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1

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2012-04-01

2

Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields.  

PubMed

To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm³ contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions. PMID:22411059

Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Chen, X L; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

2012-04-01

3

Simulation of the temperature elevation in children exposed to plane wave electromagnetic fields (10 MHz-1 GHz) at the ICNIRP reference level.  

PubMed

Because of a lack of thermal models, to date, limitation of exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) has been based on restricting intracorporal specific absorption rates. To allow convenient compliance checks, reference field values have been defined. If they are met, compliance with basic restrictions is assumed. This article demonstrates that this assumption is not valid in every case. It has therefore been investigated as to whether the biological goal of limiting tissue heating is still met, in particular with regard to children. The thermal solver applied is based on the bioheat equation, with implemented additional improvements that allow consideration of blood flow and metabolic rate as a function of local tissue temperature rise and, in addition, adapt the blood temperature relative to the absorbed power. As a further improvement, heat exchange at the tissue/air boundary has been modeled, with radiation, convection, and sweating considered as well. The mathematical equations describing these additional thermoregulatory mechanisms were taken from the literature and unified in the thermoregulatory model used for this study. For the investigated case of plane wave exposure, the results confirm the violation of the basic restrictions in five of the six models when exposed to reference EMF levels. However, using thermal modeling, it was possible to demonstrate that heating remained within the biological tolerances. In particular, temperature elevation of the body core temperature remained <0.014°C and the local peak temperature did not exceed 1°C. PMID:22691427

Niedermayr, Florian; Leitgeb, Norbert; Siegl, Werner

2012-06-01

4

Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

5

Is ICRP guidance on the use of reference levels consistent?  

PubMed

In ICRP 103, which has replaced ICRP 60, it is stated that no fundamental changes have been introduced compared with ICRP 60. This is true except that the application of reference levels in emergency and existing exposure situations seems to be applied inconsistently, and also in the related publications ICRP 109 and ICRP 111. ICRP 103 emphasises that focus should be on the residual doses after the implementation of protection strategies in emergency and existing exposure situations. If possible, the result of an optimised protection strategy should bring the residual dose below the reference level. Thus the reference level represents the maximum acceptable residual dose after an optimised protection strategy has been implemented. It is not an 'off-the-shelf item' that can be set free of the prevailing situation. It should be determined as part of the process of optimising the protection strategy. If not, protection would be sub-optimised. However, in ICRP 103 some inconsistent concepts have been introduced, e.g. in paragraph 279 which states: 'All exposures above or below the reference level should be subject to optimisation of protection, and particular attention should be given to exposures above the reference level'. If, in fact, all exposures above and below reference levels are subject to the process of optimisation, reference levels appear superfluous. It could be considered that if optimisation of protection below a fixed reference level is necessary, then the reference level has been set too high at the outset. Up until the last phase of the preparation of ICRP 103 the concept of a dose constraint was recommended to constrain the optimisation of protection in all types of exposure situations. In the final phase, the term 'dose constraint' was changed to 'reference level' for emergency and existing exposure situations. However, it seems as if in ICRP 103 it was not fully recognised that dose constraints and reference levels are conceptually different. The use of reference levels in radiological protection is reviewed. It is concluded that the recommendations in ICRP 103 and related ICRP publications seem to be inconsistent regarding the use of reference levels in existing and emergency exposure situations. PMID:22089983

Hedemann-Jensen, Per; McEwan, Andrew C

2011-12-01

6

References Applicable to Station-Level Calibration Steve Ellingson  

E-print Network

References Applicable to Station-Level Calibration Steve Ellingson July 17, 2008 1 Summary Nonuniform Noise," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, Vol. 39, No. 7, July 2001, pp. 1310­24. [17] A.E.E. Rogers

Ellingson, Steven W.

7

Dose area product reference levels in dental panoramic radiology.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to measure DAP (Dose Area Product) values in panoramic radiology with the use of a DAP meter, to determine corresponding reference levels, and to compare DAP between panoramic and intraoral radiology. DAP was measured in 62 panoramic X-ray units for 3 types of exposure (male, female and child) and in 20 intraoral X-ray units of 50, 60 and 70 kVp. DAP reference levels were 117 mGy cm2, 97 mGy cm2 and 77 mGy cm2 for exposure of a male, female and child respectively. Results showed that DAP from a panoramic dental examination is approximately twice that from a single intraoral examination. DAP meter is a very convenient and easy to use tool for patient dosimetry and for the establishment of reference levels in dental panoramic radiology. PMID:15266083

Tierris, Christine E; Yakoumakis, Emmanuel N; Bramis, George N; Georgiou, Evangelos

2004-01-01

8

Paragraph-level Switch-reference Markers in Chickasaw Conversation  

E-print Network

Two types of switch-reference markers occur in Chickasaw. The first is a set of suffixes that indicate whether the verb in one clause has the same subject as the verb in a connected reference clause. The second is a set ...

Walker, Cynthia

1999-01-01

9

Diagnostic reference levels in intraoral dental radiography in Korea  

PubMed Central

Purpose The objectives of this study were to survey the radiographic exposure parameters, to measure the patient doses for intraoral dental radiography nationwide, and thus to establish the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in intraoral dental X-ray examination in Korea. Materials and Methods One hundred two intraoral dental radiographic machines from all regions of South Korea were selected for this study. Radiographic exposure parameters, size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration of machine, and type of dental X-ray machine were documented. Patient entrance doses (PED) and dose-area products (DAP) were measured three times at the end of the exit cone of the X-ray unit with a DAP meter (DIAMENTOR M4-KDK, PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography, and corrections were made for room temperature and pressure. Measured PED and DAP were averaged and compared according to the size of hospital, type of image receptor system, installation duration, and type of dental X-ray machine. Results The mean exposure parameters were 62.6 kVp, 7.9 mA, and 0.5 second for adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography. The mean patient dose was 2.11 mGy (PED) and 59.4 mGycm2 (DAP) and the third quartile one 3.07 mGy (PED) and 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP). Doses at university dental hospitals were lower than those at dental clinics (p<0.05). Doses of digital radiography (DR) type were lower than those of film-based type (p<0.05). Conclusion We recommend 3.1 mGy (PED), 87.4 mGycm2 (DAP) as the DRLs in adult mandibular molar intraoral dental radiography in Korea. PMID:23301210

Han, Won-Jeong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Jung, Yun-Hoa; Yoon, Suk-Ja; Lee, Jae-Seo

2012-01-01

10

Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach  

SciTech Connect

A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

Vano, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es; Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Medical Physics (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Radiology (Spain); Verdu, J. F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Department of Radiology (Spain); Garay, M. Gonzalez de [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Radiology (Spain); Azpiazu, A. [Hospital Txagoritxu, Department of Radiology (Spain); Segarra, A. [Hospital Valle de Hebron, Department of Radiology (Spain); Hernandez, M. T. [Hospital Funacion Alcorcon, Department of Radiology (Spain); Canis, M. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Department of Radiology (Spain); Diaz, F. [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology (Spain); Moreno, F. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez (Spain); Palmero, J. [Hospital Clinico de Valencia (Spain)

2009-01-15

11

Diagnostic reference levels for medical exposure of patients: ICRP guidance and related ICRU quantities.  

PubMed

In Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference levels were described as values of measured quantities at which some specified action or decision should be taken. One particular form of reference level, the diagnostic reference level, applies specifically to medical exposure of patients. The objective of a diagnostic reference level is to help avoid radiation dose to the patient that does not contribute to the clinical purpose of a medical imaging task. This is accomplished by comparison between the numerical value of the diagnostic reference level and the mean or other appropriate value observed in practice for a suitable reference group of patients or a suitable reference phantom. A diagnostic reference level is not applied to individual patients. Diagnostic reference levels have no direct linkage to the numerical values for dose limits or dose constraints, and it is inappropriate to use them for regulatory or commercial purposes. Diagnostic reference levels should be selected by professional medical bodies (often in conjunction with health and radiation protection authorities) and their values may be specific to a country or region. A diagnostic reference level can be used: (1) to improve a regional, national or local distribution of observed results for a general medical imaging task, by reducing the frequency of unjustified high or low values; (2) to promote attainment of a narrower range of values that represent good practice for a more specific medical imaging task; or (3) to promote attainment of an optimum range of values for a specified medical imaging protocol. Authorized bodies are encouraged to set diagnostic reference levels that best meet their specific needs and that are consistent for the regional, national or local area to which they apply. Report 74 of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements includes a commentary regarding quantities useful in establishing diagnostic reference levels. PMID:18849685

Rosenstein, Marvin

2008-11-01

12

Global sea-level rise and its relation to the terrestrial reference frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the sensitivity of estimates of global sea-level rise obtained from GPS-corrected long term tide gauge records\\u000a to uncertainties in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) realization. A useful transfer function was established,\\u000a linking potential errors in the reference frame datum (origin and scale) to resulting errors in the estimate of global sea\\u000a level rise. Contrary to scale errors

Xavier Collilieux; Guy Wöppelmann

2011-01-01

13

Establishing a regional reference indoor radon level on the basis of radon survey data.  

PubMed

The establishment of national reference levels is a new requirement of the ICRP radiological protection system. For protection against indoor radon exposure measures based on a common national reference level tend to be less effective in regions where the probability of high indoor radon concentrations is relatively low in comparison with the national average. Therefore it makes sense to establish individual indoor radon reference levels for large sub-national regions as well as for urban agglomerations separately. Analysis of indoor radon surveys of the territory, taking into account the type of building, year of construction, building material, floor and other factors influencing indoor radon concentration, provides essential and important data for defining the reference level. For Ekaterinburg, Russia it is suggested to set the reference indoor radon concentration to a level of 70 Bq m(-3) which corresponds to the 90th percentile of radon concentration in a representative group of buildings constructed in the period 1970-89, in which the lowest average indoor radon concentration was observed. PMID:23482403

Yarmoshenko, I; Onishchenko, A; Zhukovsky, M

2013-06-01

14

Cryogenic-Sapphire-Oscillator-Based Reference Signal at 1 GHz with 10-15 Level Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 1 GHz reference signal with 10-15 level fractional frequency stability for averaging times longer than 1 s, synthesized from a 10.8 GHz oscillation frequency of a cryogenic-sapphire-resonator-based ultra-stable oscillator and phase locked to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of about 1000 s. The degradation of the short term stability of the reference signal by phase

Ken-ichi Watabe; Shinya Yanagimachi; Akifumi Takamizawa; Takeshi Ikegami; Shin-ichi Ohshima; Giorgio Santarelli; Clayton R. Locke; John G. Hartnett

2008-01-01

15

Defining Top-of-Atmosphere Flux Reference Level for Earth Radiation Budget Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To estimate the earth's radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from satellite-measured radiances, it is necessary to account for the finite geometry of the earth and recognize that the earth is a solid body surrounded by a translucent atmosphere of finite thickness that attenuates solar radiation differently at different heights. As a result, in order to account for all of the reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the planet by direct integration of satellite-measured radiances, the measurement viewing geometry must be defined at a reference level well above the earth s surface (e.g., 100 km). This ensures that all radiation contributions, including radiation escaping the planet along slant paths above the earth s tangent point, are accounted for. By using a field-of- view (FOV) reference level that is too low (such as the surface reference level), TOA fluxes for most scene types are systematically underestimated by 1-2 W/sq m. In addition, since TOA flux represents a flow of radiant energy per unit area, and varies with distance from the earth according to the inverse-square law, a reference level is also needed to define satellite-based TOA fluxes. From theoretical radiative transfer calculations using a model that accounts for spherical geometry, the optimal reference level for defining TOA fluxes in radiation budget studies for the earth is estimated to be approximately 20 km. At this reference level, there is no need to explicitly account for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the atmosphere in the earth radiation budget calculation. In this context, therefore, the 20-km reference level corresponds to the effective radiative top of atmosphere for the planet. Although the optimal flux reference level depends slightly on scene type due to differences in effective transmission of solar radiation with cloud height, the difference in flux caused by neglecting the scene-type dependence is less than 0.1%. If an inappropriate TOA flux reference level is used to define satellite TOA fluxes, and horizontal transmission of solar radiation through the planet is not accounted for in the radiation budget equation, systematic errors in net flux of up to 8 W/sq m can result. Since climate models generally use a plane-parallel model approximation to estimate TOA fluxes and the earth radiation budget, they implicitly assume zero horizontal transmission of solar radiation in the radiation budget equation, and do not need to specify a flux reference level. By defining satellite-based TOA flux estimates at a 20-km flux reference level, comparisons with plane-parallel climate model calculations are simplified since there is no need to explicitly correct plane-parallel climate model fluxes for horizontal transmission of solar radiation through a finite earth.

Loeb, N. G.; Kato, S.; Wielicki, B. A.

2002-01-01

16

Classifying Clinically Referred Adolescent Substance Abusers by Level of Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescent substance abusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substance abusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive Substance Abusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive Substance Abusers showed

Cynthia L. Rowe; Howard A. Liddle; Gayle A. Dakof

2001-01-01

17

Arterial Blood Gas Reference Values for Sea Level and an Altitude of 1,400 Meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood gas measurements were collected on healthy lifetime nonsmokers at sea level (n 5 96) and at an altitude of 1,400 meters (n 5 243) to establish reference equations. At each study site, arterial blood samples were analyzed in duplicate on two separate blood gas analyzers and CO-oximeters. Arterial blood gas variables included Pa O 2 , Pa CO 2

ROBERT O. CRAPO; ROBERT L. JENSEN; MATHEW HEGEWALD; DONALD P. TASHKIN

1999-01-01

18

Monitoring levels required in European Fisheries to assess cetacean bycatch, with particular reference to UK fisheries.  

E-print Network

Monitoring levels required in European Fisheries to assess cetacean bycatch, with particular reference to UK fisheries. August 2003 Final Report to DEFRA (EWD) Simon Northridge1 and Len Thomas2 1 Sea for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling, The Observatory, School of Mathematics and Statistics

Thomas, Len

19

Reference implementation of scalable I\\/O low-level API on Intel Paragon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scalable I\\/O (SIO) Initiative’s Low-Level Application Programming Interface (SIO LLAPI) provides file system implementers\\u000a with a simple low-Level interface to support high-level parallel I\\/O interfaces efficiently and effectively. This paper describes\\u000a a reference implementation and the evaluation of the SIO LLAPI on the Intel Paragon multicomputer. The implementation provides\\u000a the file system structure and striping algorithm, compatible with the

Ninghui Sun

1999-01-01

20

Eustatic sea-level curve based on a stable frame of reference: Preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Numerous errors have crept into previous eustatic curves because they have relied on unstable reference frames such as passive margins. A stable frame of reference is found in the Russian platform and allows a eustatic curve to be constructed without the subsidence corrections needed for subsiding margins. The stability of the Russian platform is indicated by flat-lying Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary strata that have remained undeformed and untilted since deposition. These strata are no thicker than 200 m throughout the Russian platform. Individual lithofacies are continuous over large distances, suggesting a very flat hypsometry in which facies types were particularly sensitive to changes in sea level. The tectonic stability of the Russian platform allows eustatic curves to be constructed through two complementary methods. The first method, the results of which the authors present here, uses backstripping to calculate sea-level changes from stage to stage. The second method uses the elevation of former shoreline deposits to calculate the net sea-level change from a former sea level to present sea level. Preliminary results suggest an unsteady 110-m rise in sea level from Bajocian to Albian time.

Sahagian, D.L.; Holland, S.M. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States))

1991-12-01

21

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.  

PubMed

About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y?¹ based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

Sakai, Kazuo

2013-11-01

22

Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.  

SciTech Connect

A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

2011-10-01

23

Patient dosimetry and a novel approach to establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels in dental radiology.  

PubMed

Diagnostic Reference Levels provide a method of ensuring that patient doses in medical procedures are kept at acceptable levels. Their application in dentistry can provide an indication of current dose levels and can assist in potentially significant dose reduction in Ireland given the number of patients screened annually. This study involved retrospective analyses of entrance surface dose and dose-width-product measurements obtained in Irish Dental Practices for both Intra-Oral and Panoramic units respectively, followed by comparisons with Monte-Carlo generated computer models of these procedures. Analysis was performed on data from 33 Intra-Oral units for an Adult Mandibular Molar entrance surface dose, 198 readings for a proposed mGy/mAs reference level and 50 Panoramic machines for a dose-width product investigation. The third quartile value of the entrance surface dose for a standard Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph is (2.40 ± 0.92)mGy, compared to a computer-modelled value of 2.60 mGy. The third quartile mGy/mAs value for Intra-Oral procedures is (1.03 ± 0.38)mGy/mAs, compared to a computer-modelled value of 0.75 mGy/mAs. The third quartile dose width product for an Adult Panoramic radiograph is (59.89 ± 20.97)mGymm, compared to a computer-modeled value of 62.40 mGymm. It is proposed to introduce Diagnostic Reference Levels of 2.4 mGy for an Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph and 60 mGymm for an Adult Panoramic radiograph. The use of a new reference quantity in Intra-Oral radiology is also suggested. This has a value of 1 mGy/mAs and may be introduced alongside established procedures. These levels can be taken as guides to acceptable doses, but it should be noted that further reductions are practical under ALARA principles. PMID:21216646

Walker, Christopher; van der Putten, Wil

2012-01-01

24

Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India.  

PubMed

Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level. PMID:24600173

Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S

2014-01-01

25

A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined.

Kerr, T.A.

1997-04-01

26

Local reference levels and organ doses from pediatric cardiac interventional procedures.  

PubMed

Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures can be responsible for relatively high radiation doses compared to conventional radiology especially for young patients. The aim of this study was to assess current exposure levels in a French reference centre of pediatric IC. Dosimetric data including dose area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time (FT) and number of cine frame (NF) were analysed taking into account patient weight. Doses to the lungs, esophagus, breast and thyroid were evaluated using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Finally, effective doses (E) were calculated using DAP and conversion factors calculated with PCXMC 2.0 software. 801 IC procedures performed between 2010 and 2011 were analysed. Large variations were observed for DAP, FT and NF values for a given procedure and a given weight group. The assessment of organ doses showed high levels of dose to the lungs and esophagus especially in new-born babies. For diagnostic procedures, E varied from 0.3 to 23 mSv with a mean value of 4.8 mSv and for therapeutic procedures, values ranged from 0.1 to 48.4 mSv with a mean value of 7.3 mSv. The highest values were recorded for angioplasty procedures (mean 13 mSv, range 0.6-48.4 mSv). The increasing use of IC in pediatric population stresses the need of setting up reference levels and keeping doses to children as low as possible. PMID:24651982

Barnaoui, S; Rehel, J L; Baysson, H; Boudjemline, Y; Girodon, B; Bernier, M O; Bonnet, D; Aubert, B

2014-08-01

27

Effect of light level on the reference frames of visual motion processing.  

PubMed

It is empirically known that some action-related visual tasks, which may rely on the construction of spatiotopic coordinates, are not well conducted under mesopic vision. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of light level on the reference frame, such as retinotopic and spatiotopic coordinate bases, associated with visual motion processing. For this purpose, we used a phenomenon called visual motion priming in which the perceived direction of a directionally ambiguous test stimulus is influenced by the moving direction of a priming stimulus. Previous studies have shown that negative and positive motion priming are conspicuously observed in retinotopic and spatiotopic coordinates, respectively. In the experiments, participants made a saccade after the termination of the priming stimulus and judged the perceived direction of the test stimulus presented subsequently in retinotopic or spatiotopic coordinates at different light levels. We found that in retinotopic coordinates, negative motion priming was observed at all light levels. In spatiotopic coordinates, positive motion priming was observed at photopic and scotopic light levels, whereas the strength of motion priming was greatly reduced at mesopic light levels. These results were robust to the change in the luminance contrast or the saccadic eye movement per se. Different spatiotemporal properties of cones and rods at mesopic light levels may disturb the construction of a spatiotopic representation of motion, which leads to the disappearance of visual motion priming in spatiotopic coordinates during mesopic vision. PMID:25378370

Yoshimoto, Sanae; Uchida-Ota, Mariko; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

2014-01-01

28

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

1980-06-01

29

Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

None

1980-06-01

30

Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values.  

PubMed Central

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) generally uses reference doses (RfDs) or reference concentrations (RfCs) to assess risks from exposure to toxic substances for noncancer health end points. RfDs and RfCs are supposed to represent lifetime inhalation or ingestion exposure with minimal appreciable risk, but they do not include information about the estimated risk from exposures equal to the RfD/RfC. We used results from benchmark dose modeling approaches recently adopted for use in developing RfDs/RfCs to estimate the risk levels associated with exposures at the RfD/RfC. We searched the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database and identified 11 chemicals with oral RfDs and 12 chemicals with inhalation RfCs that used benchmark dose modeling. For assessments with sufficient model information, we found that 16 of 21 (76%) of the dose-response models were linear or supralinear. We estimated the risk from exposures at the established RfDs and RfCs for these chemicals using a linear dose-response curve to characterize risk below the observed data. Risk estimates ranged from 1 in 10,000 to 5 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfDs, and from 1 in 10,000 to 3 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfCs. Risk estimates for exposures at the RfD/RfC values derived from sublinear dose-response curves ranged from 3 in 1,000,000,000 to 8 in 10,000. Twenty-four percent of reference values corresponded to estimated risk levels greater than 1 in 1,000; 10 of 14 assessments had points of departure greater than the no-observed-adverse-effect levels. For policy development regarding management of cancer risks, the U.S. EPA often uses 1 in 1,000,000 as a de minimis risk level. Although noncancer outcomes may in some instances be reversible and considered less severe than cancer, our findings call into question the assumption that established RfD and RfC values represent negligibly small risk levels. PMID:12896853

Castorina, Rosemary; Woodruff, Tracey J

2003-01-01

31

Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

1981-10-01

32

23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

2010-04-01

33

Crustal Motion Geodesy, PGR and Sea Level Rise: Eliminating Reference Frame Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term geodetic observations of vertical crustal motion can be used to assess and constrain PGR models and to assess and constrain 'absolute' versus 'relative' rates of sea level change. All geodetic estimates for the vertical velocities of GPS stations are stated in a specific reference frame (RF). In effect, this RF provides a datum for the vertical velocity measurements. Geodesists have long known that two geodetic groups using fairly similar GPS data sets (in terms of station distribution and temporal extent) often fail to realize equivalent RFs, even when they agree, in principle, on the definition of their 'target' RF. This phenomenon has sometimes been referred to as 'RF realization error'. This problem becomes more pronounced as the spatial and temporal sampling of the GPS networks under analysis by two or more geodesy groups becomes more diverse. A similar phenomenon occurs with PGR models. Many PGR models are nominally posed in the same physical frame - usually a Center of Mass (CM) frame - but in practice the global vertical velocity fields they predict are quite distinct. We shall argue that part of this discrepancy arises from RF realization error. We shall argue that the best way to address the RF problem in the context of vertical velocities is to estimate a component of the global vertical velocity field (evaluated at a given set of stations) consistent with a constant rate of displacement between the two frames, and then remove this component so as to isolate differences that cannot be explained in terms of frame drift. In effect, the resulting set of vertical velocity differences is 'frameless'. We will argue that such frameless comparisons are much safer than imagining that any two groups (be they geodesists or GPR theorists) can ever realize exactly equivalent frames. The distinction between these two approaches is sometimes subtle, but in practice the frameless approach means we must estimate frame translation rates for each distinct combination of vertical velocity estimates/predictions under consideration.

Bevis, M. G.; Brown, A. K.; Kendrick, E. C.; Caccamise, D. J.; Merrifield, M. A.

2012-12-01

34

New diagnostic reference level for full-field digital mammography units.  

PubMed

The diagnostic reference level (DRL) has generally been defined as the 75th percentile of the distributions of mean doses observed on a sample of standard-sized patients, but for mammography, the 95th percentile has been used. In this study, the 75th and 95th percentiles are estimated for 26 full-field digital mammography units, representing six models from four manufacturers. Systematic differences between categories of manufacture/models are investigated with respect to mean glandular dose (MGD) and figure of merit (FOM), defined as signal difference to noise ratio squared divided by the MGD. The MGDs per unit range from 0.7 to 2.1 mGy, with overall 75th and 95th percentiles of 1.4 and 2.0 mGy, respectively. The different manufacture/models show differences in both dose distributions and FOMs. As national DRL, the 95th percentile is proposed to determine which units can be accepted for use. To identify the need for optimisation, it is proposed to use the 75th percentile for the different manufacture/models, along with the FOM. PMID:23771960

Hauge, I H R; Bredholt, K; Olerud, H M

2013-12-01

35

Towards proposition of a diagnostic reference level for mammographic examination in the greater Khorasan Province, Iran.  

PubMed

Although, over the past few years, the application of mammography has risen up sharply in Iran, very little, if any, has been reported of the extent of patient's dose from this type of imaging. The purpose of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference level (DRL) arising from mammography in the great Khorasan province of Iran. It is generally assumed that the glandular tissue is the most vulnerable type of breast tissue. Therefore, the mean glandular dose (MGD) has been widely accepted as the most appropriate dosimetric quantity to predict the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Literary, DRL for mammography is defined as the 75th percentile of MGD distribution. In Khorasan province, 7 out of 40 centres were randomly selected. In this work, 100 patients were studied. Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs). Since, it is difficult to directly measure MGD, Monte Carlo model-based conversion factors were utilised to conclude MGD from ESD. The results have revealed that patients dose is varied widely. The measured ESDs ranged from 0.74 to 19.81 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) view and 1.20 to 25.79 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The average MGDs per image were 0.88 and 1.11 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. Based on the internationally adopted definition, DRL arising from mammography tests for Khorasan is 1.33 mGy. Implementation of a dose reduction programme is suggested because of the large variations observed in patient MGD values. In this study, the DRL value is significantly lower than the corresponding values suggested by other researchers elsewhere. PMID:23209184

Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Zare, H; Bayani Roodi, Sh; Hashemi, M; Akbari, F; Malekzadeh, M

2013-06-01

36

[Physiopathology and clinical data of referred pain at the level of the masticatory system].  

PubMed

In the differential diagnosis of orofacial pain, the importance of referred pain from other anatomical regions should be taken into account. This contribution describes the neuroanatomical and -physiological background of referred pain and the role of peripheral and central sensitization in its genesis and maintenance. In addition to the effects of afferent neurons, also the resulting efferent effects like increased muscle tone are illustrated, as well as the role of the autonomic nervous system. Through practical examples out of the daily dental practice, it is elucidated how referred pain can interfere in the diagnosis, and how the source and the location of pain can be discriminated. PMID:18506967

De Laat, Antoon

2007-01-01

37

Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height  

PubMed Central

Objective A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels. Methods Totally 1,031 cervical lateral radiographs of different patients were reviewed in single university hospital. Its compositions were 534 of males and 497 females; 86 of second decades (10-19 years-old), 169 of third decades, 159 of fourth decades, 209 of fifth decades, 275 of sixth decades, and 133 of more than seventh decades (>60 years-old). Reference external landmarks (mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricothyroid membrane) with compounding factors were reviewed. Results The reference levels of cervical landmarks were C2.13 with mandible angle, C3.54 with hyoid bone, C5.12 with thyroid cartilage, and C6.01 with cricothyroid membrane. The reference levels of cervical landmarks were differently observed by sex, age, and somatometric measurement (height) accordingly mandible angle from C1 to C3, hyoid bone from disc level of C2 and C3 to C5, thyroid cartilage from disc level of C3 and C4 to C7, and cricothyroid membrane from C4 to disc level of C7 and T1. Conclusion Surface landmarks only provide general reference points, but not correspond to exact levels of the cervical spine. Intraoperative fluoroscopy ensures a more precise placement to the targeted cervical level.

Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hyun, Dongkeun; Choi, Chun Gil; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Jang, A Reum

2014-01-01

38

Commentary Variations: Level of Verbalization, Personal Reference, and Phase Relations in Instructional Films on Perceptual-Motor Tasks. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an experiment to determine the most efficient design for the commentary of an instructional film, special consideration was given to three variables concerned with the construction of commentaries: the level of verbalization (the amount of talk), the personal reference of the narrator, and the phase relationship between the commentary and the…

Zuckerman, John V.

39

The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

2006-01-01

40

Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES\\/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)

A. M. Leufkens; F. J. Duijnhoven; H. C. Boshuizen; P. D. Sierseman; A. E. Kunst; T. Mouw; A. Tjonneland; A. Olsen; K. Overvad; M. C. Boutron-Ruault; F. Clavel-Chapelon; S. Morois; V. Krogh; R. Tumino; S. Panico; S. Polidoro; D. Palli; R. Kaaks; B. Teucher; T. Pischon; A. Trichopoulou; P. Orfanos; I. Goufa; P. H. Peeters; G. Skeie; T. Braaten; L. Rodriguez; L. Lujan-Barroso; M. J. Sanchez-Perez; C. Navarro; A. Barricarte; S. Zackrisson; M. Almquist; G. Hallmans; R. Palmqvist; K. K. Tsilidis; K. T. Khaw; N. Wareham; V. Gallo; M. Jenab; E. Riboli; H. B. Bueno-de-Mesquita

2012-01-01

41

Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism  

SciTech Connect

A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

2012-02-01

42

Determination of diagnostic reference levels in general radiography in Latin America.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the International Action Plan on Radiation Protection of Patients and the International Commission on Radiological Protection have for some time carried out important efforts to assure that in the medical applications of the ionising radiations, the optimisation of radiological protection of patients is fundamental, to such a point that the IAEA includes it directly as a requirement for these practices (in its International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS)-GSR Part 1, 2011). For this reason, among the objectives of Regional Project RLA/9/057 and Regional Project RLA/9/067, the intention was to establish the dose references in conventional radiology for Latin America, for the purposes of determining whether these doses comply with the requirements of the BSS and to tend to improve practices, in order to minimise the dose received by the patients. PMID:23571690

Blanco, Susana; Mora, Patricia; Almonte, Narkiss; Benavente, Tony; Benson, Nadja; Blanco, Daniel; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz Gómez, Yolanda; Edding, Oscar; Escobar, Carolina; Fonseca, María; Gamarra, Mirtha; García Aguilar, Juan; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Roas Zuniga, Norma; Zaire, Edgar; Nader, Alejandro

2013-09-01

43

Epidemiologic survey: reference ranges of serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels in Caucasian adult population with immunoradiometric assay.  

PubMed

Gender, age adjusted, population based reference ranges are necessary to use insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic marker or for therapeutic monitoring in growth hormone (GH) related diseases. The aim of the present study was to describe the serum IGF-1 distribution and to calculate age and gender specific reference values for Caucasian adult population. A representative sample of 1002 male and 1039 female, totally 2041 participants aged above 18 years old was examined. The subjects suffering from diabetes mellitus, renal diseases, liver diseases, cancer, or diseases of pituitary gland were excluded by medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. The subjects were not using any drug that could affect IGF-1 levels. Body mass index (BMI)>30 or<18 kg/m2 were excluded. Serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Serum IGF-1 concentrations were declined with age in both males and females after the age of 18. Males had significantly higher serum IGF-1 levels than females in the age groups 18-24, 50-69 (P<0.05), but not in others (P>0.05). The present study established age and gender specific reference ranges for serum IGF-1 levels calculated for Caucasian adult population with IRMA that could be used in medical practice. PMID:21538205

Bayram, Fahri; Gedik, Vedia Tonyukuk; Demir, Özgür; Kaya, Ahmet; Gündo?an, Kür?at; Emral, R?fat; Öztürk, Ahmet; Uysal, Ali R?za; Çorapç?o?lu, Demet

2011-10-01

44

DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

45

Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

1986-01-01

46

Mangrove forest sedimentation and its reference to sea level rise, Cananeia, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a mangrove ecosystem in Cananeia, Brazil, is assessed based on investigations of the site-specific temporal\\u000a rise in relative sea level during the past 50 years, 100-year sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and sources of organic matter\\u000a (OM). Addressing this, three sediment cores were collected in a transect, intertidal mud flat, mangrove margin and well into\\u000a the forest. The net

Christian J. Sanders; Joseph M. Smoak; A. Sathy Naidu; Denise R. Araripe; Lucian M. Sanders; Sambasiva R. Patchineelam

2010-01-01

47

Tirapazamine-Doxorubicin Interaction Referring to Heart Oxidative Stress and Ca2+ Balance Protein Levels  

PubMed Central

Doxorubicin (DOX) causes long-term cardiomyopathy that is dependent on oxidative stress and contractility disorders. Tirapazamine (TP), an experimental adjuvant drug, passes the same red-ox transformation as DOX. The aim of the study was to evaluate an effect of tirapazamine on oxidative stress, contractile protein level, and cardiomyocyte necrosis in rats administered doxorubicin. Rats were intraperitoneally injected six times once a week with tirapazamine in two doses, 5 (5TP) and 10?mg/kg (10TP), while doxorubicin was administered in dose 1.8?mg/kg (DOX). Subsequent two groups received both drugs simultaneously (5TP+DOX and 10TP+DOX). Tirapazamine reduced heart lipid peroxidation and normalised RyR2 protein level altered by doxorubicin. There were no significant changes in GSH/GSSG ratio, total glutathione, cTnI, AST, and SERCA2 level between DOX and TP+DOX groups. Cardiomyocyte necrosis was observed in groups 10TP and 10TP+DOX. PMID:22666522

Sliwinska, Justyna; Dudka, Jaroslaw; Korga, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek; Matysiak, Wlodzimierz; Jodlowska-Jedrych, Barbara; Mandziuk, Slawomir; Dawidek-Pietryka, Katarzyna

2012-01-01

48

Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the Columbus quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.

Mai, Sebastian; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Marquetand, Philipp; Lischka, Hans; González, Leticia

2014-08-01

49

Carcinogenesis and low-level ionizing radiation with special reference to lung cancer and exposure to radon daughters  

SciTech Connect

Of the important health effects of ionizing radiation, three important late effects - carcinogenesis, teratogenesis and mutagenesis are of greatest concern. This is because any exposure, even at low levels, carries some risk of such deleterious effects. As the dose of radiation increases above very low levels, the risk of health effects increases. Cancer-induction is the most important late somatic effect of low-dose ionizing radiation. Solid cancers, rather than leukemia, are principal late effects in exposed individuals. Tissues vary greatly in their susceptibility to radiation carcinogenesis. The most frequently occurring radiation-induced cancers in man include, in decreasing order of susceptibility: the female breast, the thyroid gland, the blood-forming tissues, the lung, certain organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and the bones. A number of biological and physical factors affect the cancer risk, such as age, sex, life-style, LET, and RBE. Despite uncertainty about low-level radiation risks, regulatory and advisory bodies must set standards for exposure, and individuals need information to be able to make informed judgments for themselves. From the point of view of the policy maker, the overriding concern is the fact that small doses of radiation can cause people to have more cancers than would otherwise be expected. While concern for all radiation effects exists, our human experience is limited to cancer-induction in exposed populations. This discussion is limited to cancer risk estimation and decision-making in relation to the health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Here, low-level radiation will refer to yearly whole-body doses up to 5 rems or 0.05 Sv, or to cumulative doses up to 50 rems or 0.5 Sv from low-LET radiation and from high-LET radiation. (ERB)

Fabrikant, J.I.

1982-04-01

50

Acetylcholinesterase activity in Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea Amphipoda) Intrinsic variability, reference levels, and a reliable tool for field surveys.  

PubMed

The appropriate use of an enzyme activity as a biomarker requires good knowledge of its basal level and its natural variability related to intrinsic biotic and environmental abiotic factors. In view of using whole-body acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in Gammarus fossarum as a reliable biomarker of exposure to anti-cholinesterase agents in aquatic ecosystems, (i) the effects of the main biotic (sex, reproductive status, and weight) and abiotic (water temperature) factors on the basal activity level of this enzyme were measured in the laboratory and (ii) the spatio-temporal variability of basal enzyme activity was followed in wild populations over a 1-year period. The results show no direct effect of sex. However, significant differences in AChE activity were observed between females depending on gonadal and embryonic development. A strong negative correlation between the AChE activity levels and organism body weight was observed. Indeed, AChE activity decreases drastically during the early life stages and tends to stabilise in larger individuals. These reports led us to select a standard organism (male; weight range, 15-20mg) to minimise inter-individual variability. No effect of temperature on basal AChE activity was observed in the laboratory for the tested range (6-24 degrees C). Similarly, no spatio-temporal change relative to season or the physico-chemical characteristics of the water (such as conductivity and temperature) was recorded during the field survey. On the basis of field-collected data, we defined the standard organism having a reference activity level with minimal and maximal threshold values. Finally, the value of AChE activity normalisation by protein contents is discussed. PMID:19487036

Xuereb, Benoît; Chaumot, Arnaud; Mons, Raphael; Garric, Jeanne; Geffard, Olivier

2009-07-26

51

Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.  

PubMed

A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

Sakai, K

2012-01-01

52

Indicators of the health of the North Sea fish community: identifying reference levels for an ecosystem approach to management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shift in emphasis away from the single-species focus of traditional fisheries manage- ment towards an ecosystem approach to management requires application of indicators of ecosystem state. Further, an ecosystem approach to management requires the identifica- tion of ecological reference points against which management objectives might be set. In applying indicators, identifying reference points, and setting objectives, an obvious require-

Simon P. R. Greenstreet; Stuart I. Rogers

2006-01-01

53

International collaborative study to assess candidate reference preparations to control the level of anti-D in IVIG for use in Europe and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory requirements to control the level of anti-D in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products with European and United States (US) licences are to be introduced. A reference preparation of IVIG containing anti-D at 0.0475 IU\\/ml and having a nominal titre of 8 using the proposed direct haemagglutination reference method was deemed suitable to define the anti-D limit. This preparation, code 02\\/228,

Susan J. Thorpe; Bernard Fox; Alan Heath; Marie-Emmanuelle Behr-Gross; Maria L. Virata; Mei-Ying W. Yu

2006-01-01

54

Age- and Gender-Specific Reference Intervals for Fasting Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in School Children Measured With Abbott Architect c8000 Chemistry Analyzer.  

PubMed

Reference intervals for pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish age-specific reference intervals of glucose and lipid levels among local school children. This was cross-sectional study, conducted among Saudi school children. Fasting blood samples were collected from 2149 children, 1138 (53%) boys and 1011 (47%) girls, aged 6 to 18 years old. Samples were analyzed on the Architect c8000 Chemistry System (Abbott Diagnostics, USA) for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL. Reference intervals were established by nonparametric methods between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls for cholesterol and triglycerides levels in all age groups (P < 0.02). Only at age 6-7 years and at adolescents, HDL and LDL levels were found to be significant (P < 0.001). No significant differences were seen in glucose levels except at age 12 to 13 years. Saudi children have comparable serum cholesterol levels than their Western counterparts. This may reflect changing dietary habits and increasing affluence in Saudi Arabia. Increased lipid screening is anticipated, and these reference intervals will aid in the early assessment of cardiovascular and diabetes risk in Saudi pediatric populations. PMID:23542765

Tamimi, Waleed; Albanyan, Esam; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Alhussein, Fahad

2012-04-01

55

Assessing the potential for salmon recovery via floodplain restoration: a multitrophic level comparison of dredge-mined to reference segments.  

PubMed

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration. PMID:22323109

Bellmore, J Ryan; Baxter, Colden V; Ray, Andrew M; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

56

Assessing the Potential for Salmon Recovery via Floodplain Restoration: A Multitrophic Level Comparison of Dredge-Mined to Reference Segments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-restoration studies typically focus on physical habitat, rather than the food-base that supports aquatic species. However, both food and habitat are necessary to support the species that habitat restoration is frequently aimed at recovering. Here we evaluate if and how the productivity of the food-base that supports fish production is impaired in a dredge-mined floodplain within the Yankee Fork Salmon River (YFSR), Idaho (USA); a site where past restoration has occurred and where more has been proposed to help recover anadromous salmonids. Utilizing an ecosystem approach, we found that the dredged segment had comparable terrestrial leaf and invertebrate inputs, aquatic primary producer biomass, and production of aquatic invertebrates relative to five reference floodplains. Thus, the food-base in the dredged segment did not necessarily appear impaired. On the other hand, we observed that off-channel aquatic habitats were frequently important to productivity in reference floodplains, and the connection of these habitats in the dredged segment via previous restoration increased invertebrate productivity by 58%. However, using a simple bioenergetic model, we estimated that the invertebrate food-base was at least 4× larger than present demand for food by fish in dredged and reference segments. In the context of salmon recovery efforts, this observation questions whether additional food-base productivity provided by further habitat restoration would be warranted in the YFSR. Together, our findings highlight the importance of studies that assess the aquatic food-base, and emphasize the need for more robust ecosystem models that evaluate factors potentially limiting fish populations that are the target of restoration.

Bellmore, J. Ryan; Baxter, Colden V.; Ray, Andrew M.; Denny, Lytle; Tardy, Kurt; Galloway, Evelyn

2012-03-01

57

Comparison of blood volatile organic compound levels in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette Parishes, LA, with US reference ranges.  

PubMed

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry conducted a study to evaluate body burden levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among residents of highly industrialized Calcasieu Parish, LA, USA, in 2002. Blood VOC levels in a representative sample of participants in Calcasieu Parish were compared with a similar group of participants in the less-industrialized Lafayette Parish. Participants' ages ranged from 15 to 91 years, 46% were men, and 89% were Caucasian. VOC levels in these two populations were also compared at the national levels. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of 30 VOCs in blood samples collected from 283 self-described non-smoking study participants. Of the 30 VOCs, 6 had quantifiable levels in at least 25% of the blood samples analyzed. The frequency of detection was >95% for benzene and m-/p-xylene, >60% for 1,4-dichlorbenzene and toluene, 27% for ethylbenzene, and 39% for styrene. Calcasieu and Lafayette Parish participants had similar distributions for six VOCs in key percentiles and geometric means. When compared with a representative sampling of the 1999-2000 US general population, no significant differences were found between the parish data and the US general population. PMID:24472757

Uddin, Mohammed S; Blount, Benjamin C; Lewin, Michael D; Potula, Vijayalakshmi; Ragin, Angela D; Dearwent, Steve M

2014-11-01

58

Free Thyroxine Level in the High Normal Reference Range Prescribed for Nonpregnant Women May Reduce the Preterm Delivery Rate in Multiparous  

PubMed Central

Preterm birth is the most common reason for perinatal morbidity and mortality in the western world. It has been shown that in euthyreotic pregnant women with thyroid autoimmune antibodies, L-Thyroxine replacement reduces preterm delivery rate in singleton pregnancies. We investigated in a nonrandomized retrospective observational study whether L-Thyroxine replacement, maintaining maternal free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women also influences the rate of preterm delivery in women without thyroid autoimmune antibodies. As control group for preterm delivery rate, data from perinatal statistics of the State of Baden-Württemberg from 2006 were used. The preterm delivery rate in the study group was significantly reduced. The subgroup analysis shows no difference in primiparous but a decline in multiparous by approximately 61% with L-Thyroxine replacement. Maintaining free thyroxine serum level in the high normal reference range prescribed for nonpregnant women may reduce the preterm delivery rate. PMID:22203918

Torremante, P.; Flock, F.; Kirschner, W.

2011-01-01

59

Validation of reference genes for the determination of platelet transcript level in healthy individuals and in patients with the history of myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

RT-qPCR is the standard method for studying changes in relative transcript level in different experimental and clinical conditions and in different tissues. No validated reference genes have been reported for the normalization of transcript level in platelets. The very low level of platelet RNA and the elimination of leukocyte contamination represented special methodological difficulties. Our aims were to apply a simple technique to separate platelets for transcript level studies, and select the most stable reference genes for platelets from healthy individuals and from patients with the history of myocardial infarction. We developed a simple, straightforward method of platelet separation for RNA isolation. Platelet activation was inhibited by using acid-citrate-dextrose for anticoagulation and by prostaglandin E1. Leukocyte contamination was eliminated by three consecutive centrifugations. Samples prepared by this method were free of leukocytes, showed no inhibition in PCR reaction and no RNA degradation. The assay demands low blood volume, which complies with the requirements of everyday laboratory routine. Seventeen potential reference genes were investigated, but eight of them were excluded during optimization. The stability of the remaining genes, EEF2, EAR, ACTB, GAPDH, ANAPC5, OAZ1, HDGF, GNAS, and CFL1, were determined by four different descriptive statistics. GAPDH, GNAS, and ACTB were shown to be the most stable genes in platelets of healthy individuals, while HDGF, GNAS, and ACTB were the most stable in platelets of patients with the history of myocardial infarction. The results confirm that data normalization needs assessment of appropriate reference genes for a particular sample set. PMID:23389042

Zsóri, Katalin S; Muszbek, László; Csiki, Zoltán; Shemirani, Amir H

2013-01-01

60

A DSP-based implementation of a nonlinear model reference adaptive control for a three-phase three-level NPC boost rectifier prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design and the implementation of a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) applied to a three-phase three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) boost rectifier are presented. This control strategy is developed with a view to regulate dc output and neutral point voltages and to reduce the influence of parameter variations while maintaining unity power factor. A nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

Loubna Yacoubi; Kamal Al-Haddad; L.-A. Dessaint; F. Fnaiech

2005-01-01

61

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1982-10-01

62

Characterization of human metal ESD reference discharge event and correlation of generator parameters to failure levels-part II: correlation of generator parameters to failure levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most electrostatic discharge (ESD) generators are built in accordance with the IEC 61000-4-2 specifications. It is shown, that the voltage induced in a small loop correlates with the failure level observed in an ESD failure test on the systems comprised of fast CMOS devices, while rise time and derivative of the discharge current did not correlate well. The electric parameters

Kai Wang; David Pommerenke; Ramachandran Chundru; Tom Van Doren; Federico Pio Centola; Jiu Sheng Huang

2004-01-01

63

Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Topical report on reference eastern humid low-level sites  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order-of-magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a humid reference low-level waste site in the eastern US. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communites. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 500 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Doses to man are calculated for the biological transport of radionucludes at the reference site after loss of institutional control. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates we calculated for the intruder-agricultural scenarios reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of cumulative biotic transport are calculated to be of the same order-of-magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by findings presented in this report. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

1983-01-01

64

Combination of Vlbi, GPS and Slr Observations At The Observation Level For The Realization of Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forsvarets forskningsinstitutt (FFI, the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment) has during the last 17 years developed a software system called GEOSAT, for the analysis of any type of high precision space geodetic observations. A unique feature of GEOSAT is the possibility of combining any combination of different space geode- tic data at the observation level with one consistent model and one consistent strategy. This is a much better strategy than the strategy in use today where different types of observations are processed separately using analysis software developed specifically for each technique. The results from each technique are finally combined a posteriori. In practice the models implemented in the software packages differ at the 1-cm level which is almost one order of magnitude larger than the internal precision of the most precise techniques. Another advantage of the new proposed combination method is that for example VLBI and GPS can use the same tropospheric model with common parameterization. The same is the case for the Earth orientation parameters, the geo- center coordinates and other geodetic or geophysical parameters where VLBI, GPS and SLR can have a common estimate for each of the parameters. The analysis with GEOSAT is automated for the combination of VLBI, SLR and GPS observations. The data are analyzed in batches of one day where the result from each daily arc is a SRIF array (Square Root Information Filter). A large number of SRIF arrays can be combined into a multi-year solution using the CSRIFS program (Com- bination Square Root Information Filter and Smoother). Four parameter levels are available and any parameter can, at each level, either be represented as a constant or a stochastic parameter (white noise, colored noise, or random walk). The batch length (i.e. the time interval between the addition of noise to the SRIF array) can be made time- and parameter dependent. GEOSAT and CSRIFS have been applied in the analysis of selected VLBI and SLR data (LAGEOS I &II) from the period January 1993 to July 2001. A selected number of arcs also include GPS data. Earth orientation parameters, geocenter motion, sta- tion coordinates and velocities were estimated simultaneously with the coordinates of the radio sources and satellite orbital parameters. Recent software improvements and 1 results of analyses will be presented at the meeting. 2

Andersen, P. H.

65

GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-comparison of Ground-based Lightning Reference Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

Cummins, K. L.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; Cecil, D. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.

2011-12-01

66

Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling  

SciTech Connect

The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

1980-03-01

67

An energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions from an absolutely localized molecular orbital reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level  

SciTech Connect

We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-level contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the C{sub s}-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-level calculations and experiment when possible.

Azar, R. Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-01-14

68

Repeated Acceleration Ability (RAA): A New Concept with Reference to Top-Level Field and Assistant Soccer Referees  

PubMed Central

Purpose To perform an exploratory characterization of repeated sprint sequences (RSS) and repeated acceleration sequences (RAS) in top level soccer referees. Methods 7 field and 7 assistant referees were monitored during 2007 America's Soccer Cup with GPS technology. Sprints of >18 km·h-1 and accelerations of >1.5 m·s-2 were considered as high intensity activities. RSS and RAS were defined as a minimum of 3 consecutive bouts interspersed with a maximum of 45 s. Results Field and assistant referees performed substantially more accelerations than sprints. Neither field nor assistant referees recorded any RSS. In contrast, total distance performing RAS amounted to ?37% and ?20% of the total distance covered by accelerations during the entire match for field and assistant referees, respectively. Only field referees exhibited fatigue-related reductions in RAS characteristics between halves. Conclusion The results of the present study would appear to support the appropriateness of a repeated acceleration ability (RAA) concept, instead of the repeated sprint ability (RSA) concept, in soccer referees. Further studies should assess RAS in referees and athletes of different team sports for designing better training exercises and physiological testing. PMID:24868433

Barbero-Alvarez, Jose Carlos; Boullosa, Daniel; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Andrin, German; Weston, Matthew

2013-01-01

69

Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, with special reference to strains with high-level resistance to gentamicin.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical and molecular epidemiology of Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia, specifically that involving strains with high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLGR). Episodes of E. faecalis bacteremia at the Buffalo Veterans Affairs Medical Center from January 1986 to September 1989 were retrospectively identified. Of 94 episodes, 45 (48%) were due to strains with HLGR. Hemolytic activity was detected with greater frequency (85%) among the latter strains than among those without HLGR (P < .001). Of the 54 episodes for which medical charts were available for review, 94% were hospital acquired, and 46% were due to strains with HLGR. An examination of the plasmid DNA content of isolates revealed restriction-fragment-length polymorphism. One plasmid pattern was identified in 15 isolates with HLGR (P < .001), and chromosomal DNA digest patterns suggested a common clonality; there was no direct evidence for patient-to-patient spread of these strains. The use of antibiotics, the presence of invasive devices, surgery, and admission to an intensive-care unit were not significantly associated with HLGR bacteremia. Mortality during hospitalization was 65%, with no difference between figures for HLGR and non-HLGR infections. This high mortality regardless of gentamicin susceptibility status suggests that E. faecalis bacteremia is a marker for severe illness. In contrast to previous studies, this investigation identified no clinical factors associated with HLGR E. faecalis bacteremia. PMID:7727634

Antalek, M D; Mylotte, J M; Lesse, A J; Sellick, J A

1995-01-01

70

Standardized centile curves and reference intervals of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in a normal Japanese population using the LMS method.  

PubMed

Measurements of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are useful not only for diagnosis and management of patients with growth hormone (GH)-related disorders but also for assessing nutritional status. We reported population-based references of serum IGF-I in 1996. However, they did not properly reflect data in the transition period from puberty to maturity. The aim of the present study was to re-establish a set of normative data for IGF-I for the Japanese population. The study included 1,685 healthy Japanese subjects (845 males, 840 females) from 0 to 83 years old. Subjects suffering from diseases that could affect IGF-I levels were excluded. Obese or extremely thin adult subjects were also excluded. IGF-I concentrations were determined by commercially available immunoradiometric assays. The reference intervals were calculated using the LMS method. Median IGF-I levels reached 310 ng/mL in males at the age of 14 years and 349 ng/mL in females at the age of 13 years, falling to 124 ng/mL and 103 ng/mL, respectively, by the age of 70 years. The mean pretreatment IGF-1 SD scores in patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD) obtained from the database of the Foundation for Growth Science and from clinical studies for adult GHD were -2.1±1.6 and -4.9±2.5, respectively. The present study established age- and gender-specific normative IGF-I data for the Japanese population and showed the utility of these references for screening patients with severe GHD. PMID:22673406

Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Yokoya, Susumu; Chihara, Kazuo; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Teramoto, Akira; Tatsumi, Ke-ita; Tachibana, Katsuhiko; Katsumata, Noriyuki; Horikawa, Reiko

2012-09-30

71

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

72

A comparison of mean glandular dose diagnostic reference levels within the all-digital Irish National Breast Screening Programme and the Irish Symptomatic Breast Services.  

PubMed

Data on image quality, compression and radiation dose were collected from symptomatic breast units within the Republic of Ireland. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS. Recommendations of mean glandular dose (MGD) diagnostic reference levels were made at various levels for film-screen and full field digital mammography units to match levels published worldwide. MGDs received by symptomatic breast patients within Ireland are higher than those received in the all-digital Irish Breast Screening service; 55-65 mm breast: 1.75 mGy (screening) vs. 2.4 mGy (symptomatic) at the 95th percentile; various reasons are proposed for the differences. MGDs achieved in the screening service may be lower because of the exacting requirements for radiographer training, characteristics of the patients and equipment quality assurance levels. More precise imaging guidelines, standards and training of symptomatic radiographers performing mammography are suggested to remediate MGDs delivered to the breasts of Irish women attending the symptomatic breast services. PMID:22740646

O'Leary, Desiree; Rainford, Louise

2013-03-01

73

A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.  

SciTech Connect

A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

2001-08-01

74

Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

2014-01-01

75

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

76

Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P.E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

2009-01-01

77

Reference Roundup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes the nature and availability of reference books for children and adolescents and then reviews some recent publications of this type, including works of a general nature and works on social science, science, the arts, language, history and geography, and biography. (JL)

Silver, Linda; And Others

1982-01-01

78

Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee’s coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we discuss the performance of the non-iterative State-Specific Mul- tireference Coupled Cluster (SS-MRCC) methods accounting for the effect of triply excited cluster amplitudes. The corrections to the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC models based on the manifold of singly and doubly excited cluster amplitudes (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD, respectively) are tested and compared with the exact full configuration interaction results (FCI) for small systems (H2O, N2, and Be3). For larger systems (naphthyne isomers and -carotene), the non-iterative BW-MRCCSD(T) and Mk-MRCCSD(T) methods are compared against the results obtained with the single reference coupled cluster methods. We also report on the parallel performance of the non-iterative implementations based on the use of pro- cessor groups.

Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiri; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Pittner, Jiri; Kowalski, Karol

2012-09-07

79

Comparison of in vitro Inhibitory and Bactericidal Activities of Daptomycin (LY 146032) and Four Reference Antibiotics, Singly and in Combination, against Gentamicin-Susceptible and High-Level-Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro inhibitory and bactericidal activities of daptomycin and reference antibiotics were determined by serial macro-broth dilution for 23 gentamicin-susceptible (MIC: < 2,000 mg\\/l) and 21 high-level-gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus avium isolates. The activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were independent of the gentamicin susceptibility profile and species tested. For all the isolates, the inhibitory

Arnold Louie; Aldona L. Baltch; William J. Ritz; Raymond P. Smith; Marianito Asperilla

1993-01-01

80

A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and

A. Michael; W. Ford; John Edwards; John Kilgo

2001-01-01

81

Assessment of Serum Progesterone Level on the Day of hCG Injection in Infertile Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients Referred to Women's Hospital, Tehran, 2009  

PubMed Central

Background Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reasons for infertility due to unovulation and recurrent abortions. There is no consensus on effect of serum progesterone level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection. This study aims to evaluate the effect of plasma levels of progesterone on the day of hCG injection on the rate of pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles of PCOS cases. Materials and Methods A stratified cohort study was conducted over a period of one year (2009) on 38 infertile women with PCOS who were suitable candidates for the IVF program. Patients were evaluated for other causes of infertility with hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy and normal sperm analysis. Patients were placed on the long protocol, followed by oocyte pick up, and finally IVF-embryo transfer (ET). Study patients were grouped according to progesterone levels of greater or less than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection. Pregnancy rates were defined in each group. Levels on day of hCG day clinical pregnancy outcome were assessed. Experimental data were then compared against Fisher’s exact test in SPSS version 18. Results The overall pregnancy rate in this study was 26.3%. In the group with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection, the clinical pregnancy rate was 4 (21.1%) and chemical pregnancy rate was 3(15.8%). In the group with progesterone levels less than 1.2 ng/ml, the clinical pregnancy rate was 1(5.3%) and chemical pregnancy rate was 2(10. 5%). Conclusion This study showed that PCOS patients with progesterone levels more than 1.2 ng/ml on the day of hCG injection resulted in higher chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. However, no significant statistical differences were found between the two groups. For further verification, we recommend additional studies with larger numbers of subjects. PMID:25210608

Rezaee, Zahra; Ghaseminejad, Azizeh; Forootan, Mitra; Hosseinipoor, Taraneh; Forghani, Forough

2012-01-01

82

Community and species responses to water level fluctuations with reference to soil layers in different habitats of mid-boreal mire complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper discusses water level fluctuations in different parts of boreal mire complexes (eleven localities), mainly\\u000a aapa mire complexes, on the basis of measurements performed by means of shallow observation wells and a few deeper observation\\u000a tubes (piezometers) in the coastal half of the southern aapa mire zone in Finland. The sites represented intact vegetation\\u000a from 12 different habitat

Jarmo Laitinen; Sakari Rehell; Jari Oksanen

2008-01-01

83

Urinary ? 1Microglobulin, ? 2Microglobulin, and Retinol-Binding Protein Levels in General Populations in Japan with References to Cadmium in Urine, Blood, and 24Hour Food Duplicates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins mere studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms

Masayuki Ikeda; Chan-Seok Moon; Zuo-Wen Zhang; H. Iguchi; T. Watanabe; O. Iwami; Y. Imai; S. Shimbo

1995-01-01

84

Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and Implications for Coastal and Estuarine Shoreline Management with Particular Reference to the Ecology of Intertidal Benthic Macrofauna in NW Europe  

PubMed Central

In many European estuaries, extensive areas of intertidal habitats consist of bare mudflats and sandflats that harbour a very high abundance and biomass of macrobenthic invertebrates. The high stocks of macrobenthos in turn provide important food sources for the higher trophic levels such as fish and shorebirds. Climate change and associated sea-level rise will have potential to cause changes in coastal and estuarine physical properties in a number of ways and thereby influence the ecology of estuarine dependent organisms. Although the mechanisms involved in biological responses resulting from such environmental changes are complex, the ecological effects are likely to be significant for the estuarine benthic macrofauna and hence the consumers they support. This paper reviews the utilisation patterns of estuarine intertidal habitats by shorebirds, fish and crustaceans, as well as factors affecting the distribution, abundance and biomass of estuarine macrobenthos that is known to be important food source for these estuarine predators. This study also provides simple conceptual models of the likely impacts of sea-level rise on the physical and biological elements of estuarine intertidal habitats, and implications of these results are discussed in the context of sustainable long term flood and coastal management in estuarine environments. PMID:24832510

Fujii, Toyonobu

2012-01-01

85

Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at ?196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL?1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 ?L sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL?1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL?1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; D?dina, Ji?í

2013-01-01

86

A mixture model with a reference-based automatic selection of components for disease classification from protein and/or gene expression levels  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics data analysis is often using linear mixture model representing samples as additive mixture of components. Properly constrained blind matrix factorization methods extract those components using mixture samples only. However, automatic selection of extracted components to be retained for classification analysis remains an open issue. Results The method proposed here is applied to well-studied protein and genomic datasets of ovarian, prostate and colon cancers to extract components for disease prediction. It achieves average sensitivities of: 96.2 (sd = 2.7%), 97.6% (sd = 2.8%) and 90.8% (sd = 5.5%) and average specificities of: 93.6% (sd = 4.1%), 99% (sd = 2.2%) and 79.4% (sd = 9.8%) in 100 independent two-fold cross-validations. Conclusions We propose an additive mixture model of a sample for feature extraction using, in principle, sparseness constrained factorization on a sample-by-sample basis. As opposed to that, existing methods factorize complete dataset simultaneously. The sample model is composed of a reference sample representing control and/or case (disease) groups and a test sample. Each sample is decomposed into two or more components that are selected automatically (without using label information) as control specific, case specific and not differentially expressed (neutral). The number of components is determined by cross-validation. Automatic assignment of features (m/z ratios or genes) to particular component is based on thresholds estimated from each sample directly. Due to the locality of decomposition, the strength of the expression of each feature across the samples can vary. Yet, they will still be allocated to the related disease and/or control specific component. Since label information is not used in the selection process, case and control specific components can be used for classification. That is not the case with standard factorization methods. Moreover, the component selected by proposed method as disease specific can be interpreted as a sub-mode and retained for further analysis to identify potential biomarkers. As opposed to standard matrix factorization methods this can be achieved on a sample (experiment)-by-sample basis. Postulating one or more components with indifferent features enables their removal from disease and control specific components on a sample-by-sample basis. This yields selected components with reduced complexity and generally, it increases prediction accuracy. PMID:22208882

2011-01-01

87

Evaluation of Body Mass Index (BMI) Percentile cut-off Levels with Reference to Insulin Resistance: A Comparative Study on South Indian Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the relationship of Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile cut off with Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), a surrogate marker for insulin resistance in obese, overweight and non–obese adolescents. Study Design: A cross-sectional analysis of 120 adolescents (divided into sixty overweight/obese and an equal number of non–obese) was performed on nondiabetic, nonpregnant (11 to 18 year old school going) adolescents in south Indian (Puducherry) population. The main outcome measure of insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR (greater than 3.16). Obesity was defined as per the BMI criteria, BMI greater than or equal to 95th percentile,overweight greater than or equal to 85th percentile and non–obese less than 84.9th percentile. All adolescents were subjected to analysis of anthropometric parameters that included weight, height and BMI (body mass index). Biochemical parameters, namely venous plasma glucose (fasting) and venous plasma insulin (fasting) were included for insulin resistance calculation by HOMA-IR. Results: Having a BMI of greater than or equal to 85th percentilewas associated with high HOMA-IR levels. As the BMI percentile increased, HOMA-IR levels also increased. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of less than 84.9 was nil. Prevalence of insulin resistance for a BMI percentile of 85-94.9 was 26%.Prevalence of insulin resistance for BMI of greater than or equal to 95th percentile was 64%. Conclusion: Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in obese and overweight adolescents as compared to that in non–obese adolescents. The onset of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is associated with the development of severe hyper–insulinaemia in obese adolescents and early primordial and primary prevention can thus alleviate the burden of future cardiometabolic disorders. PMID:24086844

Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; M., Lenin; Srinivasan, A.R.

2013-01-01

88

High-level Advisory Group of the UN Secretary-General on Climate Change Financing Terms of Reference Financing for Climate Change  

E-print Network

1. Based on the need identified in the Copenhagen Accord to study the potential sources of revenue for financing mitigation and adaptation activities in developing countries, and to make progress on this key issue in the course of 2010, the UN Secretary-General has established a High-level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing. 2. The Group will conduct a study on potential sources of revenue for the scaling up of new and additional resources from developed countries for financing actions in developing countries, in the spirit of the political commitments contained in the Copenhagen Accord, with a view to contributing to an appropriate decision of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties at its 16 th session in Mexico. 3. Initial outputs from the Group by the May/June meetings of the UNFCCC will provide timely information to Parties for their feedback. This will help to increase the transparency of the work of the Advisory Group, allow for comments and suggestions by governments as well as guidance for further work that the Group may need to undertake. The final report will be submitted to the UN Secretary-General and to the current (Denmark) and next (Mexico) president of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties by November 2010.

unknown authors

89

Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure water levels and collect water samples from the alluvium. Twenty-three of the holes were cased to seal out water and were used as access tubes to accommodate a neutron-neutron probe for determining the moisture content of the alluvium and tuff. The source of recharge for the perched ground-water body in the alluvium in Mortandad Canyon is the precipitation in the drainage area of the canyon. During the winter of 1960-61, a snowpack 1-2 feet thick accumulated in the narrow shaded upper part of the canyon. The alluvium below the snowpack received some recharge because of diurnal melting during the winter. In March 1961 the snowmelt water saturated most of the thin alluvium in the upper part of the canyon, and a surface stream began to flow on the alluvium. The maximum flow of the stream was about 250 gpm (gallons per minute). Water from the stream infiltrated the alluvium at the front of the stream and in the reach upstream from the front. A ground-water mound was formed beneath the channel by water infiltrating from the stream. The front of the stream and the front of the ground-water mound advanced eastward to about the middle of the area studied. From this point eastward, the alluvium was thick enough to absorb and transmit the amount of flow in 1961. Late in April the front of the stream retreated, and by the first of May the flow stopped. During and after this period the ground-water mound decayed, and ground-water levels declined in the upper part of the canyon as water drained into the channel and downgradient through the alluvium. The amount of recharge was small in the wide lower part of the canyon during the period of study. The rise in ground-water levels and the increase in moisture content of the alluvium in the lower part of the canyon indicate that water moved downgradient by underflow through the alluvium from the recharge area in the upper part of the canyon. Moisture measurements indicate that only a little water moved into the underlyin

Baltz, E. H.; Abrahams, J. H., Jr.; Purtyman, W. D.

1963-01-01

90

SPAR reference manual update SPAR level 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Command runstream elements are presented for analyzing structural systems that are composed of a number of cyclically symmetrical sectors. Provisions are included for systems in which each cyclically symmetrical sector also possesses a plane of reflective symmetry. The following types of analysis may be performed: static analysis with and without preload, vibrational analysis with and without preload, and buckling analysis with and without preload.

Whetstone, W. D.

1980-01-01

91

Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)). PMID:25295286

Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Barton, J Clayborn

2014-01-01

92

Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients  

PubMed Central

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)). PMID:25295286

Barton, James C.; Bertoli, Luigi F.; Barton, J. Clayborn

2014-01-01

93

Effect of predictive value of progesterone level on the day of HCG injection for IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to the women hospital, Tehran, 2009  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most common causes of endocrine disorders and main reason of infertility due to anovulation and recurrent abortions. Progesterone has been shown to have an important role in fertilization of oocyte and fetal implantation. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive value of progesterone level on IVF success in women with infertility due to tubal factor or PCOS. Materials and Methods: In a stratified cohort study, we assigned 76 infertile women of 20-38 years old who referred to women hospital into two equal groups with fallopian tube factor infertility and PCOS. We measured the plasma levels of progesterone and estradiol on the day of HCG administration. The patients were divided into two groups based on progesterone level cut off point of 1.2ng/ml. Thereafter the incidence of pregnancy (chemical by ?-HCG measurement and clinical by ultrasonography up to the 6 weeks after fetal transfer) was compared in these groups. Results: Total pregnancy rates were 15.8% in patients with tubal factor infertility and 26.3% in women with PCOS. In women with PCOS, the pregnancy rate was less in patients with progesterone level <1.2 ng/ml. However this difference was not statistically significant. Likewise, we did not observe any significant differences in pregnancy rate in patients with fallopian tube factor infertility. Conclusion: Serum progesterone level on the day of HCG administration is not well predictive of the IVF success in infertile women due to fallopian tube factor or PCOS. To obtain more uniform results, we recommend use of larger samples while the bias variable is taken into account and the ROC curve is used for determination of the unique serum progesterone level. PMID:25246897

Ghaseminejad, Azizeh; Rezaee, Zahra; Forootan, Mitra; Hosseinipoor, Taraneh; Forghani, Forough; Nikuei, Pooneh

2012-01-01

94

Use of molecular and reference susceptibility testing methods in a multicenter evaluation of MicroScan dried overnight gram-positive MIC panels for detection of vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside resistances in enterococci.  

PubMed

Modified MicroScan gram-positive MIC no. 8 panels (PM-8) were analyzed for their improved ability to detect vancomycin resistance (VR) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in enterococci. A validation study design that utilized selected challenge strains, recent clinical isolates, and reproducibility experiments in a multicenter format was selected. Three independent medical centers compared the commercial panels to reference broth microdilution panels (RBM) and Synergy Quad Agar (QA). Resistance was verified by demonstration of VR and HLAR genes by PCR tests. The study was conducted in three phases. (i) In the challenge phase (CP), two well-characterized sets of enterococci were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; one set contained 50 isolates for VR testing and one contained 48 isolates for HLAR testing. In addition, a set of 47 well-characterized isolates representing diverse geographic areas, obtained from earlier national surveillance studies, was tested at the University of Iowa College of Medicine (UICM). (ii) In the efficacy phase (EP), each laboratory tested 50 recent, unique clinical isolates by all methods. (iii) In the reproducibility Phase (RP), each laboratory tested the same 10 strains by all methods in triplicate on three separate days. All isolates from the EP were sent to the UICM for molecular characterization of vanA, -B, -C1, -C2-3, and HLAR genes. In the CP, the ranking of test methods by error rates (in parentheses; very major and major errors combined, versus PCR results) were as follows: for high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR), QA (12.0%) > PM-8 (5.2%) > RBM (1.6%); for high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), RBM (3.7%) > PM-8 (3.1%) > QA (2.6%); and for VR, RBM = QA (3.0%) > PM-8 (1.2%). In the EP, agreement between all methods and the reference PCR result was 98.0% for HLSR, 99.3% for HLGR, and 98. 6% for VR. In the RP, the percentages of results +/- 1 log2 dilution of the all-participant mode were as follows: for VR, 100% (PM-8), 98.9% (QA), and 90.0% (RBM); for HLSR, 99.6% (RBM), 98.5% (PM-8), and 82.2% (QA); and for HLGR, 99.6% (RBM), 99.3% (PM-8), and 98.1% (QA). The ability of the PM-8 to detect VR and HLAR in enterococci was comparable to those for reference susceptibility and molecular PCR methods and was considered acceptable for routine clinical laboratory use. PMID:9738056

Chen, Y S; Marshall, S A; Winokur, P L; Coffman, S L; Wilke, W W; Murray, P R; Spiegel, C A; Pfaller, M A; Doern, G V; Jones, R N

1998-10-01

95

Use of Molecular and Reference Susceptibility Testing Methods in a Multicenter Evaluation of MicroScan Dried Overnight Gram-Positive MIC Panels for Detection of Vancomycin and High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistances in Enterococci  

PubMed Central

Modified MicroScan gram-positive MIC no. 8 panels (PM-8) were analyzed for their improved ability to detect vancomycin resistance (VR) and high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in enterococci. A validation study design that utilized selected challenge strains, recent clinical isolates, and reproducibility experiments in a multicenter format was selected. Three independent medical centers compared the commercial panels to reference broth microdilution panels (RBM) and Synergy Quad Agar (QA). Resistance was verified by demonstration of VR and HLAR genes by PCR tests. The study was conducted in three phases. (i) In the challenge phase (CP), two well-characterized sets of enterococci were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; one set contained 50 isolates for VR testing and one contained 48 isolates for HLAR testing. In addition, a set of 47 well-characterized isolates representing diverse geographic areas, obtained from earlier national surveillance studies, was tested at the University of Iowa College of Medicine (UICM). (ii) In the efficacy phase (EP), each laboratory tested 50 recent, unique clinical isolates by all methods. (iii) In the reproducibility Phase (RP), each laboratory tested the same 10 strains by all methods in triplicate on three separate days. All isolates from the EP were sent to the UICM for molecular characterization of vanA, -B, -C1, -C2–3, and HLAR genes. In the CP, the ranking of test methods by error rates (in parentheses; very major and major errors combined, versus PCR results) were as follows: for high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR), QA (12.0%) > PM-8 (5.2%) > RBM (1.6%); for high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), RBM (3.7%) > PM-8 (3.1%) > QA (2.6%); and for VR, RBM = QA (3.0%) > PM-8 (1.2%). In the EP, agreement between all methods and the reference PCR result was 98.0% for HLSR, 99.3% for HLGR, and 98.6% for VR. In the RP, the percentages of results ± 1 log2 dilution of the all-participant mode were as follows: for VR, 100% (PM-8), 98.9% (QA), and 90.0% (RBM); for HLSR, 99.6% (RBM), 98.5% (PM-8), and 82.2% (QA); and for HLGR, 99.6% (RBM), 99.3% (PM-8), and 98.1% (QA). The ability of the PM-8 to detect VR and HLAR in enterococci was comparable to those for reference susceptibility and molecular PCR methods and was considered acceptable for routine clinical laboratory use. PMID:9738056

Chen, Yao-Shen; Marshall, S. A.; Winokur, P. L.; Coffman, S. L.; Wilke, W. W.; Murray, P. R.; Spiegel, C. A.; Pfaller, M. A.; Doern, G. V.; Jones, R. N.

1998-01-01

96

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

97

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

98

Live, Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

Kenney, Brian

2002-01-01

99

International reference standards in coagulation.  

PubMed

Measurement of coagulation factor activity using absolute physico-chemical techniques is not possible and estimation therefore relies on comparative bioassay relative to a reference standard with a known or assigned potency. However the inherent variability of locally prepared and calibrated reference standards can give rise to poor agreement between laboratories and methods. Harmonisation of measurement between laboratories at the international level relies on the availability of a common source of calibration for local reference standards and this is provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) International Standards which define the International Unit for the analyte. This article describes the principles, practices and problems of biological standardisation and the development and use of reference standards for assays of coagulation factors, with particular emphasis on WHO International Standards for both concentrates and plasma. PMID:20338786

Raut, Sanj; Hubbard, Anthony R

2010-07-01

100

Comparison of in vitro inhibitory and bactericidal activities of daptomycin (LY 146032) and four reference antibiotics, singly and in combination, against gentamicin-susceptible and high-level-gentamicin-resistant enterococci.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory and bactericidal activities of daptomycin and reference antibiotics were determined by serial macrobroth dilution for 23 gentamicin-susceptible (MIC: < 2,000 mg/l) and 21 high-level-gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus avium isolates. The activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were independent of the gentamicin susceptibility profile and species tested. For all the isolates, the inhibitory activity of daptomycin (MIC90: 2 mg/l) was comparable to vancomycin (MIC90: 2 mg/l), but less than that of teicoplanin (MIC90: 0.5 mg/l). Daptomycin demonstrated excellent bactericidal activity against all enterococci tested (MBC90: 8 mg/l). In contrast, all microorganisms were tolerant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Ampicillin and ciprofloxacin MICs and MBCs were dependent on enterococcal gentamicin resistance profile and species, with MICs and MBCs that ranged between 1 and > 64 mg/l. By time-kill curves, the combination of daptomycin plus ampicillin demonstrated synergistic bactericidal activity against gentamicin-susceptible and HLGR E. faecalis. Daptomycin, singly and in combination, may be useful in treating enterococcal infections, including those caused by HLGR microorganisms. PMID:8396526

Louie, A; Baltch, A L; Ritz, W J; Smith, R P; Asperilla, M

1993-01-01

101

A Reference Grammar of Pashto.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

102

Genetics Home Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih.gov — is ...

103

Quick Reference Contents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

104

QuickReferenceContents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

105

Chemistry Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

2014-07-25

106

Physical Science Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physical science reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

2014-07-11

107

Biology Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable list biology reference material for high school students in the life sciences. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

2014-07-25

108

References for marine science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard and Reference Materials for Marine Science, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memo OMA-51 (2nd edition, 434 pp.), by A. Y. Cantillo, is now available. This compilation of reference materials was prepared at the request of the Group of Experts on Standards and Reference Materials and was printed by NOAA. GESREM is sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the United Nations Program.Reference materials are included on ashes, gases, instrument performance materials, oils, physical properties, rocks, sediments, sludges, tissues and waters. For each reference material, source, description and preparation, analyses and values, cost, references, and comments are given. Indices are included for elements, isotopes and organic compounds. Cross references to Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers and alternate names and chemical structures of organic compounds are also provided.

1990-06-01

109

High frequency reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01

110

Optical voltage reference  

SciTech Connect

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1992-12-31

111

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

1994-04-26

112

Optical voltage reference  

DOEpatents

An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

1994-01-01

113

A standard satellite control reference model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

Golden, Constance

1994-01-01

114

IPL General Reference Collection: Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Though the Internet Public Library's Education meta-page is not as comprehensive in any of its categories as more specialized meta-pages, it covers all grade level education resources, including adult, alternative, K-12, higher ed., and vocational. The home page contains a brief list of major education information and meta-sites. Resources listed have been annotated and the entire IPL Ready Reference Collection is searchable.

115

RAS Reference Reagents  

Cancer.gov

Posted: 09/22/2014 Posted: 09/22/2014 RAS Reference Reagents Reference Reagents Group An important priority of the RAS Initiative is to distribute highly validated materials and methods to the world-wide community of RAS researchers. Two panels of

116

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Cathode Ray Tubes and Consumer Electronic Devices 20 Lamps 21 #12;Hazardous Waste Management Reference Guide Page 3 of 36 CHAPTER FIVE ­ WASTE MINIMIZATION 22 SUBSTITUTION 22 RECYCLING AND REDISTRIBUTION 22HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT REFERENCE GUIDE Prepared by Environment, Health and Safety Office

Faraon, Andrei

117

An Online Reference System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a computer aid developed to assist in academic library reference service using the DataPhase Circulation System, an automated system that features full cataloging records in database and permits local programing. Access points (subject, type of reference work, course) and database structure and user screens are highlighted. (EJS)

Chisman, Janet; Treat, William

1984-01-01

118

Online Voucher Quick Reference  

E-print Network

Online Voucher Quick Reference NUFinancials Payments OnlineVoucherQuickReference 12/10/2013 - rb > Online Voucher Entry Page · or NUFinancials Accounts Payable Vouchers Add/Update Online Voucher/letters or barcode# on form). 2. Enter the Invoice Date (from invoice, date of service, or today's date). 3. Look up

Shull, Kenneth R.

119

Martindale's "The Reference Desk"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

Martindale, Jim

120

Activities Using References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

Bolger, Charlene

121

Reference Collection Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

122

An expectation model of referring expressions  

E-print Network

This thesis introduces EMRE, an expectation-based model of referring expressions. EMRE is proposed as a model of non-syntactic dependencies - in particular, discourse-level semantic dependencies that bridge sentence gaps. ...

Kræmer, John, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

123

The RICHE Reference Architecture.  

PubMed

The RICHE Reference Architecture defines an open framework for health care information systems. Developed within the ESPRIT II programme, it is now the basis of several implementations in hospitals in Italy, Portugal, Ireland, France and the UK, and of follow-up initiatives such as EDITH (ESPRIT, no. 7508), NUCLEUS (AIM II, no. 2025) and REFERENCE (a French hospitals' project). This contribution describes the RICHE Reference Architecture in detail. Special concern is centred on the modulus that constitute the basic platform of RICHE, and on the methodology applied to design the interactions between them. PMID:7934300

Frandji, B; Schot, J; Joubert, M; Soady, I; Kilsdonk, A

1994-01-01

124

Frames of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

125

Genetics Home Reference: Paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Paralysis Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic ...

126

Genetics Home Reference: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

127

MONTREAL ABORIGINAL Reference Guide  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 TRAINING AND EDUCATION 13 School Boards (Adult Education Centres and Vocational Training CentresMONTREAL ABORIGINAL Reference Guide Empowering through employability, training and education! Created by the WORKING COMMITTEE ON EMPLOYABILITY-TRAINING-EDUCATION of the MONTREAL URBAN ABORIGINAL

Kambhampati, Patanjali

128

Reference Tables for Thermocouples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of the International Practical Temperature Scale of 1968 (IPTS 68) has resulted in significant errors in reference tables based on IPTS 48. The tables, presented here, convert existing tables to IPTS 68. (Author)

T. P. Jones

1969-01-01

129

Genetics Home Reference: Dystonia  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dystonia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: dopa-responsive dystonia dystonia 6 early-onset primary dystonia GM1 gangliosidosis hypermanganesemia with ...

130

Genetics Home Reference: Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dementia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease Alzheimer disease cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...

131

Genetics Home Reference: Epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Epilepsy Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Aicardi syndrome autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features benign ...

132

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

133

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 ... deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ataxia neuropathy spectrum benign familial ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification fucosidosis juvenile myoclonic ...

134

Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.  

SciTech Connect

This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

2013-07-01

135

Enterprise Reference Library  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and duplication costs. Most importantly, increasing collaboration across research groups provides unprecedented access to information relevant to NASA s mission. Conclusion: This project is an expansion and cost-effective leveraging of the existing JSC centralized library. Adding key word and author search capabilities and an alert function for notifications about new articles, based on users profiles, represent examples of future enhancements.

Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

2011-01-01

136

Introduction to dietary reference intakes.  

PubMed

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference standards used for planning and assessing the diets of apparently healthy Canadians and Americans. The development of DRIs reflects a joint initiative by the United States and Canada to update, expand on, and replace the former Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Americans. DRIs include the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The EAR is the average daily intake level that meets the requirement of 50% of healthy individuals in a life stage and gender group, whereas the RDA is set at a level that will meet the requirements of almost all (97%-98%) individuals in that life stage and gender group. An AI is a recommended intake level that is thought to meet the needs of almost all healthy individuals, and is set when there are insufficient data to establish an EAR (and therefore an RDA). The UL represents a threshold above which adverse effects of excessive intake may increase. In addition to these DRIs, macro nutrients have an Acceptable Macro nutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) and, for energy, an Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is described. PMID:16604144

Barr, Susan I

2006-02-01

137

Precision displacement reference system  

DOEpatents

A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

2000-02-22

138

Membrane reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

1988-01-21

139

Reference Man anatomical model  

SciTech Connect

The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

Cristy, M.

1994-10-01

140

The NEPA reference guide  

SciTech Connect

The NEPA Reference Guide conveniently organizes and indexes National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations and guidance, along with relevant federal case law, all in one place. It allows the user to quickly learn the statutory, regulatory, and case law authority for a large number of NEPA subjects. A unique feature of The NEPA Reference Guide is its detailed index that includes a large number of diverse NEPA subjects. The index enables users to find and compile any statutory, regulatory (including CEQ guidance), and case law original source material and references on virtually any NEPA subject. This will be an especially useful tool for new NEPA practitioners who need to become immersed in a particular subject quickly.

Swartz, L.L.; Reinke, D.C.

1999-10-01

141

Reference Based Genome Compression  

E-print Network

DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

2012-01-01

142

Cognition and Identifying Reference  

E-print Network

of 0 is a D-IC; or (iii) is a non- descriptive IC and 0 is not analyzable as D-IC. However, Russell's views imply that a person may have non- descriptive knowledge with respect to items with which » he is "acquainted," i.e., his own mental states... COGNITION AND IDENTIFYING REFERENCE Gary Rosenkrantz An examination of the relevant literature indicates that few attempts have been made to provide a comprehen­ sive cognitive account of identifying reference. Much of the work on the subject...

Rosenkrantz, Gary

1978-11-01

143

Multifunctional reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

1983-01-01

144

Shuttle Reference Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This collection of shuttle reference data contains the following information: shuttle abort history, shuttle abort modes, abort decisions, space shuttle rendezvous maneuvers, space shuttle main engines, space shuttle solid rocket boosters, hold-down posts, SRB (solid rocket boosters) ignition, electrical power distribution, hydraulic power units, thrust vector control, SBR rate gyro assemblies, SBR separation and Space Shuttle Super Super Light Weight Tank (SLWT).

2002-12-01

145

Teachers Reference: Annotations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

146

Selecting a Reference Object  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

2011-01-01

147

Best Reference 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading reference sources, whether on paper or on the screen, often leads to enlightened thinking, especially for library patrons. In an earlier age, enlightened monarchs surrounded themselves with leading intellectuals and patronized the arts. Today, people have the advantage of the world's collected wisdom at their fingertips in the form of…

Coutts, Brian E.; LaGuardia, Cheryl

2007-01-01

148

Generating Multimodal References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

2007-01-01

149

The Unreliability of References  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

Barden, Dennis M.

2008-01-01

150

Reference-Dependent Sympathy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

Small, Deborah A.

2010-01-01

151

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Data Type Selection The data type selection is a combination of the data source and statistical calculation. The available data type categories are: SEER Incidence Delay-adjusted SEER Incidence U.S. Mortality Survival Prevalence Risk

152

Multimedia Reference Tools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

Holzberg, Carol S.

2001-01-01

153

International reference ionosphere 1990  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Reference Ionosphere 1990 (IRI-90) is described. IRI described monthly averages of the electron density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and ion composition in the altitude range from 50 to 1000 km for magnetically quiet conditions in the non-auroral ionosphere. The most important improvements and new developments are summarized.

Bilitza, Dieter; Rawer, K.; Bossy, L.; Kutiev, I.; Oyama, K.-I.; Leitinger, R.; Kazimirovsky, E.

1990-01-01

154

Volunteeer's Reference Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For Postpartum Education for Parents (PEP) volunteers, this reference guide provides background information about the common concerns of parents. Extensively reviewed for accuracy and content by pediatricians, psychologists, obstetricians, nurses, and childbirth educators, the guide contains a summary discussion of the postpartum infant and…

Armstrong, Julie; And Others

155

Directory for Referring Veterinarians  

E-print Network

the referring veterinarian feedback survey in March 2013; your input was valuable in helping us assess.edu/hospital/ Academic Year 2013-2014 Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine Hospital for Animals #12;#12;I Offices 4 Standard Referral Procedures 5-6 II. Clinical Services Residents, Interns, Students, & Vet Techs

Pawlowski, Wojtek

156

Hospitality Services Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

157

An Amharic Reference Grammar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

Leslau, Wolf

158

CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual  

E-print Network

CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

159

Statistical Reference Datasets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project designed to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software. Dataset archives (Analysis of Variance, Linear Regression, Nonlinear Regression, and Univariate Summary Statistics); background information; related resources and links; FAQs. A project component of of NIST's Tools for Evaluating Mathematical and Statistical Software.

2008-01-31

160

Reference Collections and Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

Winkel, Lois

1999-01-01

161

Instructions Calomel Reference Electrodes  

E-print Network

. They provide a stable reference potential when used with an appropriate glass pH electrode, ISE (Ion Selec with water to remove any crystals that may have formed on the outer surface during storage. Crystal formation and rinse the electrode with water to remove any crystals that may have formed on the outer surface during

Kleinfeld, David

162

Instruction Set Quick Reference  

E-print Network

RA RETURN ADDRESS REGISTER (R31) PC PROGRAM COUNTER ACC 64-BIT ACCUMULATOR LO, HI ACCUMULATOR LOW-INSTRUCTION PLEASE REFER TO "MIPS32 ARCHITECTURE FOR PROGRAMMERS VOLUME II: THE MIPS32 INSTRUCTION SET" FOR COMPLETE LO = RS JUMPS AND BRANCHES (NOTE: ONE DELAY SLOT) B OFF18 PC += OFF18± BAL OFF18 RA = PC + 8, PC

Newhall, Tia

163

Fast Stats: Quick Reference  

Cancer.gov

Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

164

Internet Issues in Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

Tenopir, Carol

1995-01-01

165

Land Surveyor Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of Land Surveyor Reference Page Web site is "to provide reference materials that are useful in the practice of Land Surveying and to promote communication within the surveying community globally." Funded by the Huntington Technology Group, the site is periodically updated to include the latest information on state rules, regulations and statutes, federal government data sources, maps, articles of interest, college and university programs, meetings and conventions, as well as links to professional organizations, land surveying message boards, and much more. While obviously helpful to the surveying professional, the site also should appeal to researchers and others doing work that involves surveying; providing them with helpful and up-to-date information.

1995-01-01

166

The Celestial Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual basis of reference frames defined by extragalactic objects is straightforwaxd: that the universe as a whole does not rotate so very distant objects cannot have an overall rotational motion. Experimentally, the global rotation of the universe is less than 10(exp -12) arcsecond/yr as inferred from the 3K microwave background radiation. At the distance of 10(exp 8) parsecs, even if an object were moving transversely at the speed of light, its angular velocity would be less than 0.6 x 10(exp -3) arcsecond/yr, while an object moving at a physically more reasonable speed comparable to the Sun would show a motion of 10(exp -6) arcsecond/yr, entirely undetectable by current technology. Since neither systematic universal motion nor random motion at such great distance is measurable, it is reasonable to construct a static celestial reference frame on the basis that such objects axe fixed in the sky.

Ma, Chopo

1999-01-01

167

Shifted reference holographic interferometry.  

PubMed

Conventional holographic interferometry of vibrating objects yields reconstructed images in which the radiance of each point is proportional to the square of the zero-order Bessel function of an argument proportional to the vibration amplitude. Therefore, the vibration pattern appears as a dark outline on the bright background of the nonvibrating points. By appropriately shifting the frequency of the reference radiation used in the recording of the hologram, the radiance of each image point can be made proportional to the square of the first-order Bessel function of the above argument. Nonvibrating points are therefore black and vibrating points appear bright on a black background. A quantitative analysis of the technique is reviewed and extended and shows the shifted-reference method to be almost one order of magnitude more sensitive than the conventional method. Experimental verification of the theory is presented and some possible future applications are indicated. PMID:20125577

Zambuto, M H; Fischer, W K

1973-07-01

168

OSH technical reference manual  

SciTech Connect

In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

Not Available

1993-11-01

169

Alignment reference device  

DOEpatents

An alignment reference device provides a collimated laser beam that minimizes angular deviations therein. A laser beam source outputs the beam into a single mode optical fiber. The output end of the optical fiber acts as a source of radiant energy and is positioned at the focal point of a lens system where the focal point is positioned within the lens. The output beam reflects off a mirror back to the lens that produces a collimated beam.

Patton, Gail Y. (Sunnyvale, CA); Torgerson, Darrel D. (Palo Alto, CA)

1987-01-01

170

General and reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROVOCATEUR: IMAGES OF WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN ADVERTISING by Anthony J. Cortese (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield “Postmodern Social Futures,”; 1999—$35.00\\/24.95, ISBN 0–8476–9174–8 hard, 0–8476–9175–6 paper, 161 pp., photographs, glossary, reference, index)ADVERTISINQ AQE HANDBOOK OF ADVERTISING by Herschell Gordon Lewis and Carol Nelson (Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Business Books, 1999—$39.95, ISBN 0–8442–3670–5, 228 pp., photographs, appendices, index)TELECOMMUNICATIONS GUIDE TO THE INTERNET

Eleanor Block; Chris Sterling; Jessica M. Fishman; James K. Bracken

1999-01-01

171

E 127 reference standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ASTM E 127 "Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks" was developed to assure consistent ultrasonic measurement of suspected discontinuities in wrought aluminium alloy product. The E127 practice established a consensus methodology for the manufacture, metrological limits and ultrasonic response limits from flat bottom hole (FBH) references manufactured in accordance with the practice. This paper will present a brief history of the development of the standard along with problems encountered in the earliest publications. The early issues were resolved, but as instrumentation and materials changed, problems have again arisen with the consistency of the results. Over the past 20+ years the authors have uncovered the causes of many of the inconsistencies associated with establishing measurement that match the original values prescribed in the practice. Over the years, a multitude of measurements were made on various reference standards covering a manufacture range for the mid 50s to the current time. The measurements have uncovered fundamental causes for the inconsistencies related to the material and measuring systems. The uncovered causes along with a proposal for a revision to the practice will be presented.

Warchol, Mark F. A.; Warchol, Lyudmila V.

2014-02-01

172

Reference-based Discourse Structure for Reference Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection between discourse struc- ture and reference is well recognmed. In the system of language understanding de- scribed, discourse structure is exploited for the purposes of reference resolution and then continu\\/ty of reference is exploited to build the discomle ~etructure for the pur- poses of subsequent reference resohtion. The role of discourse structure in derefer- encing, pronouns, other NPs,

Helen Seville; Allan Ramsay

1999-01-01

173

The Electronic Reference Desk: Reference Service in an Electronic World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes changes in reference services in academic libraries prompted by new electronic formats and services. Four main areas are discussed: (1) changes in the philosophy of reference services and the types of reference services offered; (2) accessing reference services, including greater direct access by patrons; (3) physical configurations of…

Cargill, Jennifer

1992-01-01

174

Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

2011-12-01

175

Physical Reference Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) Physical Reference Data Web site (last mentioned in the August 16, 1996 Scout Report) provides data on physical constants, ionization, x-ray and gamma-ray, radiation dosimetry, nuclear and condensed matter physics, atomic and molecular spectroscopic data, and more. For example, within the searchable physical constants page, visitors can find everything from alpha particle mass to the Wien displacement law constant. Any researcher, professional, or graduate student in related fields will find this readily accessible information invaluable.

1994-01-01

176

SEI reference mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form on the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). The goal of the reference mission is to expand the human presence to the moon and Mars in order to enhance our understanding of the universe, to seek terrestrial benefits from this exploration, and to establish the beginnings of a sustainable spacefaring civilization. Topics covered here include a phased definition of initial programmatic milestones and follow-on capabilities, near-term mission strategy, a lunar mission timeline, and a Mars mission timeline.

Weary, Dwayne

1992-01-01

177

Population Reference Bureau  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Population Reference Bureau, an organization dedicated to providing information about worldwide population, health, and environment. Materials available here include information on U.S. and international population trends and their implications. There are articles, data sheets, reports, and world statistics on topics such as education, employment, fertility, poverty, race, youth, and many others. The site is also searchable by specific region, state, or variables such as age group. For educators, there are detailed lesson plans that use data from the site, as well as resource guides and standards. Links for additional information are provided as well.

178

Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1990, the U.S. Congress enacted the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) in response to growing awareness of a land loss crisis in Louisiana. Projects funded by CWPPRA require monitoring and evaluation of project effectiveness, and there is also a need to assess the cumulative effects of all projects to achieve a sustainable coastal environment. In 2003, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration (OCPR) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received approval from the CWPPRA Task Force to implement the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) as a mechanism to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of CWPPRA projects at the project, region, and coastwide levels. The CRMS design implements a multiple reference approach by using aspects of hydrogeomorphic functional assessments and probabilistic sampling. The CRMS program is as dynamic as the coastal habitats it monitors. The program is currently funded through CWPPRA and provides data for a variety of user groups, including resource managers, academics, landowners, and researchers.

2010-01-01

179

Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.  

PubMed

Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50?Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4?µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5?µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141?µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189?µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58?kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms. PMID:24615825

Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

2014-05-01

180

PASCAL/48 reference manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PASCAL/48 is a programming language for the Intel MCS-48 series of microcomputers. In particular, it can be used with the Intel 8748. It is designed to allow the programmer to control most of the instructions being generated and the allocation of storage. The language can be used instead of ASSEMBLY language in most applications while allowing the user the necessary degree of control over hardware resources. Although it is called PASCAL/48, the language differs in many ways from PASCAL. The program structure and statements of the two languages are similar, but the expression mechanism and data types are different. The PASCAL/48 cross-compiler is written in PASCAL and runs on the CDC CYBER NOS system. It generates object code in Intel hexadecimal format that can be used to program the MCS-48 series of microcomputers. This reference manual defines the language, describes the predeclared procedures, lists error messages, illustrates use, and includes language syntax diagrams.

Knight, J. C.; Hamm, R. W.

1984-01-01

181

Cataloger's Reference Shelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library Corporation (TLC) has its collection of 21 MARC (MAchine-Readable Cataloging) manuals and other reference works relating to library technical services freely available on the web. Library of Congress publications and the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) were the basis for the content and arrangement of many of the manuals contained at this site. There are cataloging manuals for specific formats, including "archival moving images," looseleaf publications, serials (CONSER), rare books, maps, and graphic materials. In addition, there are guides to USMARC formats for bibliographic, authority, classification, and holdings data. For detailed descriptions and examples of all MARC fields and their subfields, choose "Bibliographic Data" from the main menu and then follow the "Tag List" link. USMARC code lists for countries, geographic areas, and languages are also available.

1997-01-01

182

VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

1992-01-01

183

References: Elmasri/Navathe  

E-print Network

/Neumann: Skript zur Vorlesung Datenbanksysteme I (in German), TU Braun- schweig, 2000. Stefan Brass: Datenbanken-level. #15; decide about denormalization. Stefan Brass: Datenbanken II Universit at Halle, 2003 5 Forms 3. Multivalued Dependencies and 4NF 4. Normal Forms and ER-Design 5. Denormalization Stefan Brass

Brass, Stefan

184

Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

2009-08-18

185

Reference Ranges & What They Mean  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Reference Ranges and What They Mean Share this page: ... this site | Common misconceptions | Sources The "Normal" or Reference Range "Your test was out of the normal ...

186

Genetics Home Reference: Feingold syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Feingold syndrome? atresia ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

187

Genetics Home Reference: Harlequin ichthyosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding harlequin ichthyosis? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 links) ...

188

Genetics Home Reference: Lamellar ichthyosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding lamellar ichthyosis? alopecia ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

189

Genetics Home Reference: Glycine encephalopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding glycine encephalopathy? amino acid ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

190

Landscapes as references for design  

E-print Network

This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

Batchelor, James P

1981-01-01

191

Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks.

Mike, Everhart.; Oceans Of Kansas, Sternberg M.

192

Global Drug Reference Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Drug Reference Online is a website that Olympic athletes and their support teams from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can check to see if any drug they take is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The purpose, of course, is to make sure the athletes aren't taking any drug that would give an unfair advantage to the athlete. The site allows athletes to make sure any medication they are taking, even for routine health problems, i.e. allergies, doesn't contain any ingredients that are prohibited by WADA. Visitors can do a mock search to see that the "user type", "sport" and "nation of purchase" are all factors in whether the drug is prohibited or not. The "user type" includes "athlete", "coach", "medical professional", "sports administrator", and "parent". Many of the mistakes the athletes could make in regard to determining if the drug is prohibited are mentioned in the "FAQs" section, and the burden of proof is clearly on them.

193

Reference change values.  

PubMed

Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines. PMID:21958344

Fraser, Callum G

2012-05-01

194

Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

2013-04-01

195

Power conserving CMOS reference voltage source  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power-conserving CMOS reference voltage generation circuit comprising first (101) and second (101') parallel reference voltage sources, coupled to a common ENABLE input, and having a common reference voltage output node (101''), each source including a first, p-channel (102,102') and a second, n-channel (103,103') CMOS transistor series-connected between Vcc and ground. The first and second transistors have respective gates connected at a common gate node (G, G') and respective drains connected to a common drain node (D, D'), characterized in that: the second reference voltage source (101') is of relatively large capacity compared to the first source (101), means (173,107'), responsive to a rising signal edge at the ENABLE input, are provided for temporarily enabling the second source (101'). This shortens the time required to drive the reference voltage at the output node (101'') to a desired level, i.e. enhancing the slew rate of the node, and means (190-194) are provided for interconnecting the common gate nodes (G,G') the common drain nodes (D,D'), and the common output reference voltage output node (101'') in response to a high signal on the ENABLE input and for isolating the nodes from one another in response to a low signal on the ENABLE input, thereby conserving power.

Lee, R.D.

1986-12-09

196

Students' Perceptions of Reference Letters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' perceptions of reference letters. Students (n = 444) were asked to describe how they perceived reference letters. Four themes were uncovered. First, some students perceived reference letters as useful for employers. Second, some students perceived the letters as important for students seeking employment or admission…

Payne, Brian K.; Appel, Jonathan; Smith, Donald H.; Hoofnagle, Kara

2006-01-01

197

Thermomechanical Earth Reference Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth is a complex dynamic system constantly being driven from equilibrium by the force of gravity, the primary source of which is the density contrast between mature oceanic lithosphere and the rest of the mantle. A common property of non-equilibrium dissipative systems is self-organization, or the emergence of a spatial pattern due to physical interactions within the system. These interactions can be characterized in terms of diffusivity. For example, the classical cellular convection model of geodynamics relies on the interplay of diffusivities for both heat and shear stress. A non-linear elastic extension of this approach, utilizing theorems from the theory of differential grade-2 (DG-2) materials (Patton & Watkinson, in press), has led us to recognize a self-similar spatial pattern which is remarkably consistent with Earth’s known structure, across a wide range of scales. Differential grade-2 materials are frame-indifferent, and general enough to include other, simpler materials as special cases. In pure shear they exhibit a dynamic rescaling mechanism, associated with localized shearing, which links the spatial and temporal scales of the deformation process in a self-consistent manner, independent of the observer. On typical thermal timescales, the thermomechanical competence of DG-2 materials therefore depends on the ratio of thermal to mechanical diffusivities, ?/?. On this basis, we hypothesize the effective rigidity of Earth materials, pertaining when the thermomechanical competence is greater than unity. Calibrated to PREM (Dziewonski & Anderson 1981) via simple least squares minimization, our Thermomechanical Earth Reference Model features mature oceanic plates of ~100 km thickness, and suggests the existence of isopycnal ‘detachment’ zones at systematic, globally correlated depths beneath orogens, consistent with a variety of geological data.

Patton, R. L.; Watkinson, A. J.

2009-12-01

198

Capillary reference half-cell  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA)

1996-01-01

199

User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

2007-01-01

200

Releasing Agency Reference No. Receiving Agency Reference No.  

E-print Network

Releasing Agency Reference No. Receiving Agency Reference No. FDP-411A Property Transfers Texas A Between Texas A&M University Departments (Ex. From Chemistry to Physics; From Architecture to Surplus) (Check One) Transfer Out of Texas A&M University (Ex. From Texas A&M University to TAES) Transfer

Boas, Harold P.

201

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

202

Requirements for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine.  

PubMed

In addition to reference measurement procedures and reference materials, reference or calibration laboratories play an integral role in the implementation of measurement traceability in routine laboratories. They provide results of measurements using higher-order methods, e.g. isotope dilution mass spectrometry and may assign values to materials to be used for external quality assessment programs and to secondary reference materials. The requirements for listing of laboratories that provide reference measurement services include a statement of the metrological level or principle of measurement, accreditation as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 15195 and the participation in a proficiency testing system (regular inter-laboratory comparisons) for reference laboratories. Ring trials are currently conducted for thirty well-defined measurands and the results are made available to all laboratories. Through the use of reference laboratory services that are listed by the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine there is the opportunity to further promote traceability and standardisation of laboratory measurements. PMID:18392129

Siekmann, Lothar

2007-11-01

203

Charting Future Directions for Reference Service  

E-print Network

Charting Future Directions for Reference Service John Stratton and Frances Devlin University of Kansas KLA/CULS Conference October 21, 2011 Outline • Background •Methodology • Trends • Findings • Other Influences • Charting the Future... of instructional programs into Anschutz Learning Studio Huron Consulting Group Findings: ? Services offered at or above peer institutions Recommendation: ? Need to re-assess library staffing and key service levels Charting the Future • Organizational...

Stratton, John M.; Devlin, Frances A.

2011-10-18

204

References int & aref=a;!  

E-print Network

std;! ! int main() {! int a = 9; // variable! int& aref = a; // reference to variable a! a(b) ; // a reference to b is generated here! !! std::cout std::endl;! !return 0 of variable b! #12;#include ! using namespace std;! ! int main() {! int n=15;! int *pn;! ! pn

Chen, Po

205

Are Reference Desks Dying Out?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how librarians are struggling to redefine, and in some cases eliminate, the venerable institution of reference desk services and it explores the new ways in which reference questions get answered at university libraries. These include fielding questions through e-mail, instant messaging, and other mobile technologies, making…

Carlson, Scott

2007-01-01

206

When Is Cataphoric Reference Recognised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pronouns typically have explicit antecedents in the prior discourse otherwise processing difficulty is experienced. However, it has been argued [Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1997). "Intuitive knowledge of linguistic co-reference." "Cognition, 62", 325-370; Gordon, P. C., & Hendrick, R. (1998). "The representation and processing of co-reference

Filik, Ruth; Sanford, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

207

COARSE PARTICLE FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing a new Federal Reference Method for PM in the range of 2.5 to 10 microns aerodynamic diameter, for possible use in a possible new Ambient Air Quality Standard for particles in this size range. Federal Reference Methods are the first-approved methods used to meas...

208

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture  

E-print Network

NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

Perkins, Richard A.

209

Using the Internet for Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the advantages of the Internet for special and reference librarians. Describes the purpose and operation of four electronic discussion lists--BUSLIB-L, MEDLIB-L, LIBREF-L, and STUMPERS-L--noting that the interactions provide the greatest benefits to librarians both for reference service and discussion of common interests and problems.…

Ladner, Sharyn J.; Tillman, Hope N.

1993-01-01

210

Africa South of the Sahara: A Guide to Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography has been compiled as an introduction to reference resources for college-level African studies and to suggest useful tools for literature searches. It is a guide to materials in the library of McGill University. Call numbers are included. The titles cited refer to Africa South of the Sahara as a whole or to large…

Mason, Mary, Comp.

211

1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary  

SciTech Connect

This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-08-01

212

Fetal exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields with pregnant women and in particular with the fetus, an anatomical voxel model of an 89 kg woman at week 30 of pregnancy was developed. Intracorporal electric current density distributions due to exposure to homogeneous 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields were calculated and results were compared with basic restrictions recommended by ICNIRP guidelines. It could be shown that the basic restriction is met within the central nervous system (CNS) of the mother at exposure to reference level of either electric or magnetic fields. However, within the fetus the basic restriction is considerably exceeded. Revision of reference levels might be necessary.

Cech, R.; Leitgeb, N.; Pediaditis, M.

2007-02-01

213

Model Inference with Reference Priors  

E-print Network

We describe the application of model inference based on reference priors to two concrete examples in high energy physics: the determination of the CKM matrix parameters rhobar and etabar and the determination of the parameters m_0 and m_1/2 in a simplified version of the CMSSM SUSY model. We show how a 1-dimensional reference posterior can be mapped to the n-dimensional (n-D) parameter space of the given class of models, under a minimal set of conditions on the n-D function. This reference-based function can be used as a prior for the next iteration of inference, using Bayes' theorem recursively.

Maurizio Pierini; Harrison Prosper; Sezen Sekmen; Maria Spiropulu

2011-07-14

214

Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

215

Genetics Home Reference: Genetic Conditions  

MedlinePLUS

... the U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions Find a specific ... Act Copyright Privacy Accessibility Indicates a page outside Genetics Home Reference. Links to web sites outside the ...

216

Aquatic sediments. [Review (140 references)  

SciTech Connect

This review article with 140 references emphasizes analytical and sampling methods, and the importance of aquatic sediments as vehicles for the transport of algal nutrients and toxic materials. Modeling studies of toxic materials in aquatic systems were reviewed also. (KRM)

DePinto, J.V.; Young, T.C.; Martin, S.C.

1981-06-01

217

Genetics Home Reference: Prion disease  

MedlinePLUS

... protease ; protein ; reproductive cells ; sperm ; sporadic ; syndrome ; tissue ; transformation You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

218

References  

E-print Network

subtype alcoholism beyond ICD-10, mainly in order to take in account the course of the disease and its neurochemistry. The typology of Otto Lesch [1,2] has received considerable attention due to its practical value and its relevance for the prediction of treatment response. While the comorbidity of alcoholism and affective disorder has been thoroughly studied [3], the role of subthreshold affective disturbances and the role of temperament remain unclear. At Vienna University Hospital he have studied consecutive admissions of patients with alcoholism by assessing temperament and subthreshold hypomania. Our data show a clear link of the Lesch typology to the clinical burden of hypomanic and cyclothymic features. Implications for prevention and long-term treatment will be discussed.

Andreas Erfurth

2010-01-01

219

Method of determining coke level  

SciTech Connect

Instruments measure and periodically store coke vertical temperature profile data sets at multiple coke guide levels within expected level range. Computer detects highest level in each data set above a reference temperature and terminal plots coke level as a function thereof.

Gerdes, J.H.

1982-08-17

220

Reference Anywhere, Anytime: Recent Works on Virtual Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of virtual reference has been a popular one in the past year, and this column highlights a range of those articles. Included are overviews of the topic, articles addressing specific technological solutions and concerns, and pieces that explore the intricacies of delivering and assessing a "traditional" service through a different medium.

Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

2008-01-01

221

Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

2009-01-01

222

Photometry of astrometric reference stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

UBVRI, DDO, and uvby, H-beta photometry of astrometric reference stars is presented. Spectral types and luminosity classifications made from the colors are used to determine their spectroscopic parallaxes. In this paper, colors for 309 stars in 25 regions are given, and classifications for 210 stars have been made. These stars form reference frames in the Allegheny Observatory Multichannel Astrometric Photometer astrometric program, and in the Praesepe cluster reduced by Russell (1976). It is found that the present photometric spectral types are reliable to within 2.5 spectral subclasses.

Castelaz, Michael W.; Persinger, Tim; Stein, John W.; Prosser, James; Powell, Harry D.

1991-01-01

223

Safety analysis review terms of reference  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

Hurley, T.

1981-03-01

224

Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds  

E-print Network

1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not pur...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01

225

Voice Over IP Reference Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of architectural specifications, network and signaling protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP. Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. There is also a collection of documents containing VoIP references, and in this sections, visitors will find an H.323 tutorial.

2008-02-13

226

The ADS Bibliographic Reference Resolver  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly larger number of publishers and institutions are using the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) to verify the existence and availability of references published in the astronomical literature. In this paper we discuss the tools and utilities that the ADS is developing to provide the capability to automatically parse, identify, and verify the existence and correctness of citations appearing

Alberto Accomazzi; Guenther Eichhorn; M. J. Kurtz; C. S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

1999-01-01

227

Selected Reference Books of 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography, a semiannual series, presents a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works, published in 2000. Works are in the following areas: dictionaries; religion; literature; film; music; political science; history; archaeology; and science and technology. New editions of standard works are highlighted at the end.…

McIlvaine, Eileen

2001-01-01

228

Selected Reference Books of 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of recent scholarly and general reference books as compiled by Columbia University libraries. Subject categories include religion, literature, women's studies, film studies, art and architecture, political science, history and area studies, technology, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

McIlvaine, Eileen

1997-01-01

229

References: SperbergMcQueen  

E-print Network

· · · EXERCISES CAT ENO TOPIC MAXPT H 1 Rel. Algeb. 10 H 2 SQL 10 M 1 SQL 14 RESULTS SID CAT ENO POINTS 101 H 1 10: Exercise category . E.g. 'H': homework, 'M': midterm exam, 'F': final exam. # ENO: Exercise number (within the solution. This references a row in STUDENTS. # CAT, ENO: Identification of the exercise. Together

Brass, Stefan

230

Mobile Technologies and Roving Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As 21st century librarians, we have made apt adjustments for reaching out into the digital world, but we need to consider the students who still use library services within our walls. We can use available handheld, mobile technologies to help patrons too shy to approach the desk and free library staff to bring reference service directly to patrons.

Penner, Katherine

2011-01-01

231

Referent Tracking for Corporate Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate memories (CM) are information systems designed to keep track of the history and evolution of an enterprise with the goal of using past experience to enhance performance in the future. Well designed CMs should contain data about both the enterprise and the environment in which it operates. The former, traditionally embodied in what is referred to as an 'enterprise

Werner CEUSTERS; Barry SMITH

232

Expert Systems in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven articles introduce expert systems applications in library and information science, and present design and implementation issues of system development for reference services. Topics covered include knowledge based systems, prototype development, the use of artificial intelligence to remedy current system inadequacies, and an expert system to…

Roysdon, Christine, Ed.; White, Howard D., Ed.

1989-01-01

233

Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

234

Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

235

Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

236

Selected Reference Books of 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

McIlvaine, Eileen

1999-01-01

237

Reference Projections Energy and Emissions  

E-print Network

prices increase slightly The liberalisation of the energy markets persists in both scenarios. The pricesSummary Reference Projections Energy and Emissions 2005-2020 A.W.N. van Dril1 H.E. Elzenga2 (coord.) 1 Energy research Centre of the Netherlands 2 Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency National

238

Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Insider Threat Security Reference Architecture, ITSRA, provides an enterprise wide solution to insider threat. The architecture consists of four security layers -- Business, Information, Data, and Application. Organizations should deploy and enforce controls at each layer in order to address insider attacks. Each layer does not function in isolation or independently of other layers. Rather, the correlation of indicators

Joji Montelibano; Andrew Moore

2012-01-01

239

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference  

E-print Network

Fire Prevention Plan I. Reference California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section 3221. II. Policy It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to provide an environment free from potential fire of potential hazards. III. Purpose Prevention of hazards which have the potential of starting fires. IV. Scope

de Lijser, Peter

240

A Computerized Reference Retrieval System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An automated retrieval system for reference works was constructed as a prototype in order to illustrate the capabilities and potentialities of future retrieval systems. More than 170 biographical works were indexed and stored in a computer disk to form a biographical data base, and a computer program was written to match patron queries. Consistent…

Harline, N. La Var

241

Alberta. Reference Series No. 26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Alberta and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the history and population, the provincial government, the economy, transportation, communications, mineral resources, agriculture, manufacturing, forest products,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

242

Reference Service to State Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New York State Library has a mission to provide reference, information and loan service to the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of the state government. The special nature of government information needs imposes extraordinary requirements on the library's information services. This paper describes the programs the library has developed in response to its users' information needs.

Mary Redmond; Lee Stanton

1988-01-01

243

Saskatchewan. Reference Series No. 27.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Saskatchewan and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss history, economy, oil, uranium, potash, coal, minerals and metals, agriculture, forestry, tourism and recreation, arts and culture, and people. Specific topics…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

244

Mars Human Exploration Reference Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo

Bret Drake

1998-01-01

245

Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

246

The Timing of Referred Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "dreaded resits," or referred examinations to give them their full title. Hated by everyone: (1) the students (when they start the course they think they won't need them); (2) the academic staff (they think the students should have worked harder first time around); and (3) the administrative staff (they have seen it all before and really would…

Slater, Robert

2009-01-01

247

Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers

C. S. Sims; G. E. Ragan

1987-01-01

248

The neurobiology of reference-dependent value computation.  

PubMed

A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., "absolute") value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations. PMID:19321780

De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J

2009-03-25

249

The Neurobiology of Reference-Dependent Value Computation  

PubMed Central

A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., “absolute”) value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations. PMID:19321780

De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J.

2009-01-01

250

Frames of Reference: The Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Velocity and acceleration always need to be measured relative to some fixed benchmarks, which define a frame of reference. The first section of this resource, The Aberration of Starlight, shows that two frames of reference moving relative to each other with a constant velocity are completely equivalent, and the same laws hold in both. However, this section describes how the motion of the Earth modifies the apparent positions of stars and the arrival direction of the solar wind. There is information about the aberration of starlight and its explanation by James Bradley, who used his observation of the flag on a moving boat as the essential clue. In addition, the student will learn about the aberration of the solar wind and the behavior of comet tails and also about the proposed Solar Probe space mission. The second section contains a brief non-mathematical discussion of the theory of relativity.

Stern, David

251

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

252

An experimental study on the self-reference effect.  

PubMed

Self-reference at encoding increases the probability of recollective experience in recognition memory. Self-reference effect (SRE) in memory is observed when the degree of self-reference of to-be-remembered materials is varied. Usually items encoded in terms of self-reference are associated with significantly higher recall performance relative to items encoded in other ways, including semantic encoding. In our three experiments, four orientating tasks formed four levels in a between-subjects design. The conditions were rating personality traits with reference to self, mother, Lu Xun (a famous Chinese writer) or rating the traits on a negative-positive dimension. In a recognition test, subjects first identified old items and then indicated which of these were accompanied by recollective experience ('remember' responses) and which were recognized on some other basis ('know' responses). Our results showed that both the self-reference condition and mother condition were associated with the same highest proportion of correct remember responses and the same lowest proportion of correct know responses. In contrast, for Western subjects, the self-reference condition, relative to the mother condition, was associated with a higher proportion of correct remember responses and a lower proportion of correct know responses. We discussed the results with reference to the HERA model (hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry). PMID:18763071

Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Li

2002-04-01

253

Advanced Physics: Rotating Reference Frames  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A ball is shown on a rotating merry-go-round with a frictionless surface. The ball starts at the center of the merry-go-round and moves outward at a constant speed. Views from two reference frames are shown, one where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the ground and the other (shown above) where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the merry-go-round.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2006-01-19

254

ADAM -- Interface Module Reference Manual  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADAM Interface Modules provide an interface between ADAM application programs and the rest of the system. This document describes in detail the facilities available with ADAM Interface Modules and the rules for using them. It is intended as a reference manual and should shed light on some of the finer points of the ADAM parameter system. Readers requiring an introduction to Interface Modules should read SG/4.

Chipperfield, A. J.; Kelly, B. D.; Wright, S. L.

255

HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-29

256

HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT  

SciTech Connect

This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

DISSELKAMP RS

2010-06-18

257

The soil reference shrinkage curve  

E-print Network

A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural porosity; (6) the ratio of aggregate solid mass to solid mass of intraaggregate matrix; (7) the lacunar factor that characterizes the rate of the lacunar pore volume change with water content; and (8) oven-dried lacunar pore volume. The model was validated using available data. The model predicted value of the slope of the reference shrinkage curve in the basic shrinkage area is equal to unity minus the lacunar factor value, and is between unity and zero in the agreement with observations.

V. Y. Chertkov

2014-03-11

258

Comparison of two command and control reference models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goal of Command and Control (C2) reference modeling is to facilitate interoperability between Armed Force systems by proposing a framework model to define the interfaces between interacting C2 entities. Applying C2 reference models should help to define the information and intelligence exchange needs at each Canadian Forces' command level, thus facilitating external interoperability within coalition deployments. Two candidate C2 reference models were compared: the U.S. Command and Control Reference Model (C2RM) and the UK Methods for Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence Interoperability Reference Model (MCI RM). The C2RM is used to specify information needs and data flows from the individual soldier up to the operational and strategic command levels and is aimed primarily at long-term force interoperability. The MCI RM is used to develop a high-level object-oriented model of the system/command in question. High- level information flow requirements are precisely what is needed to develop operating procedures for short lead-time coalition deployments. Thus, a C2 entity's UK MCI RM representation is more suited to the fulfillment of short-term interoperability goals typical of coalition force deployments when compared to the U.S. C2RM's representation. The UK MCI RM corresponds better to Canadian Forces' coalition force interoperability needs.

Demers, David; Pille, Valdur

1998-08-01

259

Auditory Warnings, Signal-Referent Relations, and Natural Indicators: Re-Thinking Theory and Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In auditory warning design the idea of the strength of the association between sound and referent has been pivotal. Research has proceeded via constructing classification systems of signal-referent associations and then testing predictions about ease of learning of different levels of signal-referent relation strength across and within different types of auditory signal (viz., speech, abstract sounds, and auditory icons). However,

Agnes Petocz; Peter E. Keller; Catherine J. Stevens

2008-01-01

260

The Reference Desk Survey: A Management Tool in an Academic Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a survey of the level of reference service requested at service points conducted at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University indicate that, while 20.5 percent of 14,026 questions recorded fall in the reference category, only 0.7 percent required research by professional librarians. Models of reference desk service and…

Kok, Victoria T.; Pierce, Anton B.

1982-01-01

261

Comparing Virtual Reference Exit Survey Results and Transcript Analysis: A Model for Service Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses virtual reference transcripts for which patrons completed exit surveys to seek any correlations between user and librarian satisfaction within virtual reference transactions. By analyzing transcripts with a focus on three elements-technology performance, preferred reference practices, and the demonstrated communication levels of…

Smyth, Joanne B.; MacKenzie, James C.

2006-01-01

262

Self-reference and Logic Thomas Bolander  

E-print Network

Self-reference and Logic Thomas Bolander 22nd August 2005 Self-reference is used to denote any situation in which someone or something refers to itself. Object that refer to themselves are called self to something--is potentially self-referential. This covers objects such as sentences, thoughts, computer

Bolander, Thomas

263

Sex references in the mass media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the mass media's coverage of sexual topics during the years 1950, 1960, and 1970. An examination is made of the quantity of references to sex, the percentage of liberal references, and the coverage of specific sexual activities. It is ascertained that specific references to extramarital sex and noncoital sex decreased from 1950 to 1970. References both to

Joseph E. Scott; Jack L. Franklin

1973-01-01

264

REFERENCE MANUAL Rev. 3.13 ( 20080229)  

E-print Network

REFERENCE MANUAL Rev. 3.13 ( 20080229) MPMPMPMP----285285285285 Micromanipulator SystemReference Manual #12;#12;MPMPMPMP----285285285285 Micromanipulator System Reference Manual (Rev. 3.13 (20080229: 415-883-0572 Email:info@sutter.com #12;MP-285 MICROMANIPULATOR SYSTEM REFERENCE MANUAL ­ REV. 3

Gardel, Margaret

265

Reference Is Better than We Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses measurement techniques for determining good reference service and describes results from a study of 12 public libraries in California that investigated reference service. Topics include inconsistent reference studies that showed reference service giving good results half of the time; and measuring unrelated outcomes of accuracy, utility,…

Richardson, John V., Jr.

2002-01-01

266

Reference design for LAMPF II  

SciTech Connect

A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10/sup 13/ protons per pulse (100 ..mu..A average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge.

Thiessen, H.A.

1983-01-01

267

PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference  

SciTech Connect

The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

Dobos, A. P.

2013-10-01

268

Electrolytic cell with reference electrode  

DOEpatents

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

Kessie, Robert W. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01

269

Nuclear science references coding manual  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1996-08-01

270

The soil reference shrinkage curve  

E-print Network

A recently proposed model showed how a clay shrinkage curve is transformed to the soil shrinkage curve at the soil clay content higher than a critical one. The objective of the present work was to generalize this model to the soil clay content lower a critical one. I investigated (i) the reference shrinkage curve, that is, one without cracks; (ii) the superficial layer of aggregates, with changed pore structure compared with the intraaggregate matrix; and (iii) soils with sufficiently low clay content where there are large pores inside the intraaggregate clay (so-called lacunar pores). The methodology is based on detail accounting for different contributions to the soil volume and water content during shrinkage. The key point is the calculation of the lacunar pore volume variance at shrinkage. The reference shrinkage curve is determined by eight physical soil parameters: (1) oven-dried specific volume; (2) maximum swelling water content; (3) mean solid density; (4) soil clay content; (5) oven-dried structural...

Chertkov, V Y

2014-01-01

271

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

1994-05-03

272

High stability wavefront reference source  

DOEpatents

A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

1994-01-01

273

Radio reference frame stability from VLBI data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intercontinental radio interferometric measurements between NASA's Deep Space Network stations yield a catalog of positions of 106 extragalactic radio sources, uniformly distributed between -45 and +85 deg declination. Almost all of the source positions have formal uncertainties between 0.5 and 3 milliarcseconds. Estimates of three independent sets of 32 source coordinates at average epochs 1980.0, 1983.2, and 1984.5 assess the level of stability of the reference frame over a five-year period. Comparisons of the three sets of source coordinates show a number of cases of greater than 2 sigma differences, particularly between the 1984-85 and 1981-83 periods. No sources, however, show 2 sigma shifts among both pairs of epochs. Upper limits of the order of 1 mas/yr can be placed on the time rates of change of the 32 source coordinates.

Sovers, O. J.; Treuhaft, R. N.

1988-01-01

274

GLOBAL REFERENCE ATMOSPHERIC MODELS FOR AEROASSIST APPLICATIONS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeroassist is a broad category of advanced transportation technology encompassing aerocapture, aerobraking, aeroentry, precision landing, hazard detection and avoidance, and aerogravity assist. The eight destinations in the Solar System with sufficient atmosphere to enable aeroassist technology are Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn's moon Titan. Engineering-level atmospheric models for five of these targets - Earth, Mars, Titan, Neptune, and Venus - have been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. These models are useful as tools in mission planning and systems analysis studies associated with aeroassist applications. The series of models is collectively named the Global Reference Atmospheric Model or GRAM series. An important capability of all the models in the GRAM series is their ability to simulate quasi-random perturbations for Monte Carlo analysis in developing guidance, navigation and control algorithms, for aerothermal design, and for other applications sensitive to atmospheric variability. Recent example applications are discussed.

Duvall, Aleta; Justus, C. G.; Keller, Vernon W.

2005-01-01

275

Generalized linear models with unspecified reference distribution  

PubMed Central

We propose a new class of semiparametric generalized linear models. As with existing models, these models are specified via a linear predictor and a link function for the mean of response Y as a function of predictors X. Here, however, the “baseline” distribution of Y at a given reference mean ?0 is left unspecified and is estimated from the data. The response distribution when the mean differs from ?0 is then generated via exponential tilting of the baseline distribution, yielding a response model that is a natural exponential family, with corresponding canonical link and variance functions. The resulting model has a level of flexibility similar to the popular proportional odds model. Maximum likelihood estimation is developed for response distributions with finite support, and the new model is studied and illustrated through simulations and example analyses from aging research. PMID:18824517

Rathouz, Paul J.; Gao, Liping

2009-01-01

276

Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... For patients and families Genetic Testing Registry Genetic testing ClinicalTrials.gov Research studies ... is Tangier disease? Tangier disease is an inherited disorder characterized by significantly reduced levels of high- ...

277

Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

278

Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... lipids (fats) properly. It is classified as an organic acid disorder, which is a condition that leads ... an abnormal buildup of particular acids known as organic acids. Abnormal levels of organic acids in the ...

279

Genetics Home Reference: Wolfram syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... the membrane of a cell structure called the endoplasmic reticulum that is involved in protein production, processing, and ... levels within cells are not regulated and the endoplasmic reticulum does not work correctly. When the endoplasmic reticulum ...

280

National Criminal Justice Reference Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource "offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide." They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. Visitors who know what they are looking for may wish to start with the "A-Z Publications/Products" area and may also wish to sign up for their biweekly email newsletter, JustInfo. The homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, new reports on improving responses to people with mental illnesses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Those persons looking for grants and funding opportunities will definitely want to look over a special section dedicated to providing information on hundreds of different programs.

2008-01-01

281

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0103191

2001-01-01

282

Primary Atomic Clock Reference System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An artist's concept of the Primary Atomic Clock Reference System (PARCS) plarned to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). PARCS will make even more accurate atomic time available to everyone, from physicists testing Einstein's Theory of Relativity, to hikers using the Global Positioning System to find their way. In ground-based atomic clocks, lasers are used to cool and nearly stop atoms of cesium whose vibrations are used as the time base. The microgravity of space will allow the atoms to be suspended in the clock rather than circulated in an atomic fountain, as required on Earth. PARCS is being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with principal investigators at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. See also No. 0100120.

2001-01-01

283

NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL  

SciTech Connect

This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

WINCHELL,D.F.

2007-04-01

284

Internal laryngocoele and referred otalgia.  

PubMed

A 74-year-old woman presented with severe right ear pain associated with bleeding of 2 months' duration and vertigo. She was otherwise fit and well apart from arthritis. On examination there was dried blood overlying the right ear drum and very mild inflammation of the canal but no obvious acute infection. The dried blood was removed in subsequent clinic visits. The ear drum was intact and there was no evidence of infection. However, the patient still had persistent pain in the right ear. A diagnosis of referred otalgia was made. Nose, throat, neck, temporo-mandibular joint, oral examination and flexible nasoendoscopic examination were normal. She underwent MRI of her neck which revealed a right supraglottic mass. Laryngoscopy was performed. Intra-operative findings revealed a smooth right supraglottic mass, which was thought to be an internal laryngocoele. The laryngocoele was de-roofed. The histology specimen showed no evidence of neoplasia. PMID:22797479

Vedasalam, S; Sipaul, F; Porter, G

2010-01-01

285

Mars Human Exploration Reference Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation proposes the next steps for human exploration of Mars. The presentation reviews the reasons for human exploration of Mars. Two different trajectories are proposed: (1) for a long stay mission, and (2) for a short term mission, which could also include a swing by Venus. A reference mission scenario is investigated, which includes forward deployment of two cargo missions, followed by a human piloted mission. The power needs of such a mission include nuclear thermal propulsion, and the possible use of Mars in situ resources. The exploration will require electric propulsion, stationary power source, and a mobile power source. The trajectories required for electric propulsion of earth are shown, and the engineering of a Mars Transportation Habitat are reviewed.

Drake, Bret

1998-01-01

286

The Nuclear Science References Database  

E-print Network

The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

Pritychenko, B; Singh, B; Totans, J

2013-01-01

287

Terms of Reference Terms of Reference for Large Facilities Subgroup  

E-print Network

and impact in any financial scenario (positive, negative or neutral). The level and timing of funding for any Subgroup · Large Facilities Subgroup · Impact Subgroup · Technology Subgroup Programmatic Review Process 4 requirements for large facilities and the opportunities for new facilities; · advise the Technology Subgroup

288

Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

2013-01-01

289

Unified Gravimetric Reference Frame for Polish IGS\\/EPN Stations and Geodynamic Test Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute gravity values are useful to regional geodynamic purposes as a complement of position monitoring at IGS\\/EPN permanent stations. Absolute gravity stations in region of geodynamic test field are also necessary as precise reference level for relative gravimetric measurements and long-period gravity monitoring. Absolute gravimetric network to unify gravimetric reference level for GNSS permanent stations and geodynamic test fields had

Janusz Walo; Tomasz Olszak; Andrzej Pachuta; Dominik Próchniewicz; Ryszard Szpunar

2010-01-01

290

Organizing and Maintaining a Native American Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A plan for organizing a Native American reference library is proposed in this paper. Some of the preliminary considerations discussed are the type of library needed; the levels of the books; the responsibilities for specific jobs in the library; and preliminary meetings to be held with students and teachers who will be using the facilities.…

Henry, Jeanette

291

Bullying in global organizations: A reference point perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why does bullying occur in an organization? How will the globalization of an organization facilitate the process and encourage bullying to occur in that organization? What can be done to reduce the level\\/impact of bullying in an organization that is in transition? These are the focal questions addressed in this paper. Reference Point Theory (RPT) is applied to the bullying

Michael Harvey; Darren Treadway; Joyce Thompson Heames

2006-01-01

292

The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual Makarius Wenzel  

E-print Network

=Isabelle Isar The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual Makarius Wenzel With Contributions, tacticals etc.) to pursue their everyday theorem proving tasks. In contrast Isar provides an interpreted devel- opment. Compared to raw ML, the Isabelle/Isar top-level provides a more robust and comfortable

Cengarle, María Victoria

293

42 CFR 37.10 - Standards incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Task Group 8, Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Committee, published...Group 12, Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Committee, published...Exposure Indicator for Digital Radiography, Report of AAPM Task Group...Reference Levels in Medical X-Ray Imaging, Revised...

2013-10-01

294

42 CFR 37.10 - Standards incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Task Group 8, Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Committee, published...Group 12, Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Committee, published...Exposure Indicator for Digital Radiography, Report of AAPM Task Group...Reference Levels in Medical X-Ray Imaging, Revised...

2012-10-01

295

Principles of Science Principles of Biology Reference Edition  

E-print Network

a mature understanding of scientific concepts. Our unique interactive design turns students into active the publishers of Nature and Scientific American. The Principles of Biology Reference Edition includes in science related courses · High academic achievement for all learning styles at all levels of education

Cai, Long

296

Fitness to Stand Trial Evaluations: A Comparison of Referred and Non-Referred Defendants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the characteristics of 80 defendants referred for fitness to stand trial evaluations with those of 80 defendants who were not referred. Results indicated that referred and non-referred defendants were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics. Referred defendants were significantly more likely to be charged with a violent offense, meet diagnostic criteria for current psychotic disorder, and demonstrate

Jodi L. Viljoen; Patricia A. Zapf

2002-01-01

297

Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease  

MedlinePLUS

... The ATP2A2 gene provides instructions for producing an enzyme abbreviated as SERCA2. This enzyme acts as a pump that helps control the ... gene result in insufficient amounts of functional SERCA2 enzyme. A lack of SERCA2 enzyme reduces calcium levels ...

298

21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

2010-04-01

299

USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference  

MedlinePLUS

... to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Find nutrient information on over 8,000 foods ... program, The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, is maintained by the Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville ...

300

Investigating Motion: Understanding Frame of Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity, students observe and describe motion from different frames of reference and measure the time for the motion. They analyze their findings and develop a working definition of "frame of reference".

301

32 CFR 1290.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

2011-07-01

302

DTP Reference Guide for New Users  

Cancer.gov

DTP Reference Guide for New Users Home Discovery Development Pathways Grants/Contracts Books/Publications Site Search Data Search What's New Quick Reference Guide Where do I go if I need Funding Samples for my research Individual compounds, compound

303

Cross-References Applications of Nanofluidics  

E-print Network

Cross-References Applications of Nanofluidics Electrokinetic Fluid Flow in Nanostructures Micro/Nano Flow Characterization Techniques Nanochannels for Nanofluidics: Fabrication Aspects Rapid Electrokinetic Patterning References 1. Conlisk, A.T.: Essentials of Micro and Nanofluidics with Application

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

304

Genetics Home Reference: Brooke-Spiegler syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Brooke-Spiegler syndrome? apoptosis ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

305

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (9 links) ...

306

Genetics Home Reference: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding juvenile hyaline fibromatosis? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

307

Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

2007-01-01

308

CSERD: Computational Science Education Reference Desk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Computational Science Education Reference Desk (CSERD) features resources to help students learn about computational science and to help teachers incorporate it into the classroom. Computational science involves the appropriate use of a computational architecture or computing environment (a computer, calculator, abacus, dice, or the like) to apply some algorithm, or mathematical method, to solve some scientific application, or problem. This combination of application, algorithm, and architecture results in a model that can be used as a scientific tool. The Resources section of the CSERD site provides a permanent collection of materials developed especially for CSERD, including models (pieces of scientific software), activities (lessons or lesson plans that use models), tutorials (short courses designed to teach a specific topic), applications, algorithms, architectures, and several other categories. The Resources form part of a larger catalogue of computational science items gathered by CSERD from around the internet. The catalogue can be searched or browsed by subject, keyword, education level, audience, and resource type. The record for each item includes a link to the resource, title, brief description, education level, and other information.

2003-11-25

309

Estimating reference nutrient criteria for Maryland ecoregions.  

PubMed

Management of stream nutrients is becoming increasingly important in order to protect both water quality and aquatic resources throughout the USA. Using an extensive water quality database from the long-term Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS), we describe nutrient relationships to landscape characteristics as total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) of small-order, non-tidal streams in USEPA L2 and L3 ecoregions in Maryland and by MBSS stream order at the L2 and L3 ecoregion levels. To protect stream ecosystem integrity, preliminary reference nutrient estimates (TN and TP) as percentiles (25th of all stream reaches and 75th of stream reference reaches) for the six Maryland L3 ecoregions are: Blue Ridge TN 0.29 and 0.64 mg/L, TP 0.0065 and 0.0090 mg/L; Central Appalachians TN 0.40 and 1.0 mg/L, TP 0.0060 and 0.015 mg/L; Middle Atlantic Coastal Plains TN 0.93 and 2.5 mg/L, TP 0.094 and 0.065 mg/L; Northern Piedmont TN 1.6 and 1.8 mg/L, TP 0.010 and 0.015 mg/L; Ridge and Valley TN 0.40 and 0.98 mg/L, TP 0.0063 and 0.012 mg/L; and Southeastern Plains TN 0.33 and 0.82 mg/L, TP 0.016 and 0.042 mg/L. High levels of both TN and TP are present in many streams found in non-tidal watersheds associated with all Maryland ecoregions, but are especially elevated in the Northern Piedmont and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain ecoregions, with the latter second-order streams (average TN?>?2.9 mg/L) significantly higher than all other ecoregion-order combinations. Across all six ecoregions, mean nutrient loading for both TN and TP was generally equivalent in first-order streams to nutrient concentrations seen in both second- and third-order streams, indicating a definite need to increase efforts in preventing nutrients from entering first-order streams. Small-order stream nutrient levels are the drivers for subsequent TN and TP inputs into the upper freshwater tidal reaches of the Chesapeake Bay, resulting in a potential risk for altered estuarine ecosystems. PMID:22644126

Morgan, Raymond P; Kline, Kathleen M; Churchill, John B

2013-03-01

310

Physics of NonInertial Reference Frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws\\u000ato any reference frames. The first, Law of Kinematic in non-inertial reference\\u000aframes reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and\\u000adeterminates a constant n-th order derivative with respect to time being equal\\u000ain absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The

Timur F. Kamalov

2007-01-01

311

The NGST Design Reference Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NGST Design Reference Mission (DRM) defines the key science goals for the NGST observatory. In 1999, the Ad Hoc Science Working Group (ASWG) refined and prioritized the 22 programs in the DRM. The top two programs, deep imaging and spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, emphasize the unique and important role that NGST will play in the near infrared (NIR) study of the origins of the first stars and galaxies. The top 7 programs include supernova and weak lensing surveys, determination of the epoch of reionization, imaging and spectroscopic studies of protostars, and mid-infrared (MIR, 5-28 ? m) surveys of heavily obscured star formation regions such as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We describe the DRM, the prioritization process, and the role that the DRM plays in the selection and allocation of instrumental capabilities among the international partners (NASA, ESA, and CSA). NGST is a central mission in the NASA search for astronomical origins. For additional information, readers are encouraged to visit the NASA and STScI websites: http://ngst.gsfc.nasa.gov/, http://www.ngst.stsci.edu/.

Stockman, H. S.; Mather, J. C.

1999-12-01

312

ILC cryogenic systems reference design  

SciTech Connect

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

2008-01-01

313

Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.  

PubMed

The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements. PMID:25065634

Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

2014-09-01

314

Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

2008-03-01

315

Age of References in Chemistry Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the age of references contained within journal articles and review articles written by chemists associated with the University of Oklahoma that were published in selected years from 1975–2005. The median ages of references from journal articles to articles changed little over the period studied. The ages of references from journal articles to other sources are analyzed, along

Lina Ortega

2008-01-01

316

Frames of Reference in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

Grossman, Joshua

2012-01-01

317

Rethinking Job References: A Networking Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can job references play an active role in shaping one's career plans? Would individuals consider their references as part of their personal and professional network? Although most professionals may respond with a resounding "Yes, of course!" to these questions, the author realized that many of his students were skeptical about job references. To…

Muir, Clive

2009-01-01

318

Letters of reference: A process approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

References continue to be a required part of selection systems in employment settings and higher education. Previous research on references has often involved atheoretical validation studies. We propose that the reference message itself is but one step in a communication process and that letter tone, content, and structure can be analyzed to determine their contribution to process outcomes. A sample

Brian T. Loher; John T. Hazer; Amy Tsai; Kendel Tilton; Jessy James

1997-01-01

319

Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males’ Facebook Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each

Katie G. Egan; Megan A. Moreno

2011-01-01

320

WHAT IS SAID AN INQUIRY INTO REFERENCE,  

E-print Network

' ­ contribute their reference, and nothing but their reference, to the semantic content, and thereby undermine of sentences containing indexicals, and articulating the relationship between content, truth, and reference in this work is that the semantic content of an indexical expression, such as `this' or `I', is nothing more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

Ties Between Celestial And Planetary Reference Frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents new determination of relative orientation (or frame tie) between reference frame of extra-galactic radio sources and reference frame of planetary ephemeris. Method employed for improved frame-tie estimate relies on ability to measure orientation of Earth with respect to inertial reference frame. Improves orbit determination for interplanetary spacecraft.

Finger, Mark H.; Folkner, William M.

1992-01-01

322

Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents

Pankhurst, Anne

1995-01-01

323

Communication Theory's Role in the Reference Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the applicability of communication science theory to the reference process, particularly in areas involving human behavior, and discusses the roles of both verbal and nonverbal communication (body language, paralanguage, proxemics, and environmental factors) in the reference interview. Forty-one references are provided. (EJS)

Glogoff, Stuart

1983-01-01

324

Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials  

E-print Network

00-1 Planning Report Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Administration #12;February 2000 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final-006 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final Report February 2000

325

www.oreilly.com Linux Quick Reference  

E-print Network

www.oreilly.com Linux Quick Reference SOME USEFUL COMMANDS File/Directory Basics ls List files cp of their respective owners. #30473 #12;www.oreilly.com Linux Quick Reference SOME USEFUL COMMANDS File cdrecord Burn a CD rsync Mirror a set of files Linux Quick Reference SOME USEFUL COMMANDS Linux Quick

Reluga, Tim

326

Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

Inc., Petrodynamics

327

Caesarean section among referred and self-referred birthing women: a cohort study from a tertiary hospital, northeastern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background The inequity in emergency obstetric care access in Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Despite an existing national obstetric referral system, many birthing women bypass referring facilities and go directly to higher-level care centres. We wanted to compare Caesarean section (CS) rates among women formally referred to a tertiary care centre versus self-referred women, and to assess the effect of referral status on adverse outcomes after CS. Methods We used data from 21,011 deliveries, drawn from the birth registry of a tertiary hospital in northeastern Tanzania, during 2000-07. Referral status was categorized as self-referred if the woman had bypassed or not accessed referral, or formally-referred if referred by a health worker. Because CS indications were insufficiently registered, we applied the Ten-Group Classification System to determine the CS rate by obstetric group and referral status. Associations between referral status and adverse outcomes after CS delivery were analysed using multiple regression models. Outcome measures were CS, maternal death, obstetric haemorrhage ? 750 mL, postpartum stay > 9 days, neonatal death, Apgar score < 7 at 5 min and neonatal ward transfer. Results Referral status contributed substantially to the CS rate, which was 55.0% in formally-referred and 26.9% in self-referred birthing women. In both groups, term nulliparous singleton cephalic pregnancies and women with previous scar(s) constituted two thirds of CS deliveries. Low Apgar score (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and neonatal ward transfer (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35) were significantly associated with formal referral. Early neonatal death rates after CS were 1.6% in babies of formally-referred versus 1.2% in babies of self-referred birthing women, a non-significant difference after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.87-2.16). Absolute neonatal death rates were > 2% after CS in breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries in both referral groups. Conclusions Women referred for delivery had higher CS rates and poorer neonatal outcomes, suggesting that the formal referral system successfully identifies high-risk birth, although low volume suggests underutilization. High absolute rates of post-CS adverse outcomes among breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries suggest the need to target self-referred birthing women for earlier professional intrapartum care. PMID:21798016

2011-01-01

328

Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SARwb) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR10g). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SARwb) and 58% (SAR10g) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SARwb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Christ, A.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

2010-06-01

329

Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Astrophysics of Reference Frame Tie Objects Key Science program will investigate the underlying physics of SIM grid objects. Extragalactic objects in the SIM grid will be used to tie the SIM reference frame to the quasi-inertial reference frame defined by extragalactic objects and to remove any residual frame rotation with respect to the extragalactic frame. The current realization of the extragalactic frame is the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The ICRF is defined by the radio positions of 212 extragalactic objects and is the IAU sanctioned fundamental astronomical reference frame. This key project will advance our knowledge of the physics of the objects which will make up the SIM grid, such as quasars and chromospherically active stars, and relates directly to the stability of the SIM reference frame. The following questions concerning the physics of reference frame tie objects will be investigated.

Johnston, Kenneth J.; Boboltz, David; Fey, Alan Lee; Gaume, Ralph A.; Zacharias, Norbert

2004-01-01

330

Realization of an inertial reference frame from Mark III VLBI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over 350,000 dual frequency Mark III VLBI observations from several geodetic and astrometric observing programs have been used to realize an inertial reference frame through the positions of 325 compact extragalactic radio sources uniformly distributed over the sky with standard errors typically under 1 milliarcsecond (mas). Internal and external tests indicate that the reference frame defined by the relative positions of these radio sources should be accurate and stable at the 1-2 mas level. Because the conventional precession and nutation models are adjusted in the estimation of the source positions, the positions and relative angles are not degraded over the interval of observations or at epochs away from the reference epoch.

Ma, C.

1990-01-01

331

Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

2012-01-01

332

Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division is presented in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. The article examines ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies, and makes recommendations about how these strategies can be applied to the Reference Division and to Internet usage for the reference process

Sara Ryan

1996-01-01

333

BLOCKAGE 2.5 reference manual  

SciTech Connect

The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate license compliance regarding the design of suction strainers for emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pumps in boiling water reactors (BWR) as required by NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors``. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and Software Edge, Inc. (SE) developed this PC-based code. The instructions to effectively use this code to evaluate the potential of debris to sufficiently block a pump suction strainer such that a pump could lose NPSH margin was documented in a User`s Manual (NRC, NUREG/CR-6370). The Reference Manual contains additional information that supports the use of BLOCKAGE 2.5. It contains descriptions of the analytical models contained in the code, programmer guides illustrating the structure of the code, and summaries of coding verification and model validation exercises that were performed to ensure that the analytical models were correctly coded and applicable to the evaluation of BWR pump suction strainers. The BLOCKAGE code was developed by SEA and programmed in FORTRAN as a code that can be executed from the DOS level on a PC. A graphical users interface (GUI) was then developed by SEA to make BLOCKAGE easier to use and to provide graphical output capability. The GUI was programmed in the C language. The user has the option of executing BLOCKAGE 2.5 with the GUI or from the DOS level and the Users Manual provides instruction for both methods of execution.

Shaffer, C.J.; Brideau, J.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

1996-12-01

334

The NASA master directory: Quick reference guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a quick reference guide to the NASA Master Directory (MD), which is a free, online, multidisciplinary directory of space and Earth science data sets (NASA and non-NASA data) that are of potential interest to the NASA-sponsored research community. The MD contains high-level descriptions of data sets, other data systems and archives, and campaigns and projects. It provides mechanisms for searching for data sets by important criteria such as geophysical parameters, time, and spatial coverage, and provides information on ordering the data. It also provides automatic connections to a number of data systems such as the NASA Climate Data System, the Planetary Data System, the NASA Ocean Data System, the Pilot Land Data System, and others. The MD includes general information about many data systems, data centers, and coordinated data analysis projects, It represents the first major step in the Catalog Interoperability project, whose objective is to enable researchers to quickly and efficiently identify, obtain information about, and get access to space and Earth science data. The guide describes how to access, use, and exit the MD and lists its features.

Satin, Karen (editor); Kanga, Carol (editor)

1989-01-01

335

[Scientific writing: the choice of references].  

PubMed

Only "acceptable" references can be cited, i.e. references that the reader can find easily. Only published work must be referenced, and the author must only cite those papers he or she has actually read. These should be avoided, as they are always difficult to obtain. Conference abstracts are published either in the conference report handed to participants alone, or in special issues of journals. Only the latter should be cited, when necessary. References to oral presentations are not accepted. References to personal communications should not be included in the list of references. The author cited must have given express permission. "Secondhand" references, i.e. those the author has not taken time to read yet quotes nonetheless, are prohibited. Manuscripts submitted for publication should not be cited. Articles accepted for publications can be referenced as "In press; "name of journal". PMID:8162364

Maisonneuve, H

1994-01-01

336

Satellite borne laser for adaptive optics reference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low power (2mW) lasers mounted on a small satellite in a highly eccentric orbit can provide a bright and spectrally well-defined reference source for calibration of ground-based adaptive optic systems. Because the reference is spectrally well-defined it can be efficiently filtered in broad-band imaging applications and yet can provide a very bright reference source for wavefront detectors when imaging faint sources. Dependent on the size of the atmospheric isoplanatic patch, the satellite reference may be useful for calibrating observations of selected objects for periods in excess of 1 hr, leading to limiting magnitudes for detection of up to +30. The area of sky for which the reference is valid is restricted (order 1 sq deg of sky per telescope per year). The reference is valid for phasing aperture synthesis telescope arrays of kilometric scale. Orbital maneuvers for target selection and to increase the sky coverage will be considered.

Greenaway, A. H.

1991-09-01

337

The JWST Calibration Reference Data System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Calibration Reference Data System (CRDS) will be used during the instrumental calibration phase of JWST data processing to select reference files (e.g. darks, flats, distortion models) to be used to calibrate each dataset. The CRDS will also be used in the delivery and management of reference files within the JWST data archive and to manage the rules that will be used to determine which files are to be used with each science dataset. The CRDS incorporates lessons learned from more than 20 years of use of the HST Calibration Database System (CDBS), allowing for easier management of the reference file mapping rules, web-based reference file delivery and retrieval procedures, on-line access by off-site users who are reprocessing their science data, and easier testing of new reference files in the operations environment.

Bushouse, H.; Greenfield, P.; Miller, T.

2012-09-01

338

Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene. PMID:25345678

Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

2014-01-01

339

Coal-fired reference plants: project benefits  

SciTech Connect

The reference plant approach is described. Conceptual design information in the form of preengineered arrangements and system design descriptions is available at project inception. The reference plant approach provides for a more orderly design process and also presents benefits of improved constructibility. This paper describes the engineering/design process under this approach and the major elements of the reference plant package for a 600 MW unit. Project cost and schedule benefits are also presented. 7 refs.

Tatum, C.B.; Bracey, D.J.

1982-03-01

340

Spatial reference frame agreement in quantum networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to communicate information in a quantum network effectively, all network nodes should share a common reference frame. Here, we propose to study how well m nodes in a quantum network can establish a common spatial reference frame from scratch, even though t of them may be arbitrarily faulty. We present a protocol that allows all correctly functioning nodes to agree on a common reference frame as long as they are fully connected and not more than t nodes are faulty. Our protocol furthermore has the appealing property that it allows any existing two-node protocol for reference frame agreement to be lifted to a protocol for a quantum network.

Islam, Tanvirul; Magnin, Loïck; Sorg, Brandon; Wehner, Stephanie

2014-06-01

341

Abney Level  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A pocket instrument used in surveying which consists of a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level connected to a pointing arm and an arced scale graduated 0 to 90º in both directions. When correctly used, the Abney Level is an accurate surveying tool used to measure degrees, percent of grade and...

2009-07-22

342

Bibliography of Testing and Evaluation Reference Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of IDA Memorandum Report M-496, Bibliography of Testing and Evaluation Reference Material, is to present the reference material acquired in the course of developing IDA Paper P-2132, SDS Testing and Evaluation: A Review of the State of the Art...

B. R. Brykczynski, C. Youngblut

1989-01-01

343

Reference Manager Version 11, for Windows  

E-print Network

#12;ii Reference Manager® Version 11, for Windows COPYRIGHT 2004 Thomson ISI ResearchSoft, all permission from Thomson ISI or Thomson ISI ResearchSoft. TRADEMARKS Reference Manager is a registered trademark of Thomson ISI. Cite While You Write is a trademark of Thomson ISI. Microsoft and Windows

Huang, Su-Yun

344

Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is devoted to the design and analysis of a predictor-based model reference adaptive control. Stable adaptive laws are derived using Lyapunov framework. The proposed architecture is compared with the now classical model reference adaptive control. A simulation example is presented in which numerical evidence indicates that the proposed controller yields improved transient characteristics.

Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

2010-01-01

345

Stress-Burnout: A Bibliography. 1000+ References.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comprehensive bibliography contains an alphabetized list of over 1000 references dealing with job stress and burnout. All relevant published references are included; they represent major journals from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, sociology, management and administration, and human services such as social work and…

Riggar, T. F.; Beardsley, M.

346

Milli-Q Reference Water Purification System  

E-print Network

schematic on the next page shows how the water is purified and delivered by the system. Convenience in waterMilli-Q® Reference Water Purification System The reference for ultrapure water systems EMD Millipore is a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany #12;Ultrapure Water by EMD Millipore Scientists

Woodall, Jerry M.

347

A Reference Architecture for Web Browsers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reference architecture for a domain captures the fun- damental subsystems common to systems of that domain as well as the relationships between these subsystems. Hav- ing a reference architecture available can aid both during maintenance and at design time: it can improve under- standing of a given system, it can aid in analyzing trade- offs between different design options,

Alan Grosskurth; Michael W. Godfrey

2005-01-01

348

1December 4, 2008 Mars Design Reference  

E-print Network

#12;3December 4, 2008 2007 Study Objectives / Products Update NASA's human Mars mission reference systems updated since Mars DRM 4.0 (circa 1998) - Update and incorporate Mars surface reference mission, including: · Robotic Mars missions, Cis-lunar activities, ISS activities, Earth-based activity, including

Waliser, Duane E.

349

What's Wrong with Collaborative Digital Reference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the need for collaborative digital reference services among libraries. Discusses the lack of use among networks that have been developed, probably due to easy access to online resources; economic assumptions; setting standards for reference practice; automatic routing software; copyrights; and patron satisfaction. (LRW)

Coffman, Steve

2002-01-01

350

CD-ROM + Fax = Shared Reference Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Reference by GammaFax Project, which joined nine area libraries to provide cooperative reference access to optical disk databases. The configuration of disk players, microcomputers, and facsimile equipment used by the libraries is explained, and the improvements in cost effectiveness, provision of service, and librarian expertise are…

Fitzwater, Diana; Fradkin, Bernard

1988-01-01

351

References/Bibliography "How-to" guide  

E-print Network

. Evaluation of pluripotency in human dental pulp cells. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2009;67:501506. Journal in your reference list. Hygienists have become an integral part of dental practice.3 When multiple an "essential role in dental practice".3 (202) Microsoft tip: To put your reference number

Blows, Mark

352

press.princeton.edu Princeton Reference 75  

E-print Network

press.princeton.edu Princeton Reference 75 reannouncing AN INDISPENSABLE GUIDE TO ISLAMIC POLITICAL maps. 8 x 10. REFERENCE z ISLAMIC STUDIES z POLITICS The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political, associate editors Mahan Mirza, assistant editor the first encyclopedia of islamic political thought from

Landweber, Laura

353

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, founded in 1868, is supported in its goals and purposes by its reference library. The library offers a full range of services based on its specialized reference collections. It addition to a description of these features, the paper contains an introduction to zoos as societal entities, and the future trends in information requirements of zoos are

Joyce M. Shaw

1988-01-01

354

Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens Reference Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the range of services offered by the Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens reference library, and discusses the concept of zoos as societal entities and future trends in their information requirements. A bibliography of 20 articles on library and information services in zoos and aquariums is included. (17 references) (Author/CLB)

Shaw, Joyce M.

1988-01-01

355

Advanced Food Science and Nutrition Reference Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed with input from personnel in the industries, this reference book complements the curriculum guide for a laboratory course on the significance of nutrition in food science. The reference book is organized into 25 chapters, each beginning with essential elements and objectives. Within the text, italicized, bold-faced vocabulary terms are…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

356

A Reference Architecture for Generation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the rags (Reference Architecture for Generation Systems) framework, a specific- ation of an abstract Natural Language Generation (NLG) system architecture to support sharing, re-use, comparison and evaluation of NLG technologies. We argue that the evid- ence from a survey of actual NLG systems calls for a different emphasis in a reference proposal from that seen in similar initiatives

DONIA S COTT; L YNNE C AHILL; ROGER E VANS; D ANIEL P AIVA

2004-01-01

357

Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

Kristof, Cynthia

358

Persistence of Web References in Scientific Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The web has greatly improved the accessibility of scientific information, however the role of the web in formal scientific publishing has been debated. Some argue that the lack of persistence of web resources means that they should not be cited in scientific research. We analyze references to web resources in computer science publications, finding that the number of web references

Steve Lawrence; David M. Pennock; Gary William Flake; Robert Krovetz; Frans Coetzee; Eric J. Glover; Finn Årup Nielsen; Andries Kruger; C. Lee Giles

2001-01-01

359

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2011-01-01

360

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2013-01-01

361

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2014-01-01

362

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2010-01-01

363

16 CFR 1511.8 - Metric references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metric references. 1511.8 Section 1511...REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS § 1511.8 Metric references. For purposes of compliance...the English figures shall be used. The metric approximations are provided in...

2012-01-01

364

Sharing Objects by Read-Only References  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Exporting objects by reference can be problematic since the receivers can use the received reference to perform state changing oper-ations on the referenced object. This can lead to errors if the referenced object is a subobject of a compound object not anticipating the change. We propose an extension of a type system with a read-only construct that can be

Mats Skoglund

2002-01-01

365

Points of Reference in Technical Communication Scholarship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies 163 texts from a database of over 25,000 citations collected from five technical communication journals between 1988 and 1997. Notes that the texts--points of reference--represent the research, theory, and practice of technical communication. Concludes that the points of reference demonstrate that technical communication has an identity…

Smith, Elizabeth Overman

2000-01-01

366

Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames  

E-print Network

Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. The first, Law of Kinematic in non-inertial reference frames reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and determinates a constant n-th order derivative with respect to time being equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Law of Dynamic extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Law in non-inertial reference frames reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the (n+1)-th differential equation. The third, Law of Static in non-inertial reference frames reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

Timur F. Kamalov

2007-08-12

367

The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL  

E-print Network

i The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL c 2002, A.I. McLeod & K.W. Hipel Reference Manual Version: 1.6 #12;1 INTRODUCTION #12;2 Introduction Prologue The McLeod-Hipel Time Series (MTS) Package provides series modelling and anal- ysis. Many of the methods discussed in the textbook by Hipel and McLeod (1994

McLeod, Ian

368

How to Allocate Personnel Costs of Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In July 1974, at the American Library Association Convention, a symposium on reference measurement was held. The basic premise was that work sampling and random time sampling with self-observation were the best methods of allocating personnel costs of reference services at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. First, reasons…

Spencer, Carol

369

Reference Services Planning in the 90s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this collection of papers about library reference service is on the community outside the library, rather than the special populations served within it. "Conflicts in Value Systems" (Allen B. Veaner) is an overview of the major conflict areas facing the library profession today. "Reference Services for Off-Campus Students and Faculty"…

Eckwright, Gail Z., Ed.; Keenan, Lori M., Ed.

370

For English, Press 1: International Students' Language Preference at the Reference Desk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-native, English-speaking undergraduate and graduate students were directly surveyed about their language preference at an academic reference desk. Most prefer reference transactions initially in English but, if uncertain about the outcome, would like follow-up help in their primary language. Differences by academic level and country of origin were observed.

Ignacio J. Ferrer-Vinent

2010-01-01

371

SPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images &  

E-print Network

SPIRIT-IPY: List of Publications SPOT 5 stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images stereoscopic survey of Polar Ice: Reference Images and Topographies during the fourth International Polar Year to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery, Nat Geosci, 3(2), 92­95, doi:10.1038/ngeo737, 2010

Berthier, Etienne

372

Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

2012-01-01

373

Epistemic levels  

E-print Network

In this dissertation I defend some controversial "level-bridging" principles in epistemology. In the first chapter, I defend the KK principle-the principle that if one knows that P, then one knows that one knows that P. I ...

Greco, Daniel (Daniel Louis)

2012-01-01

374

Training and Reading Level  

E-print Network

the Fourth Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 4-7, 1982 Extra Reading Level Writi ng Style Words per Sentence Syllables (lOa Wds.) a to 3 Very Easy Up to 8 Up to 22 3 to 5 Easy 11 26 5 to 7 Fairly Easy 14 31 7 to 10 Standard..., fourth, and fifth columns in the chart. They are the Average Number of Words per Sentence, the Number of Extra Syllable per 100 Words and the Number of Personal References per 100 Words. All of these are very valuable in determin ing the reading...

Bishop, D. l.

1982-01-01

375

2, 11071145, 2005 Water level  

E-print Network

for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Water level forecasting through fuzzy logic and artificial are based on the Mamdani and the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy logic approaches, respec- tively.5 All of them with great attention to the reliability and accuracy of each model, with reference to the Reno river

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Concepts for reference frames in geodesy and geodynamics: The reference directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high accuracy measurements of the non-rigid earth are to be referred to four-dimensional, i.e., time- and space-dependent\\u000a reference frames. Geodynamic phenomena derived from these measurements are to be described in a terrestrial reference frame\\u000a in which both space- and time-like variations can be monitored. Existing conventional terrestrial reference frames (e.g. CIO,\\u000a BIH) are no longer suitable for such purposes.

Erik W. Grafarend; Ivan I. Mueller; Haim B. Papo; Burghard Richter

1979-01-01

377

Concepts for reference frames in geodesy and geodynamics: The reference directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern high accuracy measurements of the non-rigid earth are to be referred to four-dimensional, i.e., time- and space-dependent reference frames. Geodynamic phenomena derived from these measurements are to be described in a terrestrial reference frame in which both space- and time-like variations can be monitored. Existing conventional terrestrial reference frames (e.g. CIO, BIH) are no longer suitable for such purposes.

Erik W. Grafarend; Ivan I. Mueller; Haim B. Papo; Burghard Richter

1979-01-01

378

Reference Books in Special Media. Reference Circular No. 82-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on information contained in producers' catalogs and on responses to a survey conducted by the Reference Section of the Library of Congress National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, this publication lists reference materials produced in braille or in large type, and sound recordings of reference works available…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

379

Practices and functions of customer reference marketing — Leveraging customer references as marketing assets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This multiple-case study focuses on the practices and functions of customer reference marketing and on the ways through which customer references can be deployed as marketing assets. Analysis of 38 interviews with managers in four case companies suggests that customer references can be leveraged externally as marketing assets to (1) gain status-transfer effects from reputable customers, (2) signal passing a

Anne Jalkala; Risto T. Salminen

2010-01-01

380

A Study of Reference Referral and Super Reference in California. Volume I: Main Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public libraries are currently the conduit for local, state, and federal funds used to support reference referral and other reference-related functions in California. Given potential funding constraints, this 5-month study expanded its original scope--to assess the cost effectiveness and efficiency of the Bay Area Reference Center (BARC) and the…

Robinson, Barbara M.

381

Improving Reference Speaker Weighting Adaptation by the Use of Maximum-Likelihood Reference Speakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We would like to revisit a simple fast adaptation technique called reference speaker weighting (RSW). RSW is similar to eigenvoice (EV) adaptation, and simply requires the model of a new speaker to lie on the span of a set of reference speaker vectors. In the original RSW, the reference speakers are computed through a hierarchical speaker clustering (HSC) algorithm using

Brian Mak; Tsz-Chung Lai; Roger Hsiao

2006-01-01

382

Reference Librarians at the Reference Desk in a Learning Commons: A Mixed Methods Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the University of Massachusetts Amherst's W.E.B. Du Bois Library's Learning Commons, only reference librarians staff the Reference and Research Assistance Desk. Surveys, a focus group, reference question transcriptions, and question-type tallies indicate that this service model is strongly preferred by users and librarians over the previous…

Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth B.; Moore, Anne C.; Lang, Beth W.

2008-01-01

383

TEPC performance for a reference standard.  

PubMed

A portable tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based system was developed, which will be used as a reference standard in the neutron mixed field for radiation protection. In this paper, microdosimetry of the TEPC system was studied both in neutron ((252)Cf and (241)Am-Be sources) and gamma ((137)Cs and (60)Co sources) reference radiation fields. The measured neutron and gamma-dose equivalent rates were, respectively, compared with those of the reference ambient dose equivalent rate H(*)(10). And the measured microdosimetric spectra were compared with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA simulated results. All of the comparisons primarily agreed well. PMID:24036657

Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yina; Li, Chunjuan; Xiao, Xuefu; Luo, Hailong; Chen, Jun; Li, Wei

2014-01-01

384

C Puns and Pop Culture References  

E-print Network

This book contains numerous puns and pop culture references, which are notoriously difficult to translate. This appendix explains these puns and references. It was written for inclusion in foreign translations, but English speakers might find it interesting as well. The word “Puzzlers ” in the book’s title is a reference to the “Puzzler ” segment of Tom and Ray Magliozzi’s Car Talk radio show, broadcast weekly on National Public Radio (NPR). On this segment of the show, Tom and Ray present brainteasers. The exhortation to “write your puzzler on the back of a $20 bill and send it to

unknown authors

385

The International Reference Preparation of Tylosin*  

PubMed Central

The Central Veterinary Laboratory, Weybridge, England, was requested by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization to obtain suitable material for an international reference preparation of tylosin and to arrange a collaborative assay. A batch of 150 g of highly purified tylosin was assayed by ten laboratories in nine countries against the tylosin standard of a commercial manufacturer. On the basis of the results obtained, the material has been established as the International Reference Preparation of Tylosin and the International Unit for Tylosin has been defined as the activity contained in 0.001 mg of the International Reference Preparation of Tylosin. PMID:5298041

Davidson, I.; Hebert, C. Nancy

1966-01-01

386

Reference Ranges for Serum Uric Acid among Healthy Assamese People  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to establish reference ranges for serum uric acid among healthy adult Assamese population. Samples from 1470 aged 35–86 years were used to establish age and sex related reference range by the centile method (central 95 percentile) for serum uric acid level. There were 51% (n = 754) males and 49% (n = 716) females; 75.9% (n = 1115) of them were from urban area and the rest 24.1% (n = 355) were from the rural area. Majority of the population were nonvegetarian (98.6%, n = 1450) and only 1.4% (n = 20) were vegetarian. The mean age, weight, height, and uric acid of the studied group were 53.6 ± 11.3 years, 62.6 ± 10.5?kg, 160 ± 9.4?cm, and 5.5 ± 1.4?mg/dL, respectively. There is a statistically significant difference in the mean value of the abovementioned parameters between male and female. The observed reference range of uric acid in the population is 2.6–8.2?mg/dL which is wider than the current reference range used in the laboratory. Except gender (P < 0.0001), we did not find any significant relation of uric acid with other selected factors. PMID:24672726

Das, Madhumita; Borah, N. C.; Ghose, M.; Choudhury, N.

2014-01-01

387

1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false General requirements: References. 21.21 Section 21.21 General...DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General References § 21.21 General requirements: References. (a) Each reference to the...

2010-01-01

388

49 CFR 384.107 - Matter incorporated by reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Matter incorporated by reference. 384.107 Section 384.107 Transportation...General § 384.107 Matter incorporated by reference. (a) Incorporation by reference. This part includes references...

2010-10-01

389

Dumpy Level  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Prism level manufactured by C.L. Berger & Sons, serial# 16898. The company was founded by Christian Louis Berger (1842-1922) who was born at Stuttgart, Germany and moved to Boston in 1866. In 1871 he joined with George Louis Buff, and began trading as Buff & Berger. In 1898, after an acrimonious dis...

2009-07-22

390

Genetics Home Reference: 47,XYY syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

47,XYY syndrome Related Chromosome(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic ...

391

Genetics Home Reference: 48,XXYY syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

48,XXYY syndrome Related Chromosome(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic ...

392

IBM Migration Toolkit User's Guide and Reference  

E-print Network

IBM Migration Toolkit User's Guide and Reference Version 2.0.5.0 #12;Note: Before using databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2. Overview of the IBM Migration Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Preparing for successful migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Migration environment

393

32 CFR 518.2 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and related...

2010-07-01

394

32 CFR 516.2 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to...

2010-07-01

395

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: TERMINOLOGY REFERENCE MANUAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The report is a general reference manual on the terminology used to enter and retrieve information from the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of interrelated computerized data bases that describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial process...

396

Genetics Home Reference: Gray platelet syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Gray platelet syndrome Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

397

Genetics Home Reference: Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Additional NIH Resources National Institutes of Health Educational resources Information pages Patient support ...

398

Nuclear Science References WWW Retrieval System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The retrieval system contains references to low and intermediate energy physics research publications listed in the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) Data File at the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Users can search via nuclide, target, incident particle, outgoing particle, reaction, author, keynumber list, subject or quantity. Links to abstracts from the American Physical Society are provided. Output formats include HTML or plain text. Searches can be narrowed by specifying range of years for query, primary reference, or a NSR Entry Date. Once past the initial frames interface, the list of references appears in a new, uncluttered window. Note, the retrieval system does not work with Microsoft Internet Explorer or versions of Netscape less than 3.0.

1998-01-01

399

Genetics Home Reference: Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

400

Genetics Home Reference: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV  

MedlinePLUS

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Additional NIH Resources National Institutes of Health Educational resources Information pages Patient support ...

401

Selected References and Irish Curios and Cameos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a bibliography of literature for young adults and selected references on the Great Irish Famine. Presents hints to six riddles of Ireland and includes the answers to the riddles on page 15 of this issue. (CMK)

Lapham, Stephen

2000-01-01

402

30 CFR 256.7 - Cross references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.7 Cross references. (a) For...

2012-07-01

403

30 CFR 256.7 - Cross references.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and Sulphur Management, General § 256.7 Cross references. (a) For...

2011-07-01

404

Genetics Home Reference: Familial adenomatous polyposis  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, the number of polyps and the time frame in which they become malignant depend on the ... about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions ...

405

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

406

Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

McIlvaine, Eileen

2002-01-01

407

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith  

E-print Network

Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

Smith, Graeme

408

47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

47 ? Telecommunication ? 1 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Cross reference. ? 2.1031 ? Section 2.1031 ? Telecommunication ? FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION ? GENERAL ? FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS ? Equipment Authorization Procedures...

2010-10-01

409

32 CFR 552.142 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S....

2011-07-01

410

32 CFR 552.142 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S....

2013-07-01

411

32 CFR 552.142 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S....

2012-07-01

412

WWW Search Tools in Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an introduction to World Wide Web search tools for reference services. Discusses characteristics of search services and types of tools available, including search engines/robot-generated databases, directories, metasearch engines, and review/rating sites. (AEF)

Kimmel, Stacey

1997-01-01

413

Selected Reference Books of 1979-80.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents book reviews of recently published scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. The listing includes a brief roundup of new editions of standard works, continuations, and supplements. (RAA)

Sheehy, Eugene P.

1981-01-01

414

Birth Weight Reference Percentiles for Chinese  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese. Methods Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ?28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006–2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves. Results Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants. Conclusion There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25127131

Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Jun; Mu, Yi; Deng, Ying; Mao, Meng; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Ma, Shuangge; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei

2014-01-01

415

Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination  

E-print Network

In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

Nonato, Rafael

2014-01-01

416

Generating and interpreting referring expressions in context  

E-print Network

Referring expressions with vague and ambiguous modifiers, such as "a quick visit" and "the big meeting," are difficult for computers to interpret because their meanings are defined in part by context. For the hearer to ...

Smith, Dustin Arthur

2013-01-01

417

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2014-01-01

418

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2012-01-01

419

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...References. 1207.11 Section 1207.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION...National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW., Washington, D.C....

2013-01-01

420

32 CFR 93.1 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

2013-07-01

421

33 CFR 263.12 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General § 263.12 References. (a) ER 11-2-201, Civil Works Activities, Funding, Work Allowances and Transfers. (b) ER 405-2-680 Local Cooperation Projects. (c) ER 1105-2-10 Intensive Management....

2013-07-01

422

33 CFR 263.12 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... General § 263.12 References. (a) ER 11-2-201, Civil Works Activities, Funding, Work Allowances and Transfers. (b) ER 405-2-680 Local Cooperation Projects. (c) ER 1105-2-10 Intensive Management....

2012-07-01

423

33 CFR 263.12 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... General § 263.12 References. (a) ER 11-2-201, Civil Works Activities, Funding, Work Allowances and Transfers. (b) ER 405-2-680 Local Cooperation Projects. (c) ER 1105-2-10 Intensive Management....

2011-07-01

424

33 CFR 263.12 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General § 263.12 References. (a) ER 11-2-201, Civil Works Activities, Funding, Work Allowances and Transfers. (b) ER 405-2-680 Local Cooperation Projects. (c) ER 1105-2-10 Intensive Management....

2010-07-01

425

Exp 99 Tc Vegetation Reference Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the past several years participants at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Department of Energy Conference on Analytical Chemistry in Energy Technology discussed the need for environmental standards/reference materials for exp 99 Tc. Past efforts at i...

M. S. Feiner

1984-01-01

426

32 CFR 552.142 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S. Codes...

2010-07-01

427

Genetics Home Reference: Auriculo-condylar syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... mandible ; maxilla ; micrognathia ; microstomia ; mutation ; palate ; penetrance ; syndrome ; transformation ; upper jaw You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

428

The Computerized Reference Department: Buying the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basis for systematic computerization of academic research library's reference, collection development, and collection management functions emphasizes productivity enhancement for librarians and support staff. Use of microcomputer and university's mainframe computer to develop applications of database management systems, electronic spreadsheets,…

Kriz, Harry M.; Kok, Victoria T.

1985-01-01

429

16 CFR 1207.11 - References.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR SWIMMING POOL SLIDES § 1207.11 References...Rationale in Support of A Safety Standard for Swimming Pool Slides,” 5/30/75. National Swimming Pool Institute, 2000 K Street NW.,...

2010-01-01

430

Selected Reference Books of 1998-99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of selected reference books published between 1998 and 1999 under subject headings for biography, journalism, mythology, languages and literature, architecture and city planning, political science, economics, history, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

McIlvaine, Eileen

1999-01-01

431

Ghost-free Massive Gravity with a General Reference Metric  

E-print Network

Theories of massive gravity inevitably include an auxiliary reference metric. Generically, they also contain an inconsistency known as the Boulware-Deser ghost. Recently, a family of non-linear massive gravity actions, formulated with a flat reference metric, were proposed and shown to be ghost free at the complete non-linear level. In this paper we consider these non-linear massive gravity actions but now formulated with a general reference metric. We extend the proof of the absence of the Boulware-Deser ghost to this case. The analysis is carried out in the ADM formalism at the complete non-linear level. We show that in these models there always exists a Hamiltonian constraint which, with an associated secondary constraint, eliminates the ghost. This result considerably extends the range of known consistent non-linear massive gravity theories. In addition, these theories can also be used to describe a massive spin-2 field in an arbitrary, fixed gravitational background. We also discuss the positivity of the Hamiltonian.

S. F. Hassan; Rachel A. Rosen; Angnis Schmidt-May

2011-09-15

432

Automated resolution of noisy bibliographic references  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system used by the NASA Astrophysics Data System to identify\\u000abibliographic references obtained from scanned article pages by OCR methods\\u000awith records in a bibliographic database. We analyze the process generating the\\u000anoisy references and conclude that the three-step procedure of correcting the\\u000aOCR results, parsing the corrected string and matching it against the database\\u000aprovides unsatisfactory

Markus Demleitner; Michael J. Kurtz; Alberto Accomazzi; Günther Eichhorn; Carolyn S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

2004-01-01

433

Quantum communication, reference frames and gauge theory  

E-print Network

We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.

S. J. van Enk

2006-02-08

434

Characterization of reference Umtanum and Cohassett basalt  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) Materials Testing Group (MTG) provides large quantities of reference basalt for testing waste package materials under repository conditions, site sorption characteristics and other experimental purposes. This document describes the reference rock materials currently used in testing, namely entablature and colonnade basalt from the Umtanum and Cohassett flows. The data include sampling locations, bulk chemical composition, modal percentages of major phases, and the chemical and mineralogical compositions of these phases. 8 refs., 17 figs., 15 tabs.

Allen, C.C.; Johnston, R.G.; Strope, M.B.

1985-02-01

435

Reference point detection for improved fingerprint matching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important stages of fingerprint recognition is the registration of the fingerprints with respect to the original template. This is not a straightforward task as fingerprint images may have been subject to rotations and translations. Popular techniques for fingerprint registration use a reference point to achieve alignment. The drawback of existing methods of core/reference point detection is their poor performance on rotated images. In this paper, we propose a new approach for rotation invariant and reliable reference point detection applicable to fingerprints of different quality and types. Our approach is based on the integration of a directional vector field (representing the doubled ridge orientations in fingerprints) over a closed contour. We define the reference point as the point of the highest curvature. Areas of high curvature in the fingerprint are characterized by large differences in the orientations and correspond to high curvatures in the directional vector fields. Closed contour integrals of orientation vector field, defined as above, over a circle centered around the reference point corresponds to maximal closed curve integrals, and the values associated with such integrals are rotation invariant. Experimental results prove that with the proposed approach we can locate the reference point with high accuracy. Comparison with existing methods is provided.

Ignatenko, Tanya; Kalker, Ton; van der Veen, Michiel; Bazen, Asker

2006-02-01

436

Improved Reference Speaker Weighting Using Aspect Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an improved reference speaker weighting (RSW) and speaker cluster weighting (SCW) approach that uses an aspect model. The concept of the approach is that the adapted model is a linear combination of a few latent reference models obtained from a set of reference speakers. The aspect model has specific latent-space characteristics that differ from orthogonal basis vectors of eigenvoice. The aspect model is a “mixture-of-mixture” model. We first calculate a small number of latent reference models as mixtures of distributions of the reference speaker's models, and then the latent reference models are mixed to obtain the adapted distribution. The mixture weights are calculated based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. We use the obtained mixture weights for interpolating mean parameters of the distributions. Both training and adaptation are performed based on likelihood maximization with respect to the training and adaptation data, respectively. We conduct a continuous speech recognition experiment using a Korean database (KAIST-TRADE). The results are compared to those of a conventional MAP, MLLR, RSW, eigenvoice and SCW. Absolute word accuracy improvement of 2.06 point was achieved using the proposed method, even though we use only 0.3 s of adaptation data.

Hahm, Seong-Jun; Ohkawa, Yuichi; Ito, Masashi; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Ito, Akinori; Makino, Shozo

437

Determination of an Infrared Reference Frame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the European Space Agency's Hipparcos satellite was to provide high precision astrometric and photometric data for over 100,000 stars and somewhat lower precision data on over a million additional stars. These observations were made in the optical band (340 - 850 nm) and resulted in median precisions of better than 1 milli-arcsec (mas) in position and parallax and I mas/yr in proper motion. The Hipparcos frame is inertial within an estimated uncertainty of +/- 0.25 mas/yr. The other important wavelength band for astrometry has been the radio band. A reference frame has been defined based on absolute Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) positions of several hundreds of radio sources. There have been a number of projects to refine the link between the optical and radio reference frames. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the astrometry of infrared sources. For example, stars with circumstellar shells can be observed in both the optical and radio (e.g. SiO maser emission). The infrared emission from such sources is dominated by thermal dust emission. The spatial distribution of radiation in the three bands is expected to be quite different. In 1982 we proposed a number of infrared-selected sources (S(sub 10 micron) greater than or approx. equal to 100 J(sub y)) for inclusion in the Hipparcos Input Catalog. Most of those sources were observed, and in Sutton (1997) we report the optical astrometric results (position, proper motion, and parallax) for 87 such sources. These sources were selected to have reasonable agreement between infrared and optical positions, and so may be used as primary standards for future infrared astrometry. They are well distributed across the sky, but exhibit some bias towards the galactic plane and the northern hemisphere. We have also obtained a set of 1480 secondary standards (unpublished) A comparison between optical positions and 86 GHz SiO maser positions for 10 sources indicates coincidence at the 0.15 arcsec level, consistent with current uncertainties in the SiO positions. Improved measurements of the SiO maser positions are needed. VLBI data show that SiO maser spots can be distributed in broken rings of radii 10 - 30 mas, presumably centered on the stellar position. However the SiO flux may be distributed asymmetrically, in which case the flux-weighted center of the SiO emission can be different from the stellar position. We have also published a related paper on phase fluctuations in millimeter interferometry (Sutton and Hueckstaedt 1996). Radiometric monitoring of emission from atmospheric water vapor may be a method for correcting for such fluctuations. This is relevant to positional determinations at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. The integration of visible, infrared, and radio astrometry is one of our principal goals.

Sutton, Edmund C.

1998-01-01

438

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

439

Few-nanoradian deep space navigation in local reference frames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Angular navigation with Very Long Baseline Interferometry is performed at the 15-100 nanoradian level by differencing the interferometric delays of a spacecraft and nearby radio source. Clock rate, earth orientation and atmospheric effects limit the accuracy. By observing several radio sources along with the spacecraft, these dominant errors can be reduced by parameter estimation. Using improved instrumentation, the technique analyzed below, which can potentially yield 1-3 nanoradian accuracy, locates the spacecraft in a local reference frame of radio sources. In this paper, observation strategies and covariance results will be presented for the local reference frame technique. The error contributions of system noise and tropospheric fluctuations will be evaluated. An application of this few-nanoradian technique to Jovian approach is also presented.

Treuhaft, R. N.

1988-01-01

440

Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference waters need to be analyzed simultaneously using state-of-the-art TC/EA methodology. A large difficulty is loading water reference samples into silver capsules with minimal evaporation and no leakage. A technique has been developed to seal 250-nL water samples in smooth walled silver capsules using a specially modified crimping tool, thereby minimizing the aforementioned difficulties and consequent errors when combining and comparing water and solid reference materials. It is anticipated that this new technique will improve the agreement of oxygen isotopic reference materials substantially.

Coplen, T.

2007-12-01

441

Eye Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

442

A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only nominal compositional ranges for each element are given in the article.

Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

2012-01-01

443

Unified Gravimetric Reference Frame for Polish IGS/EPN Stations and Geodynamic Test Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absolute gravity values are useful to regional geodynamic purposes as a complement of position monitoring at IGS/EPN permanent stations. Absolute gravity stations in region of geodynamic test field are also necessary as precise reference level for relative gravimetric measurements and long-period gravity monitoring. Absolute gravimetric network to unify gravimetric reference level for GNSS permanent stations and geodynamic test fields had been established in Poland in 2007-2008. Within a framework of this project six absolute gravity stations were established nearby IGS/EPN stations and seven points in two geodynamic test fields: Pieniny Test Field (3 points) and Sudetes Network (4 points). Final results of establishment of Unified Gravimetric Reference Frame for Polish IGS/EPN Stations and Geodynamic Test Fields are presented in the paper. Some issues with gravity reference level (comparing to Polish Fundamental Gravimetric Network), instruments parameters, observation elaboration and points stabilisation are also discussed.

Walo, Janusz; Olszak, Tomasz; Pachuta, Andrzej; Próchniewicz, Dominik; Szpunar, Ryszard

2010-05-01

444

GNSS RTK-networks: The significance and issues to realize a recent reference coordinate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming release of the new global reference frame ITRF2013 will provide high accurate reference station positions and station velocities at the mm- and mm/year level, respectively. ITRF users benefit from this development in various ways. For example, this new frame allows for embedding high accurate GNSS baseline observations to an underlying reference of at least the same accuracy. Another advantage is that the IGS products are fully consistent with this frame and therefore all GNSS based zero-difference positioning results (Precise Point Positioning (PPP)) will be aligned to the ITRF2013. Unfortunately the transistion to a new frame (or just to a new epoch) implies also issues in particular for providers and users of real time positioning services. Thus providers have to perform arrangements, such as the readjustment of the reference station coordinates and the update of the transformation parameters from the homogenous GNSS coordinate frame into the national datum. Finally providers have to inform their clients appropriately about these changes and significant adjustments. Furthermore the aspect of the continental reference frame has to be considered: In Europe the use of the continental reference system/reference frame ETRS89/ETRF2000 is, due to cross-national guidelines, recommend by most national mapping authorities. Subsequently GNSS post-processing applications are degraded by the concurrent use of the reference systems and reference frames, to which terrestrial site coordinates and satellite coordinates are aligned. In this presentation we highlight all significant steps and hurdles which have to be jumped over when introducing a new reference frame from point of view of a typical regional RTK-reference station network provider. This network is located in Austria and parts of the neighbouring countries and consists of about 40 reference stations. Moreover, we discuss the significance of permanently monitoring the stability of the reference network sites and the determination of station velocities/rates for geodynamical investigations.

Umnig, Elke; Möller, Gregor; Weber, Robert

2014-05-01

445

Sea Level  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This problem provides an opportunity to increase familiarity with negative and positive numbers on a number line. The vertical number line is presented as black markings every one meter all the way up a lighthouse and on the underwater support going down to the sea bed, with sea level being "0". In answering the nine questions, children begin to calculate with negative numbers in the context of the distances between the sea creatures. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and a link to a related resource, Swimming Pool (cataloged separately).

2008-01-01

446

Reference image selection for difference imaging analysis?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Difference image analysis (DIA) is an effective technique for obtaining photometry in crowded fields, relative to a chosen reference image. As yet, however, optimal reference image selection is an unsolved problem. We examine how this selection depends on the combination of seeing, background and detector pixel size. Our tests use a combination of simulated data and quality indicators from DIA of well-sampled optical data and under-sampled near-infrared data from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment and VVV surveys, respectively. We search for a figure-of-merit (FoM) which could be used to select reference images for each survey. While we do not find a universally applicable FoM, survey-specific measures indicate that the effect of spatial under-sampling may require a change in strategy from the standard DIA approach, even though seeing remains the primary criterion. We find that background is not an important criterion for reference selection, at least for the dynamic range in the images we test. For our analysis of VVV data in particular, we find that spatial under-sampling is best handled by reversing the standard DIA procedure and convolving target images to a better-sampled (poor-seeing) reference image.

Huckvale, L.; Kerins, E.; Sale, S. E.

2014-07-01

447

Degree of Fuzziness in Coarsened Measurement References  

E-print Network

It has been found that the quantum-to-classical transition can be observed independent of macroscopicity of the quantum state for a fixed degree of fuzziness in the coarsened references of measurements. Here, a general situation, that is the degree of fuzziness can change with the rotation angle between two states (different rotation angles represent different references), is researched based on the reason that the fuzziness of reference can come from two kinds: the Hamiltonian (rotation frequency) and the timing (rotation time). Our results show that, for the fuzziness of Hamiltonian alone, the degree of fuzziness for reference will change with the rotation angle between two states and the quantum effects can still be observed no matter how much degree of fuzziness of Hamiltonian; for the fuzziness of timing, the degree of coarsening reference is unchanged with the rotation angle. Moreover, during the rotation of the measurement axis, the decoherence environment can also help the classical-to-quantum transition due to changing the direction of measurement axis.

Dong Xie; An Min Wang

2014-04-21

448

Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames  

SciTech Connect

Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

Kamalov, Timur F. [Physics Department, Moscow State Open University, Korchagina, 22, Moscow, 107996 (Russian Federation)

2010-12-22

449

Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.  

PubMed

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

2011-09-01

450

Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males' Facebook Profiles  

PubMed Central

Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use. PMID:21406490

Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.

2011-01-01

451

Physics of Non-Inertial Reference Frames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics of non-inertial reference frames is a generalizing of Newton's laws to any reference frames. It is the system of general axioms for classical and quantum mechanics. The first, Kinematics Principle reads: the kinematic state of a body free of forces conserves and equal in absolute value to an invariant of the observer's reference frame. The second, Dynamics Principle extended Newton's second law to non-inertial reference frames and also contains additional variables there are higher derivatives of coordinates. Dynamics Principle reads: a force induces a change in the kinematic state of the body and is proportional to the rate of its change. It is mean that if the kinematic invariant of the reference frame is n-th derivative with respect the time, then the dynamics of a body being affected by the force F is described by the 2n-th differential equation. The third, Statics Principle reads: the sum of all forces acting a body at rest is equal to zero.

Kamalov, Timur F.

2010-12-01

452

Training Student Reference Assistants: Politeness Theory, Computer-Mediated Communication and Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - Purpose: For student reference supervisors and trainers, it is crucial to understand the characteristics of the Millennial worker and how we can effectively train student reference employees in virtual reference. The purpose of this paper is to present best practices for\\u000aDesign\\/methodology\\/approach - Approach: This paper is a combination of a case study and theoretical approach including a

Kathleen Langan

2012-01-01

453

Frequency References for Gravitational Wave Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mitigation of laser frequency noise is an important aspect of interferometry for LISA-like missions. One portion of the baseline mitigation strategy in LISA is active stabilization utilizing opto-mechanical frequency references. The LISA optical bench is an attractive place to implement such frequency references due to its environmental stability and its access to primary and redundant laser systems. We have made an initial investigation of frequency references constructed using the techniques developed for the LISA and LISA Pathfinder optical benches. Both a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and triangular Fabry-Perot cavity have been successfully bonded to a Zerodur baseplate using the hydroxide bonding method. We will describe the construction of the bench along with preliminary stability results.

Preston, Alix; Thrope, J. I.; Donelan, D.; Miner, L.

2012-01-01

454

Comparison of select reference management tools.  

PubMed

Bibliographic management tools have been widely used by researchers to store, organize, and manage their references for research papers, theses, dissertations, journal articles, and other publications. There are a number of reference management tools available. In order for users to decide which tool is best for their needs, it is important to know each tool's strengths and weaknesses. This article compares four reference management tools, one of which is licensed by University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey libraries and the other three are open source and freely available. They were chosen based on their functionality, ease of use, availability to library users, and popularity. These four tools are EndNote/EndNote Web, Zotero, Connotea, and Mendeley Desktop/Mendeley Web. Each tool is analyzed in terms of the following features: accessing, collecting, organizing, collaborating, and citing/formatting. A comparison table is included to summarize the key features of these tools. PMID:22289095

Zhang, Yingting

2012-01-01

455

Floating reference frames for flexible spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floating reference frames which move with the flexible body under dynamic analysis offer the advantages of a linear vibration analysis in the presence of large system rotations. When the deformations of an elastic continuum are expanded in terms of the free-free modes on an unconstrained system, the rigid body modes are found to be fixed in a reference frame called the Tisserand frame, with respect to which the relative momentum is zero. This result also guarantees the independence of small variations of frame motions and coordinates for all modes with nonzero natural frequencies, a condition which can greatly simplify the formulation of equations of motion. A Modified Tisserand Constraint is introduced in order to define a floating reference frame with similar properties for an elastic body which contains spinning rotors.

Canavin, J. R.; Likins, P. W.

1977-01-01

456

International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

Peddie, N. W.

1982-01-01

457

PACS economics and the referring physician  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the touted potential benefits of Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACS) is that these systems will save referring physicians significant time by eliminating their trips to andfrom the radiology departmentfile room. To date, this potential savings has not been quantified in any hospital setting. Economic modeling of PACS by the University of Washington demonstrates that the cost savings of PACS is extremely sensitive to small productivity changes in referring physician time savings. To provide analytical strength to this argument and supportfor the overall importance of the referring physician in PACS economics, trip distribution data was collected at the University to determine the average time referring physicians spend traveling to andfrom the radiology departmentfile room. This travel time is significant and it corroborates other work by the authors suggesting the benefits of PACS may be, in fact, larger outside the radiology department than inside it. Information for this study was obtained from two sources. In one case, referring physicians were queried about the time they and their support staffspend requesting and retrievingfilmfilesfrom thefile room by using a comprehensive hospital-wide survey. In the second case, the distance between all major clinics in the University medical center and the number offilm files each clinic checks out weekly were entered into a conventional transportation trip distribution model toforecast the time staffspend on this activity. While some differences in the results occurredfrom the two cases, each case generally showed a significant expenditure of effort approaching approximately two-weeks per year per referring physician with a potential recovery value of between 3 to 8 million dollars annually in additional billable revenue, assuming adequate patient demand.

Saarinen, Allan O.; Wilson, M. C.; Iverson, Scott C.; Haynor, David R.; Loop, John W.

1990-08-01

458

DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY I. CHARACTERIZATION OF DATABASE AND DETERMINATION OF NO OBSERVED ADVERSE EFFECT LEVELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicity risk assessment currently relies on the estimation of reference doses or reference concentrations based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELS) and uncertainty factors. he benchmark dose (BMD) has been proposed as an alternative basis for reference va...

459

Predictor-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is devoted to robust, Predictor-based Model Reference Adaptive Control (PMRAC) design. The proposed adaptive system is compared with the now-classical Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) architecture. Simulation examples are presented. Numerical evidence indicates that the proposed PMRAC tracking architecture has better than MRAC transient characteristics. In this paper, we presented a state-predictor based direct adaptive tracking design methodology for multi-input dynamical systems, with partially known dynamics. Efficiency of the design was demonstrated using short period dynamics of an aircraft. Formal proof of the reported PMRAC benefits constitute future research and will be reported elsewhere.

Lavretsky, Eugene; Gadient, Ross; Gregory, Irene M.

2009-01-01

460

The Intelsat SSTDMA reference terminal equipment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To convert to SSTDMA from the current TDMA system, the current Reference Terminal Equipment (RTE) must be modified to accommodate changes in the network control procedures. As a continuing task to the current RTE development, NEC Corporation has designed and produced the Satellite Switched TDMA Reference Terminal Equipment (SSRTE) for the Intelsat SSTDMA system under contract to Intelsat. Primary tasks are the Acquisition and Synchronization Unit (ASU) development and the Signal Processing Equipment (SPE) modifications. In this paper, the requirements for the SSRTE design and design approaches are addressed followed by the description of the principle of the ASU operation. Then, the ASU design is described in some detail.

Ishi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Bedford, R.

461

Referred Otalgia Induced by a Large Tonsillolith  

PubMed Central

Herein, we report an unusual case of large tonsillolith presented with acute otalgia. Since the tonsils and tonsillar fossa are supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve, any irritation or pain can be referred to the ear along the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal (Jacobson's) nerve. Also, it is worth re-emphasizing that normal otoscopy must be followed by inspection of the nasal cavities, oral cavity, and oropharynx, with particular note given to the floor of mouth, teeth, tongue, and tonsils because the identification of a causative etiology is necessary to successfully treat referred otalgia. PMID:23730490

2013-01-01

462

Automated resolution of noisy bibliographic references  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system used by the NASA Astrophysics Data System to identify bibliographic references obtained from scanned article pages by OCR methods with records in a bibliographic database. We analyse the process generating the noisy references and conclude that the three-step procedure of correcting the OCR results, parsing the corrected string and matching it against the database provides unsatisfactory results. Instead, we propose a method that allows a controlled merging of correction, parsing and matching, inspired by dependency grammars. We also report on the effectiveness of various heuristics that we have employed to improve recall.

Demleitner, M.; Kurtz, M.; Accomazzi, A.; Eichhorn, Günther; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.

463

Multiple reference frames in haptic spatial processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present thesis focused on haptic spatial processing. In particular, our interest was directed to the perception of spatial relations with the main focus on the perception of orientation. To this end, we studied haptic perception in different tasks, either in isolation or in combination with vision. The parallelity task, where participants have to match the orientations of two spatially separated bars, was used in its two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions in Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, respectively. The influence of non-informative vision and visual interference on performance in the parallelity task was studied in Chapter 4. A different task, the mental rotation task, was introduced in a purely haptic study in Chapter 5 and in a visuo-haptic cross-modal study in Chapter 6. The interaction of multiple reference frames and their influence on haptic spatial processing were the common denominators of these studies. In this thesis we approached the problems of which reference frames play the major role in haptic spatial processing and how the relative roles of distinct reference frames change depending on the available information and the constraints imposed by different tasks. We found that the influence of a reference frame centered on the hand was the major cause of the deviations from veridicality observed in both the two-dimensional and three-dimensional studies. The results were described by a weighted average model, in which the hand-centered egocentric reference frame is supposed to have a biasing influence on the allocentric reference frame. Performance in haptic spatial processing has been shown to depend also on sources of information or processing that are not strictly connected to the task at hand. When non-informative vision was provided, a beneficial effect was observed in the haptic performance. This improvement was interpreted as a shift from the egocentric to the allocentric reference frame. Moreover, interfering visual information presented in the vicinity of the haptic stimuli parametrically modulated the magnitude of the deviations. The influence of the hand-centered reference frame was shown also in the haptic mental rotation task where participants were quicker in judging the parity of objects when these were aligned with respect to the hands than when they were physically aligned. Similarly, in the visuo-haptic cross-modal mental rotation task the parity judgments were influenced by the orientation of the exploring hand with respect to the viewing direction. This effect was shown to be modulated also by an intervening temporal delay that supposedly counteracts the influence of the hand-centered reference frame. We suggest that the hand-centered reference frame is embedded in a hierarchical structure of reference frames where some of these emerge depending on the demands and the circumstances of the surrounding environment and the needs of an active perceiver.

Vol?i?, R.

2008-08-01

464

Off-Campus Activity Safety Policy (OCASP) Quick Reference for the Planner of an Activity  

E-print Network

Off-Campus Activity Safety Policy (OCASP) Quick Reference for the Planner of an Activity Risk Assessment How to Assess Risk Off-campus activities can pose varying levels of risk to the participants. Under OCASP such levels are categorized as either manageable (including low-risk and higher-risk

Ellis, Randy

465

A review of current procedures for normalizing aircraft flyover noise data to reference meteorological conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Procedures that are currently used to normalize raw aircraft noise data to reference weather conditions are reviewed. These procedures sometimes result in calculated values of molecular absorption which differ from measured values, especially at higher frequencies. An explanation is offered for this discrepancy, and its effect on normalized sound levels and on calculations of effective perceived noise level is examined.

Deloach, R.

1977-01-01

466

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

Thompson, Michael

467

SELECTED REFERENCES ON THE CHANNEL CATFISH,  

E-print Network

SELECTED REFERENCES ON THE CHANNEL CATFISH, Ictalurus punctatus ne Biological Laboratorvl LIBRARY, Ictalurus lacus - tris punctatus . Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. , 80(1950): 119-139. Bailey, Reeve M- , and Harry*^8. Food habits of the southern chan- nel catfish ( Ictalurus lacustris punctatus ) in the Des Moines River

468

Reference Person Influence on Career Women's Dress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of situational and personality characteristics on the acceptance of normative and informational influence by career women from reference persons on their career dress. Questionnaires were returned by 588 career women. Factor analysis reduced the dependent variable data to four influence factors. Regression analyses were performed on eight situational and

Nancy J. Rabolt; Mary Frances Drake

1985-01-01

469

Selected Reference Books of 1996-97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of biography, publishing, religion, popular culture, film and theater, literature, architecture, music, social sciences, archeology, history, and science, as well as new editions and supplements. (LRW)

McIlvaine, Eileen

1997-01-01

470

REFERENCE GUIDE ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE ACT (ECAA)  

E-print Network

with this requirement. Waste management guidance and plan template can be downloaded at http://www.energy that generate waste. Attachments: Energy Commission Waste Management Plan Guidance Waste Management Plan1 REFERENCE GUIDE ENERGY CONSERVATION ASSISTANCE ACT (ECAA) STATE ENERGY PROGRAM (SEP) AMERICAN

471

Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost questions on…

Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

2011-01-01

472

Building Complex Reference Objects from Dual Sets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey, Sanford, Sturt, & Morrow, 2004; Sanford &…

Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

2011-01-01

473

Doing Virtual Reference along with Everything Else  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual reference is a service that makes particular sense in a state like Montana. The fourth-largest state by geographic area but 44th by population in the U.S., it has about one library per 11,392 residents. Montana's libraries, including the libraries of Montana Tech of the University of Montana, where the author currently serves as a…

Garlish, Betsy Harper

2009-01-01

474

Wales Squirrel Forum Terms of Reference  

E-print Network

1 Wales Squirrel Forum Terms of Reference The Wales Squirrel Forum aims to enable effective red squirrel conservation and grey squirrel management in Wales. In doing so, the Forum also aims to co Squirrel Forum · Encourage the conservation and sustainable management of red squirrel populations in Wales

475

Draft NISTIR 7924 Reference Certificate Policy  

E-print Network

for the cost-effective security and privacy of other than national security-related information in Federal information systems. Abstract The purpose of this document is to identify a baseline set of security controls software, play a particularly important role online. This document formatted as a Reference Certificate

476

British Columbia. Reference Series No. 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of British Columbia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. A discussion of the province's history includes the early European explorers, Indian natives, and later fur traders and settlers. The building of the transcontinental railway, entry…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

477

New Brunswick. Reference Series No. 31.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of New Brunswick and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss cities and population, geography, history, politics, economy, manufacturing, forestry, agriculture, fisheries, mining, electricity, transportation, government…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

478

Nova Scotia. Reference Series No. 32.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Nova Scotia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the geography and climate, history, economic development, fishing, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing, energy, education, arts and culture, and…

Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

479

STUDENT EMPLOYEE APPLICANT REFERENCE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

STUDENT EMPLOYEE APPLICANT REFERENCE IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY RECREATION SERVICES - OUTDOOR RECREATION maintenance and repairs to the rental equipment. Student employees are also responsible for planning supervision? Comment on initiative and motivation. 4. How well does the applicant get along in a group setting

Daniels, Thomas E.

480

Aligning Multiple Anatomical Ontologies through a Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of deriving an indirect alignment between two on- tologies from the two direct alignments of these ontologies to a reference ontology. The three anatomical ontologies under investigation are the Adult Mouse Anatomical Dictionary (MA), the NCI Thesaurus (NCI) and the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). Methods: The di- rect alignment employs a combination of lexical

Songmao Zhang; Olivier Bodenreider

2006-01-01

481

Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining  

DOEpatents

A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

1980-09-12

482

Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining  

DOEpatents

A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

Arnold, Jones B. (Knoxville, TN); Burleson, Robert R. (Clinton, TN); Pardue, Robert M. (Knoxville, TN)

1982-01-01

483

Accelerated Frames of Reference: Inertial Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These web pages provide an explanation of forces in accelerating reference frames. Topics include centrifugal force and what is felt in vehicles that are speeding up or slowing down. This is part of "From Stargazers to Starships", an extensive web site that introduces physics and astronomy using topics in space exploration and space science.

Stern, David

2006-07-16

484

Building a reference combinatorial model for MANETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless technologies and the deployment of mobile and nomadic services are driving the emergence of complex ad hoc networks that have a highly dynamic behavior. Modeling such dynamics and creating a reference model on which results could be compared and reproduced, was stated as a fundamental issue by a recent NSF workshop on networking. In this article we show how

Afonso Ferreira

2004-01-01

485

Recommended Reference Books in Paperback. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Completely revised and updated from the last edition (1992), this annotated, evaluative bibliography presents more than 1,000 outstanding titles chosen for their quality, economy, and availability. Thirty-six chapters describe and judge these affordable paperbacks for libraries with limited budgets. Subject matter includes: general reference, area…

Lang, Jovian P.; O'Gorman, Jack

486

Microfabricated Reference Electrodes and their Biosensing Applications  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, there has been an increasing trend towards miniaturization of both biological and chemical sensors and their integration with miniaturized sample pre-processing and analysis systems. These miniaturized lab-on-chip devices have several functional advantages including low cost, their ability to analyze smaller samples, faster analysis time, suitability for automation, and increased reliability and repeatability. Electrical based sensing methods that transduce biological or chemical signals into the electrical domain are a dominant part of the lab-on-chip devices. A vital part of any electrochemical sensing system is the reference electrode, which is a probe that is capable of measuring the potential on the solution side of an electrochemical interface. Research on miniaturization of this crucial component and analysis of the parameters that affect its performance, stability and lifetime, is sparse. In this paper, we present the basic electrochemistry and thermodynamics of these reference electrodes and illustrate the uses of reference electrodes in electrochemical and biological measurements. Different electrochemical systems that are used as reference electrodes will be presented, and an overview of some contemporary advances in electrode miniaturization and their performance will be provided. PMID:22294894

Shinwari, M. Waleed; Zhitomirsky, David; Deen, Imran A.; Selvaganapathy, P. R.; Deen, M. Jamal; Landheer, D.

2010-01-01

487

Handbook of Reference Sources. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to serve as a selection aid for small public libraries and to list important sources available through the major resource centers of the Texas Library System, this bibliography lists 804 annotated reference sources with 126 additional works named within the annotations. The books are grouped into 18 major areas, each of which is broken…

Nichols, Margaret Irby

488

COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere grand mean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mean behavior of the earth atmosphere from 0 to 120 km altitude is briefly characterized on the basis of the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA) for 1986. The CIRA annual zonal mean for 30 deg N is used to derive single profiles for the pressure, height, temperature, and zonal wind, and the results are presented in a table.

Barnett, J. J.; Chandra, S.

1990-01-01

489

A proposed inhalation reference concentration for methanol.  

PubMed

A biologically based approach was taken to developing an inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC) for methanol, a high production volume chemical with many commercial applications, including use as an alternative fuel for motor vehicles and as a hydrogen source for fuel cells. Benchmark Dose methodology was applied to the most sensitive toxic endpoint for assessing potential health risks in humans, cervical rib malformation data obtained using CD-1 mice. The concentration of methanol in circulating blood was employed as the dose metric, and the maximum likelihood estimate of the blood methanol increment causing a 10% extra risk of these malformations, was 215.4 mg/L, with a lower 95% confidence bound of 97.4 mg/L. A "Reference Increment" for blood methanol was then determined by dividing this value by a 3-fold factor for residual pharmacodynamic uncertainty between species and a 10-fold factor for interindividual variation in human sensitivity to methanol. The resulting Reference Increment in blood methanol was then converted to an equivalent inhalation Reference Concentration with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model evaluated for continuous exposure conditions. The resulting maximum likelihood estimate for the inhalation RfC was 298 mg/m3, with a 95% lower confidence bound of 135 mg/m3. PMID:14550762

Starr, Thomas B; Festa, John L

2003-10-01

490

LES ENGAGEMENTS CONTRACTUELS DES ACTIONNAIRES DE REFERENCE  

E-print Network

-acquisitions, gouvernance, introduction en bourse, Q de Tobin, OPA amicales, OPA hostiles, pactes d'actionnaires, valeur deLES ENGAGEMENTS CONTRACTUELS DES ACTIONNAIRES DE REFERENCE LORS DE L'INTRODUCTION EN BOURSE tel'introduction en bourse Eric DUCROS Sous la direction de : Edith GINGLINGER Professeur à l'Université Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

491

Collections Care: A Basic Reference Shelflist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an extensive bibliography of reference sources--i.e., books and articles--that relate to the care and conservation of library, archival, and museum collections. Bibliographies are presented under the following headings: (1) General Information; (2) Basic Collections Care; (3) Architectural Conservation; (4) Collections Management: Law,…

de Torres, Amparo R., Ed.

492

TERMS OF REFERENCE COMMUNITY TRUST ENDOWMENT FUND  

E-print Network

TERMS OF REFERENCE COMMUNITY TRUST ENDOWMENT FUND CTEF ToR Page 1 of 2 Purpose of the Endowment by the creativity and excellence of individual researchers. The SFU Community Trust Endowment Fund will contribute Endowment Fund will channel income into major initiatives outlined in the Strategic Research Plan

493

The JWST Science Operations Design Reference Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a sample observing program for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) that represents 1.7 years of operations and have used that program in studies of possible operations scenarios. The Science Operations Design Reference Mission (SO-DRM) is comprised of science, calibration, and observatory maintenance programs that we developed from the JWST Science Working Group Science Requirements Document. Our programs

L. Petro; V. Balzano; J. Boia; J. P. Gardner; M. Giuliano; D. Jones; W. Kinzel; R. Lucas; M. Meixner; L. Purves; R. Rager; M. Regan; A. Roman; P. Royle; W. Rumpl; A. Sivaramakrishnan; D. Soderblom; M. Stiavelli; J. Stys; J. Valenti; R. Whitman

2005-01-01

494