in that country. PMID:20920279

  11. Developing patient-specific dose protocols for a CT scanner and exam using diagnostic reference levels.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Keith J

    2014-10-01

    The management of image quality and radiation dose during pediatric CT scanning is dependent on how well one manages the radiographic techniques as a function of the type of exam, type of CT scanner, and patient size. The CT scanner's display of expected CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) after the projection scan provides the operator with a powerful tool prior to the patient scan to identify and manage appropriate CT techniques, provided the department has established appropriate diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). This paper provides a step-by-step process that allows the development of DRLs as a function of type of exam, of actual patient size and of the individual radiation output of each CT scanner in a department. Abdomen, pelvis, thorax and head scans are addressed. Patient sizes from newborns to large adults are discussed. The method addresses every CT scanner regardless of vendor, model or vintage. We cover adjustments to techniques to manage the impact of iterative reconstruction and provide a method to handle all available voltages other than 120kV. This level of management of CT techniques is necessary to properly monitor radiation dose and image quality during pediatric CT scans. PMID:25037975

  12. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovi?, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A

    2015-07-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. PMID:25836685

  13. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A.; Shabestani-Monfared, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Abdi, R.; Nabahati, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Methods Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. Results The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses. PMID:26688796

  14. Reference Levels for Patient Radiation Doses in Interventional Radiology: Proposed Initial Values for U.S. Practice1

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Donald L.; Kwon, Deukwoo; Bonavia, Grant H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To propose initial values for patient reference levels for fluoroscopically guided procedures in the United States. Materials and Methods: This secondary analysis of data from the Radiation Doses in Interventional Radiology Procedures (RAD-IR) study was conducted under a protocol approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. Dose distributions (percentiles) were calculated for each type of procedure in the RAD-IR study where there were data from at least 30 cases. Confidence intervals for the dose distributions were determined by using bootstrap resampling. Weight banding and size correction methods for normalizing dose to patient body habitus were tested. Results: The different methods for normalizing patient radiation dose according to patient weight gave results that were not significantly different (P > .05). The 75th percentile patient radiation doses normalized with weight banding were not significantly different from those that were uncorrected for body habitus. Proposed initial reference levels for various interventional procedures are provided for reference air kerma, kerma-area product, fluoroscopy time, and number of images. Conclusion: Sufficient data exist to permit an initial proposal of values for reference levels for interventional radiologic procedures in the United States. For ease of use, reference levels without correction for body habitus are recommended. A national registry of radiation-dose data for interventional radiologic procedures is a necessary next step to refine these reference levels. RSNA, 2009 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.2533090354/-/DC1 PMID:19789226

  15. Advancing reference emission levels in subnational and national REDD+ initiatives: a CLASlite approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and monitoring of tropical forests requires accurate information on their extent and change dynamics. Cloud cover, sensor errors and technical barriers associated with satellite remote sensing data continue to prevent many national and sub-national REDD+ initiatives from developing their reference deforestation and forest degradation emission levels. Here we present a framework for large-scale historical forest cover change analysis using free multispectral satellite imagery in an extremely cloudy tropical forest region. The CLASlite approach provided highly automated mapping of tropical forest cover, deforestation and degradation from Landsat satellite imagery. Critically, the fractional cover of forest photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and bare substrates calculated by CLASlite provided scene-invariant quantities for forest cover, allowing for systematic mosaicking of incomplete satellite data coverage. A synthesized satellite-based data set of forest cover was thereby created, reducing image incompleteness caused by clouds, shadows or sensor errors. This approach can readily be implemented by single operators with highly constrained budgets. We test this framework on tropical forests of the Colombian Pacific Coast (Chocó) – one of the cloudiest regions on Earth, with successful comparison to the Colombian government’s deforestation map and a global deforestation map. PMID:25678933

  16. New diagnostic reference level for full-field digital mammography units.

    PubMed

    Hauge, I H R; Bredholt, K; Olerud, H M

    2013-12-01

    The diagnostic reference level (DRL) has generally been defined as the 75th percentile of the distributions of mean doses observed on a sample of standard-sized patients, but for mammography, the 95th percentile has been used. In this study, the 75th and 95th percentiles are estimated for 26 full-field digital mammography units, representing six models from four manufacturers. Systematic differences between categories of manufacture/models are investigated with respect to mean glandular dose (MGD) and figure of merit (FOM), defined as signal difference to noise ratio squared divided by the MGD. The MGDs per unit range from 0.7 to 2.1 mGy, with overall 75th and 95th percentiles of 1.4 and 2.0 mGy, respectively. The different manufacture/models show differences in both dose distributions and FOMs. As national DRL, the 95th percentile is proposed to determine which units can be accepted for use. To identify the need for optimisation, it is proposed to use the 75th percentile for the different manufacture/models, along with the FOM. PMID:23771960

  17. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from Ki, air and field size. PMID:25836684

  18. Multi-Component Molecular-Level Body Composition Reference Methods: Evolving Concepts and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Zheng, Jolene; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Strauss, Boyd J.; Silva, Analiza M.; Ludwig, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted “reference” approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multicomponent body-volume class of “reference” models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein, and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes “adjustment” or measurement system approaches for model-required labeled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small but under some circumstances important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multicomponent body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  19. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    PubMed Central

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future. PMID:26917891

  20. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Han, Suchul; Lee, Boram; Shin, Gwisoon; Choi, Jonghak; Kim, Jungmin; Park, Changseo; Park, Hyok; Lee, Kisung; Kim, Youhyun

    2012-07-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm(2), respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalometric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm(2) (16 × 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extraoral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extraoral radiography. PMID:22147923

  1. Diagnostic reference levels for panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography of Korean children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hee; Yang, Byoung-Eun; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Kang, Byung-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Seo

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric patients are considered to be more radiosensitive than adults; thus, radiation dose evaluations based on radiologic examinations are particularly important in this population. However, no national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are available for pediatric patients in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the usage of panoramic and cephalometric radiography under the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme and to investigate the current DRLs for child panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography using dose area product (DAP). DAP values were obtained for standard child exposure settings used routinely by dentists. Analysis was performed on data obtained from 28 panoramic and 20 cephalometric x-ray units for the DAP investigation. DRLs for child panoramic and cephalometric radiography were found to be 95.9 mGy cm and 121.3 mGy cm, respectively. These DRLs are higher than those recommended in the UK and Germany, which indicates that further effort is required to reduce pediatric doses in the Republic of Korea. PMID:24978282

  2. Reference concentrations of antidepressants. A compilation of postmortem and therapeutic levels.

    PubMed

    Reis, M; Aamo, T; Ahlner, J; Druid, H

    2007-06-01

    In approximately 95% of all medicolegal autopsies performed in Sweden between 1992 and 2005, femoral blood samples were collected and screened for antidepressant drugs. A total of 8591 cases were identified and used for detailed analysis and interpretation. The present compilation provides information about 15 antidepressant drugs determined in femoral blood from certified fatal intoxications and in postmortem "control cases". The postmortem data were subjected to a previously proposed strategy, based on strictly standardized conditions regarding collection, handling and toxicological analysis of the samples. The postmortem data were compared with a therapeutic drug monitoring material (Group T; n = 16,809). The strict inclusion criteria meant that only 2737 postmortem cases were included in the survey. Accordingly, Group A (n = 330) were certified as deaths involving intoxication with a single antidepressant drug; Group B (n = 864) were deaths involving intoxication with more than one drug and/or with a significant concentration of ethanol; and Group C (n = 1800) were deaths under circumstances not involving incapacitation by drugs. In addition to providing reference levels for each drug, the results may also be used to assess risk of toxicity and supply supplementary information to the standard fatal toxicity index. PMID:17579969

  3. Out of Cite! How Reference Managers Are Taking Research to the Next Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldrow, Jason; Yoder, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Times change, and so do research methods; gone are the days of researching with index cards. While academics may be slow to adopt emerging citation technology, the reference manager field is blazing ahead. This article explains what reference managers are, addresses their emergence in and potential impact on academe, and profiles a newcomer to the…

  4. Out of Cite! How Reference Managers Are Taking Research to the Next Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldrow, Jason; Yoder, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Times change, and so do research methods; gone are the days of researching with index cards. While academics may be slow to adopt emerging citation technology, the reference manager field is blazing ahead. This article explains what reference managers are, addresses their emergence in and potential impact on academe, and profiles a newcomer to the

  5. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Function of Speed EC14OC91.013...

  6. The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

  7. Ambient ultrafine particle levels at residential and reference sites in urban and rural Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Meier, Reto; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Phuleria, Harish C; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Ragettli, Martina S; Fierz, Martin; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Knzli, Nino

    2015-03-01

    Although there is evidence that ultrafine particles (UFP) do affect human health there are currently no legal ambient standards. The main reasons are the absence of spatially resolved exposure data to investigate long-term health effects and the challenge of defining representative reference sites for monitoring given the high dependence of UFP on proximity to sources. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the spatial distribution of UFP in four areas of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) and to investigate the representativeness of routine air monitoring stations for residential sites in these areas. Repeated UFP measurements during three seasons have been conducted at a total of 80 residential sites and four area specific reference sites over a median duration of 7 days. Arithmetic mean residential PNC scattered around the median of 10,800 particles/cm(3) (interquartile range [IQR] = 7800 particles/cm(3)). Spatial within area contrasts (90th/10th percentile ratios) were around two; increased contrasts were observed during weekday rush-hours. Temporal UFP patterns were comparable at reference and residential sites in all areas. Our data show that central monitoring sites can represent residential conditions when locations are well chosen with respect to the local sources--namely traffic. For epidemiological research, locally resolved spatial models are needed to estimate individuals' long-term exposures to UFP of outdoor origin at home, during commute and at work. PMID:25648954

  8. Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

    2012-02-01

    A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

  9. An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from sleep deprivation arising from nursing interventions and ambient noise. This may exacerbate confusion and ICU-related delirium. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that average hospital sound levels should not exceed 35 dB with a maximum of 40 dB overnight. We monitored five ICUs to check compliance with these guidelines. Methods Sound levels were recorded in five adult ICUs in the UK. Two sound level monitors recorded concurrently for 24 hours at the ICU central stations and adjacent to patients. Sample values to determine levels generated by equipment and external noise were also recorded in an empty ICU side room. Results Average sound levels always exceeded 45 dBA and for 50% of the time exceeded between 52 and 59 dBA in individual ICUs. There was diurnal variation with values decreasing after evening handovers to an overnight average minimum of 51 dBA at 4 AM. Peaks above 85 dBA occurred at all sites, up to 16 times per hour overnight and more frequently during the day. WHO guidelines on sound levels could be only achieved in a side room by switching all equipment off. Conclusion All ICUs had sound levels greater than WHO recommendations, but the WHO recommended levels are so low they are not achievable in an ICU. Levels adjacent to patients are higher than those recorded at central stations. Unit-wide noise reduction programmes or mechanical means of isolating patients from ambient noise, such as earplugs, should be considered. PMID:24005004

  10. Levels of State and Trait Anxiety in Patients Referred to Ophthalmology by Primary Care Clinicians: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Christopher J.; Harley, Clare; Elliott, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives) being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. Design Cross sectional study. Participants and Controls 322 participants and 80 control participants. Methods State (i.e. current) and trait (i.e. propensity to) anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. Main Outcome Measure Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p<0.04), but similar for trait anxiety (p>0.1). Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into anxiety-absent and anxiety-present items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. Conclusions State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients. PMID:23785444

  11. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference low-level waste burial ground: environmental surveillance programs. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Eddy, P.A.; Hawley, K.A.; Jaquish, R.E.; Corley, J.P.

    1981-07-01

    This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 'Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground,' NUREG/CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites.

  12. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

  14. Differential effects of scopolamine on working and reference memory depend upon level of training.

    PubMed

    Lydon, R G; Nakajima, S

    1992-10-01

    Controversy exists whether the cholinergic system in the brain is involved in working memory (WM) selectively or in both WM and reference memory (RM). Rats were trained to obtain food from four baited arms of an eight-arm radial maze. The remaining arms were never baited. Three types of errors were recorded: entry into unbaited arms (RM errors), reentry into baited arms (WM errors), and reentry into unbaited arms (WRM errors). There were no differences among three control conditions: methyl scopolamine, physiological saline, and uninjected. Scopolamine increased WM but not RM errors. When rats were trained to a higher criterion of learning, however, both WM and RM were impaired. It appears that when baseline error rate is sufficiently low RM errors under scopolamine become observable. The results suggest that the cholinergic system is involved in both WM and RM, and the selective involvement of WM is the result of insufficient training. The controversy in the literature over the involvement of the cholinergic system in WM and RM was addressed. PMID:1438505

  15. Tirapazamine-Doxorubicin Interaction Referring to Heart Oxidative Stress and Ca2+ Balance Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinska, Justyna; Dudka, Jaroslaw; Korga, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek; Matysiak, Wlodzimierz; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Mandziuk, Slawomir; Dawidek-Pietryka, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) causes long-term cardiomyopathy that is dependent on oxidative stress and contractility disorders. Tirapazamine (TP), an experimental adjuvant drug, passes the same red-ox transformation as DOX. The aim of the study was to evaluate an effect of tirapazamine on oxidative stress, contractile protein level, and cardiomyocyte necrosis in rats administered doxorubicin. Rats were intraperitoneally injected six times once a week with tirapazamine in two doses, 5 (5TP) and 10 mg/kg (10TP), while doxorubicin was administered in dose 1.8 mg/kg (DOX). Subsequent two groups received both drugs simultaneously (5TP+DOX and 10TP+DOX). Tirapazamine reduced heart lipid peroxidation and normalised RyR2 protein level altered by doxorubicin. There were no significant changes in GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione, cTnI, AST, and SERCA2 level between DOX and TP+DOX groups. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was observed in groups 10TP and 10TP+DOX. PMID:22666522

  16. Response and Monte Carlo evaluation of a reference ionization chamber for radioprotection level at calibration laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Lucio P.; Vivolo, Vitor; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-07-01

    A special parallel plate ionization chamber, inserted in a slab phantom for the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) determination, was developed and characterized in this work. This ionization chamber has collecting electrodes and window made of graphite, and the walls and phantom made of PMMA. The tests comprise experimental evaluation following international standards and Monte Carlo simulations, employing the PENELOPE code to evaluate the design of this new dosimeter. The experimental tests were conducted employing the radioprotection level quality N-60 established at the IPEN, and all results were within the recommended standards.

  17. Histamine levels in commercially important fresh and processed fish of Oman with reference to international standards.

    PubMed

    Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Zidjali, Mehdia; Al-Zidjali, Alia; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

    2013-10-15

    Histamine was investigated in fresh (378), frozen (441), canned (290) and dried (24) fish samples of scombroid and non-scombroid species of Oman using a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Of the 1133 fish samples tested, histamine was detected in 551 samples with a detection rate of about 41.8% among fresh fish, 61.0% of frozen fish, 78.9% of canned fish and 91.6% of dried fish samples and the mean histamine levels were 2.6, 5.8, 3.1 and 104mgkg(-1), respectively. A total of 3.7% and 0.79% of the total samples exceeded the FDA and EU regulatory limits for histamine. Imported dried anchovies contained high histamine levels. The study confirms that post catching and commercialisation practices of seafood are adequate, warranting good quality fish and may not cause histamine risk to consumer in terms of human diet. While necessary monitoring may be done for imported dried fish products. PMID:23692766

  18. Results of a survey on the implementation of diagnostic reference levels for X-rays among Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for medical x-ray procedures are being implemented currently in the Netherlands. By order of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate, a survey has been conducted among 20 Dutch hospitals to investigate the level of implementation of the Dutch DRLs in current radiological practice. It turns out that hospitals are either well underway in implementing the DRLs or have already done so. However, the DRLs have usually not yet been incorporated in the QA system of the department nor in the treatment protocols. It was shown that the amount of radiation used, as far as it was indicated by the hospitals, usually remains below the DRLs. A procedure for comparing dose levels to the DRLs has been prescribed but is not always followed in practice. This is especially difficult in the case of children, as most general hospitals receive few children. PMID:25706140

  19. Evaluation of alanine as a reference dosimeter for therapy level dose comparisons in megavoltage electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Malcolm; Sharpe, Peter; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    When comparing absorbed dose standards from different laboratories (e.g. National Measurement Institutes, NMIs, for Key or Supplementary comparisons) it is rarely possible to carry out a direct comparison of primary standard instruments, and therefore some form of transfer detector is required. Historically, air-filled, unsealed ionization chambers have been used because of the long history of using these instruments, very good stability over many years, and ease of transport. However, the use of ion chambers for therapy-level comparisons is not without its problems. Findings from recent investigations suggest that ion chambers are prone to non-random variations, they are not completely robust to standard courier practices, and failure at any step in a comparison can render all measurements potentially useless. An alternative approach is to identify a transfer system that is insensitive to some of these concerns—effectively a dosimeter that is inexpensive, simple to use, robust, but with sufficient precision and of a size relevant to the disseminated quantity in question. The alanine dosimetry system has been successfully used in a number of situations as an audit dosimeter and therefore the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether alanine could also be used as the transfer detector for dosimetric comparisons, which require a lower value for the measurement uncertainty. A measurement protocol was developed for comparing primary standards of absorbed dose to water in high-energy electron beams using alanine pellets irradiated in a water-equivalent plastic phantom. A trial comparison has been carried out between three NMIs and has indicated that alanine is a suitable alternative to ion chambers, with the system used achieving a precision of 0.1%. Although the focus of the evaluation was on the performance of the dosimeter, the comparison results are encouraging, showing agreement at the level of the combined uncertainties (~0.6%). Based on this investigation, a large-scale comparison of primary standards for high-energy electron beams is currently being developed under the auspices of the BIPM.

  20. Rising Level of Public Exposure to Mobile Phones: Accumulation through Additivity and Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2002-02-01

    A dramatic development occurring in our daily life is the increasing use of mobile equipment including mobile phones and wireless access to the Internet. They enable us to access several types of information more easily than in the past. Simultaneously, the density of mobile users is rapidly increasing. When hundreds of mobile phones emit radiation, their total power is found to be comparable to that of a microwave oven or a satellite broadcasting station. Thus, the question arises: what is the public exposure level in an area with many sources of electromagnetic wave emission? We show that this level can reach the reference level for general public exposure (ICNIRP Guideline) in daily life. This is caused by the fundamental properties of electromagnetic field, namely, reflection and additivity. The level of exposure is found to be much higher than that estimated by the conventional framework of analysis that assumes that the level rapidly decreases with the inverse square distance between the source and the affected person. A simple formula for the exposure level is derived by applying energetics to the electromagnetic field. The formula reveals a potential risk of intensive exposure.

  1. Children’s level of word knowledge predicts their exclusion of familiar objects as referents of novel words

    PubMed Central

    Grassmann, Susanne; Schulze, Cornelia; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-01-01

    When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children’s productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children’s receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion. PMID:26322005

  2. Reference ranges for urinary levels of testosterone and epitestosterone, which may reveal gonadal function, in a Korean male population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ju-Yeon; Kwon, Woonyong; Suh, Sungill; Cheong, Jae Chul; In, Moon Kyo; Chung, Bong Chul; Kim, Jin Young; Choi, Man Ho

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, the most commonly used illicit drug in the world, has been shown to be responsible for suppressing the production and secretion of androgens, particularly testosterone. However, despite such findings in animals, the chronic effects of marijuana use on human endocrine systems have proved to be inconsistent. Here, we investigated the reference ranges of urinary levels of testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E) as well as their metabolic ratio of T/E in a Korean male population (n=337), which would enable an evaluation of abnormal changes in steroid metabolism induced by habitually administered cannabis. The T/E ratio was significantly decreased in the marijuana group (n=18), while the urinary testosterone concentrations were also tended to decrease. This study is the first to provide data for the reference values of two urinary androgens and T/E values among control Korean males, and, furthermore, suggests that the T/E ratio, though not testosterone levels, might be used to understand the suppression of human male gonadal function affected by smoking marijuana. PMID:24333796

  3. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of So Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of So Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19years old and 391 children under 11years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20years old were 33?g/L and 0.6?g/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19years old) were 31?g/L and 0.6?g/L, respectively and for children under 11years old were 29?g/L and 0.2?g/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. PMID:26613516

  4. Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; Gonzlez, Leticia; Mller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Lischka, Hans

    2014-08-21

    An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the COLUMBUS quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.

  5. Development of Diagnostic Reference Levels Using a Real-Time Radiation Dose Monitoring System at a Cardiovascular Center in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsu; Seo, Deoknam; Choi, Inseok; Nam, Sora; Yoon, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunji; Her, Jae; Han, Seonggyu; Kwon, Soonmu; Park, Hunsik; Yang, Dongheon; Kim, Jungmin

    2015-12-01

    Digital cardiovascular angiography accounts for a major portion of the radiation dose among the examinations performed at cardiovascular centres. However, dose-related information is neither monitored nor recorded systemically. This report concerns the construction of a radiation dose monitoring system based on digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data and its use at the cardiovascular centre of the University Hospitals in Korea. The dose information was analysed according to DICOM standards for a series of procedures, and the formulation of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) at our cardiovascular centre represents the first of its kind in Korea. We determined a dose area product (DAP) DRL for coronary angiography of 75.6 Gy cm(2) and a fluoroscopic time DRL of 318.0 s. The DAP DRL for percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention was 213.3 Gy cm(2), and the DRL for fluoroscopic time was 1207.5 s. PMID:25700616

  6. Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-04-01

    Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

  7. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2386–2398. PMID:24944000

  8. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground Environmental Surveillance Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D. H.; Eddy, P. A.; Hawley, K. A.; Jaquish, R. E.; Corley, J. P.

    1981-07-01

    This Addendum supplements, and to some extent replaces, the preliminary description of environmental radiological surveillance programs for low-level waste burial grounds (LLWBG) used in the parent document, 11 Technology, Safety and Costs of DecolliTlissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground, 11 NUREG/ CR-0570. The Addendum provides additional detail and rationale for the environmental radiological surveillance programs for the two referenced sites and inventories described in NUREG/CR-0570. The rationale and performance criteria herein are expected to be useful in providing guidance for determining the acceptability of environmental surveillance programs for other inventories and other LLWBG sites. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are reference facilities considered in this Addendum, and as described in the parent document (NUREG/CR-0570). The two sites are assumed to have the same capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology, and hydrology of the two reference sites are typical of existing western and eastern sites, altnough a single population distribution was chosen for both. Each reference burial ground occupies about 70 hectares and includes 180 trenches filled with a total of 1.5 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} of radioactive waste. In acldition, there are 10 slit trenches containing about 1.5 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of high beta-gamma activity waste. In this Addendum environmental surveillance programs are described for the several periods in the life of a LLWBG: preoperational (prior to nuclear waste receipt); operational (including interim trench closures); post-operational (after all nuclear waste is received), for both short-term {up to three years) and long-term (up to 100 years) storage and custodial care; and decommissioning (only for the special case of waste removal). The specific environmental monitoring requirements for final site characterization and certification surveys are beyond the scope of this Addendum. Data collection associated with site reconnaissance and preselection is not specifically addressed, but it is recognized that such data may be useful in designing the preoperational program. Predisposal control measures, quality assurance, and record-keeping (other than inventory records) associated with waste disposal operations are also not addressed. The primary intent of routine environmental surveillance at a LLWBG is to help ensure that site activities do not cause significant transport of radioactivity from the site, resulting in an unacceptable health hazard to people. Preoperational environmental surveillance serves to determine for later comparison the background radioactivity levels, either naturally occurring or the result of man's activities (e.g. world-wide fallout or an adjacent nuclear facility), in and around the proposed burial ground site. The operational environmental surveillance program is used to estimate radiological conditions, both onsite and offsite as a possible result of burial ground activities, including trench closure(s). These data help to determine LLWBG compliance with regulatory requirements. During the post-operational period environmental surveillance should normally be an extension of the program carried out during operations, with appropriate deletions (or modifications) to account for the differences between operational and post-operational activities at the site. During the long-term storage and custodial care period, environmental surveillance serves to verify the radionuclide confinement capability of the burial ground and to identify problem situations requiring remedial action. For waste removal (exhumation), the environmental surveillance program is again modified to account for the greatly increased potential for direct radiation and contamination spread. At the time of decommissioning, "environmental surveillance" takes on a new meaning, from that of an ongoing program to one of site "characterization" and dose assessment, requiring more rigorous statistical design and testing than described for the other surveillance periods at a LLWBG. The environmental surveillance programs suggested in this Addendum are based on the radionuclide inventories given in Section 7 of NUREG/CR-0570 and the potential critical pathways determined for the reference sites. The Addendum suggests the use of exposure pathway analysis to evaluate the potential critical pathways to man from radionuclides in the waste. Hence, the monitoring programs recommended for the two reference sites include those nuclide/media resulting in the highest potential radiation dose or those in which the greatest buildup of contaminants can be expected. Appropriate use is made of existing regulations and other published reports and guides on the subject of environmental surveillance.

  9. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice. PMID:25644211

  10. On the determination of reference levels for quality assurance of flattening filter free photon beams in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clivio, Alessandro; Belosi, Maria Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Fogliata, Antonella; Bolard, Grgory; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Krauss, Harald

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New definitions for some dosimetric parameters for use in quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators have been suggested. The present study aims to validate these suggestions and to propose possible reference levels. Methods: The main characteristics of FFF photon beams were described in terms of: field size, penumbra, unflatness, slope, and peak-position parameters. Data were collected for 6 and 10 MV-FFF beams from three different Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed with a 2D-array (Starcheck system from PTW-Freiburg) and with the portal dosimetry method GLAaS utilizing the build-in portal imager of TrueBeam. Data were also compared to ion chamber measurements. A cross check validation has been performed on a FFF beam of 6 MV generated by a Varian Clinac-iX upgraded to FFF capability. Results : All the parameters suggested to characterize the FFF beams resulted easily measurable and little variation was observed among different Linacs. Referring to two reference field sizes of 10 10 and 20 20 cm{sup 2}, at SDD = 100 cm and d = dmax, from the portal dosimetry data, the following results (averaging X and Y profiles) were obtained. Field size: 9.95 0.02 and 19.98 0.03 cm for 6 MV-FFF (9.94 0.02 and 19.98 0.03 cm for 10 MV-FFF). Penumbra: 2.7 0.3 and 2.9 0.3 mm for 6 MV-FFF (3.1 0.2 and 3.3 0.3 for 10 MV-FFF). Unflatness: 1.11 0.01 and 1.25 0.01 for 6 MV-FFF (1.21 0.01 and 1.50 0.01 for 10 MV-FFF). Slope: 0.320 0.020%/mm and 0.43 0.015%/mm for 6 MV-FFF (0.657 0.023%/mm and 0.795 0.017%/mm for 10 MV-FFF). Peak Position ?0.2 0.2 and ?0.4 0.2 mm for 6 MV-FFF (?0.3 0.2 and 0.7 0.3 mm for 10 MV-FFF). Results would depend upon measurement depth. With thresholds set to at least 95% confidence level from the measured data and to account for possible variations between detectors and methods and experimental settings, a tolerance set of: 1 mm for field size and penumbra, 0.04 for unflatness, 0.1%/mm for slope, and 1 mm for peak position could be proposed from our data. Conclusions : The parameters proposed for the characterization and routine control of stability of profiles of FFF beams appear to be a viable solution with a strong similarity to the conventional parameters used for flattened beams. The results from three different TrueBeams and the cross-validation against a Clinac-iX suggested the possible generalization of the methods and the possibility to use common tolerances for the parameters. The data showed also the reproducibility of beam characteristics among different systems (of the same vendor) and the resulting parameter values could therefore be possibly generalized.

  11. Relationships Between Spiritual Quotient and Marital Satisfaction Level of Men, Women and Couples Referred to Consultancy Centers of Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None PMID:24644499

  12. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the largest pediatric hospital in Chile, with an active optimization program, and could be used by other hospitals in the Latin America region to compare their current patient dose values and determine whether corrective action is appropriate.

  13. Characteristics of obstetrical inpatients referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry service in a tertiary-level university hospital.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Eileen P; Kirsh, Sharon

    2008-12-01

    A review of psychiatric consult notes of 96 obstetric inpatients referred to a Consultation-Liaison (C-L) psychiatry service in a tertiary-level university general hospital was carried out in order to compare the characteristics of such a service in a North American setting with similar services in other parts of the world. Data extracted from consult notes included: reason for referral, current diagnosis (DSM-IV-R), psychiatric history, obstetrical history, recommended treatment approaches, current psychotropic medications, current gestational age or number of days postpartum, patient age, and partnership status. In addition, obstetrical referrals were calculated as a percentage of hospital-wide referrals to C-L psychiatry. The most prominent findings include: (1) a high C-L psychiatry referral rate from obstetrics as a percentage of total C-L referrals within the study hospital; (2) past psychiatric history alone as a prevalent reason for referral; (3) adverse reproductive event (past and/or current) as a common reason for referral. These findings differ markedly in certain ways from comparable studies and may reflect both the hospital's large high-risk pregnancy service that represents an at-risk group for mental health issues, and the focus on educational collaboration with obstetrical staff regarding risk factors for, and consequences of, perinatal mental illness. Inpatient perinatal C-L psychiatric services require creative approaches to the accurate identification and treatment of women at risk for antenatal and postpartum mental illness due to psychiatric history and/or reproductive crises. PMID:19015935

  14. Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

    2013-12-01

    Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 g l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

  15. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

  16. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (?$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ?65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking. PMID:25596656

  17. Potential reference measurement procedures for PBDE in surface water at levels required by the EU Water Frame Directive.

    PubMed

    Swart, Claudia; Gantois, Fanny; Petrov, Panayot; Entwisle, John; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Nousiainen, Marjaana; Bílsel, Mine; Binici, Burcu; Gonzalez-Gago, Adriana; Pröfrock, Daniel; Gören, Ahmet C

    2016-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE), used as flame retardants, are named as priority substances in the Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament and of the council establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. An annual average environmental quality standard (EQS) for inland surface waters of 0.0005µg/L (0.0002µg/L for other surface waters) for PBDE congeners involved in the technical penta-PBDE mixtures containing PBDE with five bromine atoms has been established. The directives focus especially on the congeners PBDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153 and 154 contained in the penta-PBDE mixture. Up to now, no reference measurement procedures have been established reaching the limits of quantification (LOQs) and the associated uncertainties as defined in the directives with results traceable to the SI. Within a recent European project on metrology, different approaches for the traceable quantification of PBDE, based on liquid/liquid or solid phase extraction followed by the detection with gas chromatography coupled to either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, were investigated and the related LOQs and expanded uncertainties of the results were compared. A complete uncertainty budget for each method was estimated according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM). All presented analytical procedures can serve as reference measurement procedures regarding the LOQs and their associated expanded uncertainties for monitoring the six priority PBDEs named above. LOQs as low as 0.026ng/kg with an associated expanded uncertainty of 0.002ng/kg could be achieved. PMID:26992518

  18. SUMMER AND WINTER VITAMIN D3 LEVELS IN FOUR LEMUR SPECIES HOUSED AT A BRITISH ZOO, WITH REFERENCE TO UVB LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Killick, Rowena; Saunders, Richard; Redrobe, Sharon P

    2015-09-01

    Serum samples were collected from 18 lemurs of four diurnal/cathemeral species housed with outdoor access at Bristol Zoo Gardens (United Kingdom) to test 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 (25OHD3) levels as part of the veterinary department's preventative health care program. Samples were collected from each lemur in August 2008 (summer) and January 2009 (winter) to examine the effect of season on 25OHD3 levels. The lemurs were fed commercial primate food and a range of fruit and vegetables, and dietary levels of vitamin D3 remained the same throughout the study period. Statistical analysis showed that the lemurs' summer 25OHD3 values (range 26.7 to >150.0 ?g/L) were significantly higher than their winter 25OHD3 values (range 11.4-87.1 ?g/L). UVB measurements taken during the study period confirmed that UVB levels were significantly higher in summer (mean reading for 1200-1300 GMT time period 153.8 ?W/cm2) compared to winter (mean reading for 1200-1300 GMT time period 19.4 ?W/cm2). The 25OHD3 levels measured were generally found to be high compared to previously published values from wild (free-ranging) lemurs in Madagascar. The most likely explanation for this was the higher vitamin D3 content of the captive lemurs' diet, as UVB levels at the zoo (latitude 51 north) are substantially lower than those that occur in Madagascar (latitude 12-26 south). No evidence of vitamin D toxicity or deficiency was found in any of the captive lemurs. The results indicate that vitamin D3 levels in lemurs housed with outdoor access in the United Kingdom and by extension, other regions of similar latitude, vary with seasonal environmental UVB levels, in a similar way to the seasonal variations in vitamin D3 observed in humans living in these regions, but that vitamin D levels in this captive lemur population were adequate compared to wild lemur levels, even in winter. PMID:26352953

  19. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  20. Problems of rising ground-water levels in urban areas with special reference to the Louisville, Kentucky area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitesides, D.V.; Faust, R.J.; Zettwoch, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Rising ground-water levels are a problem for cities such as San Bernadino, California; Greely and Fort Collins, Colorado; New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens; and Louisville, Kentucky. Ground-water levels showed a steeply rising trend in the alluvial aquifer underlying Louisville during the early and middle 1970 's in response to above average precipitation and a decrease in ground-water withdrawals. This rising trend flattened in 1979 and the water levels are stabilizing at 25 to 45 feet below land surface in the downtown area. Basements are generally 20 to 25 feet below land surface and some utility lines are as much as 40 feet below land surface in this area. Because of the shallow depth to water, any resumption of the upward trend would require preventive measures such as selective dewatering to avoid damage to some structures. (USGS)

  1. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  2. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-comparison of Ground-based Lightning Reference Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, K. L.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; Cecil, D. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  3. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  4. A review of trend models applied to sea level data with reference to the "acceleration-deceleration debate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2015-06-01

    Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. This has motivated a number of authors to search for already existing accelerations in observations, which would be, if present, vital for coastal protection planning purposes. No scientific consensus has been reached yet as to how a possible acceleration could be separated from intrinsic climate variability in sea level records. This has led to an intensive debate on its existence and, if absent, also on the general validity of current future projections. Here we shed light on the controversial discussion from a methodological point of view. To do so, we provide a comprehensive review of trend methods used in the community so far. This resulted in an overview of 30 methods, each having its individual mathematical formulation, flexibilities, and characteristics. We illustrate that varying trend approaches may lead to contradictory acceleration-deceleration inferences. As for statistics-oriented trend methods, we argue that checks on model assumptions and model selection techniques yield a way out. However, since these selection methods all have implicit assumptions, we show that good modeling practices are of importance too. We conclude at this point that (i) several differently characterized methods should be applied and discussed simultaneously, (ii) uncertainties should be taken into account to prevent biased or wrong conclusions, and (iii) removing internally generated climate variability by incorporating atmospheric or oceanographic information helps to uncover externally forced climate change signals.

  5. Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

    1980-03-01

    The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

  6. Bisphenol A at the reference level counteracts doxorubicin transcriptional effects on cancer related genes in HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Margarida; Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna

    2015-12-01

    Human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) results mainly from ingestion of food and beverages. Information regarding BPA effects on colon cancer, one of the major causes of death in developed countries, is still scarce. Likewise, little is known about BPA drug interactions although its potential role in doxorubicin (DOX) chemoresistance has been suggested. This study aims to assess potential interactions between BPA and DOX on HT29 colon cancer cells. HT29 cell response was evaluated after exposure to BPA, DOX, or co-exposure to both chemicals. Transcriptional analysis of several cancer-associated genes (c-fos, AURKA, p21, bcl-xl and CLU) shows that BPA exposure induces slight up-regulation exclusively of bcl-xl without affecting cell viability. On the other hand, a sub-therapeutic DOX concentration (40 nM) results in highly altered c-fos, bcl-xl, and CLU transcript levels, and this is not affected by co-exposure with BPA. Conversely, DOX at a therapeutic concentration (4 ?M) results in distinct and very severe transcriptional alterations of c-fos, AURKA, p21 and CLU that are counteracted by co-exposure with BPA resulting in transcript levels similar to those of control. Co-exposure with BPA slightly decreases apoptosis in relation to DOX 4 ?M alone without affecting DOX-induced loss of cell viability. These results suggest that BPA exposure can influence chemotherapy outcomes and therefore emphasize the necessity of a better understanding of BPA interactions with chemotherapeutic agents in the context of risk assessment. PMID:26320837

  7. Human exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy mats: a numerical case study with three commercial products.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Valerio; Douglas, Mark; Nadakuduti, Jagadish; Benkler, Stefan; Chen, Xi Lin; Kuster, Niels

    2015-02-01

    A previous study found that incident magnetic field exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) mats can exceed ICNIRP 1998 reference levels. Due to the popularity of PMFT mats for private therapeutic use, regulators need to know if the products are compliant with the basic restrictions and how overexposure can be determined. This case study's objective was to test if such products are intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions by evaluating three different commercially-available PMFT products. In the first step, experimentally validated numerical models of these mats were developed. As a second step, the induced fields were evaluated in high-resolution anatomical models of the IT'IS Virtual Population for various lying positions and compared to the safety guidelines. As expected, a strong influence of exposure on the PMFT design, anatomy, lying position and body orientation was found. The maximum exposure of one PMFT exceeds 3.1 times the basic restrictions of ICNIRP 1998 for the central nervous system tissues and 1.36 times the limit of ICNIRP 2010 for the peripheral tissues. Body loops can significantly increase the electric fields close to the skin, e.g., when the hand and thigh are in contact during mat use. In conclusion, PMFT products are not intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions and therefore require special considerations. PMID:25639237

  8. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a

  9. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  10. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  11. The effects of cognitive rehabilitation on Alzheimers dementia patients cognitive assessment reference diagnosis system performance based on level of cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Ha; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to apply cognitive rehabilitation according to Alzheimers disease (AD) patients level of cognitive functioning to compare changes in Cognitive Assessment Reference Diagnosis System performance and present standards for effective intervention. [Subjects] Subjects were 30 inpatients diagnosed with AD. Subjects were grouped by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) class (CDR-0.5, CDR-1, or CDR-2, n = 10 per group), which is based on level of cognitive functioning, and cognitive rehabilitation was applied for 50 minutes per day, five days per week, for four weeks. [Methods] After cognitive rehabilitation intervention, CARDS tests were conducted to evaluate memory. [Results] Bonferroni tests comparing the three groups revealed that the CDR-0.5 and CDR-1 groups showed significant increases in Delayed 10 word-list, Delayed 10 object-list, Recognition 10 object, and Recent memory performance compared to the CDR-2 group. In addition, the CDR-0.5 group showed significant decreases in Recognition 10 word performance compared to the CDR-1 group. [Conclusion] Cognitive rehabilitation, CDR-0.5 or CDR-1 subjects showed significantly greater memory improvements than CDR-2 subjects. Moreover, was not effective for CDR-2 subjects. PMID:26504315

  12. 88Sr+ 445-THz single-ion reference at the 10(-17) level via control and cancellation of systematic uncertainties and its measurement against the SI second.

    PubMed

    Madej, Alan A; Dub, Pierre; Zhou, Zichao; Bernard, John E; Gertsvolf, Marina

    2012-11-16

    We describe experiments and measurements on a trapped and laser-cooled single ion of (88)Sr(+) which, when probed on its reference 5s (2)S(1/2)?4d (2)D(5/2) transition at 445 THz, provides an optical frequency standard of evaluated accuracy outperforming the current realization of the SI second. Studies are presented showing that micromotion-associated shifts of the standard can be reduced to the 10(-18) level and uncertainties in the blackbody-induced shifts for the current system are at the low 10(-17) level due to the relatively well-known polarizability of the strontium ion system and careful choice of the trap structure. The current evaluated systematic shifts for the ion transition are at a fractional uncertainty of 210(-17). An absolute frequency measurement performed over a two-month period relative to a maser referenced to the SI second via Global Positioning System time transfer has determined the center frequency for the transition at ?(SD)=444 779 044 095 485.50.9 ?Hz (1?). PMID:23215481

  13. Estimation of skin entrance doses (SEDs) for common medical X-ray diagnostic examinations in India and proposed diagnostic reference levels (DRLs).

    PubMed

    Sonawane, A U; Shirva, V K; Pradhan, A S

    2010-02-01

    Skin entrance doses (SEDs) were estimated by carrying out measurements of air kerma from 101 X-ray machines installed in 45 major and selected hospitals in the country by using a silicon detector-based dose Test-O-Meter. 1209 number of air kerma measurements of diagnostic projections for adults have been analysed for seven types of common diagnostic examinations, viz. chest (AP, PA, LAT), lumbar spine (AP, LAT), thoracic spine (AP, LAT), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), hip joints (AP) and skull (PA, LAT) for different film-screen combinations. The values of estimated diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) (third quartile values of SEDs) were compared with guidance levels/DRLs of doses published by the IAEA-BSS-Safety Series No. 115, 1996; HPA (NRPB) (2000 and 2005), UK; CRCPD/CDRH (USA), European Commission and other national values. The values of DRLs obtained in this study are comparable with the values published by the IAEA-BSS-115 (1996); HPA (NRPB) (2000 and 2005) UK; EC and CRCPD/CDRH, USA including values obtained in previous studies in India. PMID:19864328

  14. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  15. Pedo-geochemical baseline content levels and soil quality reference values of trace elements in soils from the Mediterranean (Castilla La Mancha, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesta, Raimundo Jiménez; Bueno, Paz Conde; Rubi, Juan A. Martin; Giménez, Rosario Garcia

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate trace element soil contamination, geochemical baseline contents and reference values need to be established. Pedo-geochemical baseline levels of trace elements in 72 soil samples of 24 soil profiles from the Mediterranean, Castilla La Mancha, are assessed and soil quality reference values are calculated. Reference value contents (in mg kg-1) were: Sc 50.8; V 123.2; Cr 113.4; Co 20.8; Ni 42.6; Cu 27.0; Zn 86.5; Ga 26.7; Ge 1.3; As 16.7; Se 1.4; Br 20.1; Rb 234.7; Sr 1868.4; Y 38.3; Zr 413.1; Nb 18.7; Mo 2.0; Ag 7.8; Cd 4.4; Sn 8.7; Sb 5.7; I 25.4; Cs 14.2; Ba 1049.3; La 348.4; Ce 97.9; Nd 40.1; Sm 10.7; Yb 4.2; Hf 10.0; Ta 4.0; W 5.5; Tl 2.3; Pb 44.2; Bi 2.2; Th 21.6; U 10.3. The contents obtained for some elements are below or close to the detection limit: Co, Ge, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Tl and Bi. The element content ranges (the maximum value minus the minimum value) are: Sc 55.0, V 196.0, Cr 346.0, Co 64.4, Ni 188.7, Cu 49.5, Zn 102.3, Ga 28.7, Ge 1.5, As 26.4, Se 0.9, Br 33.0 Rb 432.7, Sr 3372.6, Y 39.8, Zr 523.2, Nb 59.7, Mo 3.9, Ag 10.1, Cd 1.8, Sn 75.2, Sb 9.9, I 68.0, Cs 17.6, Ba 1394.9, La 51.3, Ce 93.5, Nd 52.5, Sm 11.2, Yb 4.2, Hf 11.3, Ta 6.3, W 5.2, Tl 2.1, Pb 96.4, Bi 3.0, Th 24.4, U 16.4 (in mg kg-1). The spatial distribution of the elements was affected mainly by the nature of the bedrock and by pedological processes. The upper limit of expected background variation for each trace element in the soil is documented, as is its range as a criterion for evaluating which sites may require decontamination.

  16. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.36.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (24895865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.717.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (9282224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (544912,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  17. Reference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.

    Terrestrial and inertial reference systems based on Newtonian physics are introduced. Techniques for determining the coordinates of points in terrestrial reference systems are reviewed. Classical geodesy; satellite laser and Doppler methods; laser-Moon measurements; and very long base interferometry are described.

  18. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"

  19. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  20. Reference frames and reference networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Krynski, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.

  1. Reference Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    1996-03-01

    A reference system is a relation connecting observables and their mathematical represententions. The principle of general relativity assures that any sort of coordinate system can be used to describe physical phenomena. Thus, any reference system is only a convention, There is no absolutely true reference system. Instead, people seek for a best reference system, whose meaning may differ thus need to clarify, Taking an example from Earth rotation, we discuss how to find such a best reference system. The definition of the best system will change as scientific understandings deepen and computational environments develop. Therefore, we can not stop improving reference systems. However, when replacing an existing widely-spread system, one must take great care to minimize the inconvenience caused by its transition, especially the inconvenience which users might endure. The Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy (SOFA) project being conducted by the IAU WG on Astronomical Standards has the opportunity to ease this troublesome task. The World Wide Web (WWW) will be a main device to realize the project, namely to provide working standards including reference systems to the world.

  2. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  3. Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs. PMID:23671661

  4. End-stage renal disease and low level exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury; a population-based, prospective nested case-referent study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) cause toxicological renal effects, but the clinical relevance at low-level exposures in general populations is unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in relation to Cd, Pb, and Hg exposure. Methods A total of 118 cases who later in life developed end-stage renal disease, and 378 matched (sex, age, area, and time of blood sampling) referents were identified among participants in two population-based prospective cohorts (130,000 individuals). Cd, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in prospectively collected samples. Results Erythrocyte lead was associated with an increased risk of developing end-stage renal disease (mean in cases 76 ?g/L; odds ratio (OR) 1.54 for an interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.00), while erythrocyte mercury was negatively associated (2.4 ?g/L; OR 0.75 for an interquartile range increase, CI 0.56-0.99). For erythrocyte cadmium, the OR of developing end-stage renal disease was 1.15 for an interquartile range increase (CI 0.99-1.34; mean Ery-Cd among cases: 1.3 ?g/L). The associations for erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte mercury, but not for erythrocyte cadmium, remained after adjusting for the other two metals, smoking, BMI, diabetes, and hypertension. Gender-specific analyses showed that men carried almost all of the erythrocyte lead and erythrocyte cadmium associated risks. Conclusions Erythrocyte lead is associated with end-stage renal disease but further studies are needed to evaluate causality. Gender-specific analyses suggest potential differences in susceptibility or in exposure biomarker reliability. PMID:23343055

  5. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2H-, 13C- and 15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Albertino, Andrea; Sauer, Peter E; Qi, Haiping; Molinie, Roland; Mesnard, François

    2009-11-01

    Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the delta values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown delta values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for delta13C and delta15N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: delta2H(nicotine) -162 to -45 per thousand, delta13C(nicotine) -30.05 to +7.72 per thousand, delta15N(nicotine) -6.03 to +33.62 per thousand; delta15N(acetanilide) +1.18 to +40.57 per thousand; delta13C(urea) -34.13 to +11.71 per thousand, delta15N(urea) +0.26 to +40.61 per thousand (recommended delta values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different delta15N values. Comparative delta13C and delta15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials. PMID:19844968

  6. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P.E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

  7. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ercole, Loredana; Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola; Klersy, Catherine; Bocchiola, Milena; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea; Lisciandro, Francesco; Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  8. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Christina Morency

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  9. Reference materials.

    PubMed

    Stamm, D

    1991-04-01

    This paper summarizes the practical experience gained in the Federal Republic of Germany in connection with the development and implementation of a national reference system. The National Reference System is set forth in: 1. the New Calibration Act 1986 (Neufassung des Eichgesetzes vom 22. Februar 1985. Bundesgesetzblatt 1985, Teil I, 410-422); 2. the New Weights and Measures Regulations 1988 (Eichordnung vom 12. August 1988. Bundesgesetzblatt 1988, Teil I, 1657-1674). 3. the Guidelines of the Federal Medical Association (1988) for Quality Assurance in Medical Laboratories (Richtlinien der Bundesrztekammer zur Qualittssicherung in medizinischen Laboratorien vom 16. Januar und 16. Oktober 1987. Deutsches Arzteblatt 85 (11) (1988), A-699--A-712). PMID:1868130

  10. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejere-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material. PMID:26434333

  11. Humboldt Bay Vertical Reference System Working Group: unraveling tectonic and eustatic factors of sea level rise in northern California, Humboldt Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. B.; Anderson, J. K.; Burgette, R. J.; Gilkerson, W.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Leroy, T. H.; Patton, J. R.; Southwick, E.; Stallman, J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sea-level rise is a critical factor in managing estuarine ecosystems, maintaining public infrastructure, and mitigating geologic hazards along north coastal California. The coastal region between Fort Bragg, California and Vancouver Island experiences ongoing land-level changes due to Cascadia subduction zone tectonics. These tectonic land-level changes sufficiently modify relative sea level such that sea-level rise cannot be accurately estimated without determining the tectonic contribution. We use tide gages and precise level-loop surveys to observe modern land and water surface elevations around Humboldt Bay. These modern data, combined with historic survey data, will be used to deconfound the various factors contributing to relative sea level change. Independent analysis of existing NOAA tide gages and EarthScope CGPS stations indicate 2.5 mm/yr of land subsidence near Humboldt Bay and 2 mm/yr of land uplift in Crescent City. Presuming the bulk of the strain accumulation is due to the southern portion of the Cascadia subduction zone, these data suggest Humboldt Bay is west of the locked zone, not to the east as previously reported by several researchers.

  12. Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjees coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiri; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Pittner, Jiri; Kowalski, Karol

    2012-09-07

    In this paper we discuss the performance of the non-iterative State-Specific Mul- tireference Coupled Cluster (SS-MRCC) methods accounting for the effect of triply excited cluster amplitudes. The corrections to the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC models based on the manifold of singly and doubly excited cluster amplitudes (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD, respectively) are tested and compared with the exact full configuration interaction results (FCI) for small systems (H2O, N2, and Be3). For larger systems (naphthyne isomers and -carotene), the non-iterative BW-MRCCSD(T) and Mk-MRCCSD(T) methods are compared against the results obtained with the single reference coupled cluster methods. We also report on the parallel performance of the non-iterative implementations based on the use of pro- cessor groups.

  13. [Erythrocyte reference values in a Coulter S-Plus STKR, in healthy adults living at 2,240 meters above sea level].

    PubMed

    Piedras Ros, J; Reyes Devesa, S; Crdova Caballero, M S; Chves Rodrguez, L

    1991-01-01

    To determine reference values of red blood cell counts in a Coulter S-Plus STKR, we studied 122 males and 147 females selected from the hospital staff (physicians, chemists, nurses) and blood donors. Their ages ranged from 17 to 45 years. Iron and total iron binding capacity in serum, and Zn-protoporphyrin and folates in erythrocytes were measured to include only normal subjects without nutritional deficiencies. Two males (1.6%) and 21 females (14.3%) were excluded due to iron deficiency, and one man (0.7%) and one woman (0.8%) to folate deficiency. All red cell parameters, except the mean cell volume, showed a gaussian distribution (Lilliefors test). Their mean +/- standard deviation were: [formula: see text]. PMID:1947474

  14. Serum Levels of Lipopolysaccharide and 1,3-β-D-Glucan Refer to the Severity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmin; Zhou, Guangxi; Yang, Wenjing; He, Zhenkun; Liu, Zhanju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interactions between the host and gut microbial community contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we aimed to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1,3-β-D-glucan (BG) in the sera of CD patients and clarify the potential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with active CD (A-CD), 22 CD patients at remission stage (R-CD), and 20 healthy controls, and the levels of LPS, BG, and TNF in sera were determined by ELISA. Moreover, sixteen patients with A-CD received anti-TNF monoclonal antibody therapy (infliximab, IFX) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6, and the levels of LPS and BG were also tested at week 12 after the first intravenous infusion. Results. Serum levels of LPS and BG were found to be markedly increased in A-CD patients compared with R-CD patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05). They were also observed to be positively correlated with CDAI, ESR, and SES-CD, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of TNF in sera had a significant correlation with LPS and BG, respectively. The concentrations of LPS and BG were demonstrated to be significantly downregulated in the sera of A-CD patients 12 weeks after IFX treatment (P < 0.05), suggesting that blockade of TNF could inhibit bacterial endotoxin absorption, partially through improving intestinal mucosal barrier. Conclusions. Serum levels of LPS and BG are significantly increased in A-CD patients and positively correlated with the severity of the disease. Blockade of intestinal mucosal inflammation with IFX could reduce the levels of LPS and BG in sera. Therefore, this study has shed some light on measurement of serum LPS and BG in the diagnosis and treatment of CD patients. PMID:26106258

  15. Hair Mercury Levels in U.S. Children and Women of Childbearing Age: Reference Range Data from NHANES 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Margaret A.; Dillon, Charles F.; Osterloh, John; Bolger, P. Michael; Pellizzari, Edo; Fernando, Reshan; de Oca, Ruben Montes; Schober, Susan E.; Sinks, Thomas; Jones, Robert L.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to methyl mercury, a risk factor for neurodevelopmental toxicity, was assessed in U.S. children 1–5 years of age (n = 838) and women 16–49 years of age (n = 1,726) using hair mercury analysis during the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The data are nationally representative and are based on analysis of cross-sectional data for the non-institutionalized, U.S. household population. The survey consisted of interviews conducted in participants’ homes and standardized health examinations conducted in mobile examination centers. Distributions of total hair mercury levels expressed as micrograms per gram hair Hg and the association of hair Hg levels with sociodemographic characteristics and fish consumption are reported. Geometric mean (standard error of the geometric mean) hair mercury was 0.12 μg/g (0.01 μg/g) in children, and 0.20 μg/g (0.02 μg/g) in women. Among frequent fish consumers, geometric mean hair mercury levels were 3-fold higher for women (0.38 vs. 0.11 μg/g) and 2-fold higher for children (0.16 vs. 0.08 μg/g) compared with nonconsumers. The NHANES 1999–2000 data provide population-based data on hair mercury concentrations for women and children in the United States. Hair mercury levels were associated with age and fish consumption frequency. PMID:15289161

  16. Development of a framework with specific reference to exit-level outcomes for the education and training of South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    PubMed

    Krause, Maria W; Viljoen, Marlene J; Nel, Maria M; Joubert, Georgina

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a framework for undergraduate programmes for the education and training of physiotherapists in South Africa. The research comprised a literature survey, interviews with United Kingdom physiotherapy educators and departmental workshops in South Africa. The Delphi technique was employed as research method to evaluate the proposed framework. The measuring instrument was a questionnaire comprising of amongst others, statements related to exit-level outcomes, which were rated on a five-point rating scale. Two rounds of the Delphi technique were required before acceptable consensus was reached and a framework for the development of a physiotherapy education and training programme was compiled. The framework has been designed as a benchmark for the development of innovative physiotherapy curricula in South Africa. This paper provides information of the exit-level outcomes specified in the framework. PMID:16157414

  17. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2012-01-01

    In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

  18. Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toyonobu

    2012-01-01

    In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

  19. Levels of toxic elements and functional structure in populations of small mammals under conditions of technogenic pollution (with reference to the bank vole)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Bezel, V.S.

    1995-05-01

    The levels and the character of accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in organs and tissues of bank voles, living under conditions of technogenic pollution (near a copper-smelting plant) and on the control territory, were studied. The fundamental distinctions in the character of accumulation of physiologically extraneous elements (lead and cadmium) and elements required for normal functioning (copper and zinc) were found. It was shown that the bank vole population responds to technogenic pollution of the environment depending on the ecological-functional features of the subpopulational groups that form this population. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and NonObese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and nonobese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of nonobese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and nonobese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in nonobese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyperinsulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:24086844

  1. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ?-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. PMID:22986091

  2. Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H., Jr.; Purtyman, W.D.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure water levels and collect water samples from the alluvium. Twenty-three of the holes were cased to seal out water and were used as access tubes to accommodate a neutron-neutron probe for determining the moisture content of the alluvium and tuff. The source of recharge for the perched ground-water body in the alluvium in Mortandad Canyon is the precipitation in the drainage area of the canyon. During the winter of 1960-61, a snowpack 1-2 feet thick accumulated in the narrow shaded upper part of the canyon. The alluvium below the snowpack received some recharge because of diurnal melting during the winter. In March 1961 the snowmelt water saturated most of the thin alluvium in the upper part of the canyon, and a surface stream began to flow on the alluvium. The maximum flow of the stream was about 250 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from the stream infiltrated the alluvium at the front of the stream and in the reach upstream from the front. A ground-water mound was formed beneath the channel by water infiltrating from the stream. The front of the stream and the front of the ground-water mound advanced eastward to about the middle of the area studied. From this point eastward, the alluvium was thick enough to absorb and transmit the amount of flow in 1961. Late in April the front of the stream retreated, and by the first of May the flow stopped. During and after this period the ground-water mound decayed, and ground-water levels declined in the upper part of the canyon as water drained into the channel and downgradient through the alluvium. The amount of recharge was small in the wide lower part of the canyon during the period of study. The rise in ground-water levels and the increase in moisture content of the alluvium in the lower part of the canyon indicate that water moved downgradient by underflow through the alluvium from the recharge area in the upper part of the canyon. Moisture measurements indicate that only a little water moved into the underlyin

  3. Assessment of losses in honey yield due to the chalkbrood disease, with reference to the determination of its economic injury levels in Egypt.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zaghloul OA; Mourad AK; El Kady MB; Nemat FM; Morsy ME

    2005-01-01

    In Egypt, the chalk brood (CHB) disease caused by the fungus, Ascosphaera apis Maassen started again infesting the honeybee, Apis melifera L (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies after a cessation pause of seven to nine years. For the first time, an attempt has been made to look into the problem of the CHB disease from the view point of assessing losses in both clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) and chinus (Chinus molus) honey yields. In this regard, two techniques were adopted. Under the natural conditions of the experimental apiary (first technique), loss in clover honey was 18.412 +/- 0.663%, on average, whereas the average loss in chinus honey was 18.332 +/- 1.536%. In the second technique of loss appraisal (artificial infection). The tested honeybee colonies were artificially infected with four sources of A. apis infection, I.e. black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains and water, in addition to controls to create the so-called "different levels of infection". The mean percentages of losses in clover honey were 30.06 +/- 1.807, 27.95 +/- 1.062; 21.13 +/- 0.987; 16.96 +/- 0.672 and 0.00 +/- 0.00 for black mummies, white mummies, pollen grains, water and control, respectively. Taking into account the relationship between number of resulted mummies in each source of infection and % loss in clover honey, it could be concluded that as the resulted mummies increased, the corresponding clover honey yield decreased in each source of infection. It was noticed that the % loss in clover honey differed as the used technique differed. For example, the percentage loss in clover honey produced from colonies exposed to the natural conditions was relatively less than that of the artificially infected ones. This has been discussed in the text. However, the causative pathogen of CHB disease resulted in serious decrease in honey production. Loss appraisal is a perquisite step for the determination of the economic injury levels (EILs). By regressing % loss in clover honey yield against the total number of fallen mummies, the linear equation was worked out to be: Y = 0.242 + 0.040 x (r2 = 0.99, F = 62408.865). Depending on the total costs of controlling CHB disease, the EIL values were 31.875 and 11.250 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, subsequently. As to the chinus honey the corresponding EILs were 18.940 and 6.683 mummies/colony for cedar oil and thymol granules, in respect, as a result of adopting the regression formula: Y = -6.762 + 0.101 X. As for the clover honey (artificial infection) the EIL values were 39.844 and 14.063 mummies/ colony in case of using cedar oil and thymol grains, subsequently. These values were worked out using the formula Y = 5.871 + 0.032 X. From the practical point of view, apiarists should not use thymol or cedar oil as fallen mummies don't reach the suggested EILs values to minimize control costs as much as possible.

  4. [A nutrition survey of a group of athletes with particular reference to magnesium, zinc and copper intake, and to the relative intra- and extra-cellular levels].

    PubMed

    Borella, P; Sala, F; Giardino, A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dietary habits in a group of athletes (footballers) compared with sedentary subjects matched for sex, age and body mass index. All subjects kept a record of food eaten for seven consecutive days using various models for portion sizes. Daily nutrient intake was then computed and was expressed as either total intake, or percent of the recommended daily dietary allowances (LARN). For each subject, a 20-ml blood sample and a 24h urine sample was collected for analysis of magnesium, zinc and copper. The three elements were measured both in plasma and in erythrocytes, monocytes and neutrophils. The athletes eat significantly more sheets than controls (22.5% of total kcal vs 15.2%, p less than 0.01) and significantly less cereals (22.5% vs 31.7%, p less than 0.01). Concerning the nutrient composition, in both groups the lipid intake was higher than that recommended and this trend was more pronounced in the athletes (+ 43.2% vs + 16.1% in the controls). In addition, the diet was particularly rich in animal fats with a mean intake of 21.0% of total kcal in the athletes and 20.9% in the sedentary group (recommended value was 12.5% and 14%, respectively). A parallel reduction in vegetal protein intake was observed in the trained group, and the difference was significant (4.3% of kcal in the athletes and 5.2% in the controls, p less than 0.01). Furthermore, in the athletes the soluble carbohydrate intake was higher than the recommended levels (+ 110%) and significantly higher than that eaten by the controls (21.0% vs 16.4% of kcal, p less than 0.01), with parallel decrease of polysaccharides intake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2483648

  5. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  6. SPAR reference manual update SPAR level 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetstone, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Command runstream elements are presented for analyzing structural systems that are composed of a number of cyclically symmetrical sectors. Provisions are included for systems in which each cyclically symmetrical sector also possesses a plane of reflective symmetry. The following types of analysis may be performed: static analysis with and without preload, vibrational analysis with and without preload, and buckling analysis with and without preload.

  7. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barton, James C.; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Barton, J. Clayborn

    2014-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjgren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)). PMID:25295286

  8. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.

  9. Generalizing indexical-functional reference

    SciTech Connect

    Schoppers, M.; Shu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The goals of situated agents generally do not specify particular objects: they require only that some suitable object should be chosen and manipulated (e.g. any red block). Situated agents engaged in deictic reference grounding, however, may well track a chosen referent object with such fixity of purpose that an unchosen object may be regarded as an obstacle even though it satisfies the agent`s goals. In earlier work this problem was bridged by hand-coding. This paper lifts the problem to the symbol level, endowing agents with perceptual referent selection actions and performing those actions as required to allow or disallow opportunistic re-selection of referents. Our work preserves the ability of situated agents to find and track specific objects, adds an ability to automatically exploit the opportunities allowed by nonspecific references, and provides a starting point for studying how much opportunistic perception is appropriate.

  10. [Biological effects and health risks of electromagnetic fields at levels classified by INCRIP ans admissible among occupationally exposed workers: a study of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz].

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Zmy?lony, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the workers' circulatory system, and to find out to what extent the EMF frequency, short-term (maximum values) and chronic (daily and lifetime doses) exposures influence the type of the observed disorders. The gathered data will help to evaluate whether hygiene standards that limit maximum admissible EMF values (e.g., ICNIRP standards) protect against adverse effects of exposure. The study covered workers employed in transformer and distribution stations, medium wave transmitting stations, radio-service and radio and TV multichannel broadcasting stations. In all the cases, exposure levels were considerably lower than those set as admissible according to the ICNIRP standards. Nevertheless changes in the circulatory system and a significant relationship between blood pressure and neurovegetative regulation disorders and exposure parameters were observed. The frequency of changes in the circulatory system was significantly dependent not only on the maximum EMF value, but also on its dose, which indicates that the hygiene standards for EMF cannot be limited only to short-term exposure maximum values, but they should be supplemented with dose-related standards. PMID:14669585

  11. Reference Service Upgraded: Using Patrons' Reference Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Business Administration-Economics Library staff at the University of Texas at Austin evaluated 18,738 reference questions gathered over a three-year period. Steps were taken to reduce the directional and informational questions with the expectation of increasing the number of general reference questions. (Author)

  12. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of

  13. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;

  14. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  15. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  16. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  17. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei; Nakada, Satoru; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  18. The effect of positive thinking training on the level of spiritual well-being among the patients with coronary artery diseases referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsbin, Fariba; Safaei, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Keshvarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Positive thinking which is derived from an optimistic view toward the universe and plays an important role in the incidence of better and a more targeted behavior among human beings. It can improve spiritual health in the individuals through increased communication with God and thanksgiving and accelerate the healing process. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the effect of positive thinking on the level of spiritual health in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS In this study randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with confirmed CAD referred to Imam Reza clinic, Shiraz, during April to July 2013. A blocking randomization method was used to randomize the final 90 participants into intervention (n = 45) and control groups (n = 45). After obtaining written informed consent, the participants were asked to complete two questionnaires. Data were collected using Ellison and Paloutzians spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) and a demographic questionnaire. The patients in the intervention group participated in 7 training sessions on positive thinking in which several topics were discussed. The SWBS questionnaire was completed two more times by the participants; once immediately after, and once 1 month after the intervention. 16 patients were excluded from the study due to different reasons, and finally the analysis was performed on 74 patients. RESULTS The mean standard deviation (SD) of spiritual well-being (SWB) increased from 88.71 12.5 to 96.63 12.58 in the intervention group; while, it decreased from 93.19 17.55 to 94.45 16.01 in the control group in the interval of before and 1 month after the intervention. We observed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding both variables of time and group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION SWB is an important factor which should be considered in the treatment process, and nurses could maintain and improve such dimension of health in the patients through their intervention including drawing the patients attention to optimism and positive thinking. PMID:26862342

  19. Reference Grammar and Pedagogical Grammars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Sidney

    1987-01-01

    Distinguishes between four types of English grammar (reference, pedagogical, theoretical, and teach-yourself) according to mode of use and shows how four factors enter into a typology of grammars: mode of use, language of the user, level of the user, and aims of use. (Author/CB)

  20. A Reference Grammar of Pashto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... paraplegia type 8 Troyer syndrome You may also search Genetics Home Reference for ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Seizures

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  3. Genetics Home Reference: Dementia

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  4. Genetics Home Reference: Dystonia

    MedlinePLUS

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  5. Genetics Home Reference: Arrhythmia

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  6. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

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  7. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  8. The Test of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of an unobtrusive study, from a user's viewpoint, of reference services available in the Suffolk Cooperative Library System. The study raises questions of policy centering around user expectations of library reference services. (RAA)

  9. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building

  10. 17β-estradiol replacement in young, adult and middle-aged female ovariectomized rats promotes improvement of spatial reference memory and an antidepressant effect and alters monoamines and BDNF levels in memory- and depression-related brain areas.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Agata; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Pereira, Sofia I R; Carolino, Ruither G; Szawka, Raphael E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Zanata, Sílvio M; Ferraz, Anete C

    2012-02-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that estrogens have a major impact on cognition, presenting neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions in regions involved in such function. In opposite, some studies indicate that certain hormone therapy regimens may provoke detrimental effects over female cognitive and neurological function. Therefore, we decided to investigate how estrogen treatment would influence cognition and depression in different ages. For that matter, this study assessed the effects of chronic 17β-estradiol treatment over cognition and depressive-like behaviors of young (3 months old), adult (7 months old) and middle-aged (12 months old) reproductive female Wistar rats. These functions were also correlated with alterations in the serotonergic system, as well as hippocampal BDNF. 17β-Estradiol treatment did not influence animals' locomotor activity and exploratory behavior, but it was able to improve the performance of adult and middle-aged rats in the Morris water maze, the latter being more responsive to the treatment. Young and adult rats displayed decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test, suggesting an effect of 17β-estradiol also over such depressive-like behavior. This same test revealed increased swimming behavior, triggered by serotonergic pathway, in adult rats. Neurochemical evaluations indicated that 17β-estradiol treatment was able to increase serotonin turnover rate in the hippocampus of adult rats. Interestingly, estrogen treatment increased BDNF levels from animals of all ages. These findings support the notion that the beneficial effects of 17β-estradiol over spatial reference memory and depressive-like behavior are evident only when hormone therapy occurs at early ages and early stages of hormonal decline. PMID:22085882

  11. Performance criteria for reference measurement procedures and reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Heinz; Zegers, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    The concept of metrological traceability of measurement results to property values assigned to measurement standards of higher metrological order or to the International System of Units (SI) through sequential calibrations, using reference materials and reference measurement procedures, plays a key role in ensuring that end user measurement procedures perform at an acceptable level in the clinical context. The aim is that measurement results produced over time or by different end users or with different end user measurement procedures for the same measurand will be equivalent within their corresponding uncertainties. These goals can only be reached under certain conditions and if requirements laid down in international standards on calibration concepts, reference measurement procedures and reference materials are fulfilled. Calibration hierarchies have to be implemented correctly and parameters contributing to measurement uncertainty and systematic bias need to be controlled and eliminated, respectively, by technically improving methods and reference materials and intermediate calibrators used for effectively achieving equivalence of measurement results and for meeting analytical performance requirements for in vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:25870968

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  14. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  15. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

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  17. Genetics Home Reference: Anemia

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  18. Fiducial reference for the HIPPARCOS reference system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncombe, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The groundwork was prepared for observations by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to tie the coordinate system of the European Astrometry Satellite HIPPARCOS to an extragalactic (VLBI) reference frame, and to determine the rotation of the HIPPARCOS frame with respect to the extragalactic frame. A total of 90 Extragalactic Optical Objects (EGOs) were determined in the vicinity (angular separation less than 18 arcminutes) of 160 HIPPARCOS stars (brighter than about 11.0 magnitude, mostly SAO stars brighter than 10.5), evenly distributed over the sky, to be used to tie the HIPPARCOS system to the Extragalactic Reference Frame. The pairs are to be observed with the HST Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS), sometimes in conjunction with the HST Planetary Camera, in order to determine the relative positions and motions of the individual HIPPARCOS stars with respect to the EGOs. The data base which contains the optical information used to generate the HST Guaranteed Observing Time (GTO) proposal is included.

  19. A standard satellite control reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Constance

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  20. Creating a Reference Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jane

    1997-01-01

    To help students understand that references are tools used to locate specific information, one librarian has her third-grade students create their own reference toolboxes as she introduces dictionaries, atlases, encyclopedias, and thesauri. Presents a lesson plan to introduce print and nonprint thesauri to third and fourth graders and includes a

  1. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  2. The Great Reference Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Myla Stokes; Siddons, Jeff; Jenkins, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that ever-increasing Internet access is rendering the functions of reference librarians obsolete. Presents the points of view of several two-year-college librarians, who insist that libraries will always require experienced reference librarians to act as organizers and guides to information seekers. Also discusses librarians' changing

  3. An Online Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

  4. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and

  5. Reach for Reference. Grolier's The Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This column describes Grolier's new ten-volume reference set, "The Civil War." The volumes are easy to handle and the set's appearance is designed to appeal to middle level students. Arrangement is alphabetical from Abolition in volume one to Zouaves in volume ten with reasonable cross references to other relevant articles. Each volume contains a

  6. Elevated temperature reference spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.; Phillips, B.; Tussey, L.

    1997-12-31

    A compilation of infrared spectra at elevated temperatures is required for the accurate quantification of gas concentrations for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) extractive sampling of stack gases and FTIR in-situ process monitoring. Analysis of high temperature gases utilizing ambient temperature reference spectra can result in significant quantification errors. The US Air Force`s Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) is currently assisting the EPA in measuring reference spectra and making existing and new data available to the public through two ongoing efforts. One of these efforts is the measurement of elevated temperature infrared reference spectra of the low vapor pressure hazardous air pollutants (HAP) compounds, as well as spectral interfering compounds. The equipment and procedures used for the elevated temperature reference spectra measurements is described as well as some of the challenges encountered in these measurements. Examples of the reference spectra are also presented. To make the reference spectra developed by AEDC and other EPA programs easily accessible, AEDC has also been tasked to maintain a site on the World Wide Web containing reference spectra, reports, and software tools of interest to the optical sensing community. This web site has seen increased use during the three years that it has been in existence with users from academia, commercial, and government, both domestic and foreign. The site has undergone several improvements since inception and actively solicits inputs for further improvements from its users. A description of this web site and recent improvements and additions is given in this paper.

  7. Intrinsic (?) reference standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.

    The term Intrinsic refers to something that is inherent in the nature of a thing. With regard to metrologic references, it usually concerns a characteristic property of a natural material or process. International standard scales, such as those for time, dimension, temperature, voltage, and resistance, are increasingly based on intrinsic natural properties rather than on physical artifacts. The objective is to provide accurate and reliable fiducials that are themselves reproducible independent of place, time, or observer. A distinction must be made, however, between intrinsic properties on which measurement scales are based and physical realizations of particular values of those intrinsic properties in actual reference devices used for practical calibration. Ideally, intrinsic references are not subject to calibration as they represent quantities that are exact by definition. It is sometimes asserted, for example, that such references do not require calibration traceability to a national laboratory. But, it must not be casually assumed that a calibration device that employs a class of natural phenomenon does, in fact, necessarily impose the standardized value on a calibration subject. Some of the problems associated with the practical use of so-called intrinsic standard references in industrial measurement practice are considered. In particular, distinctions between validation, qualification, and calibration are discussed in relation to intrinsic reference standards and measurement quality assurance.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Narcolepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have cataplexy. However, some do not, which has led researchers to distinguish two major forms of the ... information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Dwarfism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thanatophoric dysplasia Weill-Marchesani syndrome You may also search Genetics Home ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Epilepsy Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Aicardi syndrome autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features benign ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

  12. Civil engineering reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The civil engineering reference guide contains the following: Structural theory. Structural steel design. Concrete design and construction. Wood design and construction. Bridge engineering. Geotechnical engineering. Water engineering. Environmental engineering. Surveying.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the U.S. National Library of Medicine Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever ...

  14. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Conditions > Cancer Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic leukemia Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome bladder cancer Bloom syndrome breast cancer Brooke-Spiegler ... myeloid leukemia Costello syndrome Cowden syndrome cytogenetically normal ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Sialidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features. Sialidosis type I, also referred to as cherry-red spot myoclonus syndrome, is the less severe ... or night blindness. An eye abnormality called a cherry-red spot, which can be identified with an ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Histidinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enzyme ; expressed ; gene ; His ; histidine ; incidence ; inherited ; molecule ; newborn screening ; oxygen ; recessive ; screening You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Hyperlysinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disability ; enzyme ; familial ; gene ; incidence ; inherited ; lysine ; molecule ; newborn screening ; recessive ; screening You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  19. Optimal primitive reference frames

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, David

    2011-07-15

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3){sup 5}=26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  20. OA Internet Reference Materials

    Cancer.gov

    skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA FNLCR Acquisition Portal Contact OA OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10

  1. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

  2. Goals as reference points.

    PubMed

    Heath, C; Larrick, R P; Wu, G

    1999-02-01

    We argue that goals serve as reference points and alter outcomes in a manner consistent with the value function of Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992). We present new evidence that goals inherit the properties of the value function-not only a reference point, but also loss aversion and diminishing sensitivity. We also use the value function to explain previous empirical results in the goal literature on affect, effort, persistence, and performance. PMID:10090799

  3. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  4. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo (Downers Grove, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  5. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  6. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  7. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  8. Hot Experimental Facility reference flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    North, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a useful set of background information of HEF flowsheets, although many changes have been made in the past three years. The HEF reference flowsheet is a modified high-acid PUREX flowsheet capable of operating in the coprocessing mode or with full partitioning of U and Pu. Adequate decontamination factors are provided to purify high-burnup, fast breeder-reactor fuels to levels required for recycle back to a fuel fabrication facility. Product streams are mixed U-Pu oxide and uranium oxide. No contaminated liquid wastes are intentionally discharged to the environment. All wastes are solidified and packaged for appropriate disposal. Acid and water are recovered for internal recycle. Excess water is treated and discharged from the plant stack. Several changes have been made in the reference flowsheet since that time, and these are noted briefly.

  9. Setting reference targets

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  10. European Structures of Qualification Levels: A Synthesis Based on Reports on Recent Developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales). Volume 1. CEDEFOP Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerhuis, Anneke

    European structures of qualification levels were examined through a review of reports on recent developments in Germany, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. The examination focused on the following topics: the scope of the national frameworks; the definition of standards and qualifications; the definition of levels in

  11. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data topocentric modern space missions in which there are visually identify the lunar objects

  12. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  13. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  14. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  15. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  16. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  17. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative

  18. A Marathi Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This Marathi reference grammar designed for adult students is based on the model of transformational grammar developed by Zellig Harris, and may be of interest to linguists as well. The basic grammatical facts of Marathi are set forth in eleven chapters: (1) the Marathi sound system, (2) the Devenagari script, (3) nouns, pronouns, and adjectives,

  19. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  20. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing

  1. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  2. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model

  3. Evaluating the Reference Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    Examines quantitative and qualitative evaluation and analysis of Washington State Library reference activities, based on research activities of the Consortium for Public Library Innovation. Several methods of data collection for a sample day are discussed, including a user ticket and a patterns of information requests form. (Author)

  4. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that

  5. Chat Reference. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronan, Jana, Comp.; Turner, Carol, Comp.

    2002-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to gather data on chat reference service. A total of 66 of 124 ARL member libraries responded to the survey. A copy of the questionnaire with tabulated results is presented. Representative…

  6. Best Reference 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of

  7. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)

  8. Reference Services in Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Lucille; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This 16-article issue focuses on history, policy, services, users, organization, evaluation, and automation of the archival reference process. Collections at academic research libraries, a technical university, Board of Education, business archives, a bank, labor and urban archives, a manuscript repository, religious archives, and regional history

  9. Shuttle Reference Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

  10. The Reference Encounter Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying

  11. Reference Sources for Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The ninth revision (including a Canadian supplement) of a list of nursing reference works lists items in the following sections: abstract journals, audiovisuals, bibliographies, dictionaries, directories, drug lists and pharmacologies, educational programs, histories, indexes, legal guides, library administration and organization, research grants,…

  12. International reference ionosphere 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

    1990-01-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

  13. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  14. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and

  15. Reference Services in Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Lucille; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This 16-article issue focuses on history, policy, services, users, organization, evaluation, and automation of the archival reference process. Collections at academic research libraries, a technical university, Board of Education, business archives, a bank, labor and urban archives, a manuscript repository, religious archives, and regional history…

  16. Best Reference 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

  17. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  19. THAI, REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR FOR THE THAI LANGUAGE IS PROVIDED. THE MAIN STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF STANDARD SPOKEN THAI ARE OUTLINED AND ELABORATED BY SUBCLASSIFICATION AND EXAMPLE. IN ADDITION, AN INDEX OF MINOR FORM-CLASS MEMBERS IS PROVIDED. THE APPROACH TO CLASSIFICATION OF GRAMMATICAL FEATURES FOLLOWS CURRENT TECHNIQUES OF AMERICAN DESCRIPTIVE

  20. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  1. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  2. Magnetic field from spot welding equipment--is the basic restriction exceeded?

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Mohammad; Hamnerius, Yngve; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Persson, Mikael

    2004-05-01

    A point measurement of the magnetic field (MF) near a typical spot welding machine showed that the magnetic flux density was above the ICNIRP reference level. To investigate if the basic restrictions were exceeded, the induced body currents in a full 3D human model were calculated. It was found that at an operator position of 34 cm away from the machine the maximum induced current density was below the ICNIRP basic restriction. But if the operator was closer to the machine, the basic restriction was exceeded. An important finding of the present article is that the basic restriction can be exceeded although the MF spatially averaged over the whole body is well below the reference level. PMID:15114637

  3. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  5. Alignment reference device

    DOEpatents

    Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1987-01-01

    An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

  6. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; ,

    2011-08-18

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  7. Is anaphoric reference cooperative?

    PubMed

    Kantola, Leila; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the choice of anaphoric expression is affected by the presence of an addressee. Following a context sentence and visual scene, participants described a target scene that required anaphoric reference. They described the scene either to an addressee (Experiment 1) or without an addressee (Experiment 2). When an addressee was present in the task, participants used more pronouns and fewer repeated noun phrases when the referent was the grammatical subject in the context sentence than when it was the grammatical object and they used more pronouns when there was no competitor than when there was. They used fewer pronouns and more repeated noun phrases when a visual competitor was present in the scene than when there was no visual competitor. In the absence of an addressee, linguistic context effects were the same as those when an addressee was present, but the visual effect of the competitor disappeared. We conclude that visual salience effects are due to adjustments that speakers make when they produce reference for an addressee, whereas linguistic salience effects appear whether or not speakers have addressees. PMID:26165163

  8. Dosimetric Uncertainties: Magnetic Field Coupling to Peripheral Nerve.

    PubMed

    Kavet, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) have established magnetic field exposure limits for the general public between 400 Hz (ICNIRP)/759 Hz (IEEE) and 100 kHz to protect against adverse effects associated with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). Despite apparent common purpose and similarly stated principles, the two sets of limits diverge between 3.35-100 kHz by a factor of about 7.7 with respect to PNS. To address the basis for this difference and the more general issue of dosimetric uncertainty, this paper combines experimental data of PNS thresholds derived from human subjects exposed to magnetic fields together with published estimates of induced in situ electric field PNS thresholds to evaluate dosimetric relationships of external magnetic fields to induced fields at the threshold of PNS and the uncertainties inherent to such relationships. The analyses indicate that the logarithmic range of magnetic field thresholds constrains the bounds of uncertainty of in situ electric field PNS thresholds and coupling coefficients related to the peripheral nerve (the coupling coefficients define the dosimetric relationship of external field to induced electric field). The general public magnetic field exposure limit adopted by ICNIRP uses a coupling coefficient that falls above the bounds of dosimetric uncertainty, while IEEE's is within the bounds of uncertainty toward the lower end of the distribution. The analyses illustrate that dosimetric estimates can be derived without reliance on computational dosimetry and the associated values of tissue conductivity. With the limits now in place, investigative efforts would be required if a field measurement were to exceed ICNIRP's magnetic field limit (the reference level), even when there is a virtual certainty that the dose limit (the basic restriction) has not been exceeded. The constraints on the range of coupling coefficients described in this paper could facilitate a re-evaluation of ICNIRP and IEEE dose and exposure limits and possibly lead toward harmonization. PMID:26509623

  9. Mobilization and Involvement of Students and Teachers in Implementing the Adult and Extension Education Programmes at the Grass-Root Level with Special Reference to Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli, India: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parthasarthy, K.; Balasaravanan, T.

    India has made considerable progress toward universal primary education but has the dubious distinction of having the highest illiteracy rates in the world. Stringent endeavors are being made at the national, state, and district levels to eradicate illiteracy through mass approaches and programs. Extension is recognized as the third dimension of…

  10. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for allocating resources to improve celestial frames. A detailed case study of plans for the X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) celestial frame shows error budget concepts in action. Looking to the future of international standards, we discuss the roadmap for the realization of the third generation ICRF (ICRF-3). In closing, we discuss the prospects for the Gaia optical astrometry mission with its potential for sub-100 µas positions for a billion stars and 500,000 quasars at optical wavelengths.

  11. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for allocating resources to improve celestial frames. A detailed case study of plans for the X/Ka (8.4/32 GHz) celestial frame shows error budget concepts in action. Looking to the future of international standards, we discuss the roadmap for the realization of the third generation ICRF (ICRF-3). In closing, we discuss the prospects for the Gaia optical astrometry mission with its potential for sub-100 as positions for a billion stars and 500,000 quasars at optical wavelengths.

  12. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

  13. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  14. Nuclear Science References Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritychenko, B.; B?tk, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  15. Magnetic heading reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This invention employs a magnetometer as a magnetic heading reference for a vehicle such as a small aircraft. The magnetometer is mounted on a directional dial in the aircraft in the vicinity of the pilot such that it is free to turn with the dial about the yaw axis of the aircraft. The invention includes a circuit for generating a signal proportional to the northerly turning error produced in the magnetometer due to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field. This generated signal is then subtracted from the output of the magnetometer to compensate for the northerly turning error.

  16. Sentinel 2 global reference image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechoz, C.; Poulain, V.; Massera, S.; Languille, F.; Greslou, D.; de Lussy, F.; Gaudel, A.; L'Helguen, C.; Picard, C.; Trémas, T.

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel-2 is a multispectral, high-resolution, optical imaging mission, developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission. In cooperation with ESA, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) is responsible for the image quality of the project, and will ensure the CAL/VAL commissioning phase. Sentinel-2 mission is devoted the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas, and will provide a continuity of SPOT- and Landsat-type data. Sentinel-2 will also deliver information for emergency services. Launched in 2015 and 2016, there will be a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit, imaging systematically terrestrial surfaces with a revisit time of 5 days, in 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red. Therefore, multi-temporal series of images, taken under the same viewing conditions, will be available. So as to ensure for the multi-temporal registration of the products, specified to be better than 0.3 pixels at 2σ, a Global Reference Image (GRI) will be produced during the CAL/VAL period. This GRI is composed of a set of Sentinel-2 acquisitions, which geometry has been corrected by bundle block adjustment. During L1B processing, Ground Control Points will be taken between this reference image and the sentinel-2 acquisition processed and the geometric model of the image corrected, so as to ensure the good multi-temporal registration. This paper first details the production of the reference during the CALVAL period, and then details the qualification and geolocation performance assessment of the GRI. It finally presents its use in the Level-1 processing chain and gives a first assessment of the multi-temporal registration.

  17. Redox Cycling Without Reference Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sahana; Mathwig, Klaus; Kang, Shuo; Nieuwenhuis, Ab. F.; Lemay, Serge G.

    2015-01-01

    The reference electrode is a key component in electrochemical measurements, yet it remains a challenge to implement a reliable reference electrode in miniaturized electrochemical sensors. Here we explore experimentally and theoretically an alternative approach based on redox cycling which eliminates the reference electrode altogether. We show that shifts in the solution potential caused by the lack of reference can be understood quantitatively, and determine the requirements for accurate measurements in miniaturized systems in the absence of a reference electrode. PMID:25271709

  18. Space science reference books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center has recently produced a two-volume reference detailing a wide range of information about the planets, their atmospheres, and their energy fields. Originally prepared by Marshall's Atmospheric Sciences Division as a guide for designing space vehicles, the report was 2 years in the making. It is now available to anyone who wants a handy reference on the current state of knowledge about the sun, planets, and smaller bodies of the solar system.Entitled “Space and Planetary Environment Criteria Guidelines for Use in Space Vehicle Development, 1982 Revision,” the two volumes each have fewer than 200 pages. Volume 1 treats the sun, terrestrial space, the moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars in individual chapters. Volume 2 covers Jupiter, Jupiter's satellites, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, asteroids, comets, and interplanetary dust. Crammed with numbers, tables, and figures, the two volumes provide a wide range of data, such as the total energy flux of the sun and the mass density o f interplanetary dust.

  19. Antares Reference Telescope System

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 ..mu..m in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10/sup -6/ torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 ..mu..m of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail.

  20. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  1. Whole-body-averaged SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida child voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley

    2007-11-01

    The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in children for plane wave exposure from 50 MHz to 4 GHz. The consideration of children is important in the application of the ICNIRP public exposure reference levels above ~1 GHz. The uniformly scaled models of NORMAN and NAOMI suggest that the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction for 5 year and 1 year old models. Comparison is made with the previous linearly scaled versions of NORMAN and NAOMI for calculations at 2 mm resolution. Further FDTD calculations were performed at resolutions of 1 and 0.7 mm above 900 MHz to elucidate the effects of grid resolution on SAR. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on the whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure.

  2. Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

  3. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  4. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Hyperlysinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by elevated blood levels of the amino acid lysine, a building block of most proteins. Hyperlysinemia is ... shortage (deficiency) of the enzyme that breaks down lysine. Hyperlysinemia typically causes no health problems, and most ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of cholesterol in the blood. Additional factors that impact cholesterol levels include a person's gender, age, and health problems such as diabetes and obesity. A small percentage of all people with high ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Acatalasemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by very low levels of an enzyme called catalase. Many people with acatalasemia never have any health ... This gene provides instructions for making the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide molecules into oxygen ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Aceruloplasminemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... accumulates in the brain and other organs. Iron accumulation in the brain results in neurological problems that ... hormone that helps control blood sugar levels. Iron accumulation in the pancreas reduces the cells' ability to ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Hyperprolinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... individuals with conditions that cause elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidemia) may have hyperprolinemia as well, because lactic acid inhibits the breakdown of proline. How common is ...

  10. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  11. PASCAL/48 reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

  12. A Radio Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K. J.; Fey, A. L.; Zacharias, N.; Russell, J. L.; Ma, C.; de Vegt, C.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Archinal, B. A.; Carter, M. S.; Corbin, T. E.; Eubanks, T. M.; Florkowski, D. R.; Hall, D. M.; McCarthy, D. D.; McCulloch, P. M.; King, E. A.; Nicolson, G.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1995-08-01

    A catalogue is presented based on the radio positions of 436 extragalactic sources distributed over the entire sky. The positional accuracy of the sources is better than 3 milliarcsec (mas) in both coordinates, with the majority of the sources having errors better than 1 mas. This catalogue is based upon a general solution of all applicable dual frequency 2.3 and 8.4 GHz Mark-III VLBI data available through the end of 1993 consisting of 1,015,292 pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations. Details and positions are also given for an additional 124 objects that either need further observation or are currently unsuitable for the definition of a reference frame. The final orientation of the catalogue has been obtained by a rotation of the positions into the system of the International Earth Rotation Service and is consistent with the FK5 J2000.0 optical system, within the limits of the link accuracy.

  13. A radio reference frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.; Johnston, K. J.; Fey, A. L.; Russell, J. L.; Ma, C.; de Vegt, C.; Reynolds, J. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Archinal, B. A.; Carter, M. S.; Corbin, T. E.; Eubanks, T. M.; Florkowski, D. R.; Hall, D. M.; McCarthy, D. D.; McCulloch, P. M.; King, E. A.; Nicolson, G.; Shaffer, D. B.

    1995-08-01

    A catalogue is presented based on the radio positions of 436 extragalactic sources distributed over the entire sky. The positional accuracy of the sources is better than 3 milliarcsec (mas) in both coordinates, with the majority of the sources having errors better than 1 mas. This catalogue is based upon a general solution of all applicable dual frequency 2.3 and 8.4 GHz Mark-III VLBI data available through the end of 1993 consisting of 1,015,292 pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations. Details and positions are also given for an additional 124 objects that either need further observation or are currently unsuitable for the definition of a reference frame. The final orientation of the catalogue has been obtained by a rotation of the positions into the system of the international Earth rotation service and is consistent with the FK5 J2000.0 optical system, within the limits of the link accuracy.

  14. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  15. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  16. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1987-07-30

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  17. Particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS) has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM), few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC) as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC) in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE) was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109), and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset emission) and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset elimination); measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5) and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5) was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5) was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400??14 600 to 5 550??3 900 ?g*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500??32 000 to 7 300??2 400 ?g*sec/m3; p?

  18. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

  19. Reference Artifacts for NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M; Hibbard, R; Martz, H E

    2003-02-11

    Two reference artifacts will be fabricated for this study. One of the artifacts will have a cylindrical geometry and will contain features similar to those on an SNRT target. The second artifact will have a spherical geometry and will contain features similar to those on a Double Shell target. The artifacts were designed for manufacturability and to provide a range of features that can be measured using NDE methods. The cylindrical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 1. This artifact consists of a polystyrene body containing two steps and a machined slot, into which will fit a tracer made of doped polystyrene. The polystyrene body contains several grooves and can be fabricated entirely on a diamond turning machine. The body can be machined by turning a PS rod to a diameter slightly greater than the finished diameter of 2 mm. The part can be moved off-axis to face it off and to machine the steps, slot, and grooves. The tracer contains a drilled hole and a milled slot, which could be machined with a single setup on a milling machine. Once assembled, the artifact could be placed in a Be tube or other structure relevant to target assemblies. The assembled artifact will contain many features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Diameter; Maximum height; Step height; Dimensions of upper step; Radius at the union of the bottom of step and the vertical wall; Sizes of the grooves; Distance from step to groove; Slot width; Slot height; Location of the groove beneath the tracer; Diameter and location of drilled hole in tracer; and Size and location of slot in tracer. The spherical reference artifact is illustrated in Figure 2. This artifact is intended to replicate a double shell target, which consists of concentric polymer spheres separated by aerogel. The artifact consists of an upper hemispherical shell composed of 1% BrCH, which mates via a step joint with a hemispherical component made of polystyrene. This lower component contains a replica of an inner capsule from a double shell target. The ''inner capsule'' and the bottom portion of the artifact are fabricated as a single piece to ensure dimensional stability. The area between the upper and lower components is filled by a machined piece of CRF aerogel that contains several intentional defects. Each of the components of this artifact can be fabricated on a diamond turning machine. The assembled artifact will contain several features that could be measured using various NDE methods. Some of these features are: Outer and inner diameters of the upper hemispherical shell; Diameter of the inner sphere; Concentricity of outer and inner spheres; Step joint characteristics; Total width of step in the lower polystyrene component; Size of air gap at the top of the CRF; Size of air gap below the CRF; and Size and location of groove in the CRF.

  20. Locating Educational Facilities. An Annotated Reference List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Howard E.

    An annotated reference list of documents received and processed by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities. These documents are concerned wholly or partially with school and facilities location and site selection. All levels of education are covered and each document i s indexed and abstracted. (NI)

  1. Magnifying Devices: A Resource Guide. Reference Circular.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Carol, Comp.

    The devices listed in this reference circular are designed to assist people who have visual impairments by magnifying objects and print or graphic materials. Before buying a magnification device, one should consult a low-vision specialist to determine the level of usable vision, the power of magnification needed for a particular eye condition and

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Maffucci syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Maffucci syndrome? benign ; cancer ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Nager syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Nager syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Campomelic dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding campomelic dysplasia? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (12 links) ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Cole disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Cole disease? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (3 links) ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Usher syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Usher syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Wagner syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Wagner syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; cataract ; cell ; choroid ; ... in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) The resources on ...

  8. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  9. COSY INFINITY reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Berz, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a reference manual for the arbitrary order particle optics and beam dynamics code COSY INFINITY. It is current as of June 28, 1990. COSY INFINITY is a code to study and design particle optical systems, including beamlines, spectrometers, and particle accelerators. At its core it is using differential algebraic (DA) methods, which allow a very systematic and simple calculation of high order effects. At the same time, it allows the computation of dependences on system parameters, which is often interesting in its own right and can also be used for fitting. COSY INFINITY has a full structured object oriented language environment. This provides a simple interface for the casual user. At the same time, it offers the demanding user a very flexible and powerful tool for the study and design of systems, and more generally, the utilization of DA methods. The power and generality of the environment is perhaps best demonstrated by the fact that the physics routines of COSY INFINITY are written in its own input language and are very compact. The approach also considerably facilitates the implementation of new features because they are incorporated with the same commands that are used for design and study. 26 refs.

  10. Laser Reference Sensor Alignment Estimation Using Reference Signal Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Noah H.; Bae, Sungkoo; Webb, Charles E.; Schutz, Bob E.

    2013-01-01

    The Laser Reference Sensor is the central instrument in the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite laser pointing knowledge system, simultaneously observing the altimetry laser, stars, and a reference signal in a single instrument coordinate frame. The reference signal is intended to provide direct observations of the alignment between the Laser Reference Sensor and the Instrument Star Tracker. The reference signal failed early in the mission and a method was developed to partially replace it by comparing two attitude time series: an attitude filter time series for the Instrument Star Tracker and a pure-gyro time series for the Laser Reference Sensor. Only the Instrument Star Tracker and gyros are used in the replacement method, with the gyros tracking the Laser Reference Sensor attitude in order to make the relative motion of the Instrument Star Tracker observable.

  11. Web Reference: A Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital reference services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web reference columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual reference desks. (LRW)

  12. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:

  13. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  14. Gestural Viewpoint Signals Referent Accessibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreslioska, Sandra; zyrek, Asli; Gullberg, Marianne; Perniss, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The tracking of entities in discourse is known to be a bimodal phenomenon. Speakers achieve cohesion in speech by alternating between full lexical forms, pronouns, and zero anaphora as they track referents. They also track referents in co-speech gestures. In this study, we explored how viewpoint is deployed in reference tracking, focusing on

  15. Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission

  16. Reference Management in Instructive Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Alfons; Arts, Anja; Noordman, Leo

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of 2 language-in-use factors on the introduction and maintenance of referents in instructive discourse. These factors, implemented as conditions in an instructive production task, were the assumed visual identity for the reader of the objects or referents to be referred to in the instructions (visually same vs.

  17. Gender agreement and multiple referents

    PubMed Central

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z.; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana ‘the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem’) than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro ‘the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas’). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.* PMID:21037930

  18. Instrumentation reference book

    SciTech Connect

    Noltingk, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author has compiled a source of technical information on instruments used in nearly all branches of science and engineering covering mechanical, electrical, thermal, chemical and radiation measurements, with an extensive directory of instruments, standards and associations. Contents: Flow; Strain; Viscosity; Length; Level; Volume; Vibration; Force; Density; Pressure; Vacuum; Temperature; Chemical analysis; Nucleonics; Optical measurements; Non-destructive testing; Sound; Calibration of instruments; Pneumatics; Recording; Data Processing; Manufacturers; Standards; Calibrating authorities.

  19. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  20. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, S.H.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

  1. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Stephen H.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

  2. Reference-Frame Selection in Motion Perception.

    PubMed

    Ogmen, Haluk; Agaoglu, Mehmet; Herzog, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Motion is often perceived according to non-retinotopic reference-frames (e.g., Duncker's wheel; biological motion); however, how reference-frames are selected remains to be established. The stimulus consisted of two concentric arcs undergoing circular motion, with the same average angular-velocity, around the center of the display. The outer arc's (target) velocity was modulated by a sine-wave whereas the inner arc (reference) moved at a constant velocity, except in Experiment 4. Observers' task was to report (yes/no) whether the target reversed its direction of rotation at any point during its motion. The minimum velocity of the target at "50% yes" gave the point of subjective stationarity (PSS). PSS=0 indicates a retinotopic/spatiotopic reference-frame while a PSS equal to the average velocity indicates a motion-based reference-frame with perfect vector-decomposition. In four experiments, we varied the radial and the angular contour distances between the two arcs, the relative radial size of the arcs and the velocity modulation of the reference arc. The perception of motion was neither retinotopic/spatiotopic nor based on perfect vector-decomposition. The effect of the reference arc's motion on the perception of target arc's motion ("reference-frame effect") decreased with increasing radial and angular contour distances, while it was independent of the size-ratio and the absolute-level of velocity modulation. In assessing which metric would unify all of our findings, we considered (i) object-centered, (ii) object-nearest-contour, (iii) motion-centered, and (iv) motion-nearest-vector reference-frames. Our results reject the first three and strongly support the last one. In fact, when the data from all experiments were plotted against this metric, we found a simple linear relationship between the reference-frame effect and the distance defined by this metric. The selection of a reference-frame for motion perception can be explained by a field whose strength decreases linearly as a function of the distance between the nearest motion vectors. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325972

  3. Characterization of the Low Level Waste Reference Glass (LRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-05-10

    'The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has participated in a round robin testing program which was conducted under the auspices of the Department of Energy''s (DOE) Tanks Focus Area (TFA) for Immobilization.'

  4. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language

  5. In vitro evaluation of genotoxic effects under magnetic resonant coupling wireless power transfer.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-04-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. PMID:25853218

  6. In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxic Effects under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Kohei; Shinohara, Naoki; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technology using the resonant coupling phenomenon has been widely studied, but there are very few studies concerning the possible relationship between WPT exposure and human health. In this study, we investigated whether exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT has genotoxic effects on WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells. WPT exposure was performed using a helical coil-based exposure system designed to transfer power with 85.4% efficiency at a 12.5-MHz resonant frequency. The magnetic field at the positions of the cell culture dishes is approximately twice the reference level for occupational exposure as stated in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The specific absorption rate at the positions of the cell culture dishes matches the respective reference levels stated in the ICNIRP guidelines. For assessment of genotoxicity, we studied cell growth, cell cycle distribution, DNA strand breaks using the comet assay, micronucleus formation, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene mutation, and did not detect any significant effects between the WPT-exposed cells and control cells. Our results suggest that WPT exposure under the conditions of the ICNIRP guidelines does not cause detectable cellular genotoxicity. PMID:25853218

  7. Reference Frames in Earth Rotation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrndiz, Jos M.; Belda, Santiago; Heinkelmann, Robert; Getino, Juan; Schuh, Harald; Escapa, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the determination of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) and the different Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRF) are not independent. The available theories of Earth rotation aims at providing the orientation of a certain reference system linked somehow to the Earth with respect to a given celestial system, considered as inertial. In the past years a considerable effort has been dedicated to the improvement of the TRF realizations, following the lines set up in the 1980's. However, the reference systems used in the derivation of the theories have been rather considered as something fully established, not deserving a special attention. In this contribution we review the definitions of the frames used in the main theoretical approaches, focusing on those used in the construction of IAU2000, and the extent to which their underlying hypotheses hold. The results are useful to determine the level of consistency of the predicted and determined EOP.

  8. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  9. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for

  10. Requirements for Reference (Calibration) Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Siekmann, Lothar

    2007-01-01

    In addition to reference measurement procedures and reference materials, reference or calibration laboratories play an integral role in the implementation of measurement traceability in routine laboratories. They provide results of measurements using higher-order methods, e.g. isotope dilution mass spectrometry and may assign values to materials to be used for external quality assessment programs and to secondary reference materials. The requirements for listing of laboratories that provide reference measurement services include a statement of the metrological level or principle of measurement, accreditation as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 15195 and the participation in a proficiency testing system (regular inter-laboratory comparisons) for reference laboratories. Ring trials are currently conducted for thirty well-defined measurands and the results are made available to all laboratories. Through the use of reference laboratory services that are listed by the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine there is the opportunity to further promote traceability and standardisation of laboratory measurements. PMID:18392129

  11. Reference and the Technology Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedling, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the influence of timesaving and inspiring reference technologies on the field of reference services is assessed. Library media specialists are advised to be aware of and embrace such emerging technologies, as these will enable them to make information gathering effective and efficient and create information-literate students.

  12. The Virtual Reference Librarian's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipow, Anne Grodzins

    This book is a practical guide to librarians and their administrators who are thinking about or in the early stages of providing virtual reference service. Part 1, "The Decision to Go Virtual," provides a context for thinking about virtual reference, including the benefits and problems, getting in the virtual frame of mind, and shopping for

  13. Reference Services: Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anne G., Ed.; Ross, Betsy A., Ed.

    Prepared to provide guidance in the provision of reference service, this statement expresses the understanding between the library administration and the Reference Services Department of Ellis Library at the University of Missouri-Columbia concerning the manner in which the department's responsibilities are to be carried out. The procedures will

  14. Expert Systems for Reference Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrot, James R.

    1986-01-01

    Discussion of library reference work that may be suitable for use of expert systems focuses on (1) information and literature searches, and (2) requests to interpret bibliographic references and locate items listed. Systems and computer-assisted instruction modules designed for information retrieval at the University of Waterloo Library are…

  15. Are Reference Desks Dying Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making…

  16. Dedicated online virtual reference instruction.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Plaisance, Louise

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate nursing students' information literacy skills and enhance traditional library user services, academic librarians have developed synchronous (real-time) online virtual reference instruction in nursing research classes. The authors discuss collaborative efforts of nursing and library faculty in planning, implementing, and evaluating a discipline-specific virtual reference pilot program. PMID:16292145

  17. When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

  18. Ethics and the Reference Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ethical reference practice focuses on guidelines for the individual reference librarian's interactions with clients. Topics include the professional-client relationship; competence; diligence; confidentiality; independence of judgment; honesty and candor; and obligations to third parties, including the democratic society at large.

  19. Robot at the Reference Desk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen F.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how a librarian, assisted by a knowledge engineer, developed a computerized reference assistance system for a separate government documents department. Rationale for the expert system, problems in selecting reference materials and user questions to computerize, and the formulation of a workable human/computer interface are covered. A

  20. Are Reference Desks Dying Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making

  1. Queuing Theory and Reference Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terbille, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Examines the implications of applying the queuing theory to three different reference situations: (1) random patron arrivals; (2) random durations of transactions; and (3) use of two librarians. Tables and figures represent results from spreadsheet calculations of queues for each reference situation. (JMV)

  2. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  3. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L.; Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-08-01

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  4. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  5. WILDLIFE TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND DDT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation will provide an overview of the procedures used in deriving mammalian and avian wildlife toxicity reference values to be used in development of ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs).

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Genetic Conditions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search at the top of the page. Examples: Search for down , alzheimer , deletion AND ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... refers to the jaw. Affected individuals may develop bone infections (osteomyelitis) in the jaw, which can lead to pain, ... dysplasia and may include treatment providers. Cleveland Clinic: Osteomyelitis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Bone Mineral Density Testing You might ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Robinow syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dwarfism-small genitalia syndrome Robinow dwarfism Robinow-Silverman-Smith syndrome Robinow-Silverman syndrome Robinow's syndrome For more ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  9. Selected Reference Books of 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    Presents annotated bibliographies of a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of publishing, periodical indexes, philosophy and religion, literature, music, art, photography, social sciences, business, history, and new editions. (LRW)

  10. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the brain. The term "pontocerebellar" refers to the pons and the cerebellum, which are the brain structures ... affected in many forms of this disorder. The pons is located at the base of the brain ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: WAGR syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs and symptoms of WAGR syndrome can include childhood-onset obesity, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and kidney failure. When WAGR syndrome includes childhood-onset obesity, it is often referred to as WAGRO syndrome. ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... incidence ; inherited ; lethargy ; molecule ; muscle tone ; nervous system ; newborn screening ; recessive ; screening ; toxic ; transient You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  14. Sports Reference: A Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons for including sports books in school library reference collections, explains why they should not be found only in public library collections, and provides six annotated bibliographies of sports books suitable for intermediate or middle school library collections. (LRW)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Leigh syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Leigh syndrome Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to ... genes. In humans, most genes are found in DNA in the cell's nucleus, called nuclear DNA. However, ...

  16. Computerizing the Reference Desk Schedule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaas, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the scheduling procedures of librarians' hours at the reference desk at the Rutherford Humanities and Social Sciences Library, University of Alberta, highlights services provided, the preference table system, and manual scheduling versus computer scheduling. (EJS)

  17. Space Station reference configuration description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The data generated by the Space Station Program Skunk Works over a period of 4 months which supports the definition of a Space Station reference configuration is documented. The data were generated to meet these objectives: (1) provide a focal point for the definition and assessment of program requirements; (2) establish a basis for estimating program cost; and (3) define a reference configuration in sufficient detail to allow its inclusion in the definition phase Request for Proposal (RFP).

  18. Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

  19. Pointing to potential reference areas to assess soil mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D D; Da Silva, F M R; Souza, J W M; Pohren, R S; Rocha, J A V; Vargas, V M F

    2015-04-01

    Several have been performed to evaluate the mutagenicity of soil samples in urban and industrial areas. The use of uncontaminated reference areas has been an obstacle to the study of environmental mutagenesis. The study aimed to indicate a methodology to define reference areas in studies of environmental contamination based on "Ambient Background Concentration" of metallic elements associated with the Salmonella/microsome assay. We looked at three potential reference areas, two of them close by the industrial sources of contamination (So Jernimo reference, near the coal-fired power plant, and Triunfo reference, near the wood preservative plant), but not directly influenced by them and an area located inside a protected area (Itapu reference). We also carried out chemical analyses of some metals to plot the metal profile of these potential reference areas and define basal levels of these metals in the soils. After examining the mutagenicity of the inorganic extracts using strains TA98, TA97a, and TA100, in the presence and absence of S9 mix, we indicated the So Jernimo reference and the Itapu reference as two sites that could be used in future studies of mutagenicity of soils in southern Brazil. The association between a mutagenicity bioassay and the "Ambient Background Concentration" seems to be a useful method to indicate the reference areas in studies of contamination by environmental mutagens, where these results were corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis. PMID:25410310

  20. Multi-reference vibration correlation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram

    2014-02-14

    State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene.

  1. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  2. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  3. Asthma management pocket reference 2008.

    PubMed

    van Weel, C; Bateman, E D; Bousquet, J; Reid, J; Grouse, L; Schermer, T; Valovirta, E; Zhong, N

    2008-08-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic airways diseases worldwide, and its prevalence is increasing. Family doctors (sometimes called 'primary care physicians' or 'general practitioners') are frequently an asthma patient's first point of contact with healthcare systems. Disease management that follows evidence-based practice guidelines yields better patient results, but such guidelines are often complicated and may recommend the use of resources not available in the family practice setting. A joint expert panel of the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca), International Primary Care Airways Group (IPAG) and the International Primary Care Respiratory Group (IPCRG) offers support to family doctors worldwide by distilling the globally accepted, evidence-based recommendations from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) into this brief reference guide. This guide provides tools intended to supplement a thorough history taking and the clinician's professional judgment in order to provide the best possible care for patients with asthma. Diagnostic Questionnaires developed for children and adults specifically focus the physician's attention on key symptoms and markers of asthma. When questionnaire responses suggest a diagnosis of asthma, Diagnosis Guides then lead the clinician through a series of investigations commonly available in primary care to support the diagnosis. In patients >40 years who smoke, COPD is an important alternative diagnosis, and some key aspects of differential diagnosis are illuminated. According to GINA, the goal of asthma treatment is to achieve and maintain control of the disease symptoms long-term. The physician must first assess the patient's current level of asthma control, then treat asthma in a stepwise manner to achieve and maintain symptom control. Both of these aspects are summarized in figures included in this guide. Finally, the guide also presents a flow chart summarizing management of asthma exacerbations in the acute care setting, and a glossary of asthma medications to assist the clinician in making medication choices for each individual patient. Finally, many patients with asthma also have concomitant allergic rhinitis, and this must be checked. The World Organization of Family Doctors has been delegated by WHO as the group that will be taking primary responsibility for education about chronic respiratory diseases among primary care physicians globally. This document will be a major resource in this educational program. PMID:18691302

  4. Swahili Learners' Reference Grammar. African Language Learners' Reference Grammar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Katrina Daly; Schleicher, Antonia Folarin

    This reference grammar is written for speakers of English who are learning Swahili. Because many language learners are not familiar with the grammatical terminology, this book explains the basic terminology and concepts of English grammar that are necessary for understanding the grammar of Swahili. It assumes no formal knowledge of English grammar

  5. The Virtual Reference Librarian: Using Desktop Videoconferencing for Distance Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagell, Ruth A.

    1996-01-01

    The Center for Business Information and the Goizueta Business School at Emory University (Georgia) tested desktop videoconferencing as a means to deliver reference services, including consultation, documentation, training, and sharing of CD-ROM databases. Provides a brief overview of the technology, describes project beta testing, and discusses…

  6. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This

  7. Reference and Reference Failures. Technical Report No. 398.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Bradley A.

    In order to build robust natural language processing systems that can detect and recover from miscommunication, the investigation of how people communicate and how they recover from problems in communication described in this artificial intelligence report focused on reference problems which a listener may have in determining what or whom a

  8. Reference Anytime Anywhere: Towards Virtual Reference Services at Penn State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Lesley M.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the service rationale, software and technology considerations taken by the Pennsylvania State University library in planning towards online, real-time reference services and provides an overview of the planned pilot project. Discusses recent trends in academic electronic libraries, including providing value-added services to support

  9. PIRLA DBMS quick reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.

    1991-11-01

    The handbook facilitates the use of the PIRLA (Paleoecological Investigation of Recent Lake Acidification) database retrievals by showing all possible inputs, outputs, ranges, and quick reference information that you would want at your fingertips when accessing the PIRLA data. The handbook assumes no prior knowledge of PIRLA or SIR (a database management system), although a basic familiarity with computers is helpful. The PIRLA Data Base Management System User's Manual is recommended for reference, much additional detail, description of the intrinsic structure of the PIRLA database, and how it is set up under SIR.

  10. Reference interval for thyrotropin in a ultrasonography screened Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Soo Han; Lee, Yunkyoung; Park, Su-yeon; Kim, Hyung-don; Kwon, Hyemi; Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The diagnostic accuracy of thyroid dysfunctions is primarily affected by the validity of the reference interval for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thus, the present study aimed to establish a reference interval for TSH using a normal Korean population. Methods This study included 19,465 subjects who were recruited after undergoing routine health check-ups. Subjects with overt thyroid disease, a prior history of thyroid disease, or a family history of thyroid cancer were excluded from the present analyses. The reference range for serum TSH was evaluated in a normal Korean reference population which was defined according to criteria based on the guidelines of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, ultrasound (US) findings, and smoking status. Sex and age were also taken into consideration when evaluating the distribution of serum TSH levels in different groups. Results In the presence of positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies or abnormal US findings, the central 95 percentile interval of the serum TSH levels was widened. Additionally, the distribution of serum TSH levels shifted toward lower values in the current smokers group. The reference interval for TSH obtained using a normal Korean reference population was 0.73 to 7.06 mIU/L. The serum TSH levels were higher in females than in males in all groups, and there were no age-dependent shifts. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that the serum TSH reference interval in a normal Korean reference population was higher than that in other countries. This result suggests that the upper and lower limits of the TSH reference interval, which was previously defined by studies from Western countries, should be raised for Korean populations. PMID:25995664

  11. Safety analysis review terms of reference

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, T.

    1981-03-01

    This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

  12. Developing a field independent frequency reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use L{{u}+} to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many potential clock transitions.

  13. Circuit and method for producing a flexible reference voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Roger D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A flexible reference voltage circuit includes a circuit for producing a first digital signal representative of a range of reference voltage levels; a circuit for producing a second digital signal representative of a selected reference voltage level within the range of reference voltage levels; an adder for adding the first and second digital signals to produce a third digital signal; and a digital to analog converter for providing an output voltage in response to the third digital signal. The method of producing a flexible reference voltage performed by the circuit is also claimed. The invention can be used with a differential protection circuit to provide a series of trip level ranges, with a series of selectable trip levels in each range. This is accomplished in a high accuracy circuit which is relatively simple to construct, thereby minimizing size and complexity of the current sensor module, in differential protection applications, or the circuitry, if used in a power system controller. Standard digital logic components can be used to perform the necessary range/level decoding.

  14. Selected Reference Books of 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

  15. A Proposed Universal Reference Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.

    1987-11-01

    A system is proposed whereby any resolved celestial object can be given a unique hexadecimal code. Extended objects can be labelled by truncating the code, and superimposed objects by extending it. The coded objects can be named easily by referring to a table of proper names.

  16. Bibliographies, Reference Works, and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Clark A.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the history of science in America from the viewpoint of access to sources. Considered are a number of specific bibliographic and other reference works, as well as important recent projects and developments that aim to preserve and improve access to archival and other documentation and historical data for future use. (JN)

  17. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and

  18. REFERENCE SITE WATERSHED DELINEATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of geographic information systems for the delineation of watersheds and analysis of land use / land cover associated with 250 reference sites on wadeable streams as identified by the Central Plains Bioassessment workgroup and located in the States of Kansas, Iowa, Missour...

  19. Measurement at the Reference Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for the analysis of routine library statistics to measure how well certain goals are being reached and discusses variables and procedures that might be used. Information on SPSS, sample selection, and Yule's Q analysis is appended, and 18 references are listed. (RAA)

  20. Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the

  1. Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific

  2. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and

  3. Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,

  4. Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics

  5. Reference Sources for Folklore Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, George, Comp.

    An annotated listing contains 35 basic reference materials on folklore. Following a discussion of the definition of folklore, citations are divided into the following categories: encyclopedias and dictionaries, national and regional encyclopedias and dictionaries, bibliographies, guides, indexes, and periodicals. The Library of Congress

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and a type of blood clot called a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). DVTs occur most often in the deep veins of the legs or arms. If these ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  7. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Isolated hyperchlorhidrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is characterized by the excessive loss of salt (sodium chloride or NaCl) in sweat. In particular, "hyperchlorhidrosis" refers ... NaCl ; pH ; population ; prevalence ; protein ; proton ; recessive ; sodium ; sodium chloride You may find definitions for these and many ...

  9. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,

  10. Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

  11. Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

  12. Selected Reference Books of 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.

  13. Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

  14. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  15. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  16. A REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF BENGALI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAY, PUNYA SLOKA; AND OTHERS

    A REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS PRODUCED FOR THE BENGALI LANGUAGE. THE WORK CONTAINS CHAPTERS ON--(1) SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND, (2) HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE, (3) SOURCES OF LEXICAL ITEMS, (4) ORTHOGRAPHY, (5) PHONOLOGY, (6) NOUN INFLECTIONS, (7) VERBS, (8) POSTPOSITIONS, (9) ENCLITICS, (10) NUMERALS, (11) NEGATION, (12) FORMATIVE AFFIXES IN

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    About Site Map Contact Us Search Search A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Polycythemia vera

    MedlinePLUS

    About Site Map Contact Us Search Search A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans

    MedlinePLUS

    About Site Map Contact Us Search Search A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook ... a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the Federal Government do not constitute ...

  20. Chapter 11: Dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are a set of recommendations intended to provide guidance in evaluating nutrient intakes and planning meals on the basis of nutrient adequacy. In contrast to their predecessor, Recommended Dietary Allowances last published in 1989, the DRIs differ in two ways: th...

  1. Criminal Justice - Selected Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, John D., III, Comp.

    This bibliography reviews approximately 70 reference materials on criminal justice. Entries are presented in eight categories--dictionaries, indexes and abstracts, professional position papers, working conditions and unions, law and the police, crime, prisons and prisoners, and victimization. Types of publications included under the subject

  2. Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

  3. Reference Resources on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Compares three Web-based online reference services that are described as a cross between a traditional database service and a Web search engine: Ask Jeeves (http://www.ask.com), The Electric Library (http://www.elibrary.com), and Information Please (http://www.infoplease.com). Concludes that each has strengths and weaknesses and aren't directly

  4. Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

  5. Freshwater macroinvertebrates. [Review (191 references)

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, M.A.

    1981-06-01

    This article with 191 references reviews the environmental and biological effects on invertebrates of acid mine drainage waste water, herbicides, thermal pollution, and heavy metals present in fresh water. Population dynamics of various groups of invertebrates are examined in some detail. (KRM)

  6. Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thrive ; gene ; hemoglobin ; hormone ; inherited ; iron ; jaundice ; mutation ; newborn screening ; oxygen ; protein ; puberty ; recessive ; red blood cell ; screening ; subunit ; thalassemia You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  8. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual

  9. A Reference Grammar of Kashmiri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    This study was developed for two pedagogical purposes--first, to provide a skeleton grammar of the Kashmiri language which could be used by teachers of Kashmiri to develop teaching materials for both Indian and non-Indian learners of Kashmiri; and second, to provide an introductory reference manual of Kashmiri for students of the language. The

  10. Reference As Others Do It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Describes customer call centers that provide customer service and support in business and considers how their routines could be adapted to library operations. Topics include centralized staff; interactive voice response; automated call distribution; question analysis; sophisticated software; training and monitoring; telephone reference; and

  11. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 mol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets the requirement in infants and that is 3 times higher than the amount necessary to prevent scurvy (7 mg/day). PMID:26227083

  12. A Staffing Model for Telephone Reference Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Gary S.

    1978-01-01

    A model is provided for staffing telephone reference operations which allow for the balancing of staffing requirements and reference delivery standards. Telephone service is assumed, but it should be equally applicable to any reference queuing situation. (Author)

  13. Sound power measurements in situ using a reference sound source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonasson, H. G.

    A new method to determine sound power levels of large noise sources in situ is proposed. It is based on comparison measurements with a reference sound source; but certain improvements were made, especially concerning the handling of the reference sound source. The reference sound source must be placed close to important noise radiating parts of the source under test and only calibrated positions may be used. A calibrated position is a position which is well defined relative to reflecting surfaces and one in which the reference sound source has been tested by having 4 different measurement teams carrying out measurements on a water turbine and connected electric generator in two different acoustical environments. The results indicate that the standard deviation of the A weighted sound power level is less than 0.2 B, i.e., the method can be rated as an ISO engineering method.

  14. Energy efficient motors reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sadanandan, N.D. ); Eltom, A.H. . School of Engineering)

    1992-03-01

    The motor reference guide is the result of data and information collected and organized by the Industrial and Large Commercial staff of the Tennessee Valley Authority. The information was collected over several months from motor manufacturers, technical papers, textbooks, and files of former TVA engineers. Additionally, computer simulations were performed to develop data not currently available in literature. The guide is not intended to be a textbook on motors, but a quick and ready reference for the TVA field staff to assist in the technical and economic evaluation of energy-efficient motors versus standard motors. However, chapters on motor related topics such as rotating fields, power factor correction and impact of power quality on motor performances have also been included to complement the text.

  15. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  16. [Anatomical references in Homer's Iliad].

    PubMed

    Urso, C

    1997-02-01

    An analysis of Homer's Iliad shows that a great number of anatomic references are contained in the text. Anatomic structures mentioned in the poem include: encephalon, spinal cord, trachea, lung, heart, liver, bowel, urinary bladder, tongue, diaphragm, cranial bones, cervical vertebrae, clavicle, acetabulum, ankle joint, aorta and external carotid artery. This suggests that a conspicuous complex of anatomic notions was included in the Homer's age culture. PMID:9312729

  17. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  18. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  19. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  20. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  1. Ozone reference models for CIRA. [COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Young, D. F.; Pitts, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The data bases and computational techniques used in recent models of the O3 distribution in the earth atmosphere are described, summarizing the results of ongoing efforts to define an O3 reference model for incorporation into CIRA. Consideration is given to the analysis of data from satellite instruments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, TOMS, and SBUV; SME UVS and IR; and AE-2 SAGE) to construct models of total column O3 and vertical O3 structure. The satellite-based model predictions are then compared with balloon, rocket, and umkehr measurements in extensive graphs: good agreement is demonstrated both among the satellite data sets and between satellite and nonsatellite data sets.

  2. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and have therefore reached high level of attention for safeguards authorities. Furthermore, IRMM initiated and coordinated the development of a Modified Total Evaporation (MTE) technique for accurate abundance ratio measurements of the "minor" isotope-amount ratios of uranium and plutonium in nuclear material and, in combination with a multi-dynamic measurement technique and filament carburization, in environmental samples. Currently IRMM is engaged in a study on the development of plutonium reference materials for "age dating", i.e. determination of the time elapsed since the last separation of plutonium from its daughter nuclides. The decay of a radioactive parent isotope and the build-up of a corresponding amount of daughter nuclide serve as chronometer to calculate the age of a nuclear material. There are no such certified reference materials available yet. PMID:23507450

  3. Spatial localization without visual references.

    PubMed

    White, J M; Levi, D M; Aitsebaomo, A P

    1992-03-01

    To explain the veridical percept of the spatial ordering of objects and the generation of eye movements to peripheral targets, Lotze (1885 Microcosmos. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark) proposed that there is a position label (local sign) for each retinal element. To estimate the precision of local sign information, we measured absolute localization thresholds at various eccentricities in the nasal visual field, in the complete absence of visual references. To eliminate perception of the visual surround, observers viewed a large display screen through a neutral density filter (2.0 log unit) in a dark room. The fixation target was extinguished at various times (interstimulus intervals or ISIs) prior to the onset of the test stimulus. In general, our results show that localization thresholds are proportional to the target eccentricity at all ISIs. At each eccentricity, localization thresholds are elevated after the extinction of the visual reference compared to thresholds when the reference is present. However, relative to the referenced threshold, unreferenced thresholds are elevated by a greater proportion at smaller eccentricities than at larger eccentricities. Our threshold vs ISI data can be adequately modeled on the basis of an intrinsic positional uncertainty, which increases with eccentricity, and additive and multiplicative sources of noise. The additive noise appears to reflect primarily the increasing scatter in eye position when the fixation target is extinguished. Our model's estimate of intrinsic positional uncertainty in the isoeccentric direction appears to reflect primarily the intrinsic positional uncertainty of the peripheral retina (the local sign), being very similar to cumulative cone position uncertainty and to the spacing between ON-P beta ganglion cells. In the isoeccentric direction, the estimated precision of the local sign mechanism across eccentricities is slightly better than the precision of saccadic endpoints, suggesting that noise in the motor system must also contribute to the scatter of saccadic endpoints in the isoeccentric direction. Interestingly, in the radial direction, we find a surprising similarity in our observers' positional uncertainty and the precision of saccadic endpoints. PMID:1604838

  4. Reference and the First Person Pronoun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Hans-Johann; Hacker, P. M. S.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that deciding whether the first person pronoun is a referring expression requires clarity about the role of "I" and a detailed account of the notion of reference. It is concluded that "I" is a limiting case of reference, in which the possibility of referential failure and misidentification does not apply. (24 references) (CK)

  5. The Shape of E-Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2001-01-01

    As question answering services in the commercial sector proliferate, libraries are innovating with new forms of electronic reference (e-reference). The Library of Congress' Collaborative Digital Reference Service (CDRS) extends worldwide. Discussion includes reference service developments; "reclaiming" users; growth of library interest in

  6. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  7. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference as prescribed in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  10. Demonstrative Reference in Nepali: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    The demonstratives in Napali are outlined, and their operation within the language system is analyzed. Demonstratives in Nepali are words used to refer to places, things, names, and activities. The reference may be endophoric (in which case the referents are in the text) or exophoric (in which case the referents are in the context or situation).

  11. Statewide Reference Improvement: Developing Personnel and Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layman, Mary; Vandercook, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    Describes a two-year project sponsored by the California State Library that assisted local public libraries in improving their reference services. Project activities included the provision of basic reference materials to all libraries, training workshops in reference techniques for paraprofessional staff, and specialized workshops and reference

  12. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  13. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  14. Electrolytic cell with reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, Robert W. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  15. Reference atmospheres: VIRA II -Venus International Reference Atmosphere update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasova, Ludmila

    2012-07-01

    VIRA I was started in 1982 (30 years ago) and published in1985 (ASR,v5,n11, 1985) by G. Keating, A. Kliore, and V. Moroz. The purpose was to produce a concise, descriptive model summarizing the physical properties of the atmosphere of Venus, which by then had been extensively observed by instruments on board the Venera and Pioneer space probes. VIRA was used by many scientists and engineers in their studies as referent standard of atmospheric data. Afterwards several missions have obtained new data. In particular the experiments on late Veneras and Venus Express. Experiments on board of VEX, working on the orbit for 6 years, provide new high quality data on atmospheric structure, clouds properties, dynamics, composition of the atmosphere, thermal balance, ionosphere. These new data will be used for VIRA update. Original data consists of 7 Chapters.(1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude, (2) Circulation of the atmosphere from surface to 100 km, (3) Particulate matter in the Venus atmosphere, (4) Models of Venus neutral upper atmosphere: structure and composition, (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude, (6) Solar and thermal radiation in the Venus atmosphere, (7) The Venus ionosphere. By 2002 Gerry Keating collected materials to update VIRA. But only two chapter were published: (1 ) Models of the structure of the atmosphere of Venus from the surface to 100 km altitude (Zasova et al, 2006, Cosmic Research, 44, N4), (5) Composition of the atmosphere below 100 km altitude (De Bergh et al. 2006, PSS). Both these chapters were based on the data, obtained before VEX. At the moment the structure of the original VIRA looks acceptable for VIRA II also, however, new Chapters may be added. At COSPAR 2014 in Moscow the session on Reference atmospheres (RAPS), may be proposed to continue discussion on VIRA, and start working on MIRA, and complete VIRA and publish (including CD) after COSPAR 2016 (or may be even after COPAR 2014). MIRA was published in 1982 (Kliore A., The Mars reference atmosphere, ASR, vol. 2, no. 2, 1982). The amount data on Martian atmosphere and variability of the conditions at different regions, seasonal, local time variations, etc., requires more complex, interactive model. CIRA experience may be very useful in the case of MIRA.

  16. Demonstrating the comparability of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Duewer, David L; Lippa, Katrice A; Long, Stephen E; Murphy, Karen E; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Tani, Wataru; Umemoto, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) enable the meaningful comparison of measurement results over time and place. When CRMs are used to calibrate or verify the performance of a measurement system, results produced by that system can be related through the CRM to well-defined, stable, and globally accessible reference(s). Properly done, this directly establishes the metrological traceability of the results. However, achieving the meaningful comparison of results from measurement systems calibrated and/or verified with different CRMs requires that the different materials truly deliver the same measurand, that is, are "the same" within stated uncertainty except for differences in the level of the analyte of interest. We here detail experimental and data analysis techniques for establishing and demonstrating the comparability of materials. We focus on (1) establishing a uniform interpretation of the common forms of CRM uncertainty statements, (2) estimating consistent measurement system response uncertainties from sometimes inconsistent experimental designs, (3) using "errors-in-variables" analysis methods to evaluate comparability studies and novel graphical tools for communicating results of the evaluation to reviewing authorities and potential CRM customers, and (4) augmenting established comparability studies with new materials using measurements provided by the certifying institution. These experimental and data analytic tools were developed in support of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine's efforts to enhance the reliability of clinical laboratory measurements and are illustrated with potassium and cholesterol measurands of clinical relevance; however, these tools can be applied to any group of materials that deliver the same nominal measurand with stated value and uncertainty. PMID:19629455

  17. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

  18. Hypertext Cross-Reference Utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Smith, R. F.; Draper, P. W.

    This document describes a set of ``Hypertext Cross-Reference Utilities'' (HTX) which are designed to help maintain large documentation sets whose constituent documents are written using the Hypertext Markup Languagee (HTML). The central part of HTX is a hypertext linker, hlink. This allows hyper-links (or cross-references) to be established between related documents in such a way that it is easy to maintain their integrity as individual documents are updated. Information produced by this linking process is also used by other HTX utilities to provide document search facilities and the ability to randomly access any part of a documentation set. This latter capability forms a basis for constructing hypertext help systems for use by other software. The expected readership of this document includes those who read hypertext documentation, those who write it, and those who maintain it, especially those who write and maintain Starlink documentation. Software developers may also be interested in the possibilities for hypertext help that HTX provides.

  19. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  20. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  1. Reference condition approach to restoration planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, J.M.; Theiling, C.H.; Lubinski, S.J.; Smith, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem restoration planning requires quantitative rigor to evaluate alternatives, define end states, report progress and perform environmental benefits analysis (EBA). Unfortunately, existing planning frameworks are, at best, semi-quantitative. In this paper, we: (1) describe a quantitative restoration planning approach based on a comprehensive, but simple mathematical framework that can be used to effectively apply knowledge and evaluate alternatives, (2) use the approach to derive a simple but precisely defined lexicon based on the reference condition concept and allied terms and (3) illustrate the approach with an example from the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) using hydrologic indicators. The approach supports the development of a scaleable restoration strategy that, in theory, can be expanded to ecosystem characteristics such as hydraulics, geomorphology, habitat and biodiversity. We identify three reference condition types, best achievable condition (A BAC), measured magnitude (MMi which can be determined at one or many times and places) and desired future condition (ADFC) that, when used with the mathematical framework, provide a complete system of accounts useful for goal-oriented system-level management and restoration. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Mass storage system reference model, Version 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sam (Editor); Miller, Steve (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

  3. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Shuang; Yang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. (E. songoricum) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Esα-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species. PMID:22837673

  4. [Between asylym and shelter: Points of reference.].

    PubMed

    Simard, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the importance acquired by the issue of homelessness in the mental health debate over the last thirty years as well as propose references for the elaboration of practices according to conditions of this reality. The author discusses the social and historic context of mental health that he describes as a 180 degree reversal in the risk of institutional lockup to lockup in homelessness. On a psychosocial level, he proposes an understanding of homelessness as one of powerlessness over freedom. Drawing from his clinical and professional experience, he then presents three areas of service development: how to intervene in a context of social emergency, continuous support and improvement of living conditions and finally social participation. PMID:18253587

  5. GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Beta thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein in red blood ... In people with beta thalassemia, low levels of hemoglobin lead to a lack of oxygen in many ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Miyoshi myopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have highly elevated levels of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in their blood, which often indicates ... atrophy ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; channel ; chloride ; contraction ; creatine ; creatine kinase ; creatine kinase (CK) ; distal ; endoplasmic reticulum ; ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Craniometaphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a protein that is present in bone and transports a molecule called pyrophosphate out of cells. Pyrophosphate ... dysplasia may decrease the ANKH protein's ability to transport pyrophosphate out of cells. Reduced levels of pyrophosphate ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: DOORS syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract, and abnormally low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism). Most affected individuals also have higher-than-normal ... delay ; disability ; free radicals ; frenulum ; gene ; hair cells ; hypothyroidism ; inherited ; joint ; lower jaw ; mental retardation ; microcephaly ; mutation ; ...

  11. Magnetic-heading reference device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, H. D.

    1974-01-01

    Inexpensive and reliable device is used in conjunction with fluidic-electronic wing-leveler system. Single magnetometer is placed so pilot can make adjustments in aircraft heading simply by rotating magnetometer itself.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Isovaleric acidemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... certain proteins properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lipids (fats) properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic neutropenia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during which there is a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that ... during episodes of neutropenia. At times when their neutrophil levels are normal, they are not at an ...

  15. Hazard Communication Project: reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

  16. NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    WINCHELL,D.F.

    2007-04-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

  17. Internal laryngocoele and referred otalgia

    PubMed Central

    Vedasalam, S; Sipaul, F; Porter, G

    2010-01-01

    A 74-year-old woman presented with severe right ear pain associated with bleeding of 2 months’ duration and vertigo. She was otherwise fit and well apart from arthritis. On examination there was dried blood overlying the right ear drum and very mild inflammation of the canal but no obvious acute infection. The dried blood was removed in subsequent clinic visits. The ear drum was intact and there was no evidence of infection. However, the patient still had persistent pain in the right ear. A diagnosis of referred otalgia was made. Nose, throat, neck, temporo-mandibular joint, oral examination and flexible nasoendoscopic examination were normal. She underwent MRI of her neck which revealed a right supraglottic mass. Laryngoscopy was performed. Intra-operative findings revealed a smooth right supraglottic mass, which was thought to be an internal laryngocoele. The laryngocoele was de-roofed. The histology specimen showed no evidence of neoplasia. PMID:22797479

  18. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

  19. Primary Atomic Clock Reference System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

  20. Background stratospheric aerosol reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, P.

    1989-01-01

    In this analysis, a reference background stratospheric aerosol optical model is developed based on the nearly global SAGE 1 satellite observations in the non-volcanic period from March 1979 to February 1980. Zonally averaged profiles of the 1.0 micron aerosol extinction for the tropics and the mid- and high-altitudes for both hemispheres are obtained and presented in graphical and tabulated form for the different seasons. In addition, analytic expressions for these seasonal global zonal means, as well as the yearly global mean, are determined according to a third order polynomial fit to the vertical profile data set. This proposed background stratospheric aerosol model can be useful in modeling studies of stratospheric aerosols and for simulations of atmospheric radiative transfer and radiance calculations in atmospheric remote sensing.

  1. SNAP operating system reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sabuda, J.D.; Polito, J.; Walker, J.L.; Grant, F.H. III

    1982-03-01

    The SNAP Operating System (SOS) is a FORTRAN 77 program which provides assistance to the safeguards analyst who uses the Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) and the Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SNAP) techniques. Features offered by SOS are a data base system for storing a library of SNAP applications, computer graphics representation of SNAP models, a computer graphics editor to develop and modify SNAP models, a SAFE-to-SNAP interface, automatic generation of SNAP input data, and a computer graphic post-processor for SNAP. The SOS Reference Manual provides detailed application information concerning SOS as well as a detailed discussion of all SOS components and their associated command input formats. SOS was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and the US Naval Surface Weapons Center by Pritsker and Associates, Inc., under contract to Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. Inertial pseudo star reference unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luniewicz, Michael F.; Woodbury, Dale T.; Gilmore, Jerold P.; Chien, Tze T.

    1994-05-01

    Advanced space systems for earth observation sensing and defense applications share a common objective: high-resolution monitoring. They require subsystems that accurately provide precise line-of-sight (LOS) pointing of the monitoring sensor with extreme jitter suppression and a precision attitude control system. To address this objective, Draper has developed a pointing system, the Inertial Pseudo Star Reference Unit (IPSRU). The IPSRU effort is a DARPA and SDI sponsored program at Draper under contract with the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The IPSRU implements a collimated light source mounted on a wide-band, extremely low-noise inertially stabilized platform. The collimated light beam becomes, in effect, a jitter-stabilized pseudo star. In addition, its direction in inertial space can be pointed at a precise rate by commands applied to the platform.

  3. Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

    2012-05-01

    Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y(50th), 3y(50th), 5y(50th), 7y(50th), and 20y(50th). The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y(10th), 5y(10th), and 20y(10th) with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg(-1), was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public. PMID:22508943

  4. Determining the influence of Korean population variation on whole-body average SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Choi, Hyung-Do

    2012-05-01

    Compliance of the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels with the basic restrictions on whole-body average (WBA) SAR was investigated based on age, physique, and posture under isolated and grounded conditions. First, Korean male models 1, 3, 5, 7, and 20 years of age with body sizes in the 50th percentile were developed and used as the test subjects: 1y50th, 3y50th, 5y50th, 7y50th, and 20y50th. The effects of age-dependent dielectric properties due to the water content of the tissue on WBA SAR were analysed, and showed that the changes in WBA SAR are marginal. At the ages of 1, 5, and 20, thin models 1y10th, 5y10th, and 20y10th with body sizes in the 10th percentile for the horizontal plane were added in order to determine the influence of physical variations of the population. We considered standing postures with arms up and arms down. The WBA SAR for each human model was calculated when exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave in the frequency range of 10 MHz-3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method. The evaluated WBA SAR-based safety factor of each model is discussed for exposure to the ICNIRP reference and IEEE action levels. Finally, the lowest external electric field strength required to produce the basic restrictions on the WBA SAR, 0.08 W kg-1, was obtained. The results showed that the ICNIRP public reference level is not conservative in the frequency range of 20-200 MHz for an arms-up posture, in the range of 40-200 MHz for an arms-down posture, and above 1 GHz for both postures. The IEEE action level is different from the ICNIRP reference level below 30 MHz, where most cases showed a safety factor of less than 50, which is the minimum value compliant with the basic restrictions for exposure to the general public.

  5. Assessment of physiotherapists' occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from shortwave and microwave diathermy devices: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m reported the maximum E field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at < 1 m, 1 m, and, 1.1-1.5 m showed the maximum E field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m was 200%, <30%, 0.76%, and 0.82%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limit for occupational exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices. PMID:23570423

  6. Fine resolution calculations of SAR in the human body for frequencies up to 3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, P. J.

    2002-08-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 100 MHz to 3 GHz at the basic 2 mm resolution of the voxel (volume pixel) model NORMAN without any rescaling to larger cell sizes. The reduction in the voxel size from previous work allows SAR to be calculated at higher frequencies. Additionally, the calculations have been extended down to 10 MHz, covering the whole-body resonance regions at a resolution of 4 mm. As well as for the adult phantom, SAR values are calculated for scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children for both grounded and isolated conditions. External electric field levels are derived from limits of whole-body averaged SAR and localized SAR in the ankle, and compared with NRPB investigation levels and ICNIRP reference levels. The ICNIRP field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of the localized SAR exposure in the leg for grounded conditions. It would be necessary to invoke the secondary reference level on limb current to provide compliance with basic restrictions on localized SAR averaged over 10 g.

  7. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the

  8. APEX (Air Pollution Exercise) Volume 20: Reference Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Office of Manpower Development.

    The Reference Materials Manual is part of a set of 21 manuals (AA 001 009-001 029) used in APEX (Air Pollution Exercise), a computerized college and professional level "real world" game simulation of a community with urban and rural problems, industrial activities, and air pollution difficulties. For the purposes of the gaming exercise, APEX

  9. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results. PMID:16779278

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Weyers acrofacial dysostosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Weyers acrofacial dysostosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary multiple exostoses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary multiple exostoses? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Tetra-amelia syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding tetra-amelia syndrome? amelia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding multiple epiphyseal dysplasia? arthritis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (10 links) ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Klippel-Feil syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Klippel-Feil syndrome? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

  15. References Concerning Architectural Barriers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Tim; Shaheen, Elaine

    A bibliography of references pertaining to architectural barriers to the handicapped is presented. The references center on the importance of architectural design for universities and colleges which make buildings and facilities accessible to, and usable by, the physically handicapped. (NS)

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital leptin deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding congenital leptin deficiency? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (11 links) ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Spastic paraplegia type 8

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding spastic paraplegia type 8? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

  18. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  19. Independent Study Unit on Accelerated Reference Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poultney, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a list of topics, research areas, references, and laboratory equipment which is prepared to facilitate general-science students' understanding of physics aspects in accelerated reference frames after their study of circular motion and Galilean relativity in mechanics. (CC)

  20. 33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 2 Horsepower or Less General 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  1. 33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 2 Horsepower or Less General 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  2. 33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of More Than 2 Horsepower General 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  3. 33 CFR 183.315 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 2 Horsepower or Less General 183.315 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  4. 33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of More Than 2 Horsepower General 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  5. 33 CFR 183.215 - Reference depth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of More Than 2 Horsepower General 183.215 Reference depth. Reference depth is the minimum distance... measurements made on opposite sides of, and at an equal distance from, the centerline of the boat....

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rare inherited disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and spinal cord. The most common and severe ... compounds can accumulate to toxic levels, particularly in neurons of the brain and spinal cord. A buildup of GM2 ganglioside ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Congenital hypothyroidism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of several genes involved in the production of thyroid hormones. These genes include DUOX2 , SLC5A5 , TG , and TPO . Mutations in each of these genes disrupt a step in thyroid hormone synthesis, leading to abnormally low levels of ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Greenberg dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Researchers suspect that low cholesterol levels or an accumulation of other substances disrupts the growth and development of many parts of the body. It is not known, however, how a disturbance of cholesterol synthesis leads to the specific features of Greenberg dysplasia. Read more about the ...

  9. Reference surfaces for bridge scour depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Depth of scour is measured as the vertical distance between scoured channel geometry and a measurement reference surface. A scour depth measurement can have a wide range depending on the method used to establish the reference surface. A consistent method to establish reference surfaces for bridge scour measurements is needed to facilitate transferability of scour data an scour analyses. This paper describes and evaluates techniques for establishing reference surfaces from which local and contraction scour are measured.

  10. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Angela; stlin, Gran; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Bik, Arjan

    2015-08-01

    The Lyman apha reference sample (LARS) is a major multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic HST campaign of local normal star-forming galaxies, UV-luminous starburst systems, and luminous infrared galaxies. The aim of this survey is to probe what physical conditions and processes regulate the emission of Ly? radiation on local and global galactic scales. The Ly? line is widely used to identify and confirm galaxies in the distant universe, close to the epoch when the first galaxies formed and when the universe was reionized. However, the fact that Ly? is a resonant line makes it optically thick even at relatively low neutral hydrogen column densities, this means that the radiative transport of Ly? photons through galaxies is a complex problem where the structure, kinematics and dust content, and neutral hydrogen content of the interstellar medium all contribute to the process. In this poster we present the unique Ly? maps of the extended LARS sample (i.e. 42 galaxies). These initial results of the LARS survey reveal that when Ly? manages to escape it does so in the form of diffuse scattering halos.

  11. Research Notes and Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, III, Dean S.

    1994-12-01

    The RNS (Research Notes System) is a set of programs and databases designed to aid the research worker in gathering, maintaining, and using notes taken from the literature. The sources for the notes can be books, journal articles, reports, private conversations, conference papers, audiovisuals, etc. The system ties the databases together in a relational structure, thus eliminating data redundancy while providing full access to all the information. The programs provide the means for access and data entry in a way that reduces the key-entry burden for the user. Each note has several data fields. Included are the text of the note, the subject classification (for retrieval), and the reference identification data. These data are divided into four databases: Document data - title, author, publisher, etc., fields to identify the article within the document; Note data - text and page of the note; Sublect data - subject categories to ensure uniform spelling for searches. Additionally, there are subsidiary files used by the system, including database index and temporary work files. The system provides multiple access routes to the notes, both structurally (access method) and topically (through cross-indexing). Output may be directed to a printer or saved as a file for input to word processing software.

  12. Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements. PMID:25065634

  13. Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-05-23

    This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

  14. Research Notes and Information References

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    The RNS (Research Notes System) is a set of programs and databases designed to aid the research worker in gathering, maintaining, and using notes taken from the literature. The sources for the notes can be books, journal articles, reports, private conversations, conference papers, audiovisuals, etc. The system ties the databases together in a relational structure, thus eliminating data redundancy while providing full access to all the information. The programs provide the means for access andmore » data entry in a way that reduces the key-entry burden for the user. Each note has several data fields. Included are the text of the note, the subject classification (for retrieval), and the reference identification data. These data are divided into four databases: Document data - title, author, publisher, etc., fields to identify the article within the document; Note data - text and page of the note; Sublect data - subject categories to ensure uniform spelling for searches. Additionally, there are subsidiary files used by the system, including database index and temporary work files. The system provides multiple access routes to the notes, both structurally (access method) and topically (through cross-indexing). Output may be directed to a printer or saved as a file for input to word processing software.« less

  15. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  16. A reference architecture for telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    The Telecare Interactive Continuous Monitoring System exploits GPRS to provide an ambulatory device that monitors selected vital signs on a continuous basis. Alarms are sent when parameters fall outside preset limits, and accompanying physiological data may also be transmitted. The always-connected property of GPRS allows continuous interactive control of the device and its sensors, permitting changes to monitoring parameters or even enabling continuous monitoring of a sensor in emergency. A new personal area network (PAN) has been developed to support short-range wireless connection to sensors worn on the body including ECG and finger worn SpO2. Most notable is use of ultra low radio frequency to reduce power to minimum. The system has been designed to use a hierarchical architecture for sensors and "derived" signals, such as HR from ECG, so that each can be independently controlled and managed. Sensors are treated as objects, and functions are defined to control aspects of behaviour. These are refined in order to define a generic set of abstract functions to handle the majority of functions, leaving a minimum of sensor specific commands. The intention is to define a reference architecture in order to research the functionality and system architecture of a telemonitoring system. The Telecare project is funded through a grant from the European Commission (IST programme). PMID:15747944

  17. Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-03-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  18. Extragalactic reference targets for PRIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard T.; Abuter, Roberto; Ngoumou, Judith; Delplancke, Francoise; Sahlmann, Johannes

    2008-07-01

    The VLTI's PRIMA (Phase-Referenced Imaging and Microarcsecond Astrometry) instrument is designed to provide tens of microarcseond astrometry and faint-object imaging for the interferometer facility. Astrometry is to be enabled by PRIMA between object pairs that are separated on the sky by one isoplanatic patch (roughly 60 seconds of arc at Cerro Paranal in the K band), with at least one of the two objects being bright (K <10), and a second fainter object (?K < 7) that is nominally a 'stable' astrometric reference. The original expectation was for star-star pairs to be observed by PRIMA in its astrometric mode; however, we are exploring the possibility of also utilizing background galaxies in this role. Advantages of such source selection is eliminating the need to solve for dim object parallax and proper motion before obtaining similar values for the bright foreground star. Additionally, data from the galaxy may be of scientific interest as well, potentially leading to characterizations of object morphology at milliarcsecond scales. Towards that end, we have begun observations with ESO's NTT to explore the suitability of qualifying star-galaxy asterisms as potential PRIMA targets. Commissioning observations for PRIMA are slated to begin in Fall of 2008.

  19. Evaluating Reference Services in the Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    2001-01-01

    In an electronic era, the evaluation of reference and related information services should still be based on the same principles used to evaluate traditional face-to-face reference services and printed reference tools. Traditional research methods can be utilized very effectively in an electronic environment. However, electronic technologies offer

  20. Quality Standards for Digital Reference Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasowitz, Abby; Bennett, Blythe; Lankes, R. David

    2000-01-01

    Identifies a working set of standards by which to assess individual digital reference services (Internet-based human-mediated information services) and to define membership within a collaborative network of digital reference services. The standards are designed for the Virtual Reference Desk AskA Consortium. (Author/LRW)

  1. Rethinking Job References: A Networking Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Can job references play an active role in shaping one's career plans? Would individuals consider their references as part of their personal and professional network? Although most professionals may respond with a resounding "Yes, of course!" to these questions, the author realized that many of his students were skeptical about job references. To

  2. The Internet: A Ready Reference Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    An academic librarian answered 24 questions using reference books, then tried to answer the same questions using an Internet search engine (Metacrawler). Evaluates the results of the Internet searches and discusses implications for library reference services and reference book publishers; Internet user expectations and satisfaction; and librarians

  3. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  4. 40 CFR 1065.1010 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 1065.1010 Section 1065.1010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Definitions and Other Reference Information § 1065.1010 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have...

  5. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., amendment 1 (2011). Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  6. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR..., into § 173.417. (2) Table 1 to 49 CFR 171.7—Materials Not Incorporated by Reference Source and name of material 49 CFR reference American Biological Safety Association 1202 Allanson Road, Mundelein, IL...

  7. 33 CFR 242.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 242.3 Section 242.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT SERVICES PROGRAM ESTABLISHMENT OF FEES FOR COST RECOVERY 242.3 References. The references in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  8. 33 CFR 241.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 241.3 Section 241.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL COST-SHARING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE ABILITY TO PAY PROVISION 241.3 References. References cited in paragraphs (f) thru (i) may...

  9. Environmental Sciences Reference Sources. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMartin, Mary I., Comp.

    This list of Environmental Sciences References Sources is intended to give undergraduate and graduate students a starting point when searching for information in the library. Entries are grouped according to type of reference material and then are listed in alphabetical order. The types of reference material included are guides to dictionaries,

  10. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reference points. 76.53 Section 76.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The following list of reference points shall be used...

  11. Environmental Sciences Reference Sources. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMartin, Mary I., Comp.

    This list of Environmental Sciences References Sources is intended to give undergraduate and graduate students a starting point when searching for information in the library. Entries are grouped according to type of reference material and then are listed in alphabetical order. The types of reference material included are guides to dictionaries,…

  12. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  13. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  14. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  15. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Anyone may inspect copies at the U.S. EPA, Air and Radiation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference...

  16. Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents

  17. 40 CFR 312.11 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false References. 312.11 Section 312.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... Definitions and References 312.11 References. The following industry standards may be used to comply...

  18. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with

  19. Rethinking Job References: A Networking Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Can job references play an active role in shaping one's career plans? Would individuals consider their references as part of their personal and professional network? Although most professionals may respond with a resounding "Yes, of course!" to these questions, the author realized that many of his students were skeptical about job references. To…

  20. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).