Sample records for icnirp reference level

  1. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure. PMID:21772085

  2. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Bakker; M M Paulides; E Neufeld; A Christ; X L Chen; N Kuster; G C van Rhoon

    2012-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields

  3. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, J. F.; Paulides, M. M.; Neufeld, E.; Christ, A.; Chen, X. L.; Kuster, N.; van Rhoon, G. C.

    2012-04-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm3 contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions.

  4. Children and adults exposed to low-frequency magnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced electric fields.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Chen, X L; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2012-04-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined reference levels for time varying magnetic fields. Restrictions on the electric fields induced in the human body are provided based on biological response data for peripheral nerve stimulation and the induction of phosphenes. Numerical modeling is commonly used to assess the induced electric fields for various exposure configurations. The objective of this study was to assess the variations of the electric fields induced in children and adults and to compare the exposure at reference levels with the basic restrictions as function of anatomy. We used the scalar potential finite element method to calculate the induced electric fields in six children and two adults when exposed to uniform magnetic fields polarized in three orthogonal directions. We found that the induced electric fields are within the ICNIRP basic restrictions in nearly all cases. In PNS tissues, we found electric fields up to 95% (upper uncertainty limit due to discretization errors, k = 2) of the ICNIRP basic restrictions for exposures at the general public reference levels. For occupational reference levels, we found an over-exposure of maximum 79% (k = 2) in PNS tissues. We further found that the ICNIRP recommendations on spatial averaging in 2?×?2?×?2 mm³ contiguous tissue volumes and removal of peak values by the 99th percentile cause the results to depend strongly on the grid discretization step (i.e. an uncertainty of more than 50% at 2 mm) and the number of distinguished tissues in the anatomical models. The computational results obtained by various research institutes should be robust for different discretization settings and various anatomical models. Therefore, we recommend considering alternative routines for small anatomical structures such as non-contiguous averaging without taking the 99th percentile in future guidelines leading to consistent suppression of peak values amongst different simulation settings and anatomical models. The peak electric fields depend on the local tissue distribution in the various anatomical models, and we could not find a correlation with the size of the anatomy. Therefore, we recommend extending the evaluation using a sufficient set of anatomies including other than standing postures to assess the worst-case exposure setting and correspondence to the basic restrictions. PMID:22411059

  5. PINEAL MELATONIN LEVEL DISRUPTION IN HUMANS DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND ICNIRP LIMITS

    E-print Network

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    PINEAL MELATONIN LEVEL DISRUPTION IN HUMANS DUE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND ICNIRP LIMITS Malka N) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as `possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal gland ac- tivity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep­wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may

  6. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  7. Quandaries in the application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies uncertainties and problems in the practical application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density. This quantity should be averaged over a cross-section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the current direction. The rationale and the sensitivity of the current density average are investigated. There are difficulties in finding a square centimetre of spinal cord over which to average. The consequences of including neighbouring tissues in the averages are investigated in the male and female voxel models NORMAN and NAOMI for applied uniform electric and magnetic fields at 50 Hz. Also the case of the non-uniform magnetic field from a horizontal current carrying conductor adjacent to the back of the body is investigated. The maximum and 99th percentile current density values are compared with the 1 cm2 average in the derivation of external field reference levels.

  8. Quandaries in the application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density.

    PubMed

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies uncertainties and problems in the practical application of the ICNIRP low frequency basic restriction on current density. This quantity should be averaged over a cross-section of 1 cm(2) perpendicular to the current direction. The rationale and the sensitivity of the current density average are investigated. There are difficulties in finding a square centimetre of spinal cord over which to average. The consequences of including neighbouring tissues in the averages are investigated in the male and female voxel models NORMAN and NAOMI for applied uniform electric and magnetic fields at 50 Hz. Also the case of the non-uniform magnetic field from a horizontal current carrying conductor adjacent to the back of the body is investigated. The maximum and 99th percentile current density values are compared with the 1 cm(2) average in the derivation of external field reference levels. For more information on this article, see medicalphysicsweb.org. PMID:18182692

  9. Basic Restriction and Reference Level in Anatomically-based Japanese Models for Low-Frequency Electric and Magnetic Field Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yukinori; Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Human exposed to electric and/or magnetic fields at low frequencies may cause direct effect such as nerve stimulation and excitation. Therefore, basic restriction is regulated in terms of induced current density in the ICNIRP guidelines and in-situ electric field in the IEEE standard. External electric or magnetic field which does not produce induced quantities exceeding the basic restriction is used as a reference level. The relationship between the basic restriction and reference level for low-frequency electric and magnetic fields has been investigated using European anatomic models, while limited for Japanese model, especially for electric field exposures. In addition, that relationship has not well been discussed. In the present study, we calculated the induced quantities in anatomic Japanese male and female models exposed to electric and magnetic fields at reference level. A quasi static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. As a result, spatially averaged induced current density was found to be more sensitive to averaging algorithms than that of in-situ electric field. For electric and magnetic field exposure at the ICNIRP reference level, the maximum values of the induced current density for different averaging algorithm were smaller than the basic restriction for most cases. For exposures at the reference level in the IEEE standard, the maximum electric fields in the brain were larger than the basic restriction in the brain while smaller for the spinal cord and heart.

  10. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82-0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15-3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47-1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger samples to verify our observations. Furthermore, this new method could be useful as a reference for researchers and industry professionals without direct access to the necessary equipment. PMID:25996887

  11. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    PubMed Central

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger samples to verify our observations. Furthermore, this new method could be useful as a reference for researchers and industry professionals without direct access to the necessary equipment. PMID:25996887

  12. ICNIRP Standard Guidelines and Pulse Modulated Electromagnetic Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Davidson BA; Mast Sanity

    ICNIRP guidelines are inadequate for protection of the general public from amplitude-modulated or pulse-modulated electromagnetic fields (EMF) at extremely low frequencies (ELF — below around 200 Hz). The grounds for this concern are two-fold: 1. There is a substantial and growing body of peer-reviewed research indicating that confidence in the absence of risk from recognised biological effects from ELF EMF

  13. Reference levels at European level for cardiac interventional procedures.

    PubMed

    Padovani, R; Vano, E; Trianni, A; Bokou, C; Bosmans, H; Bor, D; Jankowski, J; Torbica, P; Kepler, K; Dowling, A; Milu, C; Tsapaki, V; Salat, D; Vassileva, J; Faulkner, K

    2008-01-01

    In interventional cardiology, a wide variation in patient dose for the same type of procedure has been recognised by different studies. Variation is almost due to procedure complexity, equipment performance, procedure protocol and operator skill. The SENTINEL consortium has performed a survey in nine european centres collecting information on near 2000 procedures, and a new set of reference levels (RLs) for coronary angiography and angioplasty and diagnostic electrophysiology has been assessed for air kerma-area product: 45, 85 and 35 Gy cm2, effective dose: 8, 15 and 6 mSv, cumulative dose at interventional reference point: 650 and 1500 mGy, fluoroscopy time: 6.5, 15.5 and 21 min and cine frames: 700 and 1000 images, respectively. Because equipment performance and set-up are the factors contributing to patient dose variability, entrance surface air kerma for fluoroscopy, 13 mGy min(-1), and image acquisition, 0.10 mGy per frame, have also been proposed in the set of RLs. PMID:18310612

  14. To Gardner (MAIN) Stacks Level C Moffitt Reference Collection

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    08.29.2014 340 BCNM Classroom ENTRANCE 101­106 Classrooms To Gardner (MAIN) Stacks Level C Moffitt­106 Classrooms To Gardner (MAIN) Stacks Level C Moffitt Reference Collection Staff Offices 302 Free Speech (MAIN) Stacks Level C Moffitt Reference Collection Staff Offices 302 Free Speech Movement (FSM) Cafe

  15. The role of skin conductivity in a low frequency exposure assessment for peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Cecil, Stefan; Überbacher, Richard

    2013-07-01

    Based on numerical computations using commercially available finite difference time domain code and a state-of-the art anatomical model of a 5-year old child, the influence of skin conductivity on the induced electric field strength inside the tissue for homogeneous front-to-back magnetic field exposure and homogeneous vertical electric field exposure was computed. Both ungrounded as well as grounded conditions of the body model were considered. For electric field strengths induced inside CNS tissue the impact of skin conductivity was found to be less than 15%. However, the results demonstrated that the use of skin conductivity values as obtainable from the most widely used data base of dielectric tissue properties and recommended by safety standards are not suitable for exposure assessment with respect to peripheral nerve tissue according to the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines in which the use of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin is suggested as a conservative surrogate for peripheral nerve exposure. This is due to the fact that the skin conductivity values derived from these data bases refer to the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the skin, which does not contain any nerve or receptor cells to be protected from stimulation effects. Using these skin conductivity values which are approximately a factor 250-500 lower than skin conductivity values used in studies on which the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines are based on, may lead to overestimations of the induced electric field strengths inside the skin by substantially more than a factor of 10. However, reliable conductivity data of deeper skin layers where nerve and preceptor cells are located is very limited. It is therefore recommended to include appropriate background information in the ICNIRP guidelines and the dielectric tissue property databases, and to put some emphasis on a detailed layer-specific characterization of skin conductivity in near future.

  16. Reference level winds from balloon platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lally, Vincent E.

    1985-01-01

    The superpressure balloon was developed to provide a method of obtaining global winds at all altitudes from 5 to 30 km. If a balloon could be made to fly for several weeks at a constant altitude, and if it could be tracked accurately on its global circuits, the balloon would provide a tag for the air parcel in which it was embedded. The Lagrangian data on the atmospheric circulation would provide a superior data input to the numerical model. The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) was initiated in large part based on the promise of this technique coupled with free-floating ocean buoys and satellite radiometers. The initial name proposed by Charney for GARP was SABABURA 'SAtellite BAlloon BUoy RAdiometric system' (Charney, 1966). However, although the superpressure balloon exceeded its designers' expectations for flight duration in the stratosphere (longest flight duration of 744 days), flight duration below 10 km was limited by icing in super-cooled clouds to a few days. The balloon was relegated to a secondary role during the GARP Special Observing Periods. The several major superpressure balloon programs for global wind measurement are described as well as those new developments which make the balloon once again an attractive vehicle for measurement of global winds as a reference and bench-mark system for future satellite systems.

  17. Change in childhood lead exposure prevalence with new reference level.

    PubMed

    Leafe, Morgan; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeLago, Cynthia; Hassan, Amman; Braitman, Leonard

    2015-06-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention changed the "actionable" reference blood lead level from 10 ?g/dL to 5 ?g/dL, representing the highest 2.5 percentile of lead levels nationwide. In a high-risk urban community, the prevalence of children classified as lead exposed increased ninefold, from 1% to 9.1% (p < .0001) with the new reference level. This dramatic increase in the prevalence of children newly classified as lead exposed will require additional health care and public health resources for tracking, surveillance, and home lead abatement. PMID:26058217

  18. The implementation of diagnostic reference levels to Australian radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Anthony B

    2010-10-01

    At the present time, there is no national surveillance of the increasing ionising radiation dose to the population from diagnostic imaging procedures. As the number of procedures undertaken is increasing, it is expected that the population dose will also increase. A substantial component of that contribution is from multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) systems. The Australian Radiation Protection & Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) estimates that the growth in MDCT scans, based on Medicare Benefits Schedule data, is increasing at approximately 9% per annum, with over 2 million MDCT scans being performed in 2009. The caput effective dose (mSv) from this modality is expected to be approaching 1.2 mSv per annum. If current dose-detriment models are accurate, the risk of induction of carcinogenic detriment from current MDCT scanning patterns is a significant public health issue that requires a concerted and ongoing response. For the application of ionising radiation in medicine, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends the conservative philosophy of Justification and Optimisation via the measurement of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' to limit the potential overexposure of patients and decrease the overall population burden. The Australian government has commissioned ARPANSA to survey, calculate and construct representative national diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic imaging modalities that use ionising radiation. This will be achieved in close consultation with the professional organisations who represent the professionals responsible for the use of ionising radiation in diagnostic imaging. PMID:20958945

  19. Validation of ICNIRP estimates of toxicity thresholds for NIR (785 nm) light in the retinas of pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Borchert, Mark; Lambert, James; Sliney, David

    2006-01-01

    The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) established eye-safe exposure limits for laser light based on estimates of the 50% exposure dose (ED50) for retinal damage in animals. The ED50 has not been determined for continuous-wave near-infrared (NIR) light, as may be used in instruments for spectroscopic analysis of the eye. The purpose of this study is to determine the ED50 of 785-nm light delivered by a Raman spectroscopy instrument on the retinas of pigmented rabbits, and to compare that ED50 to the ICNIRP estimates. Light of varying power was focused into the anterior chambers of rabbits for 4, 20, or 300 s. Estimates of spot size on the retina were determined by modifying the schematic rabbit eye with actual axial length and refractive error measurements. Masked examiners determined retinal burns from fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms made immediately after exposure and again 48-72 h later. Thirty-five of 86 exposed eyes had retinal burns. In 12 of these the burn was not visible until 48-72 h. In 6 the burn was visible on color photographs, but not on fluorescein angiography. The ED50 retinal power density from probit analysis was 14,513 mW cm(-2), 10,369 mW cm(-2), and 5,237 mW cm(-2) for 4-s, 20-s, and 300-s exposures, respectively. Thus, the ED50 for retinal burns from 785-nm light is approximately 7 and 7.5 times the ICNIRP permitted limits for 4- and 20-s exposures, and 5.6 times the limit for 300-s exposures. This is consistent with the ICNIRP intention to set power limits several times less than ED50. PMID:16340602

  20. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  1. Power noise rejection and device noise analysis at the reference level of ramp ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Peter; Um, JiYong; Choi, EunJung; Park, HyunMook; Gou, JaSeung; Cho, KwangJun; Seo, KangBong; Yoo, SangDong

    2015-03-01

    Sources of noise that corrupt the reference level VREF during a ramp ADC operation are identified and analyzed. For power noise analysis, PSR of bandgap reference and current generator are investigated through small signal circuits. For device noise appearing at the reference level, noise contribution from each device is expressed in terms of design variables. The identified design variables are arranged in a table to serve as a guide for low noise CMOS imager design.

  2. Forget the Desk Job: Current Roles and Responsibilities in Entry-Level Reference Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detmering, Robert; Sproles, Claudene

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the evolving roles and responsibilities of entry-level academic reference positions, as stated in recent job advertisements posted on the American Library Association's JobLIST Web site and other sources. Findings from a content analysis of these advertisements indicate that current entry-level reference positions in academic…

  3. Cryogenic-Sapphire-Oscillator-Based Reference Signal at 1 GHz with 10-15 Level Instability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-ichi Watabe; Shinya Yanagimachi; Akifumi Takamizawa; Takeshi Ikegami; Shin-ichi Ohshima; Giorgio Santarelli; Clayton R. Locke; John G. Hartnett

    2008-01-01

    We describe a 1 GHz reference signal with 10-15 level fractional frequency stability for averaging times longer than 1 s, synthesized from a 10.8 GHz oscillation frequency of a cryogenic-sapphire-resonator-based ultra-stable oscillator and phase locked to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of about 1000 s. The degradation of the short term stability of the reference signal by phase

  4. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1, the safety factor was 11.

  5. Evaluation of Tertiary Level Institutions: A Reference System and Basic Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bertoni, Alicia N. L.; de Margurno, Josefina A. S.

    A conceptual framework and practical approach are presented focusing on the possibility of making an evaluation of tertiary educational institutions by means of different levels, categories, and criteria of analysis. The paper is a preliminary reference design of evaluation whose theoretical approach is summarized with a more extensive…

  6. Nature of Environmental Education in Bangladesh: A School Level Assessment with Reference to the National Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, M. A. Taiyeb

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the nature of formal environmental education in Bangladesh at school level with particular reference to the national curriculum. The main objective of the study is to assess the contents of the school textbooks for each standard, and to see whether the diversified themes covered are a good representation of…

  7. Local diagnostic reference levels for angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures: Australian practice.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Brendan J; Brady, Zoe; Marshall, Elissa M

    2014-03-01

    Although diagnostic and interventional fluoroscopic procedures are amongst the highest dose examinations performed in radiology, these procedures currently lack established national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Australia. In this absence, local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) are proposed for a wide range of diagnostic and interventional angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures based upon data collected from 11,000 examinations, performed over a 2.5 year period at a major Australian public, teaching hospital. Each procedure type assessed included a minimum of 50 cases. LDRLs were defined for each procedure in terms of the 75th percentile of the dose area product and median fluoroscopic times have also been provided. The detailed categories of procedures used in this study may inform the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency when establishing national DRLs for angiographic and fluoroscopic procedures. Until national DRLs for these complex procedures are available, these LDRLs may provide guidance to other institutions on achievable dose levels. PMID:24430258

  8. Reference levels in the context of Fukushima and related lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    About 1 mo after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, which was caused by the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, Japanese authorities set a dose criterion for the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima at 20 mSv y?¹ based on the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendation for the reference level for the public under the existing exposure situation. This dose criterion was intended as a start line for reducing the dose to children; however, it caused much confusion among the public due to the misunderstanding of the concept of optimization and the application of reference level. Also, concerns were caused by the lack of precise but understandable information on radiation effects. This situation highlighted the importance of an understanding of radiation protection concepts by members of the general public and the outreach activities of radiation protection experts, both of which are essential for Fukushima recovery. PMID:24077049

  9. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm. PMID:25833896

  10. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  11. Patient dosimetry and a novel approach to establishing Diagnostic Reference Levels in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher; van der Putten, Wil

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels provide a method of ensuring that patient doses in medical procedures are kept at acceptable levels. Their application in dentistry can provide an indication of current dose levels and can assist in potentially significant dose reduction in Ireland given the number of patients screened annually. This study involved retrospective analyses of entrance surface dose and dose-width-product measurements obtained in Irish Dental Practices for both Intra-Oral and Panoramic units respectively, followed by comparisons with Monte-Carlo generated computer models of these procedures. Analysis was performed on data from 33 Intra-Oral units for an Adult Mandibular Molar entrance surface dose, 198 readings for a proposed mGy/mAs reference level and 50 Panoramic machines for a dose-width product investigation. The third quartile value of the entrance surface dose for a standard Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph is (2.40 ± 0.92)mGy, compared to a computer-modelled value of 2.60 mGy. The third quartile mGy/mAs value for Intra-Oral procedures is (1.03 ± 0.38)mGy/mAs, compared to a computer-modelled value of 0.75 mGy/mAs. The third quartile dose width product for an Adult Panoramic radiograph is (59.89 ± 20.97)mGymm, compared to a computer-modeled value of 62.40 mGymm. It is proposed to introduce Diagnostic Reference Levels of 2.4 mGy for an Adult Mandibular Molar Intra-Oral radiograph and 60 mGymm for an Adult Panoramic radiograph. The use of a new reference quantity in Intra-Oral radiology is also suggested. This has a value of 1 mGy/mAs and may be introduced alongside established procedures. These levels can be taken as guides to acceptable doses, but it should be noted that further reductions are practical under ALARA principles. PMID:21216646

  12. A numerically calibrated reference level (MP28) for the terrestrial mammal-based biozonation of the European Upper Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertz, Dieter F.; Renne, Paul R.; Wuttke, Michael; Mödden, Clemens

    2007-04-01

    The fauna of the Enspel (Westerwald) and the neighbouring Kärlich (Neuwied basin) fossil deposits correspond to the Upper Oligocene Mammal Paleogene (MP) reference level 28 and 28 30, respectively. Basaltic flows and a trachyte tuff terminating and predating the fossil deposit sedimentation allow to numerically calibrate the MP reference levels by radioisotope dating. Laser fusion 40Ar/39Ar step heating on volcanic feldspars yield a time interval of 24.9 24.5 Ma for reference level MP28 at Enspel and a maximum age of 25.5 Ma for the time interval MP28 MP30 at Kärlich. Interpolation between the time intervals determined for the Enspel reference level MP28 and the age of the global Oligocene/Miocene boundary of 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma taken from literature results in time intervals of 24.5 24.2 Ma and 24.2 23.9 Ma for the younger reference levels MP29 and MP30, respectively. These intervals of ? 0.4 m.y. for MP reference levels of the latest Oligocene are short relative to older Oligocene MP reference levels 21 27 between 34 and 25 Ma. Since subdivision into MP reference levels essentially is based on assemblages of mammal taxa and on evolutionary changes in tooth morphology of mammals short MP time intervals during the latest Oligocene indicate a rapid evolutionary change relative to the early Oligocene.

  13. Developing a field independent frequency reference by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels

    E-print Network

    M. D. Barrett

    2014-11-03

    We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use Lu+ to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many clock candidates.

  14. Multi-Component Molecular-Level Body Composition Reference Methods: Evolving Concepts and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ebbeling, Cara B.; Zheng, Jolene; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Strauss, Boyd J.; Silva, Analiza M.; Ludwig, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Excess adiposity is the main phenotypic feature that defines human obesity and that plays a pathophysiological role in most chronic diseases. Measuring the amount of fat mass present is thus a central aspect of studying obesity at the individual and population levels. Nevertheless, a consensus is lacking among investigators on a single accepted “reference” approach for quantifying fat mass in vivo. While the research community generally relies on the multicomponent body-volume class of “reference” models for quantifying fat mass, no definable guide discerns among different applied equations for partitioning the four (fat, water, protein, and mineral mass) or more quantified components, standardizes “adjustment” or measurement system approaches for model-required labeled water dilution volumes and bone mineral mass estimates, or firmly establishes the body temperature at which model physical properties are assumed. The resulting differing reference strategies for quantifying body composition in vivo leads to small but under some circumstances important differences in the amount of measured body fat. Recent technological advances highlight opportunities to expand model applications to new subject groups and measured components such as total body protein. The current report reviews the historical evolution of multicomponent body volume-based methods in the context of prevailing uncertainties and future potential. PMID:25645009

  15. Assessment of potential risk levels associated with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Rosemary; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) generally uses reference doses (RfDs) or reference concentrations (RfCs) to assess risks from exposure to toxic substances for noncancer health end points. RfDs and RfCs are supposed to represent lifetime inhalation or ingestion exposure with minimal appreciable risk, but they do not include information about the estimated risk from exposures equal to the RfD/RfC. We used results from benchmark dose modeling approaches recently adopted for use in developing RfDs/RfCs to estimate the risk levels associated with exposures at the RfD/RfC. We searched the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database and identified 11 chemicals with oral RfDs and 12 chemicals with inhalation RfCs that used benchmark dose modeling. For assessments with sufficient model information, we found that 16 of 21 (76%) of the dose-response models were linear or supralinear. We estimated the risk from exposures at the established RfDs and RfCs for these chemicals using a linear dose-response curve to characterize risk below the observed data. Risk estimates ranged from 1 in 10,000 to 5 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfDs, and from 1 in 10,000 to 3 in 1,000 for exposures at the RfCs. Risk estimates for exposures at the RfD/RfC values derived from sublinear dose-response curves ranged from 3 in 1,000,000,000 to 8 in 10,000. Twenty-four percent of reference values corresponded to estimated risk levels greater than 1 in 1,000; 10 of 14 assessments had points of departure greater than the no-observed-adverse-effect levels. For policy development regarding management of cancer risks, the U.S. EPA often uses 1 in 1,000,000 as a de minimis risk level. Although noncancer outcomes may in some instances be reversible and considered less severe than cancer, our findings call into question the assumption that established RfD and RfC values represent negligibly small risk levels. PMID:12896853

  16. Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels for paediatric CT: a new approach with proposed values.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, H; Seuri, R; Kortesniemi, M; Lajunen, A; Hallinen, E; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Laarne, P; Perhomaa, M; Tyrväinen, E

    2015-07-01

    Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for a few most common paediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations are proposed. Patient dose data (CTDIvol and dose length product) were collected for over 1000 patients in 4 university hospitals with best experiences in paediatric CT. Four indications for chest CT and two for abdomen (abdomen + pelvis), chest + abdomen and head CT were considered. The DRLs for the body examinations are proposed as exponential DRL-curves, where CTDIvol and dose length product are presented as a function of patient weight. The same DRL curve applies to all the indications studied. The basic 75 % level curve is supplemented by 50 % level curve to enable considerations on varying levels of technology. For head CT, DRLs are proposed for a few age groups (1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y), separately for routine CT and CT for ventricular size. The proposed DRLs are generally lower than the few published DRLs in other countries. PMID:25833898

  17. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2 N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow

    E-print Network

    Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level 2 H-, 13 C- and 15 N-abundance reference materials the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chroma- tography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC

  18. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in cardiac CT in France: a need for patient dose optimisation.

    PubMed

    Mafalanka, F; Etard, C; Rehel, J L; Pesenti-Rossi, D; Amrar-Vennier, F; Baron, N; Christiaens, L; Convers-Domart, R; Defez, D; Douek, P; Gaxotte, V; Georges, J L; Leygnac, S; Ou, P; Sablayrolles, J L; Salvat, C; Schouman-Claeys, E; Sirol, M; Aubert, B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), in the context of a large variability in patient radiation dose, and the lack of European recommendations. Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were collected from 460 CCTAs performed over a 3-month period at eight French hospitals. CCTAs (?50 per centre) were performed using the routine protocols of the centres, and 64- to 320-detector CT scanners. ECG gating was prospective (n = 199) or retrospective (n = 261). The large gap in dose between these two modes required to propose specific DRLs: 26 and 44 mGy for CTDIvol, and 370 and 970 mGy cm for DLP, respectively. This study confirms the large variability in patient doses during CCTA and underlines the need for the optimisation of cardiac acquisition protocols. Availability of national DRLs should be mandatory in this setting. PMID:25342609

  19. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography. [416 references

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas.

  20. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. PMID:25836694

  1. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predict fatal cancer in patients referred to coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Dobnig, Harald; Winklhofer-Roob, Brigitte; Riedmüller, Gunter; Fischer, Joachim E; Seelhorst, Ursula; Wellnitz, Britta; Boehm, Bernhard O; März, Winfried

    2008-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that vitamin D may protect against cancer, but results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive so far, and other studies looking into the prospective association of total cancer mortality and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, which are considered to be the best indicator of vitamin D status, are scarce. We measured 25(OH)D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in 3,299 patients from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study. The baseline examination was done between July 1997 and January 2000 and included a fasting blood sampling in the morning before coronary angiography. During a median follow-up period of 7.75 years, 95 patients died due to cancer. After adjustment for possible confounders, the Cox proportional hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the fourth 25(OH)D quartile was 0.45 (0.22-0.93) when compared with the first quartile and the hazard ratio per increase of 25 nmol/L in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was 0.66 (0.49-0.89). We found no association between serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and fatal cancer. In summary, our data suggest that low levels of 25(OH)D are associated with increased risk of fatal cancer in patients referred to coronary angiography and that the maintenance of a sufficient vitamin D status might therefore be a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of cancer. PMID:18463400

  2. The weakly bound dinitrogen tetroxide molecule: High level single reference wavefunctions are good enough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, Steve S.; Fermann, Justin T.; Crawford, T. Daniel; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1997-05-01

    Ab initio studies of dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) have been performed to predict the equilibrium geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and fragmentation energy (N2O4?2 NO2). The structure was optimized at the self-consistent field, configuration interaction, and coupled-cluster levels of theory with large basis sets. At the highest level of theory, the N-N bond distance was 1.752 Å, in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 1.756±0.01 Å. In addition, the harmonic vibrational frequencies were predicted with an average absolute error of 51 cm-1 relative to experimental fundamental values with differences largely attributed to anharmonic effects. The fragmentation energy corrected for zero point vibrational energy and basis set superposition error was 7.2 kcal/mol, in fair agreement with the experimental value of 12.7 kcal/mol. Despite the suggestion that a multireference wavefunction may be necessary to accurately describe the biradical nature of N2O4, single reference treatments with large basis sets and high levels of electron correlation yield molecular parameters remarkably close to experimental values.

  3. Indication-based diagnostic reference levels for adult CT-examinations in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, A

    2015-07-01

    A diagnostic reference level (DRL) is a predefined dose level, which should not be exceeded in an examination that is conducted appropriately on an average-sized patient. Since dose from only one examination should not be compared with a DRL, the average dose from a good sample of at least 10 average-sized patients should be compared. The previous DRLs for computed tomography (CT)-examinations for adults in Finland were issued in 2007 and only covered examinations conducted on a particular body region. Because the image quality requirements, and thus the dose needed, vary between different indications, there has been a call for indication-based DRLs for CT. The new indication-based DRLs for CT came into effect on June 2013. They are based on a dose survey performed in 2012. Doses were collected from examinations conducted on a particular body region, based on some indication and from some special examination types. The DRLs were set according to the third quartile approach. On average, the DRLs for a particular body region dropped ?20 % from the previous DRLs. PMID:25821213

  4. Crustal Motion Geodesy, PGR and Sea Level Rise: Eliminating Reference Frame Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevis, M. G.; Brown, A. K.; Kendrick, E. C.; Caccamise, D. J.; Merrifield, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Long-term geodetic observations of vertical crustal motion can be used to assess and constrain PGR models and to assess and constrain 'absolute' versus 'relative' rates of sea level change. All geodetic estimates for the vertical velocities of GPS stations are stated in a specific reference frame (RF). In effect, this RF provides a datum for the vertical velocity measurements. Geodesists have long known that two geodetic groups using fairly similar GPS data sets (in terms of station distribution and temporal extent) often fail to realize equivalent RFs, even when they agree, in principle, on the definition of their 'target' RF. This phenomenon has sometimes been referred to as 'RF realization error'. This problem becomes more pronounced as the spatial and temporal sampling of the GPS networks under analysis by two or more geodesy groups becomes more diverse. A similar phenomenon occurs with PGR models. Many PGR models are nominally posed in the same physical frame - usually a Center of Mass (CM) frame - but in practice the global vertical velocity fields they predict are quite distinct. We shall argue that part of this discrepancy arises from RF realization error. We shall argue that the best way to address the RF problem in the context of vertical velocities is to estimate a component of the global vertical velocity field (evaluated at a given set of stations) consistent with a constant rate of displacement between the two frames, and then remove this component so as to isolate differences that cannot be explained in terms of frame drift. In effect, the resulting set of vertical velocity differences is 'frameless'. We will argue that such frameless comparisons are much safer than imagining that any two groups (be they geodesists or GPR theorists) can ever realize exactly equivalent frames. The distinction between these two approaches is sometimes subtle, but in practice the frameless approach means we must estimate frame translation rates for each distinct combination of vertical velocity estimates/predictions under consideration.

  5. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovi?, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A

    2015-07-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDIvol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDIvol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. PMID:25836685

  6. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. PMID:21430858

  7. Mercury vapour (Hg(0)): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G Mark; Brecher, Ronald W; Scobie, Hugh; Hamblen, Jane; Samuelian, John; Smith, Cindy

    2009-02-01

    There are four published reference exposure levels (RELs) for Hg(0), ranging from 0.09microg/m(3) to 1microg/m(3). All RELs were derived from the same toxicological database, predominantly of male chloralkali workers. Some key factors are apparent which make the use of that database questionable for REL derivation. Occupational studies of chloralkali workers are not an appropriate basis for a REL for Hg(0). Concomitant exposure to chlorine gas (Cl(2)) diminishes uptake and effects of Hg(0) exposure. There are gender differences in Hg(0) uptake, distribution and excretion, with females at potentially greater risk from Hg(0) exposure than males. Studies of chloralkali workers focused almost exclusively on adult males. Recent investigations of dental professionals (dentists, technicians, assistants) have failed to define a threshold in the dose-response relationship linking Hg(0) with neurobehavioural outcomes, an observation generally ignored in Hg(0) REL development. Finally, there is a growing database on genetic predisposition to health effects associated with Hg(0) exposure. Based on these considerations, we propose a different key study for REL derivation, one that involved male and female dental professionals without concomitant Cl(2) exposure. Adjusting the LOEAL to continuous exposure and applying appropriate UF values, we propose a Canadian REL for Hg(0) of 0.06microg/m(3). PMID:18992295

  8. Out of Cite! How Reference Managers Are Taking Research to the Next Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldrow, Jason; Yoder, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Times change, and so do research methods; gone are the days of researching with index cards. While academics may be slow to adopt emerging citation technology, the reference manager field is blazing ahead. This article explains what reference managers are, addresses their emergence in and potential impact on academe, and profiles a newcomer to the…

  9. Towards proposition of a diagnostic reference level for mammographic examination in the greater Khorasan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bahreyni Toossi, M T; Zare, H; Bayani Roodi, Sh; Hashemi, M; Akbari, F; Malekzadeh, M

    2013-06-01

    Although, over the past few years, the application of mammography has risen up sharply in Iran, very little, if any, has been reported of the extent of patient's dose from this type of imaging. The purpose of this study was to establish local diagnostic reference level (DRL) arising from mammography in the great Khorasan province of Iran. It is generally assumed that the glandular tissue is the most vulnerable type of breast tissue. Therefore, the mean glandular dose (MGD) has been widely accepted as the most appropriate dosimetric quantity to predict the risk of radiation-induced cancer. Literary, DRL for mammography is defined as the 75th percentile of MGD distribution. In Khorasan province, 7 out of 40 centres were randomly selected. In this work, 100 patients were studied. Thermoluminescence dosimeters have been used to measure entrance surface doses (ESDs). Since, it is difficult to directly measure MGD, Monte Carlo model-based conversion factors were utilised to conclude MGD from ESD. The results have revealed that patients dose is varied widely. The measured ESDs ranged from 0.74 to 19.81 mGy for the craniocaudal (CC) view and 1.20 to 25.79 mGy for the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view. The average MGDs per image were 0.88 and 1.11 mGy for CC and MLO views, respectively. Based on the internationally adopted definition, DRL arising from mammography tests for Khorasan is 1.33 mGy. Implementation of a dose reduction programme is suggested because of the large variations observed in patient MGD values. In this study, the DRL value is significantly lower than the corresponding values suggested by other researchers elsewhere. PMID:23209184

  10. Use of the mini C-arm for wrist fractures--establishing a diagnostic reference level.

    PubMed

    Love, Gavin J; Pillai, Anand; Gibson, Suzy

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations became mandatory following the implementation of the Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations Act 2000. At present, there are no national dosage guidelines in the UK regarding use of fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma. The increasing popularity of the mini C-arm image intensifier amongst surgeons has led to concerns regarding use of ionizing radiation by personnel who have not been trained in radiation protection. It is therefore essential to have formal protocols for use of the mini C-arm to comply with the law and to maintain safe clinical practice. It is attempted to provide dose data for wrist fracture manipulations that may be used as a basis for setting a DRL for this procedure. Screening times were recorded for 80 wrist manipulations in a fracture clinic setting using a mini C-arm image intensifier. A DRL was set using the third quartile value for screening time. The median screening time for wrist fractures was 20 s with a range from 1 to 177 s. The third quartile value for screening time was 34 s. This value can be used as a provisional DRL for wrist fracture manipulations. The DRL is a quantitative guide for the optimisation of radiological protection. IR(ME)R 2000 states that if it is consistently exceeded by an individual operator or a piece of equipment, investigation and remedial action must be taken. We recommend that trauma units establish their own local DRLs for common procedures as made mandatory by legislation. PMID:17681963

  11. Suggested diagnostic reference levels for paediatric X-ray examinations in India.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, A U; Sunil Kumar, J V K; Singh, Meghraj; Pradhan, A S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure of children to ionising radiation is considered to carry higher risk than that of adults; therefore a need to suggest diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for the common paediatric diagnostic X-ray procedures was recognised for the X-ray machines meeting the requirements of the recently implemented Safety Code for Medical Diagnostic X-ray Equipment and Installations in India. Measurements were carried out for entrance surface air kerma (free in air) in conventional paediatric X-ray diagnostic examinations among four age groups: <1, 1-4, 5-9 and 10-15 y. A total of 2240 air kerma measurements at different fixed focus to skin distances were studied for 7 paediatric diagnostic examinations with 11 different projections on 62 X-ray machines installed in 22 selected hospitals in the country. The third quartile values of air kerma per paediatric examination for the age group of 5-9 y were considered as values of paediatric DRLs. The suggested values of DRLs are 0.2 mGy for chest AP/PA, 0.3 mGy for chest LAT, 0.7 mGy for lumber spine AP, 1.3 mGy for lumber spine LAT, 0.3 mGy for thoracic spine AP, 0.6 mGy for thoracic spine LAT, 0.5 mGy for abdomen AP, 0.7 mGy for pelvis AP, 0.6 mGy for skull PA, 0.5 mGy for skull LAT and 0.8 mGy for hip joints AP. PMID:21147790

  12. Observing sea level with coastal tide gauges in a geocentric reference frame: experience with the Dual CGPS methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.-P.; Kristiansen, O.

    2003-04-01

    For several applications of tide gauge observations, such as calibration of satellite altimeter or studies of long-period and secular absolute sea level changes, knowledge of vertical crustal motion close to the tide gauge is required. Increasingly, continuous GPS (CGPS) is co-located with tide gauges in order (1) to fix the tide gauge and its movement with respect to a geocentric reference frame and (2) to studying the crustal vertical motion in the vicinity of the tide gauge by monitoring a stable reference point on land. Connecting the tide gauge to the reference point then allows to determine both relative and absolute sea level variations. At many tide gauges, conditions for GPS observations are poor due to distortions of horizon, multi-path, electro-magnetic jaming and variability of the micro-environment. In these case, the dual receiver concept advocated by the European Sea Level Service (ESEAS) provides a methodology to connect the tide gauge to a high-quality GPS reference station on land without the need of frequent levelling between the tide gauge and the reference site. About 7 km away from the tide gauge at Andenes, Northern Norway, a permanent reference GPS receiver has been operated since 1996. Since December 2000, the tide gauge is collocated with a permanent GPS receiver operated on the pier directly at the tide gauge. The two GPS records are compared on the basis of several observation-related parameters such as data rejection and post-fit residuals, as well as the coordinate time series resulting from independent precise point positioning. Except for a differential seasonal signal, no significant differences between the two records are found.

  13. A Contribution to the Establishment of Reference Values for Total Mercury Levels in Hair and Fish in Amazonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. O. Santos; V. M. Câmara; I. M. Jesus; E. S. Brabo; E. C. B. Loureiro; A. F. S. Mascarenhas; K. F. Fayal; G. C. Sá Filho; F. E. S. Sagica; M. O. Lima; H. Higuchi; I. M. Silveira

    2002-01-01

    Studies on mercury levels in the Amazonian Region have typically lacked background or reference parameters. A sectional study on Hg concentration in hair and fish was conducted, together with an assessment of the prevalence of signs and symptoms related to Hg poisoning, in four communities in the Amazon Basin not impacted by gold mining, located either by a river course

  14. Commentary Variations: Level of Verbalization, Personal Reference, and Phase Relations in Instructional Films on Perceptual-Motor Tasks. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, John V.

    In an experiment to determine the most efficient design for the commentary of an instructional film, special consideration was given to three variables concerned with the construction of commentaries: the level of verbalization (the amount of talk), the personal reference of the narrator, and the phase relationship between the commentary and the…

  15. The Relationship Between Global Mean Sea Level Rise and the Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Luthcke, S.; Zelensky, N.; Pavlis, E.; Beckley, B.; Ray, R.; Petrov, L.; Pavlis, D.; Rowlands, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Terrestrial Reference Frame is the fundamental means by which we relate observations in space and time. For example, in order to generate a homogeneous and consistent time series of geo-referenced altimeter measurements over the span of the Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 missions, we must examine carefully the role of improvements in measurement modelling, force modelling, and improved reference frame realizations. In this paper, we quantify the effects of improvements in force modelling, for example the use of new GRACE-derived gravity models, the effect of time-variable gravity derived from GRACE on altimeter satellite orbits. In addition, we examine the effects of modelling geocenter in altimeteric satellite POD, and look at how the application of atmospheric loading might affect the time-series of precise orbits for Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1.

  16. Analysis of ground tests of a microwave, earth-occultation, pressure-reference-level system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, S. G.; Lusignan, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    A two-satellite, microwave, earth-occultation system can supplement an infrared sensor by providing an accurate altitude reference that will serve to fix, as a function of height, the derived temperature profile of the infrared sounder. The results of ground tests made in Hawaii to estimate the likely effects of scintillation and fading on an occultation system are described. It was found that the microwave signal suffered periods of intense fading; extensive computer analyses of the data were performed in which aircraft-generated refractivity profiles were subjected to ray tracing. Results of these analyses indicate that the probable cause of the observed fading was multipath, a low-altitude phenomenon usually attributed to water vapor inhomogeneities. It is maintained that multipath will therefore have minimal effect on the pressure-reference microwave occultation system, which would operate at a relatively high closest-approach altitude (about 8 km).

  17. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)]. E-mail: jag2@cdc.gov; Huang, Wenlin [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Patterson, Donald G. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Turner, Wayman E. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Pirkle, James [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Caudill, Samuel P. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wang, Richard Y. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Needham, Larry L. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Sampson, Eric J. [Division of Environment Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2006-03-15

    We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population.

  18. Possible Levels of Animal Consciousness with Reference to Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene M. Pepperberg; Spencer K. Lynn

    2000-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Researchers often study nonhuman abilities by assuming their subjects form representations about perceived stimuli and then process such information; why then would consciousness be required, and, if required, at what level? Argu- ments about nonhuman consciousness range from claims of levels comparable to humans to refutation of any need to study such phenomena. We suggest that (a) species exhibit

  19. Parallel implementation of multireference coupled-cluster theories based on the reference-level parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

    2012-02-01

    A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

  20. An investigation of sound levels on intensive care units with reference to the WHO guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) suffer from sleep deprivation arising from nursing interventions and ambient noise. This may exacerbate confusion and ICU-related delirium. The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests that average hospital sound levels should not exceed 35 dB with a maximum of 40 dB overnight. We monitored five ICUs to check compliance with these guidelines. Methods Sound levels were recorded in five adult ICUs in the UK. Two sound level monitors recorded concurrently for 24 hours at the ICU central stations and adjacent to patients. Sample values to determine levels generated by equipment and external noise were also recorded in an empty ICU side room. Results Average sound levels always exceeded 45 dBA and for 50% of the time exceeded between 52 and 59 dBA in individual ICUs. There was diurnal variation with values decreasing after evening handovers to an overnight average minimum of 51 dBA at 4 AM. Peaks above 85 dBA occurred at all sites, up to 16 times per hour overnight and more frequently during the day. WHO guidelines on sound levels could be only achieved in a side room by switching all equipment off. Conclusion All ICUs had sound levels greater than WHO recommendations, but the WHO recommended levels are so low they are not achievable in an ICU. Levels adjacent to patients are higher than those recorded at central stations. Unit-wide noise reduction programmes or mechanical means of isolating patients from ambient noise, such as earplugs, should be considered. PMID:24005004

  1. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) system's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) is described in terms of the constituent modules, the execution of ALAMO procedure files, necessary for system execution, and the source code documentation associated with code development at Langley Research Center. The modules constituting ALAMO are presented both in flow graph form, and through a description of the subroutines and functions that comprise them.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICITY REFERENCE VALUES FOR ECOLOGICAL SOIL SCREENING LEVELS (ECO-SSLS) FOR TERRESTRIAL WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological Soil Screening Levels (Eco-SSLs) protective of terrestrial wildlife were developed by the USEPA Superfund. The wildlife Eco-SSL is the soil contaminant concentration where the Effect Dose (TRV) and Exposure Dose are equal (amount of contaminant in the diet that is take...

  3. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40?MHz exposure.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40?MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300?mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10?°C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4?V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100?mA?rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8?V/m?rms without an implant and 23.4?V/m?rms for the model with a 300?mm implant. PMID:24578303

  4. Results of a survey on the implementation of diagnostic reference levels for X-rays among Dutch hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for medical x-ray procedures are being implemented currently in the Netherlands. By order of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate, a survey has been conducted among 20 Dutch hospitals to investigate the level of implementation of the Dutch DRLs in current radiological practice. It turns out that hospitals are either well underway in implementing the DRLs or have already done so. However, the DRLs have usually not yet been incorporated in the QA system of the department nor in the treatment protocols. It was shown that the amount of radiation used, as far as it was indicated by the hospitals, usually remains below the DRLs. A procedure for comparing dose levels to the DRLs has been prescribed but is not always followed in practice. This is especially difficult in the case of children, as most general hospitals receive few children. PMID:25706140

  5. Response and Monte Carlo evaluation of a reference ionization chamber for radioprotection level at calibration laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Lucio P.; Vivolo, Vitor; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-07-01

    A special parallel plate ionization chamber, inserted in a slab phantom for the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) determination, was developed and characterized in this work. This ionization chamber has collecting electrodes and window made of graphite, and the walls and phantom made of PMMA. The tests comprise experimental evaluation following international standards and Monte Carlo simulations, employing the PENELOPE code to evaluate the design of this new dosimeter. The experimental tests were conducted employing the radioprotection level quality N-60 established at the IPEN, and all results were within the recommended standards.

  6. Evaluation of alanine as a reference dosimeter for therapy level dose comparisons in megavoltage electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Malcolm; Sharpe, Peter; Vörös, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    When comparing absorbed dose standards from different laboratories (e.g. National Measurement Institutes, NMIs, for Key or Supplementary comparisons) it is rarely possible to carry out a direct comparison of primary standard instruments, and therefore some form of transfer detector is required. Historically, air-filled, unsealed ionization chambers have been used because of the long history of using these instruments, very good stability over many years, and ease of transport. However, the use of ion chambers for therapy-level comparisons is not without its problems. Findings from recent investigations suggest that ion chambers are prone to non-random variations, they are not completely robust to standard courier practices, and failure at any step in a comparison can render all measurements potentially useless. An alternative approach is to identify a transfer system that is insensitive to some of these concerns—effectively a dosimeter that is inexpensive, simple to use, robust, but with sufficient precision and of a size relevant to the disseminated quantity in question. The alanine dosimetry system has been successfully used in a number of situations as an audit dosimeter and therefore the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether alanine could also be used as the transfer detector for dosimetric comparisons, which require a lower value for the measurement uncertainty. A measurement protocol was developed for comparing primary standards of absorbed dose to water in high-energy electron beams using alanine pellets irradiated in a water-equivalent plastic phantom. A trial comparison has been carried out between three NMIs and has indicated that alanine is a suitable alternative to ion chambers, with the system used achieving a precision of 0.1%. Although the focus of the evaluation was on the performance of the dosimeter, the comparison results are encouraging, showing agreement at the level of the combined uncertainties (~0.6%). Based on this investigation, a large-scale comparison of primary standards for high-energy electron beams is currently being developed under the auspices of the BIPM.

  7. Perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling for generally applicable high-level multi-reference methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Sebastian; Müller, Thomas; Plasser, Felix; Marquetand, Philipp; Lischka, Hans; González, Leticia

    2014-08-01

    An efficient perturbational treatment of spin-orbit coupling within the framework of high-level multi-reference techniques has been implemented in the most recent version of the Columbus quantum chemistry package, extending the existing fully variational two-component (2c) multi-reference configuration interaction singles and doubles (MRCISD) method. The proposed scheme follows related implementations of quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (QDPT) model space techniques. Our model space is built either from uncontracted, large-scale scalar relativistic MRCISD wavefunctions or based on the scalar-relativistic solutions of the linear-response-theory-based multi-configurational averaged quadratic coupled cluster method (LRT-MRAQCC). The latter approach allows for a consistent, approximatively size-consistent and size-extensive treatment of spin-orbit coupling. The approach is described in detail and compared to a number of related techniques. The inherent accuracy of the QDPT approach is validated by comparing cuts of the potential energy surfaces of acrolein and its S, Se, and Te analoga with the corresponding data obtained from matching fully variational spin-orbit MRCISD calculations. The conceptual availability of approximate analytic gradients with respect to geometrical displacements is an attractive feature of the 2c-QDPT-MRCISD and 2c-QDPT-LRT-MRAQCC methods for structure optimization and ab inito molecular dynamics simulations.

  8. Reference levels for corticosterone and immune function in farmed saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) hatchlings using current Code of Practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Thomson, Peter C; Adams, Amanda L; Benedict, Suresh; Moran, Christopher; Isberg, Sally R

    2015-02-01

    To determine reference levels for on-farm stressors on immune responsiveness and growth rate, 253 hatchling crocodiles from 11 known breeding pairs were repeatedly measured and blood sampled during their first year. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) was used to quantify baseline stress levels in captive animals and were found to be lower (mean 1.83±SE 0.16 ng/mL) than previously reported in saltwater crocodile hatchlings. Two tests of immune function were also conducted. Innate constitutive immunity was assessed using bacterial killing assays (BKA) against two bacterial species: Escherichia coli and Providencia rettgeri, whereby the latter causes considerable economic loss to industry from septicaemic mortalities. Although the bactericidal capabilities were different at approximately 4 months old (32±3% for E. coli and 16±4% for P. rettgeri), the differences had disappeared by approximately 9 months old (58±2% and 68±6%, respectively). To assess immune responsiveness to a novel antigen, the inflammatory swelling response caused by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) injection was assessed but was only significantly different between Samplings 1 and 3 (5% LSD). There were no significant clutch effects for CORT or PHA but there were for both BKA traits. CORT was not significantly associated with growth (head length) or the immune parameters except for P. rettgeri BKA where higher CORT levels were associated with better bactericidal capability. As such, these results suggest that the crocodiles in this study are not stressed, therefore endorsing the management strategies adopted within the Australian industry Code of Practice. PMID:25644211

  9. Ovarian tumors with functioning stroma: a clinicopathologic study with special reference to serum estrogen level, stromal morphology, and aromatase expression.

    PubMed

    Kato, Noriko; Hayasaka, Tadashi; Takeda, Junko; Osakabe, Mitsumasa; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2013-11-01

    Ovarian tumors with functioning stroma often show estrogenic manifestations. The range of serum estrogen level, however, has not been analyzed, nor the correlation with the stromal morphology. We reviewed the preoperative serum level of estradiol (E2) in 20 postmenopausal ovarian tumors that contained lutein- or theca-like cells in the stroma. Tumor histology included mucinous (n=7), endometrioid (n=4), clear (n=4), or Brenner tumor (n=2), carcinosarcoma (n=2), and Krukenberg tumor (n=1). Overall, the preoperative serum level of E2 ranged widely from 12.1 to 162.4 pg/mL (reference range, 10-30 pg/mL). The range of serum E2 was 24.9 to 162.4 pg/mL (mean, 58.0 pg/mL) in 7 tumors containing lutein-like cells, and 12.1 to 157.8 pg/mL (mean, 57.0 pg/mL) in 13 tumors containing theca-like cells alone. There was no significant difference in the serum E2 level between the 2 groups. To determine whether the functioning stroma is capable of final conversion of androgens to estrogens, the expression of P450 aromatase was examined immunohistochemically. P450 aromatase was exclusively expressed in the stromal cells, both lutein- and theca-like cells, in 16 tumors. In all tumors, however, it was focally or sparsely distributed, and there was no correlation between the immunoreactivity for P450 aromatase and the serum E2 level. These findings indicate that the functioning stroma, regardless of cell morphology, has a capacity for converting androgens to estrogens, but a significant amount of serum estrogens is finally qualified in the aromatase-rich peripheral tissues. PMID:24071871

  10. Reference levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione in infants from birth to six months of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús M. Garagorri; Gerardo Rodríguez; Ángel J. Lario-Elboj; José L. Olivares; Ángel Lario-Muñoz; Isabel Orden

    2008-01-01

    Reference plasma adrenal steroid levels during early infancy are frequently used to verify hormone measurements when any adrenal\\u000a abnormality is suspected. We aim to obtain longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 11-desoxycortisol\\u000a (11DOC), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and androstenedione in healthy infants from birth\\u000a to 6 months of age. In 138 term infants, 80 males and 58 females,

  11. Sensitivity of ecological soil-screening levels for metals to exposure model parameterization and toxicity reference values

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Bradley E; Fairbrother, Anne; Kaiser, Ashley; Law, Sheryl; Adams, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Ecological soil-screening levels (Eco-SSLs) were developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the purposes of setting conservative soil screening values that can be used to eliminate the need for further ecological assessment for specific analytes at a given site. Ecological soil-screening levels for wildlife represent a simplified dietary exposure model solved in terms of soil concentrations to produce exposure equal to a no-observed-adverse-effect toxicity reference value (TRV). Sensitivity analyses were performed for 6 avian and mammalian model species, and 16 metals/metalloids for which Eco-SSLs have been developed. The relative influence of model parameters was expressed as the absolute value of the range of variation observed in the resulting soil concentration when exposure is equal to the TRV. Rank analysis of variance was used to identify parameters with greatest influence on model output. For both birds and mammals, soil ingestion displayed the broadest overall range (variability), although TRVs consistently had the greatest influence on calculated soil concentrations; bioavailability in food was consistently the least influential parameter, although an important site-specific variable. Relative importance of parameters differed by trophic group. Soil ingestion ranked 2nd for carnivores and herbivores, but was 4th for invertivores. Different patterns were exhibited, depending on which parameter, trophic group, and analyte combination was considered. The approach for TRV selection was also examined in detail, with Cu as the representative analyte. The underlying assumption that generic body-weight–normalized TRVs can be used to derive protective levels for any species is not supported by the data. Whereas the use of site-, species-, and analyte-specific exposure parameters is recommended to reduce variation in exposure estimates (soil protection level), improvement of TRVs is more problematic. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2386–2398. PMID:24944000

  12. Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water, in a human reference population.

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Caudill, Samuel P; Ashley, David L

    2003-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), a known mouse liver carcinogen and a possible human carcinogen, is found in chlorinated drinking water. We measured TCAA in archived urine samples from a reference population of 402 adults using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. TCAA was detected in 76% of the samples examined at concentrations ranging from < 0.5 micro g TCAA/L to more than 25 micro g/L; the 90th percentile concentration was 23 micro g/L (22 micro g TCAA/g creatinine); and the geometric mean and median concentrations were 2.9 micro g/L (2.6 micro g/g creatinine) and 3.3 micro g/L (3.2 micro g/g creatinine), respectively. The frequency of detection of TCAA in urban areas was higher than in rural areas (p = 0.00007), and sex and place of residence (i.e., urban vs. rural) were found to have a significant interaction in modulating the levels of TCAA (p = 0.012). Urban residents had higher mean levels of TCAA (men, 5.3 micro g/L, 3.8 micro g/g creatinine; women, 2.9 micro g/L, 2.8 micro g/g creatinine) than did rural residents (men, 2.2 micro g/L, 1.7 micro g/g creatinine; women, 2.6 micro g/L, 2.7 micro g/g creatinine). The higher frequency of detection of TCAA in urban than in rural areas and higher levels of TCAA among urban than among rural residents may reflect the fact that urban residents use primarily chlorinated water from public water supplies, whereas those in rural areas are more likely to obtain water from private wells, which typically are not chlorinated. PMID:12573897

  13. On the determination of reference levels for quality assurance of flattening filter free photon beams in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Clivio, Alessandro; Belosi, Maria Francesca; Cozzi, Luca; Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Fogliata, Antonella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland)] [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona CH-6500 (Switzerland); Bolard, Grégory [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland)] [Clinique de Genolier, Radiation Oncology department, Genolier CH-1272 (Switzerland); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France)] [Département de Cancérologie Radiothérapie, CRLC Val d’Aurelle-Paul Lamarque, Montpellier F-34090 (France); Krauss, Harald [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)] [Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Spital, Institut für Radioonkologie, Vienna A-1100 (Austria)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New definitions for some dosimetric parameters for use in quality assurance of flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by medical linear accelerators have been suggested. The present study aims to validate these suggestions and to propose possible reference levels. Methods: The main characteristics of FFF photon beams were described in terms of: field size, penumbra, unflatness, slope, and peak-position parameters. Data were collected for 6 and 10 MV-FFF beams from three different Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Measurements were performed with a 2D-array (Starcheck system from PTW-Freiburg) and with the portal dosimetry method GLAaS utilizing the build-in portal imager of TrueBeam. Data were also compared to ion chamber measurements. A cross check validation has been performed on a FFF beam of 6 MV generated by a Varian Clinac-iX upgraded to FFF capability. Results : All the parameters suggested to characterize the FFF beams resulted easily measurable and little variation was observed among different Linacs. Referring to two reference field sizes of 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}, at SDD = 100 cm and d = dmax, from the portal dosimetry data, the following results (averaging X and Y profiles) were obtained. Field size: 9.95 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 6 MV-FFF (9.94 ± 0.02 and 19.98 ± 0.03 cm for 10 MV-FFF). Penumbra: 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.9 ± 0.3 mm for 6 MV-FFF (3.1 ± 0.2 and 3.3 ± 0.3 for 10 MV-FFF). Unflatness: 1.11 ± 0.01 and 1.25 ± 0.01 for 6 MV-FFF (1.21 ± 0.01 and 1.50 ± 0.01 for 10 MV-FFF). Slope: 0.320 ± 0.020%/mm and 0.43 ± 0.015%/mm for 6 MV-FFF (0.657 ± 0.023%/mm and 0.795 ± 0.017%/mm for 10 MV-FFF). Peak Position ?0.2 ± 0.2 and ?0.4 ± 0.2 mm for 6 MV-FFF (?0.3 ± 0.2 and 0.7 ± 0.3 mm for 10 MV-FFF). Results would depend upon measurement depth. With thresholds set to at least 95% confidence level from the measured data and to account for possible variations between detectors and methods and experimental settings, a tolerance set of: 1 mm for field size and penumbra, 0.04 for unflatness, 0.1%/mm for slope, and 1 mm for peak position could be proposed from our data. Conclusions : The parameters proposed for the characterization and routine control of stability of profiles of FFF beams appear to be a viable solution with a strong similarity to the conventional parameters used for flattened beams. The results from three different TrueBeams and the cross-validation against a Clinac-iX suggested the possible generalization of the methods and the possibility to use common tolerances for the parameters. The data showed also the reproducibility of beam characteristics among different systems (of the same vendor) and the resulting parameter values could therefore be possibly generalized.

  14. Relationships Between Spiritual Quotient and Marital Satisfaction Level of Men, Women and Couples Referred to Consultancy Centers of Bandar Abbas

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Eghbal; Ahmadisarkhooni, Tahereh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between Spiritual Quotient parameters including understanding, life origin, and spiritual life and marital satisfaction of couples in Bandar Abbas City. Methods: It is descriptive correlational study. 150 couples referred to consultancy centers of Bandar Abbas City were selected by accessible sampling method. We utilized Spiritual Quotient Questionnaire and Marriage Satisfaction Questionnaire (ENRICH) which both have high reliability and validity levels. We calculated men, women and couples’ scores in the questionnaires. Results: According to the findings; among all parameters of Spiritual Quotient, spiritual life had the strongest correlation with spiritual quotient (r=0.282 and r=0.277 for men and women; P<0.01 for both). Meanwhile, there were not any significant relationship between couples’ understanding and origin of life and their marital satisfaction. Conclusion: Overall, we can conclude that training according to cultural conditions as well as promoting couples’ spiritual quotient can be utilized to improve the quality of marital life of couples.–More studies should be conducted for further evaluation of the relationship between SQ and marital satisfaction. The results can be used for helping couples in increasing their marital satisfaction. Declaration of interest: None PMID:24644499

  15. Reference levels in the context of Fukushima - lessons learned and a challenge for the radiation protection system.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K

    2012-01-01

    A number of dose criteria were set after the accident in Fukushima, including a criterion regarding the use of school playgrounds in Fukushima. Considering the band of 1-20 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for public exposure under existing exposure situations, Japanese authorities set 20 mSv/year as a 'start line' for reducing the dose to school children. However, this led to considerable confusion among the general public and some experts. They thought that the dose limit was increased to 20 mSv/year (20 times as high as before), and that school children could be exposed to 20 mSv in 1 year. This is just an example of confusion caused by inadequate comprehension of radiation effects, misunderstanding of radiation protection concepts, or both. Another issue was raised regarding the higher radiosensitivity of children compared with adults. In the 2007 ICRP Recommendations, a higher risk coefficient is given to the whole population than the adult population, because the whole population includes children; a subpopulation with higher radiosensitivity and a longer life span. The point of argument was whether a lower reference level should be set for children alone. Radiation protection experts should continue to collect scientific information to improve the radiation protection system. In addition, it is the role of these experts to explain the framework of radiation protection to the general public in plain language. PMID:23089027

  16. Reference levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-desoxycortisol, cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and androstenedione in infants from birth to six months of age.

    PubMed

    Garagorri, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Lario-Elboj, Angel J; Olivares, José L; Lario-Muñoz, Angel; Orden, Isabel

    2008-06-01

    Reference plasma adrenal steroid levels during early infancy are frequently used to verify hormone measurements when any adrenal abnormality is suspected. We aim to obtain longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 11-desoxycortisol (11DOC), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, and androstenedione in healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age. In 138 term infants, 80 males and 58 females, plasma steroid levels were measured using specific RIA procedures at birth and on the 3rd, 15th, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th, 150th, and 180th days of life. Smoothed percentiles for each variable were calculated according to the LMS method (LMS program version 1.16, Institute of Child Health, London). Except for cortisol, plasma levels of adrenal steroids decreased progressively from birth to 6 months of age. Plasma concentrations of 17OHP, 11DOC, and cortisol did not show gender differences, but testosterone and androstenedione were significantly higher in boys, and DHEAS levels were higher in girls. Longitudinal reference plasma levels for 17OHP, 11DOC, cortisol, DHEAS, testosterone, and androstenedione have been described in an adequate sample of healthy infants from birth to 6 months of age. These standards, displayed as smoothed percentiles, may be used as reference values in the management of congenital endocrine (adrenal or gonadal) abnormalities that appear in the first weeks of life. PMID:17694323

  17. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear-waste disposal. Topical report on reference western arid low-level sites

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of the work reported here was to develop an order of magnitude estimate for the potential dose to man resulting from biotic transport mechanisms at a reference western arid low-level waste site. A description of the reference site is presented that includes the waste inventories, site characteristics and biological communities. Parameter values for biotic transport processes are based on data reported in current literature. Transport and exposure scenarios are developed for assessing biotic transport during 100 years following site closure. Calculations of radionuclide decay and waste container decomposition are made to estimate the quantities available for biotic transport. Dose to a man occupying the reference site following the 100 years of biotic transport are calculated. These dose estimates are compared to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario reported in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). Dose to man estimates as a result of biotic transport are estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the dose resulting from the more commonly evaluated human intrusion scenario. The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by the findings presented in this report. These results indicate that biotic transport has the potential to influence low-level waste site performance. Through biotic transport, radionuclides may be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man.

  18. Comparison of blood volatile organic compound levels in residents of Calcasieu and Lafayette Parishes, LA, with US reference ranges.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammed S; Blount, Benjamin C; Lewin, Michael D; Potula, Vijayalakshmi; Ragin, Angela D; Dearwent, Steve M

    2014-11-01

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry conducted a study to evaluate body burden levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among residents of highly industrialized Calcasieu Parish, LA, USA, in 2002. Blood VOC levels in a representative sample of participants in Calcasieu Parish were compared with a similar group of participants in the less-industrialized Lafayette Parish. Participants' ages ranged from 15 to 91 years, 46% were men, and 89% were Caucasian. VOC levels in these two populations were also compared at the national levels. Solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to measure levels of 30 VOCs in blood samples collected from 283 self-described non-smoking study participants. Of the 30 VOCs, 6 had quantifiable levels in at least 25% of the blood samples analyzed. The frequency of detection was >95% for benzene and m-/p-xylene, >60% for 1,4-dichlorbenzene and toluene, 27% for ethylbenzene, and 39% for styrene. Calcasieu and Lafayette Parish participants had similar distributions for six VOCs in key percentiles and geometric means. When compared with a representative sampling of the 1999-2000 US general population, no significant differences were found between the parish data and the US general population. PMID:24472757

  19. Serum Levels of Lipopolysaccharide and 1,3-?-D-Glucan Refer to the Severity in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanmin; Zhou, Guangxi; Yang, Wenjing; He, Zhenkun; Liu, Zhanju

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interactions between the host and gut microbial community contribute to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). In this study, we aimed to detect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1,3-?-D-glucan (BG) in the sera of CD patients and clarify the potential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Materials and Methods. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with active CD (A-CD), 22 CD patients at remission stage (R-CD), and 20 healthy controls, and the levels of LPS, BG, and TNF in sera were determined by ELISA. Moreover, sixteen patients with A-CD received anti-TNF monoclonal antibody therapy (infliximab, IFX) at a dose of 5?mg/kg body weight at weeks 0, 2, and 6, and the levels of LPS and BG were also tested at week 12 after the first intravenous infusion. Results. Serum levels of LPS and BG were found to be markedly increased in A-CD patients compared with R-CD patients and healthy controls (P < 0.05). They were also observed to be positively correlated with CDAI, ESR, and SES-CD, respectively (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the levels of TNF in sera had a significant correlation with LPS and BG, respectively. The concentrations of LPS and BG were demonstrated to be significantly downregulated in the sera of A-CD patients 12 weeks after IFX treatment (P < 0.05), suggesting that blockade of TNF could inhibit bacterial endotoxin absorption, partially through improving intestinal mucosal barrier. Conclusions. Serum levels of LPS and BG are significantly increased in A-CD patients and positively correlated with the severity of the disease. Blockade of intestinal mucosal inflammation with IFX could reduce the levels of LPS and BG in sera. Therefore, this study has shed some light on measurement of serum LPS and BG in the diagnosis and treatment of CD patients.

  20. 1GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schermer

    1979-01-01

    The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed.

  1. Performance measurement in environmental management at the local level : an experiment and proposal with reference to Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Dafflon; Sandra Daguet

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the management of three environmental policies at the local level: clean water distribution, sewage and wastewater treatment and household solid waste collection and treatment. The argument is that applying the benefit principle for financing these services will enhance allocative efficiency, budget and environmental accountability, and contribute to induce environmental friendly attitude. The paper is organised in

  2. Repeated Acceleration Ability (RAA): A New Concept with Reference to Top-Level Field and Assistant Soccer Referees

    PubMed Central

    Barberó-Álvarez, José Carlos; Boullosa, Daniel; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Andrín, Germán; Weston, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To perform an exploratory characterization of repeated sprint sequences (RSS) and repeated acceleration sequences (RAS) in top level soccer referees. Methods 7 field and 7 assistant referees were monitored during 2007 America's Soccer Cup with GPS technology. Sprints of >18 km·h-1 and accelerations of >1.5 m·s-2 were considered as high intensity activities. RSS and RAS were defined as a minimum of 3 consecutive bouts interspersed with a maximum of 45 s. Results Field and assistant referees performed substantially more accelerations than sprints. Neither field nor assistant referees recorded any RSS. In contrast, total distance performing RAS amounted to ?37% and ?20% of the total distance covered by accelerations during the entire match for field and assistant referees, respectively. Only field referees exhibited fatigue-related reductions in RAS characteristics between halves. Conclusion The results of the present study would appear to support the appropriateness of a repeated acceleration ability (RAA) concept, instead of the repeated sprint ability (RSA) concept, in soccer referees. Further studies should assess RAS in referees and athletes of different team sports for designing better training exercises and physiological testing. PMID:24868433

  3. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  4. Human exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy mats: a numerical case study with three commercial products.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Valerio; Douglas, Mark; Nadakuduti, Jagadish; Benkler, Stefan; Chen, Xi Lin; Kuster, Niels

    2015-02-01

    A previous study found that incident magnetic field exposure from pulsed magnetic field therapy (PMFT) mats can exceed ICNIRP 1998 reference levels. Due to the popularity of PMFT mats for private therapeutic use, regulators need to know if the products are compliant with the basic restrictions and how overexposure can be determined. This case study's objective was to test if such products are intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions by evaluating three different commercially-available PMFT products. In the first step, experimentally validated numerical models of these mats were developed. As a second step, the induced fields were evaluated in high-resolution anatomical models of the IT'IS Virtual Population for various lying positions and compared to the safety guidelines. As expected, a strong influence of exposure on the PMFT design, anatomy, lying position and body orientation was found. The maximum exposure of one PMFT exceeds 3.1 times the basic restrictions of ICNIRP 1998 for the central nervous system tissues and 1.36 times the limit of ICNIRP 2010 for the peripheral tissues. Body loops can significantly increase the electric fields close to the skin, e.g., when the hand and thigh are in contact during mat use. In conclusion, PMFT products are not intrinsically compliant with ICNIRP 1998 and ICNIRP 2010 basic restrictions and therefore require special considerations. PMID:25639237

  5. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration.

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Michael, A.; Ford, W., Mark; Edwards, John, W.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2001-08-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine/mixed hardwood communities and 3 drained and 3 undrained reference bays surrounded by pine monocultures. Bat activity was monitored using time expansion bat detectors. Calls were recorded to Sony Professional tape recorders (Sony WMD3). Detectors positioned at 10 m heights were linked directly to the tape recorders. Time expansion radiomicrophones were used to monitor activity at 30 m heights. The radiomicrophones were attached to 2-m diameter helium balloons and suspended approximately 30 m above the forest floor. Calls detected by the radiomicrophones were transmitted via a FM narrowband frequency to a scanner on the ground.

  6. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  7. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Methods Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (PKA), skin surface entrance dose (KAR), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the PKA. Results 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median KAR = 581 mGy (374–876). Median PKA = 3908 uGym2 (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym2. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median KAR = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median PKA = 8736 uGym2 (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym2. Conclusion This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  8. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  9. Palynology References

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A& M University

    As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

  10. Nicotine, acetanilide and urea multi-level2H-,13C- and15N-abundance reference materials for continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Albertino, A.; Sauer, P.E.; Qi, H.; Molinie, R.; Mesnard, F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stable isotope ratios require a calibration using at least two reference materials with different isotopic compositions to anchor the isotopic scale and compensate for differences in machine slope. Ideally, the S values of these reference materials should bracket the isotopic range of samples with unknown S values. While the practice of analyzing two isotopically distinct reference materials is common for water (VSMOW-SLAP) and carbonates (NBS 19 and L-SVEC), the lack of widely available organic reference materials with distinct isotopic composition has hindered the practice when analyzing organic materials by elemental analysis/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). At present only L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 satisfy these requirements for ??13C and ??13N, with the limitation that L-glutamic acid is not suitable for analysis by gas chromatography (GC). We describe the development and quality testing of (i) four nicotine laboratory reference materials for on-line (i.e. continuous flow) hydrogen reductive gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-IRMS), (ii) five nicotines for oxidative C, N gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass-spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS, or GC-IRMS), and (iii) also three acetanilide and three urea reference materials for on-line oxidative EA-IRMS for C and N. Isotopic off-line calibration against international stable isotope measurement standards at Indiana University adhered to the 'principle of identical treatment'. The new reference materials cover the following isotopic ranges: ??2Hnicotine -162 to -45%o, ??13Cnicotine -30.05 to +7.72%, ?? 15Nnicotine -6.03 to +33.62%; ??15N acetanilide +1-18 to +40.57%; ??13Curea -34.13 to +11.71%, ??15Nurea +0.26 to +40.61% (recommended ?? values refer to calibration with NBS 19, L-SVEC, IAEA-N-1, and IAEA-N-2). Nicotines fill a gap as the first organic nitrogen stable isotope reference materials for GC-IRMS that are available with different ??13N values. Comparative ??13C and ??15N on-line EA-IRMS data from 14 volunteering laboratories document the usefulness and reliability of acetanilides and ureas as EA-IRMS reference materials.

  11. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer

    Christina Morency

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  12. Referred pain.

    PubMed

    Markman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Comprehending orofacial referred pain requires an understanding of the neuroanatomy of the trigeminal nerve and associated cranial nerves. It also requires knowledge of the concept of neuronal convergence as well as the recognition that the caudalis is laminated and is therefore responsible for sensory receptive fields-that one interneuron may receive multiple sensory inputs and that structures within a lamina have sensory neurons which project into the caudalis and may share the same interneuron. PMID:25141487

  13. Chemical Reference Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shirley M.

    An innovative and effective laboratory experiment of chemical reference literature is reported. The objectives of the experiment are to acquaint the first term student of college chemistry with the vast source of chemical literature that is available to him; to raise the general level of scientific literacy of these first term college students;…

  14. Implementation of the multireference Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee’s coupled cluster methods with non-iterative triple excitations utilizing reference-level parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaskaran-Nair, Kiran; Brabec, Jiri; Apra, Edoardo; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Pittner, Jiri; Kowalski, Karol

    2012-09-07

    In this paper we discuss the performance of the non-iterative State-Specific Mul- tireference Coupled Cluster (SS-MRCC) methods accounting for the effect of triply excited cluster amplitudes. The corrections to the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC models based on the manifold of singly and doubly excited cluster amplitudes (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD, respectively) are tested and compared with the exact full configuration interaction results (FCI) for small systems (H2O, N2, and Be3). For larger systems (naphthyne isomers and -carotene), the non-iterative BW-MRCCSD(T) and Mk-MRCCSD(T) methods are compared against the results obtained with the single reference coupled cluster methods. We also report on the parallel performance of the non-iterative implementations based on the use of pro- cessor groups.

  15. A comparison of levels of bat flight and foraging activity at 10 meters and 30 meters above drained Carolina bays and reference bays, prior to bay restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Michael; W. Ford; John Edwards; John Kilgo

    2001-01-01

    A technical report of a monitoring study of bat flight and foraging activity above drained and undrained Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. In order to determine if the vegetational community type or structure of the forest community surrounding the bays affected bat activity levels, bat activity was monitored over 3 drained and

  16. Organochlorine pesticide levels in maternal blood and placental tissue with reference to preterm birth: a recent trend in North Indian population.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Vipin; Garg, Neha; Mustafa, M D; Banerjee, B D; Guleria, Kiran

    2015-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been widely used in public health and agriculture programs in developed as well as developing countries, including India. Being xenoestrogenic in nature, OCPs may act as endocrine disruptors leading to preterm birth (PTB) through disturbance of normal estrogen-progesterone ratio. PTB is the leading cause of neonatal deaths worldwide. Therefore, the present study is aimed to determine the extent to which persistent environmental chemicals may accumulate in pregnant women and placenta and ascertain possible associations between exposure level and period of gestation (POG), baby weight, and/or placental weight in PTB cases. Maternal blood and placenta samples of PTB cases (n?=?50) and subjects of term delivery as controls (n?=?50) were collected. OCP residue levels were estimated by the gas chromatography system equipped with an electron capture detector. Significantly higher levels of ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were found in maternal blood of PTB cases as compared to control. Significantly higher levels of DDE and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were also found in placental tissue of PTB cases as compared to control group. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between maternal blood level of ?-HCH and birth-weight (r?=?-0.299) and POG (r?=?-0.234). ?-Hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) and dieldrin had a negative correlation with placental weight (r?=?-0.401 and -0.256, respectively), and DDE and ?-HCH had a negative correlation with POG (r?=?-0.251 and -0.229, respectively). The presence of OCPs in maternal blood and placental tissue represents prenatal exposure hazard for fetuses due to chronic bioaccumulation and poor elimination with possible deleterious effect on health. PMID:26122123

  17. Optical reference profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stephan Richard

    2000-08-01

    The Optical Reference Profilometer is a new coordinate measurement machine (CMM) configuration that utilizes a special optical referencing frame to provide a highly stable and highly accurate surface measurement. This new referencing frame provides several mechanical advantages that make it possible to use lower precision mechanical components while still maintaining a high measurement accuracy. The Optical Reference Profilometer also provides a reduced measurement sensitivity to thermal variations of the system. With the addition a Super-Invar metering rod network, this CMM system is essentially thermally insensitive to temperature changes on the order of 1°C. This special feature makes the Optical Reference Profilometer functional at a high measurement accuracy level in an open lab environment. For the current dissertation work, two profilometer designs were built: a prototype and a second-generation system. A discussion of both systems will be given where the advantages of the optical reference frame design will be shown, This dissertation will end with a discussion of the overall system performance and plans for future work that would increase the overall system accuracy. The optical reference profilometer has proven to be a viable testing device. It provides a high accuracy surface measurement, 100nm peak-to-valley and 15nm rms for surface slopes up to 20 degrees, with simple mechanical structures while maintaining the versatility to measure a variety of surface shapes.

  18. Selective hydride generation- cryotrapping- ICP-MS for arsenic speciation analysis at picogram levels: analysis of river and sea water reference materials and human bladder epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Currier, Jenna M.; Trojánková, Nikola; Saunders, R. Jesse; Ishida, María C.; González-Horta, Carmen; Musil, Stanislav; Mester, Zoltán; Stýblo, Miroslav; D?dina, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    An ultra sensitive method for arsenic (As) speciation analysis based on selective hydride generation (HG) with preconcentration by cryotrapping (CT) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection is presented. Determination of valence of the As species is performed by selective HG without prereduction (trivalent species only) or with L-cysteine prereduction (sum of tri- and pentavalent species). Methylated species are resolved on the basis of thermal desorption of formed methyl substituted arsines after collection at ?196°C. Limits of detection of 3.4, 0.04, 0.14 and 0.10 pg mL?1 (ppt) were achieved for inorganic As, mono-, di- and trimethylated species, respectively, from a 500 ?L sample. Speciation analysis of river water (NRC SLRS-4 and SLRS-5) and sea water (NRC CASS-4, CASS-5 and NASS-5) reference materials certified to contain 0.4 to 1.3 ng mL?1 total As was performed. The concentrations of methylated As species in tens of pg mL?1 range obtained by HG-CT-ICP-MS systems in three laboratories were in excellent agreement and compared well with results of HG-CT-atomic absorption spectrometry and anion exchange liquid chromatography- ICP-MS; sums of detected species agreed well with the certified total As content. HG-CT-ICP-MS method was successfully used for analysis of microsamples of exfoliated bladder epithelial cells isolated from human urine. Here, samples of lysates of 25 to 550 thousand cells contained typically tens pg up to ng of iAs species and from single to hundreds pg of methylated species, well within detection power of the presented method. A significant portion of As in the cells was found in the form of the highly toxic trivalent species. PMID:24014931

  19. Levels of toxic elements and functional structure in populations of small mammals under conditions of technogenic pollution (with reference to the bank vole)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhacheva, S.V.; Bezel, V.S. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-01

    The levels and the character of accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn) in organs and tissues of bank voles, living under conditions of technogenic pollution (near a copper-smelting plant) and on the control territory, were studied. The fundamental distinctions in the character of accumulation of physiologically extraneous elements (lead and cadmium) and elements required for normal functioning (copper and zinc) were found. It was shown that the bank vole population responds to technogenic pollution of the environment depending on the ecological-functional features of the subpopulational groups that form this population. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Timing & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    ...........................................................................................................1 Universal Time (UT0....................................................................................................................2 Coordinated Universal TimeTiming & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE #12;i Time Scales of Measurement Introduction

  1. Effects of ambient and elevated level of ozone on Brassica campestris L. with special reference to yield and oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ruchika; Agrawal, S B

    2012-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) has become a serious threat to growth and yield of important agricultural crops over Asian regions including India. Effect of elevated O(3) (ambient+10ppb) was studied on Brassica campestris L. (cv. Sanjukta and Vardan) in open top chambers under natural field conditions. Eight hourly mean ambient O(3) concentration varied from 26.3ppb to 69.5ppb during the growth period. Plants under O(3) exposure showed reductions in photosynthetic rate, reproductive parameters, yield as well as seed and oil quality. Cultivar Sanjukta showed more reduction in photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive structures and seed and oil quality. However, total yield was more affected in Vardan. Exposure of O(3) increased the degree of unsaturation and level of PUFA, ?-6fatty acid, linolenic acid and erucic acid in oil indicating the deterioration of its quality. The study further confirmed that there is a correspondence between O(3) induced change in photosynthetic processes, reproductive development and yield and did not find any compensatory response in the final yield. PMID:22986091

  2. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  3. SPAR reference manual update SPAR level 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetstone, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Command runstream elements are presented for analyzing structural systems that are composed of a number of cyclically symmetrical sectors. Provisions are included for systems in which each cyclically symmetrical sector also possesses a plane of reflective symmetry. The following types of analysis may be performed: static analysis with and without preload, vibrational analysis with and without preload, and buckling analysis with and without preload.

  4. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  5. International Reference Reagents: Antihuman Globulin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Case; D. S. Ford; A. Chung; R. Collins; S. Kochman; T. Mazda; M. Overbeeke; R. Perera; T. Sakuldamrongpanich; M. Scott; D. Voak

    1999-01-01

    An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti–IgG and anti–C3 (anti–C3c and anti–C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific

  6. Alternate Staffing at the Reference Desk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judie Malamud; Linda Rosenstein

    1991-01-01

    High stress levels from (a) increased activity at the Reference Desk, (b) increased patron use of user-friendly systems and OPAC's, (c) increased teaching responsibilities, (d) increased individual consultations, and (e) a need to increase evening Reference Desk coverage necessitated changes in staffing patterns. Current practice left little time for the other duties of each reference librarian. Hiring an additional full-time

  7. Human health screening level risk assessments of tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC): calculated acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) values based on toxicity and exposure scenario evaluations.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S; Banton, Marcy I; Faber, Willem D; Kirman, Christopher R; McGregor, Douglas B; Pourreau, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    A screening level risk assessment has been performed for tertiary-butyl acetate (TBAC) examining its primary uses as a solvent in industrial and consumer products. Hazard quotients (HQ) were developed by merging TBAC animal toxicity and dose-response data with population-level, occupational and consumer exposure scenarios. TBAC has a low order of toxicity following subchronic inhalation exposure, and neurobehavioral changes (hyperactivity) in mice observed immediately after termination of exposure were used as conservative endpoints for derivation of acute and chronic reference concentration (RfC) values. TBAC is not genotoxic but has not been tested for carcinogenicity. However, TBAC is unlikely to be a human carcinogen in that its non-genotoxic metabolic surrogates tertiary-butanol (TBA) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) produce only male rat ?-2u-globulin-mediated kidney cancer and high-dose specific mouse thyroid tumors, both of which have little qualitative or quantitative relevance to humans. Benchmark dose (BMD)-modeling of the neurobehavioral responses yielded acute and chronic RfC values of 1.5 ppm and 0.3 ppm, respectively. After conservative modeling of general population and near-source occupational and consumer product exposure scenarios, almost all HQs were substantially less than 1. HQs exceeding 1 were limited to consumer use of automotive products and paints in a poorly ventilated garage-sized room (HQ = 313) and occupational exposures in small and large brake shops using no personal protective equipment or ventilation controls (HQs = 3.4-126.6). The screening level risk assessments confirm low human health concerns with most uses of TBAC and indicate that further data-informed refinements can address problematic health/exposure scenarios. The assessments also illustrate how tier-based risk assessments using read-across toxicity information to metabolic surrogates reduce the need for comprehensive animal testing. PMID:25629921

  8. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  9. Application of the hybrid approach to the benchmark dose of urinary cadmium as the reference level for renal effects in cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Suwazono, Yasushi, E-mail: suwa@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Uetani, Mirei [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuoku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakada, Satoru [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)] [Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kido, Teruhiko [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan)] [Department of Community Health Nursing, Kanazawa University School of Health Sciences, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0942 (Japan); Nakagawa, Hideaki [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)] [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, 1-1 Daigaku, Uchnada, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reference level of urinary cadmium (Cd) that caused renal effects. An updated hybrid approach was used to estimate the benchmark doses (BMDs) and their 95% lower confidence limits (BMDL) in subjects with a wide range of exposure to Cd. Methods: The total number of subjects was 1509 (650 men and 859 women) in non-polluted areas and 3103 (1397 men and 1706 women) in the environmentally exposed Kakehashi river basin. We measured urinary cadmium (U-Cd) as a marker of long-term exposure, and {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2-MG) as a marker of renal effects. The BMD and BMDL that corresponded to an additional risk (BMR) of 5% were calculated with background risk at zero exposure set at 5%. Results: The U-Cd BMDL for {beta}2-MG was 3.5 {mu}g/g creatinine in men and 3.7 {mu}g/g creatinine in women. Conclusions: The BMDL values for a wide range of U-Cd were generally within the range of values measured in non-polluted areas in Japan. This indicated that the hybrid approach is a robust method for different ranges of cadmium exposure. The present results may contribute further to recent discussions on health risk assessment of Cd exposure.

  10. Tank characterization reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  11. A Reference Grammar of Pashto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This grammar of Pashto was designed to accompany a set of beginning- and intermediate-level instructional materials for teaching the Pashto language to English speakers, but can be used separately as a reference by readers who are not learning the language. Introductory sections in English and Pashto describe the content and organization. The…

  12. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  13. Reference frames and refbits

    E-print Network

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  14. Performance criteria for reference measurement procedures and reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Heinz; Zegers, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    The concept of metrological traceability of measurement results to property values assigned to measurement standards of higher metrological order or to the International System of Units (SI) through sequential calibrations, using reference materials and reference measurement procedures, plays a key role in ensuring that end user measurement procedures perform at an acceptable level in the clinical context. The aim is that measurement results produced over time or by different end users or with different end user measurement procedures for the same measurand will be equivalent within their corresponding uncertainties. These goals can only be reached under certain conditions and if requirements laid down in international standards on calibration concepts, reference measurement procedures and reference materials are fulfilled. Calibration hierarchies have to be implemented correctly and parameters contributing to measurement uncertainty and systematic bias need to be controlled and eliminated, respectively, by technically improving methods and reference materials and intermediate calibrators used for effectively achieving equivalence of measurement results and for meeting analytical performance requirements for in vitro diagnostic devices. PMID:25870968

  15. A standard satellite control reference model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Constance

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  16. REFERENCES, REGULATIONS, & U. S. CODE General References

    E-print Network

    , Revision 1 #12;References American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1993. Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size, C702-93. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1995. Soil Sample preparation for the Determination of Radionuclides, C999-90 (1995) e1. ASTM

  17. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  18. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  19. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  20. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Hypochondroplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for hypochondroplasia? HCH Hypochondrodysplasia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for hypercholesterolemia? Elevated cholesterol For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  3. IPL General Reference Collection: Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Though the Internet Public Library's Education meta-page is not as comprehensive in any of its categories as more specialized meta-pages, it covers all grade level education resources, including adult, alternative, K-12, higher ed., and vocational. The home page contains a brief list of major education information and meta-sites. Resources listed have been annotated and the entire IPL Ready Reference Collection is searchable.

  4. Application Protocol Reference Architecture Application Protocol Reference Architecture

    E-print Network

    van Sinderen, Marten

    Application Protocol Reference Architecture 165 Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture This chapter proposes an alternative reference architecture for application protocols. The proposed reference architecture consists of the set of possible architectures for application protocols

  5. Cisco Reference Configurations for

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Cisco Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Fast Track Data Warehouse 4.0 with EMC......................................................................................... 3 Cisco and EMC Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server Fast Track Data Warehouse.............................................................................................. 4 Microsoft SQL Server Fast Track Data Warehouse Program................................. 4

  6. Oracle Database SQL Reference

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Oracle® Database SQL Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10759-01 December 2003 #12;Oracle Database SQL Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10759-01 Copyright © 1996, 2003 Oracle Corporation include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of Oracle Corporation

  7. Optical reference profilometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Richard Clark

    2000-01-01

    The Optical Reference Profilometer is a new coordinate measurement machine (CMM) configuration that utilizes a special optical referencing frame to provide a highly stable and highly accurate surface measurement. This new referencing frame provides several mechanical advantages that make it possible to use lower precision mechanical components while still maintaining a high measurement accuracy. The Optical Reference Profilometer also provides

  8. Activities Using References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Charlene

    Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

  9. Reference Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

    The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

  10. Martindale's "The Reference Desk"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Martindale

    This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

  11. Every Reference Librarian a Reviewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, James

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for reference librarians to learn reference materials well enough to be able to review materials and correctly refer patrons to information sources. The review process is outlined and some evaluation of current reference services is provided. (CLB)

  12. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. Microgrid cyber security reference architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Veitch, Cynthia K.; Henry, Jordan M.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Hart, Derek H.

    2013-07-01

    This document describes a microgrid cyber security reference architecture. First, we present a high-level concept of operations for a microgrid, including operational modes, necessary power actors, and the communication protocols typically employed. We then describe our motivation for designing a secure microgrid; in particular, we provide general network and industrial control system (ICS)-speci c vulnerabilities, a threat model, information assurance compliance concerns, and design criteria for a microgrid control system network. Our design approach addresses these concerns by segmenting the microgrid control system network into enclaves, grouping enclaves into functional domains, and describing actor communication using data exchange attributes. We describe cyber actors that can help mitigate potential vulnerabilities, in addition to performance bene ts and vulnerability mitigation that may be realized using this reference architecture. To illustrate our design approach, we present a notional a microgrid control system network implementation, including types of communica- tion occurring on that network, example data exchange attributes for actors in the network, an example of how the network can be segmented to create enclaves and functional domains, and how cyber actors can be used to enforce network segmentation and provide the neces- sary level of security. Finally, we describe areas of focus for the further development of the reference architecture.

  14. Frames of Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

  15. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Epilepsy Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Aicardi syndrome autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features benign ...

  17. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Paralysis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Paralysis Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic ...

  19. OA Internet Reference Materials

    Cancer.gov

    skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA FNLCR Acquisition Portal Contact OA OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Dystonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dystonia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: dopa-responsive dystonia dystonia 6 early-onset primary dystonia GM1 gangliosidosis hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis Leigh syndrome ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Anemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

  3. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data topocentric modern space missions in which there are visually identify the lunar objects

  4. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  5. Frames of Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

    Authored and curated by David P. Stern, this is a lesson plan for teaching frames of reference. It is linked to text material on reference frames, aberration of light, and a very short introduction to the foundations of special relativity. This is a part of the larger site: "Stargazers to Starships" which teaches physics through astronomy and space science. The site provides additional links for teachers that contain study guides, glossaries and timelines for use.

  6. The Memory Management Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

  7. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  8. In vitro activity of the new fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) against a large collection of clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and international reference strains, including those with high-level antimicrobial resistance: potential treatment option for gonorrhea?

    PubMed

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-05-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  9. In Vitro Activity of the New Fluoroketolide Solithromycin (CEM-101) against a Large Collection of Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates and International Reference Strains, Including Those with High-Level Antimicrobial Resistance: Potential Treatment Option for Gonorrhea?

    PubMed Central

    Golparian, Daniel; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Jensen, Jörgen S.

    2012-01-01

    Gonorrhea may become untreatable, and new treatment options are essential. We investigated the in vitro activity of the first fluoroketolide, solithromycin. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates and reference strains (n = 246), including the two extensively drug-resistant strains H041 and F89 and additional isolates with clinical cephalosporin resistance and multidrug resistance, were examined. The activity of solithromycin was mainly superior to that of other antimicrobials (n = 10) currently or previously recommended for gonorrhea treatment. Solithromycin might be an effective treatment option for gonorrhea. PMID:22354296

  10. MSDS sky reference and preamplifier study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, L.; Stewart, S.; Lambeck, P.

    1974-01-01

    The major goals in re-designing the Multispectral Scanner and Data System (MSDS) sky reference are: (1) to remove the sun-elevation angle and aircraft-attitude angle dependence from the solar-sky illumination measurement, and (2) to obtain data on the optical state of the atmosphere. The present sky reference is dependent on solar elevation and provides essentially no information on important atmospheric parameters. Two sky reference designs were tested. One system is built around a hyperbolic mirror and the reflection approach. A second approach to a sky reference utilizes a fish-eye lens to obtain a 180 deg field of view. A detailed re-design of the present sky reference around the fish-eye approach, even with its limitations, is recommended for the MSDS system. A preamplifier study was undertaken to find ways of improving the noise-equivalent reflectance by reducing the noise level for silicon detector channels on the MSDS.

  11. The Collaborative Digital Reference Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The CDRS provides professional "library to library" reference service to researchers any time, anywhere, through an international network of libraries and related institutions. Cooperative Partners include the Library of Congress, OCLC, Reference and Users Services Association of the American Libraries Association, Library Systems and Services (LSSI), and Virtual Reference Desk (VRD) with over 100 participating member libraries. The service uses new technologies to provide the best answers in the best context, by taking advantage of Internet resources, localized print and archival collections, as well as the knowledge of staff in general and specialist libraries. The CDRS process begins when the Requesting Library enters a question (on behalf of their client) into the system with additional "metadata" including keywords, subjects, education level, turnaround time needed, sources already consulted, etc. Once the question has been answered, a notification is sent back to the Requesting Library that an answer is available and waiting. Future enhancements may include other processes like interlibrary loans, information on where to buy cited books, and/or document delivery functions.

  12. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  13. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  14. Educational Outreach: References

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, the Educational Outreach Web site contains a References page for teachers. The materials provided are "intended to be used by teachers as refresher information prior to teaching a given subject... and are not meant to be comprehensive, but should provide adequate depth in the subject for use by most K-12 teachers." Titles of the materials include Atmospheric Water Vapor and its Importance, Common Meteorological Variables, The Seasons, Earth's Energy Budget, Cloud Development, Precipitation, High and Low Pressure Systems, and several others related to weather and climate. Other sections of the site include lessons, references, a glossary, and other helpful educational materials for teachers and students.

  15. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and…

  16. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of genetics and a glossary of genetics terms. Physicians can order free "InfoRx" prescription pads for the Genetics Home Reference site at ... by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The prescription pad is a joint ... Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and ...

  17. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  18. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

  19. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    rotate with 10000 rpm(revolutions/min). Other speeds are e.g. 3600, 5400, 7200, and 15000 rpm. Stefan for not updating the slides with a new disk. . The platters are mounted to a rotating spindle. ST318405: platters8. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 8­1 Part 8: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  20. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    to a rotating spindle. As the name says, the disks rotate with 15000 rpm in the 15K147. Other speeds are e.g. 4400 (2.5'' disks for notebooks), 5400 (low noise), 7200, and 10000 rpm. Stefan Brass: Datenbanken II B2. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 2­1 Part 2: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  1. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    rotate with 10000 rpm(revolutions/min). Other speeds are e.g. 3600, 5400, 7200, and 15000 rpm. Stefan for not updating the slides with a new disk. . The platters are mounted to a rotating spindle. ST318405: platters2. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 2­1 Part 2: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  2. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    / · 607.253.3060 For more information, view this directory online at www.vet. cornell.edu/hospital for information on these changes (http://www.vet.cornell.edu/hospital/beat/). We value our partnership with youDirectory for Referring Veterinarians Companion Animal Emergency, Specialty & General care www.vet.cornell.edu/hospital

  3. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  4. Grant Reference Lead / Sole

    E-print Network

    Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project sediment-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 1 9 NE-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 2 8 NE/K015184/1 Y Alistair Pike

  5. Quick Reference Guides: Index

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains links to a set of Quick Reference Guides for each of the table and graph types contained on this site. These guides provide a short "how to" explanation of the tables and graphs and are designed to be “printer friendly”.

  6. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    & Critical Care 3-4 Adult Large Animal & Neonatal Intensive Care Units 5 Imaging 6-7 Internal Medicine 8Directory for Referring Veterinarians Farm Animal Emergency, Specialty, and General Care www for Animals provides leadership in patient care, education, clinical investigation, and scientific innovation

  7. IERS Reference System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yokoyama

    1991-01-01

    Present circumstances related to IERS activities are described from various points of view. The NASA Dynamics of Solid Earth (DOSE) program and the IERS intensive campaign proposed by J. Dickey of JPL are particularly interesting. It is important to implement international cooperation to establish a fundamental radio reference frame by carrying out global solution based on all geodetic observations, past

  8. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Statistic Type Selection Fast Stats presents the data analysis in a format appropriate for each Statistic Type. The following is a list of the statistic types available in Fast Stats for which data types, and the output formats

  9. Referred by: Business Address

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    Name: Referred by: Employer: Business Address: Business E-mail: Home E-mail: Home Address: Yes No Yes No Yes No Send Correspondence to: Home Work Degree City State/Country Address: Multi-racial (specify) International (specify) Phone: Other (specify) If you have concerns about sending a Social

  10. Teachers Reference: Annotations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

  11. CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual

    E-print Network

    CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

  12. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  13. Nonresident Alien Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    - 1 - Nonresident Alien Reference Guide #12;- 2 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen or a Permanent Resident (Resident Alien or Green Card status. These are NOT Immigration categories. United States Citizen Permanent Resident Alien Resident

  14. (Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    - 1 - NRA (Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide #12;- 2 - UMBC'S OFFICES ASSISTING THE NONRESIDENT ALIEN (NRA) Office of International Education Administration Building 2nd floor Arlene Wergin Ext: 5 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen

  15. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection Fast Stats statistical analyses are based on data that has been collected from 1975 to the present. Data collected before 1992 is available for the following Races/Ethnicities: All Races White (including

  16. Matrix Reference Manual

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brookes, Mike

    An alphabetical manual, from Abelian group to Zero matrix, that contains reference information about linear algebra and the properties of matrices, divided into the following sections: Properties; Eigenvalues; Special properties; Relations; Decompositions; Identities; Equations; Differentiation; Stochastic (statistical) properties; Signals; Examples; and Formal Algebra. The notation is based on the MATLAB software package.

  17. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  18. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection The race/ethnicity groups available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Year Range menu. For year ranges starting before 1992 (e.g. 1975-2006) the Race/Ethnicity selections available

  19. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu as follows: Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006, 1992-2006, 2000-2006. Trends in Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006,

  20. Clustering Aggregation References

    E-print Network

    Terzi, Evimaria

    Clustering Aggregation · References ­ A. Gionis, H. Mannila, P. Tsaparas: Clustering aggregation and clustering, JACM 2008 Tuesday, October 15, 13 #12;Clustering aggregation · Many different clusterings for the same dataset! ­ Different objective functions ­ Different algorithms ­ Different number of clusters

  1. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  2. Configurable Reference Modeling Languages

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    .h.jansen-vullers}@tm.tue.nl 3) SAP Research CEC Brisbane, SAP Australia Pty Ltd 133 Mary Street, Brisbane QLD 4000, Australia Phone: +61 7 3259 9512, Fax: +61 7 3259 9599 alexander.dreiling@sap.com #12;Configurable Reference to the proliferation of comprehensive business information systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems

  3. A Typology of Collaborative Communication in a Digital Reference Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lily Rozaklis; Craig M. MacDonald

    2011-01-01

    Although collaboration in reference has been speculated to have numerous benefits, studies of collaboration in libraries have primarily focused on collaboration at the institutional level. This article describes the development of a typology of collaborative communication between volunteer reference librarians in an e-mail-based digital reference service, ipl2's Ask an ipl2 Librarian. Researchers examined the transcripts of 574 e-mail reference transactions

  4. The Electronic Reference Desk: Reference Service in an Electronic World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Jennifer

    1992-01-01

    Describes changes in reference services in academic libraries prompted by new electronic formats and services. Four main areas are discussed: (1) changes in the philosophy of reference services and the types of reference services offered; (2) accessing reference services, including greater direct access by patrons; (3) physical configurations of…

  5. SAR in the mother and foetus for RF plane wave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes the finite-difference time-domain calculation of SAR from 20 MHz to 3 GHz in hybrid voxel-mathematical models of the pregnant female. Mathematical models of the developing foetus at 8-, 13-, 26- and 38-week gestation were converted into voxels and combined with the reference adult female model, NAOMI at a resolution of 2 mm. Whole-body averaged SAR in the mother is presented as well as the average over the foetus, over the foetal brain and in 10 g of the foetus. The electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure restriction of 2 W kg-1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus were calculated. Comparison suggests that the ICNIRP public reference level is a conservative predictor of local SAR in the foetus.

  6. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time-series and stage vs. cross-section area rating relationship.

  7. Whole-body-averaged SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida child voxel phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Bolch, Wesley

    2007-11-01

    The University of Florida (UF) Series B paediatric phantoms were developed for medical and radiation protection photon dosimetry. The series includes a 9 month male, a 4 year female, an 8 year female, an 11 year male and a 14 year male. In this paper they have been adapted to calculate the whole-body-averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in children for plane wave exposure from 50 MHz to 4 GHz. The consideration of children is important in the application of the ICNIRP public exposure reference levels above ~1 GHz. The uniformly scaled models of NORMAN and NAOMI suggest that the ICNIRP reference level does not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body-averaged SAR restriction for 5 year and 1 year old models. Comparison is made with the previous linearly scaled versions of NORMAN and NAOMI for calculations at 2 mm resolution. Further FDTD calculations were performed at resolutions of 1 and 0.7 mm above 900 MHz to elucidate the effects of grid resolution on SAR. A comparison is made between the calculated external electric fields required to produce the basic restriction on the whole-body-averaged SAR and the ICNIRP reference levels for public exposure.

  8. OSH technical reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  9. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  10. Reference Undulator Measurement Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; /SLAC; ,

    2011-08-18

    The LCLS reference undulator has been measured 22 times during the course of undulator tuning. These measurements provide estimates of various statistical errors. This note gives a summary of the reference undulator measurements and it provides estimates of the undulator tuning errors. We measured the reference undulator many times during the tuning of the LCLS undulators. These data sets give estimates of the random errors in the tuned undulators. The measured trajectories in the reference undulator are stable and straight to within {+-}2 {micro}m. Changes in the phase errors are less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The phase advance in the cell varies by less than {+-}2 deg between data sets. The rms variation between data sets of the first integral of B{sub x} is 9.98 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub x} is 17.4 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the first integral of B{sub y} is 6.65 {micro}Tm, and the rms variation of the second integral of B{sub y} is 12.3 {micro}Tm{sup 2}. The rms variation of the x-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 35 {micro}m in the final production run This corresponds to an rms uncertainty in the K value of {Delta}K/K = 2.7 x 10{sup -5}. The rms variation of the y-position of the fiducialized beam axis is 4 {micro}m in the final production run.

  11. Questions in reference interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Domas White

    1998-01-01

    This article characterises the questioning behaviour in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behaviour in other types of interviews\\/settings. With one exception, the unit of analysis is the question (N=610), not the interview. The author uses A.C. Graesser‘s typology of questions to analyse type of question and M.D. White’s typology of information

  12. E 127 reference standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warchol, Mark F. A.; Warchol, Lyudmila V.

    2014-02-01

    The ASTM E 127 "Standard Practice for Fabricating and Checking Aluminum Alloy Ultrasonic Standard Reference Blocks" was developed to assure consistent ultrasonic measurement of suspected discontinuities in wrought aluminium alloy product. The E127 practice established a consensus methodology for the manufacture, metrological limits and ultrasonic response limits from flat bottom hole (FBH) references manufactured in accordance with the practice. This paper will present a brief history of the development of the standard along with problems encountered in the earliest publications. The early issues were resolved, but as instrumentation and materials changed, problems have again arisen with the consistency of the results. Over the past 20+ years the authors have uncovered the causes of many of the inconsistencies associated with establishing measurement that match the original values prescribed in the practice. Over the years, a multitude of measurements were made on various reference standards covering a manufacture range for the mid 50s to the current time. The measurements have uncovered fundamental causes for the inconsistencies related to the material and measuring systems. The uncovered causes along with a proposal for a revision to the practice will be presented.

  13. Bushland, Texas Reference ET Calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bushland Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) Calculator was developed at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, for calculating grass and alfalfa reference ET. It uses the ASCE Standardized Reference ET Equation for calculating reference ET at hourly and dai...

  14. The TSH upper reference limit: where are we at?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stig Andersen; Allan Carlé; Jesper Karmisholt; Nils Knudsen; Inge Bülow Pedersen; Peter Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism—serum TSH levels above and T4 levels within the laboratory reference ranges—depends critically on the upper limit of the TSH reference interval. Calls have been made to lower the current upper TSH reference limit of 4.0 mU\\/l to 2.5 mU\\/l to exclude patients with occult hypothyroidism. However, data from population studies do not indicate that the

  15. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  16. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1989-12-01

    Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  17. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    This paper describes the improvements introduced into the original version of ozone reference model of Keating and Young (1985, 1987) which is to be incorporated in the next COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide information on the global ozone distribution (including the ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from 25 to 90 km) combining data from five recent satellite experiments: the Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 Stratospheric Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE), Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV Spectrometer, and SME 1.27 Micron Airglow. The improved version of the reference model uses reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extends the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the 1981-1983 time period. Comparisons are presented between the results of this ozone model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  18. Improved reference models for middle atmosphere ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, G. M.; Pitts, M. C.; Chen, C.

    1989-01-01

    Improvements are provided for the ozone reference model which is to be incorporated in the COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). The ozone reference model will provide considerable information on the global ozone distribution, including ozone vertical structure as a function of month and latitude from approximately 25 to 90 km, combining data from five recent satellite experiments (Nimbus 7 LIMS, Nimbus 7 SBUV, AE-2 SAGE, Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UVS, and SME IR). The improved models are described and use reprocessed AE-2 SAGE data (sunset) and extend the use of SAGE data from 1981 to the period 1981-1983. Comparisons are shown between the ozone reference model and various nonsatellite measurements at different levels in the middle atmosphere.

  19. Population Reference Bureau

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the homepage of the Population Reference Bureau, an organization dedicated to providing information about worldwide population, health, and environment. Materials available here include information on U.S. and international population trends and their implications. There are articles, data sheets, reports, and world statistics on topics such as education, employment, fertility, poverty, race, youth, and many others. The site is also searchable by specific region, state, or variables such as age group. For educators, there are detailed lesson plans that use data from the site, as well as resource guides and standards. Links for additional information are provided as well.

  20. The Calculator Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Furr, Rick.

    If you remember the days when calculators were as big as today's laptops, then you'll definitely feel nostalgic when you visit the Calculator Reference. Operated by an avid collector of vintage calculators, the site covers Texas Instruments and Hewlett-Packard brands, as well as the pioneering Curta. Several other models are included in the Desktop Calculators section. Even some interesting trivia is given on the site, like why calculator key pads are numbered in a different order than telephone key pads. There are many links to other sites and articles related to classic calculator technology.

  1. Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, the official publications organ for the Wisconsin Legislature, posts on this site the last two versions (1997-1998 and 1999-2000) of the Wisconsin Blue Book, the 1,000 page comprehensive guide to all three branches of Wisconsin government and the state's Constitution. In addition to the Blue Book, the Bureau publishes research briefs and informational bulletins on issues currently pending before the legislature as well as budget briefs, legislative briefs (giving two page summaries of individual bills), and annotated bibliographies on selected issues. The site links to the homepage of the Wisconsin State Legislature.

  2. Reference Race Review!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Odd

    2010-01-28

    Use today's library time to complete these activities. After each activity, close the tab at the top to return to the menu and pick your next activity. Have FUN! Choice #1 This is a review of all the sources we have been learning about. What do you need and when? You will need to find the link that says Play this game. You don't need to log on. Which Reference Source Should I Use? Choice #2 Dictionaries help us identify and label words. Play this game and ...

  3. VIEWCACHE: An incremental pointer-base access method for distributed databases. Part 1: The universal index system design document. Part 2: The universal index system low-level design document. Part 3: User's guide. Part 4: Reference manual. Part 5: UIMS test suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the Universal Index System (UIS), is to provide an easy-to-use and reliable interface to many different kinds of database systems. The impetus for this system was to simplify database index management for users, thus encouraging the use of indexes. As the idea grew into an actual system design, the concept of increasing database performance by facilitating the use of time-saving techniques at the user level became a theme for the project. This Final Report describes the Design, the Implementation of UIS, and its Language Interfaces. It also includes the User's Guide and the Reference Manual.

  4. Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50?Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4?µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5?µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141?µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189?µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58?kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms. PMID:24615825

  5. Pulse oximetry reference values at high altitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Lozano; O R Duque; T Buitrago; S Behaine

    1992-01-01

    Pulse oximetry is becoming popular for measuring oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in paediatric patients. There are no reference values for children living at high altitudes, and the aim of this study was to determine the values of oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in healthy children in Bogota (2640 m above sea level). The saturation was determined in 189 children aged 5

  6. COPD Foundation's Slim Skinny Reference Guide (SSRG)

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    whose lives are impacted by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). BIG FAT REFERENCE GUIDE (BFRG) on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Ver2.1 Updated 10-23-12 I ncludes 10 S SRGs #12;What an oxygen tank. You may need this oxygen because the oxygen level in your blood is low. Chronic obstructive

  7. Employer Reference Guide for Experiential Education Programs

    E-print Network

    Vaswani, Namrata

    is added to the personnel selection process. l Higher full-time offer acceptance rates and reduced recruiting costs. l Reduction of training and higher productivity of entry level hires. l Increased retentionEmployer Reference Guide for Experiential Education Programs Internships, Summer Internships

  8. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  9. DDT Reference Manual

    E-print Network

    Osman, Eric

    1971-09-01

    This memo describes the version of DDT used as the command level of the A.I. Laboratory Time Sharing System (ITS). Besides the usual program control, examination, and modification features, this DDT provides many ...

  10. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  11. The TYCHO Reference Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hog, E.; Kuzmin, A.; Bastian, U.; Fabricius, C.; Kuimov, K.; Lindegren, L.; Makarov, V. V.; Roeser, S.

    1998-07-01

    The Tycho Reference Catalogue\\ (TRC) contains high-quality positions and proper motions for 990 182\\ stars of the Tycho Catalogue. The proper motions were derived from Tycho positions and Astrographic Catalogue\\ positions reduced to the Hipparcos system. The median accuracy of the TRC position components is 40 mas at J1991.25. The median precision of the proper motion is about 2.5 mas/yr\\ . Systematic errors are less than about 1.0 mas(/yr). The quality of the proper motions in TRC is assessed by comparison with the Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues. Comparison with the recent ACT Catalogue which is based on an independent reduction of the same observations as used for the TRC is reported. Based on observations made with the ESA Hipparcos astrometry satellite, and on work by the Tycho Consortium in collaboration with the INCA, FAST and NDAC Consortia.

  12. Nuclear Science References Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritychenko, B.; B?ták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr and the International Atomic Energy Agency http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr.

  13. Long life reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Yonco, Robert M. (LaGrange, IL); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  14. Landscapes as references for design

    E-print Network

    Batchelor, James P

    1981-01-01

    This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding biotinidase deficiency? alopecia ; ataxia ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Meckel syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Meckel syndrome? autosomal ; autosomal ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (4 links) ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Desmoid tumor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding desmoid tumor? cancer ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (6 links) ...

  18. Cretaceous Marine Reptiles References List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Everhart. Mike

    This comprehensive reference list highlights numerous articles related to Cretaceous marine reptiles and provides links to other relevant, classic paleontology references. Several of these references date back to the 1800's and some articles are hyperlinked to pdf files that can be easily downloaded and printed. Examples of topics covered by these references include the Cretaceous period, paleontology, evolution, marine reptiles, Cretaceous fossils and sedimentary rocks.

  19. Locating and parsing bibliographical references in HTML medical articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Bibliographical references that appear in journal articles can provide valuable hints for subsequent information extraction. We describe our statistical machine learning algorithms for locating and parsing such references from HTML medical journal articles. Reference locating identifies the reference sections and then decomposes them into individual references. We formulate reference locating as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles from 100 journals achieves near perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing is to identify components, e.g. author, article title, journal title etc., from each individual reference. We implement and compare two reference parsing algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, and then a search algorithm systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level.

  20. Reference Design Project Book: NUSEL-Homestake

    E-print Network

    W. C. Haxton

    2003-08-18

    This submission includes the overview, science timeline, reference design, WBS, and mine status sections of the Homestake collaboration's Reference Design Project Book. The Project Book describes the specific plan for converting the Homestake Gold Mine into a facility for physics, earth science, and engineering. The proposed developments on the 7400- and 4850-ft levels are presented, along with the plans for adapting Homestake's existing infrastructure for science. The plan differs substantially from the conceptual design for the National Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory proposed in June, 2001.

  1. Web Reference: A Virtual Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Presents ideas and strategies to enhance digital reference services available via the Internet in public libraries. Describes print publications which include Web reference columns; subject guides, both print and online; and the resources of the Internet Public Library and other virtual reference desks. (LRW)

  2. A comparison of foetal SAR in three sets of pregnant female models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter J.; Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Xu, X. George

    2009-05-01

    This paper compares the foetal SAR in the HPA hybrid mathematical phantoms with the 26-week foetal model developed at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Tokyo, and the set of 13-, 26- and 38-week boundary representation models produced at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. FDTD calculations are performed at a resolution of 2 mm for a plane wave with a vertically aligned electric field incident upon the body from the front, back and two sides from 20 MHz to 3 GHz under isolated conditions. The external electric field values required to produce the ICNIRP public exposure localized restriction of 2 W kg-1 when averaged over 10 g of the foetus are compared with the ICNIRP reference levels.

  3. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, S.H.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods. 11 figs.

  4. Capillary reference half-cell

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a reference half-cell electrode wherein intermingling of test fluid with reference fluid does not affect the performance of the reference half-cell over a long time. This intermingling reference half-cell may be used as a single or double junction submersible or surface reference electrode. The intermingling reference half-cell relies on a capillary tube having a first end open to reference fluid and a second end open to test fluid wherein the small diameter of the capillary tube limits free motion of fluid within the capillary to diffusion. The electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary in contact with the reference fluid. The method of operation of the present invention begins with filling the capillary tube with a reference solution. After closing the first end of the capillary, the capillary tube may be fully submerged or partially submerged with the second open end inserted into test fluid. Since the electrode is placed near the first end of the capillary, and since the test fluid may intermingle with the reference fluid through the second open end only by diffusion, this intermingling capillary reference half-cell provides a stable voltage potential for long time periods.

  5. Statistical Reference Datasets: Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The datasets on this page are classified by analysis techniqueand by level of difficulty (lower, average, higher). They were originally intended to test statistical software. The sets cover these topics: ANOVA, linear regression, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, nonlinear regression, and univariate summary statistics. This is a nice collection as it not only contains raw data but also helps explain the different methods and tests.

  6. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  7. Global Drug Reference Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Global Drug Reference Online is a website that Olympic athletes and their support teams from the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom can check to see if any drug they take is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The purpose, of course, is to make sure the athletes aren't taking any drug that would give an unfair advantage to the athlete. The site allows athletes to make sure any medication they are taking, even for routine health problems, i.e. allergies, doesn't contain any ingredients that are prohibited by WADA. Visitors can do a mock search to see that the "user type", "sport" and "nation of purchase" are all factors in whether the drug is prohibited or not. The "user type" includes "athlete", "coach", "medical professional", "sports administrator", and "parent". Many of the mistakes the athletes could make in regard to determining if the drug is prohibited are mentioned in the "FAQs" section, and the burden of proof is clearly on them.

  8. International Reference Ionosphere 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B. W.; McKinnell, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is an international project sponsored by the Committee on Space research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) that has as its goal the development and improvement of a data-based model of ionospheric densities, temperatures, and velocities using all available and reliable data sources for these ionospheric parameters. The model is widely recognized as the international standard for the specification of ionospheric parameters and recently was accepted by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) as Technical Specification TS 16457. This presentation will discuss the new version of the model, IRI-2010, which includes several important improvements and additions. The electron and ion densities in the lower ionosphere were significantly improved by using a large volume of ionosonde data as well as photochemical considerations. As an additional parameter IRI-2010 includes the transition height from molecular to cluster ions. At the F2 peak Neural Network based models for the peak density and the propagation factor M3000F2, which is related to the F2 peak height, are introduced as new options. For high latitudes the model will benefit from the introduction of auroral oval boundaries and their variation with magnetic activity. Regarding the electron temperature, IRI-2010 now models variations with solar activity.

  9. Human epididymis protein 4 reference limits and natural variation in a Nordic reference population.

    PubMed

    Bolstad, Nils; Øijordsbakken, Miriam; Nustad, Kjell; Bjerner, Johan

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to establish reference limits for human epididymis protein 4, HE4, and investigate factors influencing HE4 levels in healthy subjects. HE4 was measured in 1,591 samples from the Nordic Reference Interval Project Bio-bank and Database biobank, using the manual HE4 EIA (Fujirebio) for 802 samples and the Architect HE4 (Abbott) for 792 samples. Reference limits were calculated using the statistical software R. The influence of donor characteristics such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking habits, and creatinine on HE4 levels was investigated using a multivariate model. The study showed that age is the main determinant of HE4 in healthy subjects, corresponding to 2% higher HE4 levels at 30 years (compared to 20 years), 9% at 40 years, 20% at 50 years, 37% at 60 years, 63% at 70 years, and 101% at 80 years. HE4 levels are 29% higher in smokers than in nonsmokers. In conclusion, HE4 levels in healthy subjects are associated with age and smoking status. Age-dependent reference limits are suggested. PMID:22105734

  10. Optical frequency references for laser interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; ?íp, Ond?ej; Lazar, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Optical frequency references for laser standards based on molecular iodine absorption cells represent one of the most used tool for frequency stabilization of lasers operating in a visible spectral range. In the industry oriented laser measurements and similar laser interferometry applications performed at atmospheric conditions, a refractive index of air plays a role of main uncertainty contributor. In these cases there is no need to use technologically complicated and expensive iodine references made of pure fused silica with precise pressure control of absorpbing media. A set of iodine cells made of borosilicate glass was filled with certain amount of absorbing media to define the saturation point of iodine inside. A combination of these two approaches (pyrex material and controlled saturation pressure of iodine) allows us to simplify the laser stabilization setup (there is no need of additional iodine pressure level control) and reduce the overall reference's costs with ensuring of sufficient frequency stability of the system at the same time. Spectral properties of manufactured cells were tested by hyperfine transitions linewidth measurement and comparison with results from traditional fused silica cells was done to investigate the long-term iodine purity inside the references. As the transitions linewidth method shows a very high sensitivity to iodine purity level, this method is proposed to be an alternative approach in investigation of contamination in iodine absorption cells where traditionally used techniques - laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and absolute frequency shifts measurement - can not be used.

  11. Prevalence of Counselor Self-Reference in the Therapeutic Dyad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robitschek, Christine G.; McCarthy, Patricia R.

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 91 counselors to assess frequency of use of self-referent statements (positive and negative self-disclosure and self-involving responses) in individual counseling. Counselors reported using significantly greater frequency of positive versus negative self-reference. Found no significant differences resulting from counselor gender or level

  12. Component-Level Demonstration of a Microfabricated Atomic Frequency Reference

    E-print Network

    Popovic, Zoya

    in the power required to run it. Funded almost exclusively by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency provide. This work has been motivated in large part by the needs of advanced military systems by light from a modulated diode laser [14, 15] The use of MEMS for confining the atoms and integrating

  13. Optical probe with reference fiber

    DOEpatents

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Chase, Charles L. (Dublin, CA)

    2006-03-14

    A system for characterizing tissue includes the steps of generating an emission signal, generating a reference signal, directing the emission signal to and from the tissue, directing the reference signal in a predetermined manner relative to the emission signal, and using the reference signal to compensate the emission signal. In one embodiment compensation is provided for fluctuations in light delivery to the tip of the probe due to cable motion.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Cranioectodermal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysplasia? CED Sensenbrenner syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oto-spondylo-megaepiphyseal dysplasia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Lynch syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms HNPCC For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Essential pentosuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pentosuria xylitol dehydrogenase deficiency For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Farber lipogranulomatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lipogranulomatosis Farber-Uzman syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Alport syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... interstitial pyelonephritis hereditary nephritis For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  20. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  1. CARO – The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa A. Haendel; Fabian Neuhaus; David Osumi-Sutherland; Paula M. Mabee; L. V. Mejino Jr; Chris J. Mungall; Barry Smith

    The Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO) is being developed to facilitate interoperability between existing anatomy ontologies\\u000a for different species, and will provide a template for building new anatomy ontologies. CARO has a structural axis of classification\\u000a based on the top-level nodes of the Foundational Model of Anatomy. CARO will complement the developmental process sub-ontology\\u000a of the GO Biological Process ontology,

  2. 1993 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Valero, O.J.; Blackburn, C.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Kaae, P.S.; Armacost, L.L.; Garrett, S.M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This report, which updates WHC-EP-0567, 1992 Solid Waste Reference Forecast Summary, (WHC 1992) forecasts the volumes of solid wastes to be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site during the 30-year period from FY 1993 through FY 2022. The data used in this document were collected from Westinghouse Hanford Company forecasts as well as from surveys of waste generators at other US Department of Energy sites who are now shipping or plan to ship solid wastes to the Hanford Site for disposal. These wastes include low-level and low-level mixed waste, transuranic and transuranic mixed waste, and nonradioactive hazardous waste.

  3. Ethics and the Reference Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ethical reference practice focuses on guidelines for the individual reference librarian's interactions with clients. Topics include the professional-client relationship; competence; diligence; confidentiality; independence of judgment; honesty and candor; and obligations to third parties, including the democratic society at large.…

  4. Deictic Reference in Children's Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller-Cohen, Deborah

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of deictic reference in the speech of 19 three-year-old Black children. The deictic verbs of motion are examined with reference to other aspects of the deictic system. The data for this study are approximately eight hours of spontaneous speech collected in a pre-school classroom. The hypothesis to…

  5. NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards Publication 500-292 #12;i NIST Special Publication 500-292 NIST Cloud Computing Reference Architecture, John Messina, Lee Badger and Dawn Leaf Information Techonology Laboratory Cloud Computing Program

  6. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.; Sushinsky, G. F.; Chwirut, D. J.; Bechtoldt, C. J.; Ruff, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys are to be considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks have been taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and micro-structural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response. New fabrication techniques for reference blocks are discussed and ASTM activities are summarized.

  7. Pointing to potential reference areas to assess soil mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, D D; Da Silva, F M R; Souza, J W M; Pohren, R S; Rocha, J A V; Vargas, V M F

    2015-04-01

    Several have been performed to evaluate the mutagenicity of soil samples in urban and industrial areas. The use of uncontaminated reference areas has been an obstacle to the study of environmental mutagenesis. The study aimed to indicate a methodology to define reference areas in studies of environmental contamination based on "Ambient Background Concentration" of metallic elements associated with the Salmonella/microsome assay. We looked at three potential reference areas, two of them close by the industrial sources of contamination (São Jerônimo reference, near the coal-fired power plant, and Triunfo reference, near the wood preservative plant), but not directly influenced by them and an area located inside a protected area (Itapuã reference). We also carried out chemical analyses of some metals to plot the metal profile of these potential reference areas and define basal levels of these metals in the soils. After examining the mutagenicity of the inorganic extracts using strains TA98, TA97a, and TA100, in the presence and absence of S9 mix, we indicated the São Jerônimo reference and the Itapuã reference as two sites that could be used in future studies of mutagenicity of soils in southern Brazil. The association between a mutagenicity bioassay and the "Ambient Background Concentration" seems to be a useful method to indicate the reference areas in studies of contamination by environmental mutagens, where these results were corroborated by canonical correspondence analysis. PMID:25410310

  8. 78 FR 56618 - Incorporation by Reference; North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria; Hazardous Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ...Incorporation by Reference; North American Standard Out-of- Service Criteria; Hazardous Materials...reference of the ``North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria and Level VI Inspection Procedures and Out-of-Service Criteria for Commercial...

  9. Reference sharing mechanism for watermark self-embedding.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpeng; Wang, Shuozhong; Qian, Zhenxing; Feng, Guorui

    2011-02-01

    This paper proposes two novel self-embedding watermarking schemes based upon a reference sharing mechanism, in which the watermark to be embedded is a reference derived from the original principal content in different regions and shared by these regions for content restoration. After identifying tampered blocks, both the reference data and the original content in the reserved area are used to recover the principal content in the tampered area. By using the first scheme, the original data in five most significant bit layers of a cover image can be recovered and the original watermarked image can also be retrieved when the content replacement is not too extensive. In the second scheme, the host content is decomposed into three levels, and the reference sharing methods with different restoration capabilities are employed to protect the data at different levels. Therefore, the lower the tampering rate, the more levels of content data are recovered, and the better the quality of restored results. PMID:20716503

  10. Reference and Standard Atmosphere Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale L.; Roberts, Barry C.; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of standard and reference atmosphere models along with the history of their origin and use since the mid 19th century. The first "Standard Atmospheres" were established by international agreement in the 1920's. Later some countries, notably the United States, also developed and published "Standard Atmospheres". The term "Reference Atmospheres" is used to identify atmosphere models for specific geographical locations. Range Reference Atmosphere Models developed first during the 1960's are examples of these descriptions of the atmosphere. This paper discusses the various models, scopes, applications and limitations relative to use in aerospace industry activities.

  11. Multi-reference vibration correlation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, Florian; Rauhut, Guntram, E-mail: rauhut@theochem.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-02-14

    State-specific vibration correlation methods beyond the vibrational multi-configuration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approximation have been developed, which allow for the accurate calculation of state energies for systems suffering from strong anharmonic resonances. Both variational multi-reference configuration interaction approaches and an implementation of approximate 2nd order vibrational multi-reference perturbation theory are presented. The variational approach can be significantly accelerated by a configuration selection scheme, which leads to negligible deviations in the final results. Relaxation effects due to the partitioning of the correlation space and the performance of a VMCSCF modal basis in contrast to a standard modal basis obtained from vibrational self-consistent field theory have been investigated in detail. Benchmark calculations based on high-level potentials are provided for the propargyl cation and cis-diazene.

  12. Improved ultrasonic standard reference blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eitzen, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    A program to improve the quality, reproducibility and reliability of nondestructive testing through the development of improved ASTM-type ultrasonic reference standards is described. Reference blocks of aluminum, steel, and titanium alloys were considered. Equipment representing the state-of-the-art in laboratory and field ultrasonic equipment was obtained and evaluated. Some RF and spectral data on ten sets of ultrasonic reference blocks were taken as part of a task to quantify the variability in response from nominally identical blocks. Techniques for residual stress, preferred orientation, and microstructural measurements were refined and are applied to a reference block rejected by the manufacturer during fabrication in order to evaluate the effect of metallurgical condition on block response.

  13. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Peter

    -exempt 501(c)(3) organization and your donation is tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. Thank youAlumni Fund Donation Form. OFFICE USE ONLY Reference number: Thank you for supporting Sheffield

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Proteus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... proposed for the condition is segmental overgrowth, lipomatosis, arteriovenous malformations, and epidermal nevus (SOLAMEN) syndrome; another is type 2 segmental Cowden syndrome. However, some scientific articles still refer to PTEN -related Proteus ... complication ; connective tissue ; diagnosis ; ...

  15. Sports Reference: A Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons for including sports books in school library reference collections, explains why they should not be found only in public library collections, and provides six annotated bibliographies of sports books suitable for intermediate or middle school library collections. (LRW)

  16. Virtual reference: chat with us!

    PubMed

    Lapidus, Mariana; Bond, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Virtual chat services represent an exciting way to provide patrons of medical libraries with instant reference help in an academic environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the implementation, marketing process, use, and development of a virtual reference service initiated at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences and its three-campus libraries. In addition, this paper will discuss practical recommendations for the future improvement of the service. PMID:19384714

  17. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level. PMID:20640222

  18. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    PubMed

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines. PMID:17495666

  19. reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. D'Onghia

    SUMMARY - A general view on the sanitary status of citrus in Apulia is given based on testing of 1750 plants from commercial groves and nurseries. Early varieties of clementine ('Common' and local ecotypes) and sweet orange ('Navelina') are the most important ones in the region but they are highly infected by virus and virus-like diseases. Cachexia and exocortis are

  20. REFERENCES

    E-print Network

    2008-08-23

    Numerical Methods for Partial Differential. Equations. ... Miscible Displacement Equations. SOC. ... A Survey of Numerical Methods for Parabolic Differential Equations. .... A Method for Improving Line Successive Overrelaxation in Anisotropic.

  1. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission (BRM) 2. The dispersion analysis is based on the nominal trajectory for BRM 2. The analysis was performed to determine state vector and performance dispersions (or variations) which result from the indicated uncertainties. The dispersions are determined at major mission events and fixed times from liftoff (time slices). The dispersion results will be used to evaluate the capability of the vehicle to perform the mission within a specified level of confidence and to determine flight performance reserves.

  2. Developing a field independent frequency reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    We show that by averaging over transitions to multiple hyperfine levels, quadrupole shifts and dominant Zeeman effects exactly cancel whenever the nuclear spin, I, is at least as large as the total electronic angular momentum, J. The average frequency thus defines a frequency reference which is inherently independent of external magnetic fields and electric field gradients. We use L{{u}+} to illustrate the method although the approach could be readily adapted to other atomic species. This approach practically eliminates the quadrupole and Zeeman shift considerations for many potential clock transitions.

  3. Safety analysis review terms of reference

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, T.

    1981-03-01

    This document has been prepared to suggest procedures and items for consideration in the review of safety analysis prepared on DOE fossil energy conversion and technology development projects. It is not intended to reflect official DOE policy. It does, however, provide a basis for consistency in conducting reviews, especially with regard to interpreting levels of risk. Since many of the persons assigned to review panels are not expected to be safety analysts but specialists in related fields such as industrial hygiene and environmental science, this document is intended to provide general terms of reference to facilitate review procedures.

  4. Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not pur...

  5. Refined approaches for terrestrial reference frame computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, B.; Angermann, D.; Drewes, H.; Gerstl, M.; Kelm, R.; Kruegel, M.; Mueller, H.; Tesmer, V.

    Geodetic space techniques allow to determine station positions with precisions of a few millimeters. The underlying reference frame requires thus the same level of accuracy. The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) is up to date realised by epoch positions and linear velocities for all the included stations. Detailed analyses, however, show that linear velocities do not fit the time dependent positions with the required accuracy. To improve the time evolution we study weekly solutions of the station positions and datum parameters. We use GPS, SLR, VLBI and DORIS solutions that are obtained from the corresponding IERS technique centres or computed at DGFI. Time series of station coordinates and datum parameters (scale, translation) are computed by aligning each individual solution to a multi-year reference (ITRF2000). The time series are analysed to detect systematic effects such as jumps or periodic signals (esp. seasonal periods). Additionally the covariance information of the networks and the station positions are investigated. As a refined approach we then combine the weekly normal equations to a multi-year TRF solution. Thereby an important aspect is the parameterisation (e.g. to include an annual period for station positions and the datum parameters). The results are discussed and compared with existing TRF solutions and geophysical models.

  6. Traceability, Reference Systems and Result Comparability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Panteghini

    2007-01-01

    The standardisation of measurements is of high priority in laboratory medicine, its purpose being to achieve closer comparability of results obtained using routine measurement procedures. At present, there is international cooperation in developing reference measurement systems (reference methods, reference materials, and reference laboratory networks) for analytes of clinical significance. These reference systems will reduce, wherever possible, measurement uncertainty and promote

  7. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Sims; G. E. Ragan

    1987-01-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers

  8. Ris Energy Report 5 References References for Chapter 3

    E-print Network

    systems of innovation: Towards a theory of innovation and interactive learning. London: Pinter Publish.enerdata.fr 3. European Commission. (2005). Communication from the Commis- sion. The support of electricity from.ucsusa.org References for chapter 5 1. http://www.nrel.gov/features/ 2. OECD. (2006). Innovation in energy. Comparing

  9. Virtual Reference, Real Money: Modeling Costs in Virtual Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Lori; Pomerantz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Libraries nationwide are in yet another phase of belt tightening. Without an understanding of the economic factors that influence library operations, however, controlling costs and performing cost-benefit analyses on services is difficult. This paper describes a project to develop a cost model for collaborative virtual reference services. This…

  10. Recommendations for construction of a nonlinear international Terrestrial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, WenYao; Song, ShuLi; He, LiNa

    2011-01-01

    The problems of ITRF2008, the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame, are pointed out and analyzed as follows: (1) ITRF is not a mm-level Terrestrial Reference Frame; (2) the origin of ITRF is neither the Earth's center of mass (CM) nor the center of figure (CF); (3) the scale of ITRF is not a uniform system in the sense of the gravitational theory of relativity. These problems result from the linear hypothesis used in the establishment and maintenance of ITRF, which includes the linear hypothesis of the coordinates definition of the ITRF reference stations, and the seven coordinate transformation parameters (three translation parameters, three rotation parameters, and one scale parameter) when the ITRF combine solution is constructed. The linear hypothesis of the ITRF construction leads to the current terrestrial reference frame only at the cm-level, which cannot satisfy the requirements of monitoring mm-level crust movements as well as the global environment. This article points out that the construction of a mm-level Terrestrial Reference Frame is actually a leap from linear to nonlinear. Therefore, according to the main characteristics of nonlinear changes of the crust's deformation, the geocenter motion and the overall height fluctuation of the Earth, the new ITRF station coordinates definition and the new observation equations of combined solutions are constructed for the realization of a mm-level nonlinear ITRF, which can solve the problems of the current ITRF.

  11. The Neurobiology of Reference-Dependent Value Computation

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Benedetto; Kumaran, Dharshan; Holt, Beatrice; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    A key focus of current research in neuroeconomics concerns how the human brain computes value. Although, value has generally been viewed as an absolute measure (e.g., expected value, reward magnitude), much evidence suggests that value is more often computed with respect to a changing reference point, rather than in isolation. Here, we present the results of a study aimed to dissociate brain regions involved in reference-independent (i.e., “absolute”) value computations, from those involved in value computations relative to a reference point. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, subjects acted as buyers and sellers during a market exchange of lottery tickets. At a behavioral level, we demonstrate that subjects systematically accorded a higher value to objects they owned relative to those they did not, an effect that results from a shift in reference point (i.e., status quo bias or endowment effect). Our results show that activity in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum track parameters such as the expected value of lottery tickets indicating the computation of reference-independent value. In contrast, activity in ventral striatum indexed the degree to which stated prices, at a within-subjects and between-subjects level, were distorted with respect to a reference point. The findings speak to the neurobiological underpinnings of reference dependency during real market value computations. PMID:19321780

  12. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

  13. Developing a collaborative supply chain reference model: A case study in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuihua Han; Chao-Hsien Chu; Shuangyuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    A well-defined and flexible supply chain reference model forms the basis for promoting supply chain collaboration. This study integrates the concepts of supply chain, collaborative product commerce, and supply chain operations reference model(SCOR) to propose collaborative supply chain operations reference model (CSCOR) in the product lifecycle. The CSCOR consists of four hierarchical levels: collaborative business model; collaborative cooperative model; collaborative

  14. Auditory Warnings, Signal-Referent Relations, and Natural Indicators: Re-Thinking Theory and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Agnes; Keller, Peter E.; Stevens, Catherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In auditory warning design the idea of the strength of the association between sound and referent has been pivotal. Research has proceeded via constructing classification systems of signal-referent associations and then testing predictions about ease of learning of different levels of signal-referent relation strength across and within different…

  15. Fundamental reference frames and radio astrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T.-Q. Xu; Z.-X. Li

    1987-01-01

    The importance of a fundamental reference frame, its present situation and progress, the significance and the role of radio astronomy in establishing and improving a fundamental reference frame, the progress of radio astronomy reference system etc. are discussed.

  16. Resonance behaviour of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in the female voxel model, NAOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimbylow, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a female voxel model, NAOMI, under isolated and grounded conditions from 10 MHz to 3 GHz. The 2 mm resolution voxel model, NAOMI, was scaled to a height of 1.63 m and a mass of 60 kg, the dimensions of the ICRP reference adult female. Comparison was made with SAR values from a reference male voxel model, NORMAN. A broad SAR resonance in the NAOMI values was found around 900 MHz and a resulting enhancement, up to 25%, over the values for the male voxel model, NORMAN. This latter result confirmed previously reported higher values in a female model. The effect of differences in anatomy was investigated by comparing values for 10-, 5- and 1-year-old phantoms rescaled to the ICRP reference values of height and mass which are the same for both sexes. The broad resonance in the NAOMI child values around 1 GHz is still a strong feature. A comparison has been made with ICNIRP guidelines. The ICNIRP occupational reference level provides a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction. The linear scaling of the adult phantom using different factors in longitudinal and transverse directions, in order to match the ICRP stature and weight, does not exactly reproduce the anatomy of children. However, for public exposure the calculations with scaled child models indicate that the ICNIRP reference level may not provide a conservative estimate of the whole-body averaged SAR restriction, above 1.2 GHz for scaled 5- and 1-year-old female models, although any underestimate is by less than 20%.

  17. DIGITAL Visual Fortran Language Reference

    E-print Network

    , Microsoft Press, MS-DOS, NT, PowerPoint, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual J++, Visual Studio, Win32, Win32sDIGITAL Visual Fortran Language Reference Date: December, 1998 Software Version: DIGITAL Visual of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IMSL is a trademark of Visual Numerics, Inc. Intel and Pentium

  18. The ADS Bibliographic Reference Resolver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Accomazzi; Guenther Eichhorn; M. J. Kurtz; C. S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

    1999-01-01

    An increasingly larger number of publishers and institutions are using the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) to verify the existence and availability of references published in the astronomical literature. In this paper we discuss the tools and utilities that the ADS is developing to provide the capability to automatically parse, identify, and verify the existence and correctness of citations appearing

  19. Selected Reference Books of 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1997-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of recent scholarly and general reference books as compiled by Columbia University libraries. Subject categories include religion, literature, women's studies, film studies, art and architecture, political science, history and area studies, technology, and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  20. Selected Reference Books of 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 40 recent scholarly and general works of interest to reference workers in university libraries. Topics areas covered include philosophy, religion, language, literature, architecture, economics, law, area studies, Russia and the Soviet Union, women's studies, and Christopher Columbus. New editions and…

  1. Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference

    E-print Network

    Movileanu, Liviu

    Effective Scientific Posters Quick Reference George R. Hess An effective poster will help you. A poster is a visual communication tool. Posters serve as ... » a source of information » a conversation starter » a summary of your work » an advertisement of your work Resources for Poster Presenters George

  2. Reference-cell calibration activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mueller

    1984-01-01

    The use of secondary calibration in large area pulsed solar simulators (LAPSS) is discussed. It is argued that primary calibration in sunlight is time consuming, that only a limited sun calibration of a set of primary reference cells is required, that the LAPSS light source is filtered to closely match the am 1.5 direct spectrum, and that the temperal stability

  3. Voice Over IP Reference Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is a collection of architectural specifications, network and signaling protocols, and technical papers related to virtually every aspect of VoIP. Detailed articles and standards information are regularly updated on the site. There is also a collection of documents containing VoIP references, and in this sections, visitors will find an H.323 tutorial.

  4. The Principal and Reference Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Agnes E.; Permuth, Steve; Gray, David L.

    1999-01-01

    Requests to write letters of reference for former teachers can be legally problematic. Principals should know relevant state laws; have employees sign a release from liability; provide only factual information; maintain fair personnel files; avoid telephone recommendations; disclose information on a need-to-know basis; and avoid performance…

  5. Geochemical Reference Materials and Certificates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a list of materials available for postal delivery, including: Icelandic basalt, Massachusetts marine sediment, Virginia diabase, Wyoming shale, etc. The size and content of each sample, descriptions of the location the reference material is taken from, and total element concentrations are given.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... beta-subunit deficiency GM2 gangliosidosis, type 2 GM2 Gangliosidosis, Type II Hexosaminidase A and B Deficiency Disease Sandhoff-Jatzkewitz-Pilz disease Total hexosaminidase deficiency For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming ...

  7. REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOUSEHOLDER, FRED W.; AND OTHERS

    BASED ON A TRADITIONAL APPROACH, THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI IS DESIGNED TO BE MOST USEFUL TO ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATES OR BEGINNING GRADUATE STUDENTS OF GREEK. (DHIMOTIKI, OR DEMOTIC, IS THE POPULAR FORM OF MODERN GREEK.) IN PART I THERE IS AN EXTENSIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION OF THE WRITING…

  8. Quick Reference Card Context Help

    E-print Network

    Oh, Paul

    LabVIEW TM Quick Reference Card Context Help When you move the cursor over LabVIEW objects, the Context Help window displays basic information about each object. Select Help»Show Context Help to display the Context Help window. LabVIEW Help Includes information about LabVIEW programming concepts, step

  9. Title: Information theory Reference: 13791

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    Title: Information theory Reference: 13791 Sort key: informationtheory Version: 3.0 Revision and concepts->Concepts, miscellaneous Information theory. A theory which seeks to describe, by means environment or communicates with others. One of the fundamental tenets of information theory

  10. Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

  11. Newfoundland. Reference Series No. 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Newfoundland and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography and climate, history, economy, population and settlement, arts and culture, leisure and recreation, and heritage. Specific topics include the…

  12. Manitoba. Reference Series No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Manitoba and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss agriculture, mining, energy, transportation and communication, fishing, forestry, fur trapping, health and social services, education, and political life. Specific…

  13. Guam and Micronesia Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfridt, Nicholas J.; Goniwiecha, Mark C.

    1993-01-01

    This article lists reference sources for studying Guam and Micronesia. The entries are arranged alphabetically by main entry within each section in the categories of: (1) bibliographical works; (2) travel and guide books; (3) handbooks and surveys; (4) dictionaries; (5) yearbooks; (6) periodical and newspaper publications; and (7) audiovisual…

  14. Bacterial genome reference databases: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Slezak, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive detection of microbes against a complex background is a problem common to multiple aspects of human health, such as vaccines and other biologicals safety, blood safety, and diagnosing infectious diseases in humans or other hosts. The microbes in question could be bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitical. To defend against such a broad array of microbes of potential safety concern, we need more than single-target polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Technologies such as highly-multiplexed PCR, broad-spectrum DNA/RNA microarrays, and next-generation sequencing are all potentiallycapable to provide increased protection against microbial contamination. Regulatory processes are currently struggling to keep up with rapid advances in all of these technologies, each of which is firmly based upon nucleic acid sequencing resulting in generation of megabases of data. A major question is the level of quality required for genomic data and metadata for the reference databases that are needed to allow these technologies to be developed, validated, and then used for front-line protection of human health. The background of this general problem is discussed and one example of an ongoing effort to establish quality levels for a bacterial genome reference database is presented. PMID:25475636

  15. Thermocouple, multiple junction reference oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, L. P. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An improved oven for maintaining the junctions of a plurality of reference thermocouples at a common and constant temperature is described. The oven is characterized by a cylindrical body defining a heat sink with axially extended-cylindrical cavity a singularized heating element which comprises a unitary cylindrical heating element consisting of a resistance heating coil wound about the surface of metallic spool with an axial bore defined and seated in the cavity. Other features of the oven include an annular array of radially extended bores defined in the cylindrical body and a plurality of reference thermocouple junctions seated in the bores in uniformly spaced relation with the heating element, and a temperature sensing device seated in the axial bore for detecting temperature changes as they occur in the spool and circuit to apply a voltage across the coil in response to detected drops in temperatures of the spool.

  16. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  17. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  18. Advanced Physics: Rotating Reference Frames

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    A ball is shown on a rotating merry-go-round with a frictionless surface. The ball starts at the center of the merry-go-round and moves outward at a constant speed. Views from two reference frames are shown, one where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the ground and the other (shown above) where the motion of the ball is shown as seen from an observer on the merry-go-round.

  19. Dietary intake and anthropometric reference values in population studies.

    PubMed

    Arija, Victoria; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Martínez de Vitoria, Emilio; Ortega, Rosa M; Serra-Majem, Luis; Ribas, Lourdes; Aranceta, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In nutritional epidemiology it is essential to have reference values for nutrition and anthropometry in order to compare individual and population data. With respect to reference nutritional intake, the new concept of Dietary Reference Intakes is generated based more on the prevention of chronic diseases than on covering nutritional deficiencies, as would occur in the early Recommendations. As such, the more relevant international organizations incorporated new concepts in their tables, such as the Adequate Intake levels or the Tolerable Upper Intake levels. Currently, the EURRECA recommendations (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned) are generating reference values for Europe in a transparent, systematic and scientific manner. Using the DRI, health-care authorities formulated nutritional objectives for countries or territories and Dietary Guides to disseminate the dietary advice to the population. Anthropometric assessment continues to be one of the most-used methods for evaluating and monitoring health status, nutritional state and growth in children, not only individuals but also communities. Different organizations have established anthropometric reference patterns of body mass index (BMI) with cut-off points to define overweight and obesity. In children, growth curves have been revised and adapted to the characteristics of healthy children in order to obtain anthropometric reference standards that better reflect optimum growth in children. The Growth Standards for children below 5 years of age of the WHO are a response to these principles, and are widely accepted and used worldwide. PMID:25719783

  20. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  1. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Shuang; Yang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. (E. songoricum) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Es?-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species. PMID:22837673

  2. Changes in Reference Systems and Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Seidelmann

    2005-01-01

    The International Celestial Reference System (ICRS) has been introduced as recommended by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). This is a fixed reference system that is epoch independent. This is based on Earth kinematics rather than the solar system dynamics. It is implemented by a reference frame, the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), determined from distant radio sources, that are not

  3. Empirically-grounded reference architectures: a proposal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Galster

    2011-01-01

    A reference architecture describes core elements of the software architecture for systems that stem from the same domain. A reference architecture ensures interoperability of systems through standardization. It also facilitates the instantiation of new concrete architectures. However, we currently lack procedures for systematically designing reference architectures that are empirically-grounded. Being empirically-grounded would increase the validity and reusability of a reference

  4. Standard Setting to an International Reference Framework: Implications for Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Gad S.; Geranpayeh, Ardeshir; Khalifa, Hanan; Buckendahl, Chad W.

    2013-01-01

    Standard setting theory has largely developed with reference to a typical situation, determining a level or levels of performance for one exam for one context. However, standard setting is now being used with international reference frameworks, where some parameters and assumptions of classical standard setting do not hold. We consider the…

  5. Euclid mission: building of a reference survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiaux, J.; Scaramella, R.; Mellier, Y.; Altieri, B.; Burigana, C.; Da Silva, Antonio; Gomez, P.; Hoar, J.; Laureijs, R.; Maiorano, E.; Magalhães Oliveira, D.; Renk, F.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Tereno, I.; Auguères, J. L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cropper, M.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kitching, T.; Meneghetti, M.; Percival, W.; Warren, S.

    2012-09-01

    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic-Vision wide-field-space mission which is designed to explain the origin of the acceleration of Universe expansion. The mission will investigate at the same time two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (in particular Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, BAO). The extreme precision requested on primary science objectives can only be achieved by observing a large number of galaxies distributed over the whole sky in order to probe the distribution of dark matter and galaxies at all scales. The extreme accuracy needed requires observation from space to limit all observational biases in the measurements. The definition of the Euclid survey, aiming at detecting billions of galaxies over 15 000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, is a key parameter of the mission. It drives its scientific potential, its duration and the mass of the spacecraft. The construction of a Reference Survey derives from the high level science requirements for a Wide and a Deep survey. The definition of a main sequence of observations and the associated calibrations were indeed a major achievement of the Definition Phase. Implementation of this sequence demonstrated the feasibility of covering the requested area in less than 6 years while taking into account the overheads of space segment observing and maneuvering sequence. This reference mission will be used for sizing the spacecraft consumables needed for primary science. It will also set the framework for optimizing the time on the sky to fulfill the primary science and maximize the Euclid legacy.

  6. Reference-dependent risk sensitivity as rational inference.

    PubMed

    Denrell, Jerker C

    2015-07-01

    Existing explanations of reference-dependent risk sensitivity attribute it to cognitive imperfections and heuristic choice processes. This article shows that behavior consistent with an S-shaped value function could be an implication of rational inferences about the expected values of alternatives. Theoretically, I demonstrate that even a risk-neutral Bayesian decision maker, who is uncertain about the reliability of observations, should use variability in observed outcomes as a predictor of low expected value for outcomes above a reference level, and as a predictor of high expected value for outcomes below a reference level. Empirically, I show that combining past outcomes using an S-shaped value function leads to accurate predictions about future values. The theory also offers a rationale for why risk sensitivity consistent with an inverse S-shaped value function should occur in experiments on decisions from experience with binary payoff distributions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120908

  7. Coal fines consolidation. [269 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, A.

    1984-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to survey existing methods and techniques for consolidating coal fines into lump coal which would be suitable as feed to fixed bed gasifiers. Another objective was to characterize the properties of consolidated coal which would establish its suitability for use in such gasifiers. To accomplish these objectives, a search of the technical literature was conducted in the pertinent subject areas. In addition, a survey was made of industrial and research organizations which have been active in the field of coal consolidation. The literature search mainly covered the period from 1970 to the present, although certain basic references were dated in the early 1900's. Approximately 250 from a total of about 1500 references were identified as relevant to the scope of this study. Information on coal consolidation was solicited from about thirty organizations and a response of about 50% was obtained. A review and evaluation of the relevant technical literature was made and is summarized, along with information provided by the survey responses, in the body of this report. Three primary methods for mechanically consolidating coal fines were identified; briquetting, pelletizing, and extrusion. Based on the limited experience reported, it appears that the technical feasibility of consolidating coal fines as feed to fixed bed gasifiers has been demonstrated. Costs for producing coal agglomerates, as reported in the literature, vary over a wide range, from about 7 to about 30 dollars per ton of product. The low cost range might be acceptable in terms of an overall gasification project but further effort is required to determine if such costs are attainable in practice. 269 references.

  8. Reference design for LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1983-01-01

    A reference design for the 32-GeV LAMPF II proton accelerator is proposed. This design consists of a 30-Hz rapid-cycling synchrotron with a dc stretcher. A superiodicity 5 design with dispersion-free straight sections is suggested for both machines. Beam-dynamics calculations are partially complete and rf requirements are given. Apertures are calculated for 2 x 10/sup 13/ protons per pulse (100 ..mu..A average current). No significant problems are observed at any time in the cycle in a longitudinal beam-dynamics simulation including space charge.

  9. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  10. PVWatts Version 1 Technical Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Dobos, A. P.

    2013-10-01

    The NREL PVWatts(TM) calculator is a web application developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) that estimates the electricity production of a grid-connected photovoltaic system based on a few simple inputs. PVWatts combines a number of sub-models to predict overall system performance, and makes several hidden assumptions about performance parameters. This technical reference details the individual sub-models, documents assumptions and hidden parameters, and explains the sequence of calculations that yield the final system performance estimation.

  11. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessie, Robert W.

    1988-07-01

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane.

  12. Use of the impedance method for ICNIRP-related compliance testing of electronic article surveillance devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Om P. Gandhi; Gianluca Lazzi; Jun Sun; Gang Kang

    2000-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems based on the use of alternating magnetic fields at frequencies up to 10-20 MHz are being rapidly introduced into society to prevent unauthorized removal of items from stores, libraries, and hospitals. The EAS systems may take the form of one or two-sided panels of current-carrying loops or pillars at or near the exit door, and

  13. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P; Huset, Carin; Jenkins, Thomas M; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Lange, Cleston C; Muir, Derek C G; Reagen, William K; Rich, Courtney; Small, Jeff M; Strynar, Mark J; Washington, John W; Yoo, Hoon; Keller, Jennifer M

    2013-10-12

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants that are now of concern. NIST and multiple groups have been measuring the mass fraction of a group of emerging contaminants, polyfluorinated substances (PFASs), in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels determined in an interlaboratory comparison of up to 23 PFASs determined in five SRMs: sediment (SRMs 1941b and 1944), house dust (SRM 2585), soil (SRM 2586), and sludge (SRM 2781). Measurements presented show an array of PFASs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate being the most frequently detected. SRMs 1941b, 1944, and 2586 had relatively low concentrations of most PFASs measured while 23 PFASs were at detectable levels in SRM 2585 and most of the PFASs measured were at detectable levels in SRM 2781. The measurements made in this study were used to add values to the Certificates of Analysis for SRMs 2585 and 2781. PMID:24121429

  14. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jessica L; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P; Huset, Carin; Jenkins, Thomas M; Kwadijk, Christiaan J A F; Lange, Cleston C; Muir, Derek C G; Reagen, William K; Rich, Courtney; Small, Jeff M; Strynar, Mark J; Washington, John W; Yoo, Hoon; Keller, Jennifer M

    2015-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, method validation, and measurement for contaminants that are now of concern. NIST and multiple groups have been measuring the mass fraction of a group of emerging contaminants, polyfluorinated substances (PFASs), in a variety of SRMs. Here we report levels determined in an interlaboratory comparison of up to 23 PFASs determined in five SRMs: sediment (SRMs 1941b and 1944), house dust (SRM 2585), soil (SRM 2586), and sludge (SRM 2781). Measurements presented show an array of PFASs, with perfluorooctane sulfonate being the most frequently detected. SRMs 1941b, 1944, and 2586 had relatively low concentrations of most PFASs measured while 23 PFASs were at detectable levels in SRM 2585 and most of the PFASs measured were at detectable levels in SRM 2781. The measurements made in this study were used to add values to the Certificates of Analysis for SRMs 2585 and 2781. PMID:26005739

  15. The HL7 Reference Information Model Under Scrutiny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunther Schadow; Charles N. Mead; D. Mead Walker

    2006-01-01

    The Health Level 7 (HL7) Reference Information Model (RIM) was once incepted as an object oriented information model to harmonize the definition of HL7 messages across different application domains. On the heels of the hugely successful HL7 version 2, version 3 and the RIM has received significant attention and credit and in turn is increasingly subjected to criticism. In this

  16. Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Latash; Jason Friedman; Sun Wook Kim; Anatol G. Feldman; Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration)\\u000a to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies\\u000a were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that\\u000a of the four actual

  17. Prehension synergies and control with referent hand configurations

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jason; Kim, Sun Wook; Feldman, Anatol G.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We used the framework of the equilibrium-point hypothesis (in its updated form based on the notion of referent configuration) to investigate the multi-digit synergies at two levels of a hypothetical hierarchy involved in prehensile actions. Synergies were analyzed at the thumb–virtual finger (VF) level (VF is an imaginary digit with the mechanical action equivalent to that of the four actual fingers) and at the individual finger level. The subjects performed very quick vertical movements of a handle into a target. A load could be attached off-center to provide a pronation or supination torque. In a few trials, the handle was unexpectedly fixed to the table and the digits slipped off the sensors. In such trials, the hand stopped at a higher vertical position and rotated into pronation or supination depending on the expected torque. The aperture showed non-monotonic changes with a large, fast decrease and further increase, ending up with a smaller distance between the thumb and the fingers as compared to unperturbed trials. Multi-digit synergies were quantified using indices of co-variation between digit forces and moments of force across unperturbed trials. Prior to the lifting action, high synergy indices were observed at the individual finger level while modest indices were observed at the thumb–VF level. During the lifting action, the synergies at the individual finger level disappeared while the synergy indices became higher at the thumb–VF level. The results support the basic premise that, within a given task, setting a referent configuration may be described with a few referent values of variables that influence the equilibrium state, to which the system is attracted. Moreover, the referent configuration hypothesis can help interpret the data related to the trade-off between synergies at different hierarchical levels. PMID:20033397

  18. Nuclear structure references coding manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1984-02-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Structure References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file, are outlined. The structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major topics for which (KEYWORDS) are prepared are ennumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of (KEYNO ), generation of (SELECTRS) and linkage characteristics are also given. A brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors submitting articles to Journals which require Keyword abstracts should follow the illustrations. The scope of the literature covered at NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc. is discussed. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc. is given.

  19. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, Mark (Pleasanton, CA); Mockler, Daniel J. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.

  20. Nuclear science references coding manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1996-08-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. In Section H, the structure of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, text fields as well as the major TOPICS for which are prepared are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file, assignment of , generation of and linkage characteristics are also given in Section II. In Section III, a brief definition of the Keyword abstract is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Section III. The scope of the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Section IV. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given under Section V as Appendices.

  1. High stability wavefront reference source

    DOEpatents

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.

    1994-05-03

    A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.

  2. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2009-01-06

    The Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) is a multidisciplinary cross cutting project initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (1) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (2) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (3) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, and (4) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (5) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (1) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (2) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (3) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  3. REFERENCE CASES FOR USE IN THE CEMENTITOUS PARTNERSHIP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Kosson, D.; Garrabrants, A.

    2010-08-31

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership Project (CBP) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institution cross cutting collaborative effort supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a reasonable and credible set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the structural, hydraulic and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications. The period of performance is >100 years for operating facilities and > 1000 years for waste management. The CBP has defined a set of reference cases to provide the following functions: (i) a common set of system configurations to illustrate the methods and tools developed by the CBP, (ii) a common basis for evaluating methodology for uncertainty characterization, (iii) a common set of cases to develop a complete set of parameter and changes in parameters as a function of time and changing conditions, (iv) a basis for experiments and model validation, and (v) a basis for improving conceptual models and reducing model uncertainties. These reference cases include the following two reference disposal units and a reference storage unit: (i) a cementitious low activity waste form in a reinforced concrete disposal vault, (ii) a concrete vault containing a steel high-level waste tank filled with grout (closed high-level waste tank), and (iii) a spent nuclear fuel basin during operation. Each case provides a different set of desired performance characteristics and interfaces between materials and with the environment. Examples of concretes, grout fills and a cementitious waste form are identified for the relevant reference case configurations.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Lowe syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The OCRL gene provides instructions for making an enzyme that helps modify fat (lipid) molecules called membrane ... the levels of specific membrane phospholipids, the OCRL enzyme helps regulate the transport of certain substances to ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Cyclic neutropenia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during which there is a shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that ... during episodes of neutropenia. At times when their neutrophil levels are normal, they are not at an ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Androgenetic alopecia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a new hair. Increased levels of androgens in hair follicles can lead to a shorter cycle of hair ... lead to increased activity of androgen receptors in hair follicles. It remains unclear, however, how these genetic changes ...

  7. Caesarean section among referred and self-referred birthing women: a cohort study from a tertiary hospital, northeastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The inequity in emergency obstetric care access in Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Despite an existing national obstetric referral system, many birthing women bypass referring facilities and go directly to higher-level care centres. We wanted to compare Caesarean section (CS) rates among women formally referred to a tertiary care centre versus self-referred women, and to assess the effect of referral status on adverse outcomes after CS. Methods We used data from 21,011 deliveries, drawn from the birth registry of a tertiary hospital in northeastern Tanzania, during 2000-07. Referral status was categorized as self-referred if the woman had bypassed or not accessed referral, or formally-referred if referred by a health worker. Because CS indications were insufficiently registered, we applied the Ten-Group Classification System to determine the CS rate by obstetric group and referral status. Associations between referral status and adverse outcomes after CS delivery were analysed using multiple regression models. Outcome measures were CS, maternal death, obstetric haemorrhage ? 750 mL, postpartum stay > 9 days, neonatal death, Apgar score < 7 at 5 min and neonatal ward transfer. Results Referral status contributed substantially to the CS rate, which was 55.0% in formally-referred and 26.9% in self-referred birthing women. In both groups, term nulliparous singleton cephalic pregnancies and women with previous scar(s) constituted two thirds of CS deliveries. Low Apgar score (adjusted OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.86) and neonatal ward transfer (adjusted OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.35) were significantly associated with formal referral. Early neonatal death rates after CS were 1.6% in babies of formally-referred versus 1.2% in babies of self-referred birthing women, a non-significant difference after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted OR 1.37, 95% CI 0.87-2.16). Absolute neonatal death rates were > 2% after CS in breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries in both referral groups. Conclusions Women referred for delivery had higher CS rates and poorer neonatal outcomes, suggesting that the formal referral system successfully identifies high-risk birth, although low volume suggests underutilization. High absolute rates of post-CS adverse outcomes among breech, multiple gestation and preterm deliveries suggest the need to target self-referred birthing women for earlier professional intrapartum care. PMID:21798016

  8. National Criminal Justice Reference Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is a federally funded resource "offering justice and substance abuse information to support research, policy, and program development worldwide." They have an ambitious mission and their sponsors include the Office on Violence Against Women, the National Institute of Corrections, and the Office of Community Oriented Policy Services. Visitors who know what they are looking for may wish to start with the "A-Z Publications/Products" area and may also wish to sign up for their biweekly email newsletter, JustInfo. The homepage is chock-full of helpful resources, including the Community Policing Newsletter, new reports on improving responses to people with mental illnesses in mental health court, and special thematic reports from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Those persons looking for grants and funding opportunities will definitely want to look over a special section dedicated to providing information on hundreds of different programs.

  9. Hazard Communication Project: reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    This reference manual covers the following course objectives: to inform employees of their employer's requirements under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200); to instruct employees on the procedures for obtaining and using information on hazardous materials, including understanding labeling systems and the material safety data sheet (MSDS) information; to provide information on 11 classes of chemicals, including their common uses, potential physical and health hazards, detection methods, and safety measures to follow. There are 14 lessons, ranging in length from 30 minutes to 1 (one) hour. The lessons are contained on 6 disks that are programmed to run on an IBM-compatible PC with an EGA graphics card and monitor. The program will not run on monochrome or CGA systems.

  10. NUCLEAR SCIENCE REFERENCES CODING MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    WINCHELL,D.F.

    2007-04-01

    This manual is intended as a guide for Nuclear Science References (NSR) compilers. The basic conventions followed at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), which are compatible with the maintenance and updating of and retrieval from the Nuclear Science References (NSR) file, are outlined. The NSR database originated at the Nuclear Data Project (NDP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of a project for systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data.1 Each entry in this computer file corresponds to a bibliographic reference that is uniquely identified by a Keynumber and is describable by a Topic and Keywords. It has been used since 1969 to produce bibliographic citations for evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. Periodic additions to the file were published as the ''Recent References'' issues of Nuclear Data Sheets prior to 2005. In October 1980, the maintenance and updating of the NSR file became the responsibility of the NNDC at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The basic structure and contents of the NSR file remained unchanged during the transfer. In Chapter 2, the elements of the NSR file such as the valid record identifiers, record contents, and text fields are enumerated. Relevant comments regarding a new entry into the NSR file and assignment of a keynumber are also given in Chapter 2. In Chapter 3, the format for keyword abstracts is given followed by specific examples; for each TOPIC, the criteria for inclusion of an article as an entry into the NSR file as well as coding procedures are described. Authors preparing Keyword abstracts either to be published in a Journal (e.g., Nucl. Phys. A) or to be sent directly to NNDC (e.g., Phys. Rev. C) should follow the illustrations in Chapter 3. The scope of 1See W.B.Ewbank, ORNL-5397 (1978). the literature covered at the NNDC, the categorization into Primary and Secondary sources, etc., is discussed in Chapter 4. Useful information regarding permitted character sets, recommended abbreviations, etc., is given in the Appendices. The NSR database has been in existence for decades, and responsibility for its upkeep has passed through many hands. Those familiar with the contents of NSR will note that not all of the formats and conventions discussed in this manual have always been adhered to. In recent years, however, these conventions have been followed fairly consistently, and it is expected that the preparation of new entries will follow these guidelines. The most up-to-date information about NSR contents and policies can be found at the NSR web site: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr. This manual is an update to BNL-NCS-51800 (Rev. 08/96) by S. Ramavataram and C.L. Dunford. Discussions with Mark Kellett of the IAEA are gratefully acknowledged, as are comments and suggestions from the NNDC staff and members of the U.S. Nuclear Data Program. This manuscript has been authored by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH1-886 with the U.S.Department of Energy.

  11. Microcomputer Scheduling of Reference Desk Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Donna; Owen, Willy

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model that can accommodate staff preferences when determining a reference desk schedule using a microcomputer, the Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet software, and the linear programing software LP83. (eight references) (MES)

  12. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICECarriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76...Reference points. The following list of reference points shall...boundaries of the major and smaller television markets (defined...

  13. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  14. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  15. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  16. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING AND PROCESSING MINOR OFFENSES AND VIOLATION NOTICES REFERRED TO U.S. DISTRICT...

  17. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

  18. References Concerning Architectural Barriers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gust, Tim; Shaheen, Elaine

    A bibliography of references pertaining to architectural barriers to the handicapped is presented. The references center on the importance of architectural design for universities and colleges which make buildings and facilities accessible to, and usable by, the physically handicapped. (NS)

  19. Reference Service in Columbian University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiband, Susan J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of reference service is presented along with a brief discussion of library education, citing the programs of the Interamerican Library School. Suggestions for evaluating reference service in Latin American Libraries are included. (Author/JAB)

  20. Investigating packaging effects on bandgap references

    E-print Network

    Palakodety, Ravi (Ravi Kiran)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates packaging effects on precision bandgap voltage references used in LTC switching regulators. Packaging stress causes a mean offset and room temperature distribution widening of the bandgap reference ...

  1. Native Languages Archives Repository Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    #12;Native Languages Archives Repository Project Reference Guide #12;REFERENCE GUIDE SUMMARY Guide ­ Native Language Preservation, Establishing Archives and Repositories - was produced with funding deterioration of any kind to records or materials. The old lines between archives, libraries, museums

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary multiple exostoses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary multiple exostoses? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

  3. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

  4. 21 CFR 660.3 - Reference panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOR LABORATORY TESTS Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.3 Reference panel. A Reference Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Panel shall...potency and specificity of Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. [40 FR...

  5. Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course: References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is a collection of reference materials to be used with the Chinese-Mandarin Basic Course textbooks. This collection consists of information on romanization systems, indexes for reading and writing characters, and other tables for quick reference. (NCR)

  6. Speaker adaptation using multiple reference speakers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis Kubala; Richard Schwartz; Chris Barry

    1989-01-01

    We introduce a new technique for using the speech of multiple reference speakers as a basis for speaker adaptation in large vocabulary continuous speech recognition. In contrast to other methods that use a pooled reference model, this technique normalizes the training speech from multiple reference speakers to a single common feature space pooling it. The normalized and pooled speech can

  7. Serving the Reference Needs of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overmyer, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of reference services for children and child-related questions focuses on examples encountered at the San Francisco Bay Area regional reference center. Highlights include sharing resources, online searching, telephone inquiries, using adult reference sources, the use of specialized collections, and using the Internet. (LRW)

  8. STATUS OF REFERENCE MATERIALS PROGRAMME IN INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Mahwar; Shriance Jain

    2002-01-01

    The reference materials and related activities in India have gained considerable momentum after the formation of the national task force for reference materials development and use in the country in 1996. The major developments that have taken place as a result of the efforts made by this task force, after the Seventh International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Reference Materials,

  9. Applying Information Competency to Digital Reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Ellis; Stephen Francoeur

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a case for applying information competency (IC) standards to digital reference services at academic libraries. Practical reasons for applying standards or guidelines to e-mail and online chat reference services are given with some insight to the nature of digital reference interactions. The standards that arose from the information competency movement in academic libraries are described and offered

  10. Reference Service: A Thing of the Past?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Christopher

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the traditional philosophy of public service has remained relevant and vital to overall library reference service despite information technology and other societal changes. Topics include information and information technology; and economic, political, and social trends as they influence reference librarians and reference service.…

  11. 33 CFR 241.3 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...PROVISION § 241.3 References. References cited in paragraphs (f) thru (i) may be obtained from USACE Pub. Depot, CEIM-SP-D, 2803, 52d Avenue, Hyattsville, MD 20781-1102. References cited in paragraphs (d) and (e) may be obtained...

  12. A Reference Architecture for Situated Multiagent Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny Weyns; Tom Holvoet

    2006-01-01

    A reference architecture integrates a set of architectural pat- terns that have proven their value for a family of applications. Such fam- ily of applications is characterized by specific functionality and quality requirements. A reference architecture provides a blueprint for develop- ing software architectures for applications that share that common base. As such, a reference architecture provides a means for

  13. Cretaceous References: Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PetroDynamics Inc.

    This site supplies a comprehensive list of references relevant to Cretaceous stratigraphy, paleogeography, tectonics and petroleum exploration in Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and Montana. The references range from the 1930's to the 1990's cover a variety of specific topics. Additional information and references are available on the site's home page under resources.

  14. Novel approach to model reference adaptive control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHIANG-CHENG CHIANG

    1991-01-01

    In adaptive control systems, it is a difficult task to choose an adequate reference model such that the perfect model matching condition can be guaranteed in every adaptive step. This paper presents a new design algorithm for model reference adaptive control systems to synthesize an adaptive controller such that the output error between the reference model and the plant can

  15. Frames of Reference in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The classic film "Frames of Reference" effectively illustrates concepts involved with inertial and non-inertial reference frames. In it, Donald G. Ivey and Patterson Hume use the cameras perspective to allow the viewer to see motion in reference frames translating with a constant velocity, translating while accelerating, and rotating--all with…

  16. Generic Argillite/Shale Disposal Reference Case

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Colon, Carlos Jové; Bianchi, Marco; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-08-08

    Radioactive waste disposal in a deep subsurface repository hosted in clay/shale/argillite is a subject of widespread interest given the desirable isolation properties, geochemically reduced conditions, and widespread geologic occurrence of this rock type (Hansen 2010; Bianchi et al. 2013). Bianchi et al. (2013) provides a description of diffusion in a clay-hosted repository based on single-phase flow and full saturation using parametric data from documented studies in Europe (e.g., ANDRA 2005). The predominance of diffusive transport and sorption phenomena in this clay media are key attributes to impede radionuclide mobility making clay rock formations target sites for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The reports by Hansen et al. (2010) and those from numerous studies in clay-hosted underground research laboratories (URLs) in Belgium, France and Switzerland outline the extensive scientific knowledge obtained to assess long-term clay/shale/argillite repository isolation performance of nuclear waste. In the past several years under the UFDC, various kinds of models have been developed for argillite repository to demonstrate the model capability, understand the spatial and temporal alteration of the repository, and evaluate different scenarios. These models include the coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) and Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) models (e.g. Liu et al. 2013; Rutqvist et al. 2014a, Zheng et al. 2014a) that focus on THMC processes in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) bentonite and argillite host hock, the large scale hydrogeologic model (Bianchi et al. 2014) that investigates the hydraulic connection between an emplacement drift and surrounding hydrogeological units, and Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) models (Greenberg et al. 2013) that evaluate thermal evolution in the host rock approximated as a thermal conduction process to facilitate the analysis of design options. However, the assumptions and the properties (parameters) used in these models are different, which not only make inter-model comparisons difficult, but also compromise the applicability of the lessons learned from one model to another model. The establishment of a reference case would therefore be helpful to set up a baseline for model development. A generic salt repository reference case was developed in Freeze et al. (2013) and the generic argillite repository reference case is presented in this report. The definition of a reference case requires the characterization of the waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, EBS backfill, host rock, and biosphere. This report mainly documents the processes in EBS bentonite and host rock that are potentially important for performance assessment and properties that are needed to describe these processes, with brief description other components such as waste inventory, waste form, waste package, repository layout, aquifer, and biosphere. A thorough description of the generic argillite repository reference case will be given in Jové Colon et al. (2014).

  17. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz.

    PubMed

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2010-06-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR(wb)) and 58% (SAR(10g)) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR(wb) is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR(10g) values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning. PMID:20463374

  18. Terrestrial Reference Frame from GPS and SLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jan; Bertiger, Willy; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce; Sibois, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    We present strategies for realizing the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) using tracking data from terrestrial GPS receivers alone and in tandem with the GRACE and LAGEOS satellites. We generate solutions without apriori ties to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Our approach relies on processing multi-day orbit arcs to take advantage of the satellite dynamics, GPS receiver and transmitter calibrations derived from low-Earth orbiter (LEO) data, and estimation strategies tuned for realizing a stable and accurate TRF. We furthermore take advantage of the geometric diversity provided by GPS tracking from GRACE, and explore the impacts of including ground-based satellite laser range (SLR) measurements to LAGEOS-1 and -2 with local ties relating the two geodetic techniques. We process data from 2003-2014 and compute Helmert transformations relative to ITRF/IGb08. With GPS alone we achieve a 3D origin offset and rate of <7 mm and <1 mm/yr, and reduce the offset to <4 mm when GRACE is included in the global solutions. Scale bias and rate are 3.1 ppb and 0.01 ppb/yr in either solution. Including SLR tracking from 11 ground stations to the LAGEOS satellites from 2012-2014 yields a reduction in scale bias of 0.5-1.0 ppb depending on the weight assigned to the SLR measurements. However, scatter is increased due to the relatively sparse SLR tracking network. We conclude with approaches for improving the TRF realized from GPS and SLR combined at the measurement level.

  19. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-10-07

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay of the waste materials will result in fission products that pose a minimal radiological hazard to the public afterward. For example, after 100 years, the relative hazard from the waste fission products will have diminished approximately 90 percent. After 1,000 years, the hazard will have diminished 99 percent, and after 10,000 years it will have diminished 99.9 percent. The resulting radiological hazard after 10,000 years is minimal, being of the same order of magnitude as that posed by 0.2 percent uranium ore, which is equivalent to that which was used to originally produce the nuclear fuel. Because developing such a repository is extremely complex, the design will move forward in three stages: Site Recommendation, License Application, and Construction. This document presents the design as it will be submitted in the Site Recommendation Consideration Report; the design will be updated as the design process moves forward. As more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements occur, the design may evolve. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing a system that includes this potential repository. This waste management system integrates acceptance, transportation, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Acceptance and transportation will be handled by regional servicing contractors under contract to the DOE. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission will conduct an in-depth and thorough licensing review to determine the acceptability of the proposed waste management system. Eight sections of this document follow. Section 2 discusses the design requirements for the proposed repository. Section 3 describes the physical layout of the proposed repository. Section 4 describes the evolutionary phases of the development of the proposed repository. Section 5 describes the receipt of waste. Section 6 details the various systems that will package the waste and move it below ground, as well as safety monitoring and closure. Section 7 describes the syst

  20. Generating Ground Reference Data for a Global Impervious Surface Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, James C.; De Colstoun, Eric Brown; Wolfe, Robert E.; Tan, Bin; Huang, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    We are developing an approach for generating ground reference data in support of a project to produce a 30m impervious cover data set of the entire Earth for the years 2000 and 2010 based on the Landsat Global Land Survey (GLS) data set. Since sufficient ground reference data for training and validation is not available from ground surveys, we are developing an interactive tool, called HSegLearn, to facilitate the photo-interpretation of 1 to 2 m spatial resolution imagery data, which we will use to generate the needed ground reference data at 30m. Through the submission of selected region objects and positive or negative examples of impervious surfaces, HSegLearn enables an analyst to automatically select groups of spectrally similar objects from a hierarchical set of image segmentations produced by the HSeg image segmentation program at an appropriate level of segmentation detail, and label these region objects as either impervious or nonimpervious.

  1. Argon Purification Reference and Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-05-23

    This engineering note is a reference for future consideration on the purification of argon. The original concern was for the possibility of argon contamination from components in the cryostats over long-term storage. An argon purification system could also be useful for purifying the contents of the argon dewar. The general conclusion is that most of the systems researched are too expensive at this time, but the recommended choice would be Centorr Furnaces. There were three basic types of purification systems which were to be considered. The first was the molecular sieve. This method would have been the preferred one, because it was claimed that it could purify liquid argon, removing liquid oxygen from the argon. However, none of the commercial companies researched provided this type of purification for use with liquid argon. Most companies said that this type of purification was impossible, and tests at IB-4 confirmed this. The second system contained a copper oxide to remove gaseous oxygen from argon gas. The disadvantage of this system wass that the argon had to be heated to a gas, and then cooled back down to liquid. The third system was similar to the second, except that it used tungsten or another material like titanium. This system also needed to heat the argon to gas, however the advantage of this system was that it supposedly removed all contaminants, that is, everything except for inert gases. Of the three systems, the third is the type manufactured by Centorr Furnaces, which uses a titanium charge.

  2. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; /Fermilab; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  3. Reference service for the internet community: A case study of the internet public library reference division

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Ryan

    1996-01-01

    The creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division is presented in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. The article examines ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies, and makes recommendations about how these strategies can be applied to the Reference Division and to Internet usage for the reference process

  4. Importance of Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Special Reference to Mouse Myocardial Infarction Studies

    PubMed Central

    Everaert, Bert R.; Boulet, Gaëlle A.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. Its reliability is highly dependent upon selection of the appropriate reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization. In this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes in a mouse myocardial infarction model. Methods & Results The expression stability of the 10 reference genes (Actb, B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt, Polr2a, Ppia, Rpl13a, Tbp, Tpt1) was analyzed using the geNorm software. Overall, the combination of Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 was the most stable reference gene set in our experiments. Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb consistently showed the highest gene expression variability and the expression levels of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 were found to be selectively up- or downregulated after myocardial infarction. We normalized the expression of Nppb and Vcam1, using different reference gene strategies and demonstrated that their induction after myocardial infarction was most clearly revealed with the optimal reference gene combination. However, the use of suboptimal reference gene combinations resulted in detrimental effects on gene expression levels and variability with a gradual loss of the expression differences and a significant reduction in statistical power. Conclusions Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 are a set of stably expressed reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies in mice. We found that Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb display high expression variability in mouse myocardial infarction tissues and that loss of statistical power and increase in sample size are the evident consequences of choosing suboptimal combinations of reference genes. We furthermore caution against the use of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 for gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies because of selective up- or downregulation after myocardial infarction, which could potentially lead to biased study outcomes. PMID:21858224

  5. Reference design description for a geologic repository: Revision 01

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This document describes the current design expectations for a potential geologic repository that could be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This Reference Design Description (RDD) looks at the surface and subsurface repository and disposal container design. Additionally, it reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. In accordance with current legislation, the reference design for the potential repository does not include an interim storage option. The reference design presented allows the disposal of highly radioactive material received from government-owned spent fuel custodian sites; produces high-level waste sites, and commercial spent fuel sites. All design elements meet current federal, state, and local regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and protection of the public and the environment. Due to the complex nature of developing a repository, the design will be created in three phases to support Viability Assessment, License Application, and construction. This document presents the current reference design. It will be updated periodically as the design progresses. Some of the details presented here may change significantly as more cost-effective solutions, technical advancements, or changes to requirements are identified.

  6. Three determinants of the level of aspiration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay Hansche; J. C. Gilchrist

    1956-01-01

    In a design similar to that of Chapman and Volkmann, the effect of reference group was again found to be a significant anchoring point for S's aspiration level. The effects of 2 other dimensions of the design, sample question difficulty and reference score, have also been found to have significant anchoring influences which explain the puzzling portion of Chapman and

  7. Children's Communication of Basic Level and Subordinate Level Semantic Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossan, Nancy E.

    Developmental differences in preschool children's abilities to communicate about basic and subordinate level semantic contrasts were examined in a referential communication situation. Twenty-four three, four, and five-year-old children communicated with children of the same age and adults about pictures' referents. Speakers talked about one…

  8. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

  9. Estimation of reference values for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and ?-naphthol in Danish workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åse Marie Hansen; Jytte Molin Christensen; David Sherson

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess environmentally and occupationally related exposures to PAH compounds it is essential to have reference or normal values in human body fluids. The establishment of reliable reference intervals is an absolute pre-requisite in determining relationships between internal PAH exposure in humans and health effects in occupationally exposed workers. In this context the estimation of the biological level

  10. Tear film osmolarity: determination of a referent for dry eye diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Tomlinson; Santosh Khanal; Kanna Ramaesh; Charles J. M. Diaper; Angus K. McFadyen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine new referents, or cutoff levels for tear film hyperosmolarity in the diagnosis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and to assess their effectiveness in independent patient groups. Tear hyperosmolarity, defined by a referent of 316 mOsmol\\/L, was superior in overall accuracy to any other single test for dry eye diagnosis (Lactoplate, Schirmer test, and

  11. Hematological and Biochemical Reference Values for the Endangered Kiso Horse

    PubMed Central

    TAKASU, Masaki; NAGATANI, Nana; TOZAKI, Teruaki; KAKOI, Hironaga; MAEDA, Masami; MURASE, Tetsuma; MUKOYAMA, Harutaka

    2013-01-01

    To establish blood and biochemical references for the endangered Kiso horse, blood samples were collected from 111 adult Kiso horses, 74.5% of the existing breed. The samples were analyzed for 23 hematological and biochemical parameters to determine their means and standard deviations (SD). We compared the mean ± 2SD with the reference values cited in one of the most commonly used veterinary textbooks in Japan. The hematology of Kiso horses is characterized by lower erythrocyte count and hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. In addition, their serum biochemistry showed lower levels of aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and ?-glutamyl transferase. Whether these propensities are attributed to breed-specific factors or are acquired factors remains unclear. Nevertheless, this study provides useful diagnostic indices for the endangered Kiso horse. PMID:24834006

  12. An improved hypothetical reference decoder for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Sachin; Hannuksela, Miska M.; Kazui, Kimihiko; Schierl, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Hypothetical Reference Decoder is a hypothetical decoder model that specifies constraints on the variability of conforming network abstraction layer unit streams or conforming byte streams that an encoding process may produce. High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) builds upon and improves the design of the generalized hypothetical reference decoder of H.264/ AVC. This paper describes some of the main improvements of hypothetical reference decoder of HEVC.

  13. Skinner's verbal behavior: A reference list

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Mark L.; Partington, James W.

    1982-01-01

    The language literature contains many citations to Skinner's book Verbal Behavior (1957), however, most of them are negative and generally unsupportive. The current list of references was assembled to bring readers in contact with the growing body of literature which supports Skinner's work. A total of 136 references were found and divided into two categories, (1) conceptual, and (2) experimental and applied. These references are presented in an effort to stimulate additional research in this important aspect of behavior analysis. PMID:22573391

  14. Preparation of calibrated reference sources containing \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Summary  NPL was recently asked to provide reference sources containing &ggr;-ray emitting fission product radionuclides, with certification completed within 50 days of the irradiation. Furthermore, the reference sources were to contain fission products, but no fissile material. The samples in the first reference source were to contain a mixture of fission products with only the 235U removed, leaving the fission products

  15. Reference waste package environment report

    SciTech Connect

    Glassley, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of {similar_to}230{sup 0}C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment.

  16. Abney Level

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A pocket instrument used in surveying which consists of a fixed sighting tube, a movable spirit level connected to a pointing arm and an arced scale graduated 0 to 90º in both directions. When correctly used, the Abney Level is an accurate surveying tool used to measure degrees, percent of grade and...

  17. Resources and References for Earth Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Charles A.; Wall, Janet E.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are resources and references for earth science teachers including doctoral research, new textbooks, and professional literature in astronomy, space science, earth science, geology, meteorology, and oceanography. (SL)

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Baraitser-Winter syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypertelorism, and mental retardation For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Infantile systemic hyalinosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hyalinosis? inherited systemic hyalinosis For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... childhood? alternating hemiplegia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Schilder progressive sclerosing poliodystrophy For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  4. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference...to unlicensed U-NII devices, except where...

  5. Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. Results As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. Conclusions We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO. PMID:25093075

  6. The preliminary SOL (Sizing and Optimization Language) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Stephen H.; Scotti, Stephen J.

    1989-01-01

    The Sizing and Optimization Language, SOL, a high-level special-purpose computer language has been developed to expedite application of numerical optimization to design problems and to make the process less error-prone. This document is a reference manual for those wishing to write SOL programs. SOL is presently available for DEC VAX/VMS systems. A SOL package is available which includes the SOL compiler and runtime library routines. An overview of SOL appears in NASA TM 100565.

  7. Global Daily Reference ET Modeling and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senay, G. B.; Verdin, J. P.; Lietzow, R.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate and reliable Evapotranspiration (ET) data sets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located on selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2000, NOAA's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing 6-hourly climate parameter data sets of the input meteorological variables used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1 degree spatial resolution. USGS at the Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) has been producing daily reference ET since 2000 and the results have been used for a variety of models for drought and stream flow monitoring all over the world in an operational basis. With the increasing availability of station-based reference ET estimates over the internet, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CMIS reference ET estimates from over 120 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using the 2004 data. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs ~100 km grid) between the two data sets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.90 on a daily-basis to more than 0.98 on time scales of over 10 days. The effect of elevation in the reference ET estimation at a coarse spatial scale was also investigated. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two data sets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world.

  8. Russian History; A Guide to Reference Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill Univ., Montreal (Quebec). McLennan Library.

    This guide identifies reference sources for the study of Russian and Soviet history available in the McGill University (Montreal) McLennan Library. Russian, English, French, and German language works covering Russian history from its origins to World War II are included. The guide is arranged in two parts: general reference sources and…

  9. Spatial Reference Frame of Incidentally Learned Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yuhong V.; Swallow, Khena M.

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention prioritizes information presented at particular spatial locations. These locations can be defined in reference frames centered on the environment or on the viewer. This study investigates whether incidentally learned attention uses a viewer-centered or environment-centered reference frame. Participants conducted visual search on a…

  10. Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Oracle® Spatial User's Guide and Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10826-01 December 2003 applications using Oracle Spatial and Oracle Locator. #12;Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference, 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10826-01 Copyright © 1999, 2003 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved

  11. Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Oracle® Spatial User's Guide and Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14255-01 June 2005 Provides usage Oracle Spatial and Oracle Locator. #12;Oracle Spatial User's Guide and Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2) B14255-01 Copyright © 1999, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved. Primary Author: Chuck Murray Contributors

  12. INTERPRETIVE AGENTS: A HEATBUG REFERENCE SIMULATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. SALLACH; V. S. MELLARKOD

    Interpretive heatbugs (IHB) is a reference application designed as the first implementation of the interpretive agents (IA) research program. As described in previous papers, the IA initiative identifies three mechanisms (prototype reasoning, situation definition, and orientation accounting) to create an interpretive architecture that supports agents whose actions are oriented by meaning. The reference application uses the familiar heatbugs environment, where

  13. Temporal Reference Frameworks and Nurses' Work Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Waterworth

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study exploring registered nurses' time management in health care institutions in the United Kingdom, this article reports the findings of the research, as far as they relate to the notion of temporal reference frameworks. The research suggests that temporal reference frameworks function to form background expectancies, which are of major influence in the way in which

  14. Grouping in Primary Schools and Reference Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijnen, G. W.; Guldemond, H.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reference processes in within-class grouping for elementary school students in the Netherlands in homogeneous (n=16) and heterogeneous (n=14) classes. Findings indicate that homogeneous grouping sets strong reference processes in motion, and processes of comparison have considerably greater effects in homogeneous groups, with negative…

  15. Truly Online Paging with Locality of Reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Fiat; Manor Mendel

    1997-01-01

    The competitive analysis fails to model locality of reference in the online paging problem. To deal with it, Borodin et al. introduced the access graph model, which attempts to capture the locality of reference. However, the access graph model has a number of troubling aspects. The access graph has to be known in advance to the paging algorithm and the

  16. CD-ROM + Fax = Shared Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, Diana; Fradkin, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Reference by GammaFax Project, which joined nine area libraries to provide cooperative reference access to optical disk databases. The configuration of disk players, microcomputers, and facsimile equipment used by the libraries is explained, and the improvements in cost effectiveness, provision of service, and librarian expertise are…

  17. Automating Your Ready-Reference File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Joy; Sottong, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the automation of the ready reference card file at the California State University, Long Beach library. Topics discusses include the use of dBase III Plus software; keyword fields for multiple access points; the source field and other fields; a menu-driven interface; and file creation and maintenance. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  18. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  19. Health physics research reactor reference dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, C.S.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-06-01

    Reference neutron dosimetry is developed for the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR) in the new operational configuration directly above its storage pit. This operational change was physically made early in CY 1985. The new reference dosimetry considered in this document is referred to as the 1986 HPRR reference dosimetry and it replaces any and all HPRR reference documents or papers issued prior to 1986. Reference dosimetry is developed for the unshielded HPRR as well as for the reactor with each of five different shield types and configurations. The reference dosimetry is presented in terms of three different dose and six different dose equivalent reporting conventions. These reporting conventions cover most of those in current use by dosimetrists worldwide. In addition to the reference neutron dosimetry, this document contains other useful dosimetry-related data for the HPRR in its new configuration. These data include dose-distance measurements and calculations, gamma dose measurements, neutron-to-gamma ratios, ''9-to-3 inch'' ratios, threshold detector unit measurements, 56-group neutron energy spectra, sulfur fluence measurements, and details concerning HPRR shields. 26 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  20. THE ASCE STANDARDIZED REFERENCE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION EQUATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the standardization of calculation of reference evapotranspiration (ET) as recommended by the Task Committee on Standardization of Reference Evapotranspiration of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers. The purpose of the stan...

  1. FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    -----. .. .-.-..- FLOOD PROOFING Techniques, Programs, and References May 2000 m us Army Corps of Engineers® #12;FLOOD PROOFING TECHNIQUES, PROGRAMS, AND REFERENCES Preface Flood proofing is an important Flood Plain Management technique that can be used to reduce flood damage to buildings

  2. S. R. Ranganathan's Theory of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manoj M.

    A study of S. R. Ranganathan's theory of reference service is undertaken by using an historical methodology. It was evident from the literature review that Ranganathan had established that reference service was the most important work and served as the hub of all library practices. There were six factors that were repeatedly considered by…

  3. User Manual Milli-Q Reference System

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    is intended for use with a Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System. This User Manual is a guide for use during the installation, normal operation and maintenance of a Milli-Q Reference Water Purification before attempting installation, normal operation or maintenance of the Water Purification System

  4. Milli-Q Reference Water Purification System

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Milli-Q® Reference Water Purification System The reference for ultrapure water systems EMD the requirements of the most demanding norms. We've achieved all this with a new purification strategy. Water. This water is sent through a small recirculation loop to the POD pak, where a final purification step

  5. Some terms of reference in data fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucien Wald

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for a concept and harmonized terms of reference in data fusion. Previously published definitions are analyzed. A new definition of the data fusion is proposed which has been set within an European working group. Several definitions and terms of reference are given which describe the information intervening in any problem of data fusion

  6. Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials

    E-print Network

    .2 Methods for Measuring Sulfur in Fossil Fuels ..................... 3-6 3.2.1 Sulfur in Coal00-1 Planning Report Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Administration #12;February 2000 Economic Impact of Standard Reference Materials for Sulfur in Fossil Fuels Final

  7. The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Ian

    system. The MHTS package component programs are provided for running under Windows NT and 2000i The MHTS PC Package REFERENCE MANUAL c 2002, A.I. McLeod & K.W. Hipel Reference Manual Version: 1.6 #12;1 INTRODUCTION #12;2 Introduction Prologue The McLeod-Hipel Time Series (MTS) Package provides

  8. ADVANCES IN COST-REFERENCE PARTICLE FILTERING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bugallo; Petar M. Djuric

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have proposed a particle filtering-type method- ology, which we refer to as cost-reference particle filtering (CRPF). Its main feature is that it is not based on any partic- ular probabilistic assumptions regarding the studied dynamic model. The concepts of particles and particle streams, how- ever, are the same in CRPF as in standard particle filtering (SPF), but the

  9. Creating an Instant Messaging Reference System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jody Condit; Calloway, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of library digital reference services focuses on the features of instant messaging reference systems and the in-house development of a system that incorporates them at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Summarizes and evaluates library chat system features and compares commercial software that is available. (Author/LRW)

  10. Uncertainty in Reference and Information Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanScoy, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Uncertainty is understood as an important component of the information seeking process, but it has not been explored as a component of reference and information service. Method: Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine the practitioner perspective of reference and information service for eight academic research…

  11. Reference Services Planning in the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckwright, Gail Z., Ed.; Keenan, Lori M., Ed.

    The focus of this collection of papers about library reference service is on the community outside the library, rather than the special populations served within it. "Conflicts in Value Systems" (Allen B. Veaner) is an overview of the major conflict areas facing the library profession today. "Reference Services for Off-Campus Students and Faculty"…

  12. References on light pollution and related fields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.

    1993-11-01

    The author presents a list of references of papers on light pollution which appeared in international scientific magazines and other publications of interest on this field. He analyzes the distribution in time of papers and publications included in the reference list.

  13. Handling FTCORBA Compliant Interoperable Object Group References

    E-print Network

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Handling FT­CORBA Compliant Interoperable Object Group References R. Baldoni, C. Marchetti, R of Interoperable Object Group References (IOGRs) is one of the basic building block of any FT­ CORBA compliant IOGRs, and an Object­Request­GateWay (ORGW), a CORBA compliant client request interceptor, which allows

  14. Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

  15. External and body-centered frames of reference in spatial memory: evidence from touch.

    PubMed

    Millar, Susanna; Al-Attar, Zainab

    2004-01-01

    The study reports independent effects of external and body-centered reference cues on spatial coding of an irregular sequence of haptic locations. The aim was to investigate the nature of spatial coding by using a modality that does not provide distal cues routinely. Our method isolates and combines body-centered and external spatial reference cues for irregularly placed locations, scanned along a raised-line route. Disrupting body-centered reference for the locations, by orienting the map differently to the body in the test phase than in the presentation phase, doubled errors in positioning the locations along the route in recall. Adding external reference, by giving instructions to use a surrounding frame for reference when body-centered coding was disrupted, reduced errors to near baseline (no-rotation) levels. Adding external reference cues to intact (not displaced) body-centered reference halved errors, as compared with the baseline. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that accurate spatial coding is determined by the congruence of potential reference cues from diverse sources. The new findings suggest that external and body-centered reference cues have independent additive effects on spatial coding. The sequence of locations had a significant effect in all the reference conditions, suggesting the additional use of fortuitous but distinctive local touch cues on the route. The discussion considers theoretical and practical implications of the results. PMID:15095939

  16. Reference effets -1-Asymmetries in Categorization, Perceptual Discrimination, and Visual Search for Reference and

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Reference effets -1- Asymmetries in Categorization, Perceptual Discrimination, and Visual Search;Reference effets -3- Asymmetries in Categorization, Perceptual Discrimination, and Visual Search; Livingston, Andrews, & Harnad, 1999) and addressed the consequences of this bias for memory (e.g., Corneille

  17. Natural Reference to Objects in a Visual Domain Margaret Mitchell

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Ehud

    of the sorts of reference REG research already tends to consider. Toy examples outline reference to objects- ple referents may be referred to by their color, size, type ("dog" or "cup"), whether or not they have

  18. Reference Service for the Internet Community: A Case Study of the Internet Public Library Reference Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sara

    1996-01-01

    Examines the creation of the Internet Public Library Reference Division in the historical context of librarians' efforts to integrate the use of technologies with reference services. Discussion considers ways that librarians have successfully incorporated new technologies and makes recommendations for use of the Reference Division and Internet…

  19. The initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C.; Altamimi, Z.

    1989-06-01

    The IERS standards has adopted a description of the Convential Terrestrial Reference System (CTRS) to be used for all IERS activities. In order to facilitate the actual implementation of the IERS Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) by the various analysis centers which participate to IERS, but also by potential users, this study presents several informations which could be useful for these purposes: 1. A critical description of the latest TRF established by BIH, namely BTS 87. 2. A currently improved combination of BTS 87 input data, following strictly the IERS standards, and to be used as Initial IERS Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-0). 3. Some suggestions for implementation of the ITRS.

  20. /sup 99/Tc vegetation reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Feiner, M.S.

    1984-03-01

    For the past several years participants at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Department of Energy Conference on Analytical Chemistry in Energy Technology discussed the need for environmental standards/reference materials for /sup 99/Tc. Past efforts at interlaboratory comparisons of soil, water and vegetation samples for /sup 99/Tc have been unsuccessful. At the urging of many of our colleagues, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory agreed to prepare a /sup 99/Tc vegetation reference material. The sample preparation and the interlaboratory comparison to establish the /sup 99/Tc reference value of 6.55 +- 0.22 pCi/g are described in this report.

  1. TEPC performance for a reference standard.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yina; Li, Chunjuan; Xiao, Xuefu; Luo, Hailong; Chen, Jun; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A portable tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC)-based system was developed, which will be used as a reference standard in the neutron mixed field for radiation protection. In this paper, microdosimetry of the TEPC system was studied both in neutron ((252)Cf and (241)Am-Be sources) and gamma ((137)Cs and (60)Co sources) reference radiation fields. The measured neutron and gamma-dose equivalent rates were, respectively, compared with those of the reference ambient dose equivalent rate H(*)(10). And the measured microdosimetric spectra were compared with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA simulated results. All of the comparisons primarily agreed well. PMID:24036657

  2. Leveling Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  3. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only nominal compositional ranges for each element are given in the article.

  4. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S. Codes referenced in this...

  5. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S. Codes referenced in this...

  6. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S. Codes referenced in this...

  7. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Restriction of Training Areas on the Installation of Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed below. U.S. Codes referenced in this...

  8. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a) The materials listed in this...

  9. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a) The materials listed in this...

  10. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a) The materials listed in this...

  11. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a) The materials listed in this...

  12. Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination

    E-print Network

    Nonato, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Sick sinus syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells ... heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: MYH9-related disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MYH9RD MYH9-related macrothrombocytopenias For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  15. Diallel designs, analyses, and reference populations.

    PubMed

    Wright, A J

    1985-06-01

    Some issues which evidently remain as areas of contention in diallel analysis are reviewed. In the estimation of genetic variance components for an ancestral reference population in equilibrium, analysis should be applied to F1 data only, and proceed as for a random effects model. No meaningful reference population is constituted by the parental sample itself, but an equilibrium reference population which could be derived from these parents can be defined. To give unbiassed estimates of parameters for this population, analysis must include S1 data, and the parents must be homozygous and in linkage equilibrium. Estimation of dominance variance must allow for the fact that the diallel population itself is not in linkage equilibrium by correcting the specific combining ability sum of squares for the mean S1 vs. F1 difference. Some different analyses of variance of the diallel table are discussed in the context of the above reference populations. PMID:4019218

  16. Selected Reference Books of 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject headings of religion and mythology, literature, architecture, dance, film and television, women's studies, political science, and history, as well as new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  17. 32 CFR 552.161 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Land Use Policy for Fort Lewis, Yakima Training Center, and Camp Bonneville § 552.161 References. See appendix E to...

  18. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a) AR 405-70 (Utilization...Estate). (c) AR 420-74 (Natural Resources—Land, Forest, and Wildlife Management). (d) FL...

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    1 CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Principles REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of the Environment John;2 Electromagnetic Energy Interactions Energy recorded by remote sensing systems undergoes fundamental interactions, creating convectional currents in the atmosphere. c) Electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic

  20. USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABASE FOR STANDARD REFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR) is the major source of food composition data in the United States. It provides the foundation for most food composition databases in the public and private sectors....

  1. A simple criterion for nonrotating reference frames

    E-print Network

    Peter Collas; David Klein

    2008-11-15

    We prove a theorem that gives an easily verifiable necessary and sufficient condition for a reference frame with fixed spacelike coordinates to be nonrotating in the sense of Walker. Applications are discussed.

  2. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

  3. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

  4. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

  5. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

  6. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References...Commercial Air Transportation Quality and Safety Review...

  7. Generating and interpreting referring expressions in context

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dustin Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Referring expressions with vague and ambiguous modifiers, such as "a quick visit" and "the big meeting," are difficult for computers to interpret because their meanings are defined in part by context. For the hearer to ...

  8. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

  9. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

  10. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

  11. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

  12. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS; RELEASE OF OFFICIAL INFORMATION IN LITIGATION; AND TESTIMONY BY NSA PERSONNEL AS WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information...

  13. 32 CFR 644.175 - Cross Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Relocation Assistance Program § 644.175 Cross Reference. See part 641 of this chapter for the regulations on...

  14. 32 CFR 644.175 - Cross Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Relocation Assistance Program § 644.175 Cross Reference. See part 641 of this chapter for the regulations on...

  15. 32 CFR 644.175 - Cross Reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Relocation Assistance Program § 644.175 Cross Reference. See part 641 of this chapter for the regulations on...

  16. Selected Reference Books of 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected recent scholarly and general reference works under the subject categories of archives; literature; music; psychology; sociology; black studies; women's studies; history and area studies; and new editions and supplements. (LRW)

  17. Sense and reference on the web 

    E-print Network

    Halpin, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This thesis builds a foundation for the philosophy of theWeb by examining the crucial question: What does a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) mean? Does it have a sense, and can it refer to things? A philosophical and ...

  18. 47 CFR 1.761 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Involving Common Carriers Specific Types of Applications Under Title II of Communications Act § 1.761 Cross reference. Specific types of applications under Title III of the Communications Act involving public...

  19. 47 CFR 1.761 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Involving Common Carriers Specific Types of Applications Under Title II of Communications Act § 1.761 Cross reference. Specific types of applications under Title III of the Communications Act involving public...

  20. WWW Search Tools in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Stacey

    1997-01-01

    Provides an introduction to World Wide Web search tools for reference services. Discusses characteristics of search services and types of tools available, including search engines/robot-generated databases, directories, metasearch engines, and review/rating sites. (AEF)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA SYSTEMS: TERMINOLOGY REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a general reference manual on the terminology used to enter and retrieve information from the Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS), a group of interrelated computerized data bases that describe multimedia discharges from energy systems and industrial process...

  2. References for TEX and Friends Michael Wiedmann

    E-print Network

    Bittner, Eric R.

    References for TEX and Friends Michael Wiedmann V0.3.6 2004-06-21 #12;#12;Revision History Revision 2002, 2003 Peter Karp, Michael Wiedmann Copyright c 2004 Michael Wiedmann License Permission is granted

  3. Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

  4. 23 CFR 650.317 - Reference manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.317 Reference manuals. (a) The materials listed in this...

  5. School Bureaucracy and Student Performance at the Local Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohte, John

    2001-01-01

    Examines the role bureaucracy plays in shaping educational performance using district-level data from 350 public school districts in Texas. Reveals negative relationships between bureaucracy and student performance across several grade levels. (Contains 20 references.) (JOW)

  6. On Fractional Model Reference Adaptive Control

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bao; Dong, Chao

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the conventional Model Reference Adaptive Control systems to fractional ones based on the theory of fractional calculus. A control law and an incommensurate fractional adaptation law are designed for the fractional plant and the fractional reference model. The stability and tracking convergence are analyzed using the frequency distributed fractional integrator model and Lyapunov theory. Moreover, numerical simulations of both linear and nonlinear systems are performed to exhibit the viability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology. PMID:24574897

  7. Automated resolution of noisy bibliographic references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Demleitner; Michael J. Kurtz; Alberto Accomazzi; Günther Eichhorn; Carolyn S. Grant; Stephen S. Murray

    2004-01-01

    We describe a system used by the NASA Astrophysics Data System to identify\\u000abibliographic references obtained from scanned article pages by OCR methods\\u000awith records in a bibliographic database. We analyze the process generating the\\u000anoisy references and conclude that the three-step procedure of correcting the\\u000aOCR results, parsing the corrected string and matching it against the database\\u000aprovides unsatisfactory

  8. Quantum communication, reference frames and gauge theory

    E-print Network

    S. J. van Enk

    2006-04-26

    We consider quantum communication in the case that the communicating parties not only do not share a reference frame but use imperfect quantum communication channels, in that each channel applies some fixed but unknown unitary rotation to each qubit. We discuss similarities and differences between reference frames within that quantum communication model and gauge fields in gauge theory. We generalize the concept of refbits and analyze various quantum communication protocols within the communication model.

  9. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  10. Reference values for methacholine reactivity (SAPALDIA study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Yves Jayet; Christian Schindler; Nino Künzli; Jean-Pierre Zellweger; Otto Brändli; André Paul Perruchoud; Roland Keller; Joel Schwartz; Ursula Ackermann-Liebrich; Philippe Leuenberger

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived reference equations depending on individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, baseline lung function) for relevant percentiles of the methacholine two-point dose-response slope. METHODS: In a reference sample of 1567 adults of the

  11. Reference governor for constrained nonlinear systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Bemporad

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of satisfying pointwise-in-time input and\\/or state hard constraints in nonlinear control systems. The approach is based on conceptual tools of predictive control and consists of adding to a primal compensated nonlinear system a reference governor. This is a discrete-time device which online handles the reference to be tracked, taking into account the current value of

  12. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  13. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Building complex reference objects from dual sets

    PubMed Central

    Patson, Nikole D.; Warren, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions. PMID:21666836

  15. "Analysis of SOFCs using reference electrodes?

    SciTech Connect

    Finklea, Harry; Chen,Xiaoke; Gerdes,Kirk; Pakalapati, Suryanarayana; Celik, Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Reference electrodes are frequently applied to isolate the performance of one electrode in a solid oxide fuel cell. However, reference electrode simulations raise doubt to veracity of data collected using reference electrodes. The simulations predict that the reported performance for the one electrode will frequently contain performance of both electrodes. Nonetheless, recent reports persistently treat data so collected as ideally isolated. This work confirms the predictions of the reference electrode simulations on two SOFC designs, and to provides a method of validating the data measured in the 3-electrode configuration. Validation is based on the assumption that a change in gas composition to one electrode does not affect the impedance of the other electrode at open circuit voltage. This assumption is supported by a full physics simulation of the SOFC. Three configurations of reference electrode and cell design are experimentally examined using various gas flows and two temperatures. Impedance data are subjected to deconvolution analysis and equivalent circuit fitting and approximate polarization resistances of the cathode and anode are determined. The results demonstrate that the utility of reference electrodes is limited and often wholly inappropriate. Reported impedances and single electrode polarization values must be scrutinized on this basis.

  16. Improved Reference Speaker Weighting Using Aspect Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Seong-Jun; Ohkawa, Yuichi; Ito, Masashi; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Ito, Akinori; Makino, Shozo

    We propose an improved reference speaker weighting (RSW) and speaker cluster weighting (SCW) approach that uses an aspect model. The concept of the approach is that the adapted model is a linear combination of a few latent reference models obtained from a set of reference speakers. The aspect model has specific latent-space characteristics that differ from orthogonal basis vectors of eigenvoice. The aspect model is a “mixture-of-mixture” model. We first calculate a small number of latent reference models as mixtures of distributions of the reference speaker's models, and then the latent reference models are mixed to obtain the adapted distribution. The mixture weights are calculated based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. We use the obtained mixture weights for interpolating mean parameters of the distributions. Both training and adaptation are performed based on likelihood maximization with respect to the training and adaptation data, respectively. We conduct a continuous speech recognition experiment using a Korean database (KAIST-TRADE). The results are compared to those of a conventional MAP, MLLR, RSW, eigenvoice and SCW. Absolute word accuracy improvement of 2.06 point was achieved using the proposed method, even though we use only 0.3 s of adaptation data.

  17. Eye Level

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eye level is an art blog written by a collaborative team at the Smithsonian American Art Museum (SAAM). According to the site, "... the conversation at Eye Level will be dedicated to American art and the ways in which the nation's art reflects its history and culture." The SAAM collection is meant as a foundation for the conversation on Eye Level. A recent post begins by talking about a road trip through the American West to see site-specific artwork, but at least one of the artists mentioned, Andrea Zittel, has a prior affiliation with SAAM. She was the 2005 Smithsonian Lucelia Artist Award winner, and the post links to prior entries on artwork at SAAM, both in and inspired by the American Southwest. These links were to works such as Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty (an installation in the Great Salt Lake) and Albert Bierstadt's Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868. The February 1 post considers the future of art blogs, and the impact they may have on art criticism, museums, and the art world on the whole.

  18. Service Levels and Associated Cleaning Areas Service Level 0 -No Service will be provided.

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    and all Ground floor hallways, entrances, vestibules, stairs and elevator cars. NOTE: Refer to Appendix K ­ Facilities Custodial Space as there are some rooms that do not coincide with the above room service levels

  19. Plant Chlorophyll Content Imager with Reference Detection Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A portable plant chlorophyll imaging system is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels is processed using synchronized video cameras. A controller provided in the system compares the level of light of video images reflected from a target plant with a reference level of light from a source illuminating the plant. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio video image which indicates a relative level of plant chlorophyll content and physiological stress. Multiple display modes are described for viewing the video images.

  20. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  1. Construction of the TYCHO Reference Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, A.; Høe, G.; Bastian, U.; Fabricius, C.; Kuimov, K.; Lindegren, L.; Makarov, V. V.; Röser, S.

    1999-05-01

    The Tycho Reference Catalogue (TRC) project, as proposed in 1992 by the present authors, aimed to extend the Hipparcos reference system to fainter magnitudes. To assure rigidity of the reference system realization, the project relied on the Tycho Catalogue that provides highly-accurate positions of more than one million stars on the Hipparcos system. To maintain the precision of the reference system over longer periods of time, high-precision proper motions must be derived from Tycho and earlier ground-based measurements, most notably the century-old Astrographic Catalogue (AC). The recently published first version of the Tycho Reference Catalogue provides highly-accurate positions and proper motions for 990 182 stars of the Tycho Catalogue. It realizes the ICRS/Hipparcos system in the optical domain with a median accuracy of 45 mas at epoch J2000.0. The realization is based on stars of median magnitude B_{{T}=11.25 mag, providing an average of 24 reference stars per square degree. The median accuracy of the TRC proper motions, estimated from external comparisons as 2.4 mas/yr, ensures a reference system realization with an accuracy better than 100 mas over the time span of a few decades. Highly-accurate astrometry combined with homogeneous two-colour Tycho photometry makes TRC an ideal choice for a wide range of astronomical applications. The present paper covers the major steps of the TRC construction, including the Astrographic Catalogue reduction onto the Hipparcos system, identification of the Tycho Catalogue stars in the AC, derivation of proper motions, a posteriori systematic corrections of the proper motions to account for residual AC systematic errors, and the TRC quality assessment. The relation of the TRC with the recently published ACT catalogue is outlined. A future version of the TRC, to be based on the new Tycho data processing and a global block adjustment of the Astrographic Catalogue, is briefly discussed.

  2. Referred sensations and neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Soler, M D; Kumru, H; Vidal, J; Pelayo, R; Tormos, J M; Fregni, F; Navarro, X; Pascual-Leone, A

    2010-07-01

    It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20471171

  3. A Reference Model for Data Fusion Systems Mieczyslaw M. Kokar Mark D. Bedworth

    E-print Network

    Kokar, Mieczyslaw M.

    -up approach to data fusion system design where the components are constructed first and the system-level a data fusion capability at the system level. From a system design viewpoint, data fusion is not aboutA Reference Model for Data Fusion Systems Mieczyslaw M. Kokar Mark D. Bedworth Dept. Electrical

  4. A review of current procedures for normalizing aircraft flyover noise data to reference meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures that are currently used to normalize raw aircraft noise data to reference weather conditions are reviewed. These procedures sometimes result in calculated values of molecular absorption which differ from measured values, especially at higher frequencies. An explanation is offered for this discrepancy, and its effect on normalized sound levels and on calculations of effective perceived noise level is examined.

  5. Off-Campus Activity Safety Policy (OCASP) Quick Reference for the Planner of an Activity

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Randy

    Off-Campus Activity Safety Policy (OCASP) Quick Reference for the Planner of an Activity Risk Assessment How to Assess Risk Off-campus activities can pose varying levels of risk to the participants. Under OCASP such levels are categorized as either manageable (including low-risk and higher-risk

  6. An Overview of the Smart Sensor Inter-Agency Reference Testbench (SSIART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Braham, Stephen P.; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Barton, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of a proposed collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA), which is designed to facilitate the introduction of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radios for smart-sensing applications into international spaceflight programs and projects. The proposed work will produce test hardware reference designs, test software reference architectures and example implementations, test plans in reference test environments, and test results, all of which will be shared between the agencies and documented for future use by mission planners. The proposed collaborative structure together with all of the anticipated tools and results produced under the effort is collectively referred to as the Smart Sensor Inter-agency Reference Testbench or SSIART. It is intended to provide guidance in technology selection and in increasing the related readiness levels of projects and missions as well as the space industry.

  7. Implementation of a reference management system, MacRefer, under HyperCard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Sato; Satomi Sato; Isamu Horikoshi

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a reference management system, MacRefer, using HyperTalk on Macintosh personal computers. Using this program, one can automatically acquire data from databases created by EndNote Plus® and from OVID®- or Medlar®-formatted records downloaded via an online use of Medline®. The MacRefer's capability of formatting bibliographic database in user-defined formats is comparable with the exemplified bibliography maker, EndNote Plus.

  8. Alcohol References on Undergraduate Males’ Facebook Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Katie G.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males’ Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students’ alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  9. Drug Launch Timing and International Reference Pricing.

    PubMed

    Houy, Nicolas; Jelovac, Izabela

    2015-08-01

    This paper analyzes the timing decisions of pharmaceutical firms to launch a new drug in countries involved in international reference pricing. We show three important features of launch timing when all countries refer to the prices in all other countries and in all previous periods of time. First, there is no withdrawal of drugs in any country and in any period. Second, whenever the drug is sold in a country, it is also sold in all countries with larger willingness to pay. Third, there is no strict incentive to delay the launch of a drug in any country. We then show that the first and third results continue to hold when the countries only refer to the prices of a subset of all countries in a transitive way and in any period. We also show that the second result continues to hold when the reference is on the last period prices only. Last, we show that the seller's profits increase as the sets of reference countries decrease with respect to inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044582

  10. Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 Version: Users Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model 2010 (Mars-GRAM 2010) and its new features. Mars-GRAM is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Applications include systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for aerobraking, entry, descent and landing, and aerocapture. Additionally, this TM includes instructions on obtaining the Mars-GRAM source code and data files as well as running Mars-GRAM. It also contains sample Mars-GRAM input and output files and an example of how to incorporate Mars-GRAM as an atmospheric subroutine in a trajectory code.

  11. Demonstrating genuine multipartite entanglement and nonseparability without shared reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan Senel, Celal; Lawson, Thomas; Kaplan, Marc; Markham, Damian; Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    Multipartite nonlocality is of great fundamental interest and constitutes a useful resource for many quantum information protocols. However, demonstrating it in practice, by violating a Bell inequality, can be difficult. In particular, standard experimental setups require the alignment of distant parties' reference frames, which can be challenging or impossible in practice. In this work we study the violation of certain Bell inequalities, namely the Mermin, Mermin-Klyshko, and Svetlichny inequalities, without shared reference frames, when parties share a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Furthermore, we analyze how these violations demonstrate genuine multipartite features of entanglement and nonlocality. For three, four, and five parties, we show that it is possible to violate these inequalities with high probability, when the parties choose their measurements from the three Pauli operators, defined only with respect to their local frames. Moreover, the probability of violation, and the amount of violation, are increased when each party chooses their measurements from the four operators describing the vertices of a tetrahedron. We also consider how many randomly chosen measurement directions are needed to violate the Bell inequalities with high probability. We see that the obtained levels of violation are sufficient to also demonstrate genuine multipartite entanglement and nonseparability. Finally, we show analytically that choosing from two measurement settings per party is sufficient to demonstrate the maximum degree of genuine multipartite entanglement and nonseparability with certainty when the parties' reference frames are aligned in one direction so that they differ only in rotations around one axis.

  12. Use of Genomic DNA as Reference in DNA Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunfeng

    DNA microarray has become a mainstream technology to explore gene expression profiles, identify novel genes involved in a biological process of interest and predict their function, and determine biomarkers that are relevant to a given phenotype or disease. Typical two-channel microarray studies use an experimental design called the complementary DNA (cDNA) reference method, in which samples from test and control conditions are compared directly on a microarray slide. A substantial limitation of this strategy is that it is nearly impossible to compare data between experiments because the reference sample composition is subjected to changes at the level of experimental design and thereby not consistent from one experiment to another. Using genomic DNA as common reference will effectively overcome this limitation. This chapter describes detailed methods to prepare genomic DNA of high quality, label with fluorescent dye, co-hybridize with cDNA samples, and the subsequent data analyses. In addition, notes are provided to help the readers to obtain optimal results using the procedure.

  13. Use of Genomic DNA as A Reference in DNA Microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarray has become a mainstream technology to explore gene expression profiles, identify novel genes involved in a biological process of interest and predict their function, and determine biomarkers that are relevant to a given phenotype or disease. Typical two-channel microarray studies use an experimental design called the complementary DNA (cDNA) reference method, in which samples from test and control conditions are compared directly on a microarray slide. A substantial limitation of this strategy is that it is nearly impossible to compare data between experiments because the reference sample composition is subjected to changes at the level of experimental design and thereby not consistent from one experiment to another. Using genomic DNA as common reference will effectively overcome this limitation. This chapter describes detailed methods to prepare genomic DNA of high quality, label with fluorescent dye, co-hybridize with cDNA samples, and the subsequent data analyses. In addition, notes are provided to help the readers to obtain optimal results using the procedure.

  14. Becoming the Ideal Reference Librarian for Genealogy Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, J. Carlyle

    1983-01-01

    Discusses reference librarian skills necessary to provide service to genealogy patrons: know patrons, know how to do genealogical research, become familiar with basic reference tools, know how to refer genealogists to other agencies, conduct successful reference interview, develop collection of reference materials and interlibrary loan services.…

  15. From reference library to information service: services in danger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bob Duckett

    2004-01-01

    For over a century, a reference department, or separate reference library, was a standard feature of public libraries. Now, reference departments are being replaced by information services of various kinds and reference librarians have become an endangered species. But an information service is not a reference library. While much has been gained, much, also, has been lost. Six elements of

  16. What Will Become of Reference in Academic and Public Libraries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack OGorman; Barry Trott

    2009-01-01

    Public and academic libraries continue to have a vital role in providing reference services. As more and more information is only available in electronic form, reference librarians need to reaffirm their core values. Some of the changes happening in reference include smaller reference collections, the disposition of printed reference books, and the increased use of electronic tools. Other topics include

  17. Reference frequency transmission over optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutes, G.; Kirk, A.

    1986-01-01

    A 100-MHz reference frequency from a hydrogen maser frequency standard has been transmitted via optical fiber over a 14-km distance with a measured stability of 1.5 X 10 to the-15 power for 1000 seconds averaging time. This capability was demonstrated in a frequency distribution experiment performed in April, 1986. The reference frequency was transmitted over a single-mode fiber-optic link from Deep Space Station (DSS) 13 to DSS 12 and back. The background leading up to the experiment and the significance of stable reference frequency distribution in the Deep Space Network (DSN) is discussed. Also described are the experiment, including the fiber-optic link, the measurement method and equipment, and finally the results of the experiment.

  18. Establishment of Reference Interval of Serum Prolactin in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Baruah, Mriganka; Ghosh, Joya; Sengupta, Soumendyu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reference data on serum prolactin levels based on a representative Indian sample are still lacking. The western normative laboratory values used for clinical diagnosis may not be applicable to Indian population. The objective of the study was to measure the serum prolactin levels in healthy Indian male and female in order to establish reference interval and to compare with the available reference intervals. It is a cross- sectional study done in West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Based on the history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations, serum prolactin levels of 1316 apparently healthy subjects were estimated by microplate immunoenzymometric assay using pooled serum. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: The serum prolactin levels for all ages were 10.7 ± 3 ng/ml in healthy male and 11.6 ± 2.8 ng/ml in healthy female. Decade-wise analysis of serum prolactin level in female showed a steady increase from 20-29 years to advancing decades until 4th decade and thereafter declines steadily although it was not same for male. Conclusion: Our study will help each laboratory to formulate their own reference interval for prolactin. As of now they were dependent either on the values written on the kit-literature supplied by the reagent manufacturing company or the reference intervals of foreign population. PMID:25177560

  19. Directions: Verify that the candidate has provided permission before conducting reference check. Complete one Telephone Reference Check Form for each reference provided by the applicant.

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    . Complete one Telephone Reference Check Form for each reference provided by the applicant. Telephone organization? What are the candidate's strengths? Weaknesses? #12;Telephone Reference Check Page 2 How would NO Is there anything else you would like to add? Thank you for your time and assistance. #12;Telephone Reference Check

  20. Reference Guide: IEEE Style References in the text must match the reference list both in number and style.

    E-print Network

    of a book must be capitalized. Every (important) word in the title of a journal or conference must with a question mark is provided under periodicals. Abbreviations You must either spell out the entire name of each periodical you reference or use accepted abbreviations. You must consistently do one or the other