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Sample records for iconographic essay osteoartropatia

  1. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  2. Uncommon hepatic tumors: iconographic essay - Part 1*

    PubMed Central

    Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; da Rocha, Eduardo Lima; Kierszenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Torres, Lucas Rios; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Most malignant liver tumors are represented by hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma; however a variety of other uncommon hepatic lesions might also be found. Common lesions such as hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and metastases are well known and have already been extensively documented in the literature. The diagnosis of typical hepatic lesions may be done with some reliability by means of several imaging methods; on the other hand, uncommon lesions normally represent a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In this first part of the study, the authors will approach five uncommon liver tumors - angiosarcoma, angiomyolipoma, cystadenoma/biliary carcinoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma -, describing their main characteristics and image findings with focus on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25741106

  3. Uncommon hepatic tumors: iconographic essay – Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; da Rocha, Eduardo Lima; Kierzenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Francisc, Viviane Vieira; D’Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In cases where typical aspects are shown, the diagnosis of most frequent hepatic lesions can be made with some safety by means of several imaging methods; on the other hand, uncommon lesions generally represent a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In the present second part of the study, the authors describe four rare hepatic lesions, as follows: primary hepatic lymphoma, myofibroblastic tumor, primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor and desmoplastic small round cell tumor, approaching their main characteristics and imaging findings with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25741121

  4. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  5. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP): A New Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Boerchi, Diego; Magnano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular) for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old) of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job) in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas (“things”, “people”, “leisure”, and “culture”). Moreover, Holland’s RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs. PMID:27247679

  6. Scholarly Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A selection of essays by 12 1983 Presidential Scholars entitled Opportunity in America; Under the Influence of High Fashion; Law and Human Freedom; The Effects of Computers in Education; Prejudice, Cultural Heritage, and National Unity; The Visual Artist in a Technological Society; Dorothy Meets Schopenhauer; Rise Above; and Mathematics as a…

  7. The Essay Canon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relation of essays to canon theory, explains why the only essay canon to be publicly identified in the 20th century is a powerful teaching canon. Shows "where essays live," how they arrive in the teaching canon, and why they stay there. Examines how essays are taught. Looks at the future of the essay canon. (SR)

  8. Step-by-step iconographic description of a prolonged but still favourable course of orbital cellulitis in a child with acute rhinosinusitis: an iconographic case study.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Gaffuri, Michele; Capaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Susanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely vary among patients, and even in the most favourable cases long-term sequelae may persist. We here provide a step-by-step iconographic description of a periorbital and orbital cellulitis occurring in a child with ipsilateral acute rhinosinusitis. Our report shows that an unusual long-term evolution of periorbital and orbital cellulitis is possible also in apparently favourable cases. PMID:24594215

  9. Primary Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Biesbrock, Edieann F.

    1971-01-01

    Reports the development of an experimental essay test for use with young children based on the now-obsolete STEP Essay Tests. The child's essay on an assigned topic is rated in comparison with previously rated and scaled essays which serve as performance models. (Author)

  10. Assessment of embryo/fetus during pregnancy by threedimensional ultrasonography using the HD live software: iconographic essay

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Santana, Eduardo Félix Martins; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Fetal development is studied since the advent of two-dimensional ultrasonography. However, a detailed assessment of structures and surfaces improved with three-dimensional ultrasonography. Currently, it is possible to identify embryonic components and fetal parts with greater detail, at all pregnancy trimesters, using the HD live software, where the images gain realistic features by means of appropriate control of lighting and shadowing effects. In the present study, the authors utilized this resource to follow-up, by means of images, the development of a normal pregnancy along all trimesters. PMID:25798008

  11. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  12. The Dreaded Essay Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys in 2 undergraduate psychology classes (N = 86) found that students felt less comfortable taking all-essay tests than taking multiple-choice or short-answer tests. The dominant examination format for students in university and in high school had been multiple-choice tests. We describe measures to encourage essay writing in large classes.…

  13. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  14. Essays on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thomas E., Ed.

    The monograph presents a series of essays written by well known educators sharing their perceptions, problems, and projects and documenting some of the practical, philosophical, situational, and theoretical aspects of career education. The essays include: The Case for Career Education, by Kenneth B. Hoyt; Basic Constructs of the School-Based…

  15. Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

  16. Improving Achievement Via Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Ohmer

    1979-01-01

    The benefits of using essay tests rather than objective tests in professional education programs are discussed. Essay tests offer practice in writing, creativity and formal communications. Guidelines for using and scoring a sample essay test in biology are presented. (BH)

  17. Achondroplasia among ancient populations of mesoamerica and South America: Iconographic and Archaeological Evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Carolina; Pachajoa, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, genu varum, and trident hand. Although the etiology of this disease was reported in 1994, evidence of this disease in ancient populations has been found in populations of ancient Egypt (2500 BC) and it has been documented in ancient American populations. Objective: To analyze the presence of individuals with achondroplasia in the Mayan state society of Mexico and Guatemala, during the Classical (100- 950 AC ) and Post-Classical (950 - 1519 AC ) periods; likewise, in the hierarchical-chieftain society of Tumaco-la Tolita (300 BC - 600 AC ) from the Colombia-Ecuador Pacific coast, and the Moche state society (100 - 600 AC ) from the northern coast of Peru. Methods: Iconographic and clinical-morphological studies of some of the most important artistic representations of individuals of short stature in these three cultures. Conclusion: We present the hypothesis that the individuals with short stature were somehow associated with the political and religious power elite. PMID:24893194

  18. Essays on symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Jenann Tareq

    1997-04-01

    Structures of many different sorts arise in physics, e.g., the concrete structures of material bodies, the structure exemplified by the spatiotemporal configuration of a set of bodies, the structures of more abstract objects like states, state-spaces, laws, and so on. To each structure of any of these types there corresponds a set of transformations which map it onto itself. These are its symmetries. Increasingly ubiquitous in theoretical discussions in physics, the notion of symmetry is also at the root of some time-worn philosophical debates. This dissertation consists of a set of essays on topics drawn from places where the two fields overlap. The first essay is an informal introduction to the mathematical study of symmetry. The second essay defends a famous principle of Pierre Curie which states that the symmetries of a cause are always symmetries of its effect. The third essay takes up the case of reflection in space in the context of a controversy stemming from one of Kant's early arguments for the substantivality of space. The fourth essay is a discussion of the general conditions under which an asymmetry in a phenomenon suggests an asymmetry in the laws which govern it. The case of reflection in time-specifically, the theoretical strategy used in statistical mechanics to subsume the time-asymmetric phenomena of Thermodynamics under the time-symmetric classical dynamical laws-is used to illustrate the general points. The philosophical heart of the thesis lies in its fifth essay. Here a somewhat novel way of conceiving scientific theorizing is articulated, one suggested by the abstract mathematical perspective of symmetry.

  19. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  20. A Personal Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki, Terry Myers

    The personal essay does not rely on the straight, even rows of a carefully laid out vegetable garden, on strings pulled tight to connect beginnings to ends. Instead it meanders, pulls from here and there, thinks out loud, asks questions, and proceeds leisurely through disconnections to make connections, as an ever-changing flower garden in which…

  1. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  2. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneer, David

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure (thesis-argument-conclusion) and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. He…

  3. The Centennial Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshan, Bob

    1991-01-01

    In this essay, the star of "Captain Kangaroo" points out that more than 20 percent of America's children live below the poverty line. School boards, administrators, and teachers need to make a commitment to address the needs of the whole child. Schools have an opportunity to play a critical role in saving our children. (MLF)

  4. Writing Your College Application Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Advice to American Indian students on writing a college application essay focuses on conveying an honest portrayal of significant aspects of their lives. Distinctive stories grounded in Native American experience are likely to catch the interest of the admissions officer. A sample essay and representative essay questions are included. (SV)

  5. Essays in microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Tim

    This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets. This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races. Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results. We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices. We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass

  6. Essays in applied economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  7. Essays on strategy VII

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Revolutionary developments in Europe and their global reverberations since 1989 have affected certain aspects of our national strategy. This volume presents nine essays dealing imaginatively with the issues of the post-Cold War period. One of them addresses general US strategy for the 1990s. Three focus on high-level strategic matters: the future of flexible response, antisatellite weapons, and forward, mobile defenses. The others address US chemical weapons policy, use of civilian aircraft for defense airlift, neutrality of the Panama Canal after 1999, arms sales by China, and strategic defense at reduced cost.

  8. Three Essays on Macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doda, Lider Baran

    This dissertation consists of three independent essays in macroeconomics. The first essay studies the transition to a low carbon economy using an extension of the neoclassical growth model featuring endogenous energy efficiency, exhaustible energy and explicit climate-economy interaction. I derive the properties of the laissez faire equilibrium and compare them to the optimal allocations of a social planner who internalizes the climate change externality. Three main results emerge. First, the exhaustibility of energy generates strong market based incentives to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO 2 emissions without any government intervention. Second, the market and optimal allocations are substantially different suggesting a role for the government. Third, high and persistent taxes are required to implement the optimal allocations as a competitive equilibrium with taxes. The second essay focuses on coal fired power plants (CFPP) - one of the largest sources of CO2 emissions globally - and their generation efficiency using a macroeconomic model with an embedded CFPP sector. A key feature of the model is the endogenous choice of production technologies which differ in their energy efficiency. After establishing four empirical facts about the CFPP sector, I analyze the long run quantitative effects of energy taxes. Using the calibrated model, I find that sector-specific coal taxes have large effects on generation efficiency by inducing the use of more efficient technologies. Moreover, such taxes achieve large CO2 emissions reductions with relatively small effects on consumption and output. The final essay studies the procyclicality of fiscal policy in developing countries, which is a well-documented empirical observation seemingly at odds with Neoclassical and Keynesian policy prescriptions. I examine this issue by solving the optimal fiscal policy problem of a small open economy government when the interest rates on external debt are endogenous. Given an

  9. Essays in applied microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Lucas William

    2005-11-01

    The first essay measures the impact of an outbreak of pediatric leukemia on local housing values. A model of residential location choice is used to describe conditions under which the gradient of the hedonic price function with respect to health risk is equal to household marginal willingness to pay to avoid pediatric leukemia risk. This equalizing differential is estimated using property-level sales records from a county in Nevada where residents have recently experienced a severe increase in pediatric leukemia. Housing values are compared before and after the increase with a nearby county acting as a control group. The results indicate that housing values decreased 15.6% during the period of maximum risk. Results are similar for alternative measures of risk and across houses of different sizes. With risk estimates derived using a Bayesian learning model the results imply a statistical value of pediatric leukemia of $5.6 million. The results from the paper provide some of the first market-based estimates of the value of health for children. The second essay evaluates the cost-effectiveness of public incentives that encourage households to purchase high-efficiency durable goods. The demand for durable goods and the demand for energy and other inputs are modeled jointly as the solution to a household production problem. The empirical analysis focuses on the case of clothes washers. The production technology and utilization decision are estimated using household-level data from field trials in which participants received front-loading clothes washers free of charge. The estimation strategy exploits this quasi-random replacement of washers to derive robust estimates of the utilization decision. The results indicate a price elasticity, -.06, that is statistically different from zero across specifications. The parameters from the utilization decision are used to estimate the purchase decision using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, 1994-2002. Households

  10. [Malthus's Essay and Newton's Principia].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The author examines a natural scientific approach to demography using the example of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population." The work is analyzed and compared to Newton's "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." PMID:12342767

  11. Three essays on contingent valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Timothy Kenneth Munro

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the contingent valuation methodology. The first essay develops a theoretical model of how agents respond to willingness to pay questions in a survey context. In particular, this essay focuses on the difference between a voluntary contribution mechanism and a mandatory contribution mechanism. The second essay applies this theory to a survey of willingness to pay for renewable energy by varying the mechanism by which the public good is supplied. The third essay proposes a methodology for choosing the number, location and range of contributions or bid levels in dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys. The first essay, "Mandatory vs. Voluntary Payment to a Public Good" models the differing incentive effects of two different payment mechanisms in contingent valuations surveys. It is shown that under rationed voluntary payment (where each agent can contribute either a fixed amount or nothing) there exists a Nash equilibrium in which the level of public good provided is strictly below the level provided under a mandatory provision rule. This result is generalized to hypothetical valuation surveys and a set of condition ranking willingness to pay under each mechanism is described. The second essay "Valuing a Public Good" describes the result of a survey designed to test the above theory. This essay considers willingness to pay for renewable energy. In order to test the theory, a split sample survey of over fifteen hundred respondents was conducted. One half of the sample was asked whether they would volunteer to pay for green power and the other half was asked whether they would vote to support a program in which the entire population was required to contribute towards the provision of the public good. On average, respondents' willingness to pay was higher for the public good provided by the mandatory provision mechanism. The third essay describes the literature on how the contribution or bid levels can be chosen to

  12. Using Voice and Audience in Essay Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    Students dislike writing essay examinations as much as teachers dislike reading them. Perhaps no alternatives to the essay exam exist, but certainly the task can be lessened by altering the format of the essay exam. In an education class at a California university, students select in advance one essay question from a list of several, and field…

  13. Essays in public economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  14. An Encyclopedic Undertaking. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the 10-volume "International Encyclopedia of Education: Research and Studies," edited by Torsten Husen and T. Neville Postlethwaite. Discusses useful features, organizational framework, clusters of educational themes, bias toward English-language sources, articles on specific national educational systems, theme essays concerning…

  15. Essays in Education and Macroeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on education and macroeconomics. The first chapter analyzes whether public education financing systems can account for large differences among developed countries in earnings inequality and intergenerational earnings persistence. I first document facts about public education in the U.S. and Norway, which…

  16. Halley's Comet: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Stephen L.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliographic essay evaluates six books on Halley's Comet as science writings that fall into three categories: middle school and junior high-level books; senior high to adult-level books; and advanced level. Author, number of pages, publication date, price, International Standard Book Number, and publisher information are provided. (EJS)

  17. Three Essays on College Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seki, Mai

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on adolescents' post secondary education choices and labor market returns. The first chapter analyzes returns to selectivity of four-year colleges by different post-bachelor's degree schooling paths. The second chapter documents the role of family income in college application and enrollment…

  18. Two Essays in Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior researchers (Anderson et al. 1994; Ballard & Johnson 2004; Hoag & Benedict 2010) have shown that different math abilities do not equally correlate with success in economics, yet no research has specifically compared algebra and geometry skills as predictors of economics success. In the first essay, I find that students' standardized…

  19. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  20. Two Essays on Shared Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    These two essays present philosophical ideas on the development of shared governance in academic institutions. What philosophy has to contribute to governance is the very level of generality on which it "thinks." Philosophy places value on general principles and long-term goals, rather than particular cases and practical solutions. Philosophy also…

  1. Women's Studies: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Monika

    The essay section provides a definition and short history of women's studies and explores the implications in regard to the administration and teaching of such courses. The bibliography lists and annotates material useful for all levels of education. Information sources covered include government agencies and societies, reference sources (such as…

  2. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  3. A Reflective Essaying Model for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a reflective essaying model as a useful way of encouraging learning in higher education. It aims to define reflective essaying as the free and serious play of mind on an interesting topic in an attempt to learn. Design/methodology/approach: Reflective essaying is first introduced as a unifying…

  4. Going Further: Essays in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Colin, Ed.; Austin, Michael, Ed.

    This volume contains 16 essays on Further Education (FE) in the context of its changing status and role in the educational and economic life of Great Britain. The essays are grouped around four main themes: (1) FE and mission; (2) managerial responsibilities; (3) context; and (4) diversity. The essays are: "FE Makes Itself Indispensable" (Tony…

  5. In Defense of the Formula Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan Charles

    2007-01-01

    In 1970, the author learned a simple step in making essays from his advisor. His advisor used a drawing of the Parthenon to illustrate the creation of a five-paragraph essay. It was obvious that his advisor was hesitant on teaching them a very simple concept of essay writing because it was pretty mechanical. Like his advisor, a lot of teachers…

  6. Restructuring for Urban Student Success: Essay Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara, Ed.; Levine, Jodi, Ed.; Patton, Judy, Ed.

    This publication presents essays by members of Restructuring for Urban Student Success (RUSS) and other faculty, administrators, staff, and graduate students on participating campuses. The essays describe the work of RUSS and document curricular restructuring and reform efforts occurring at RUSS partner institutions. Part 1 includes essays by RUSS…

  7. The Rise of the Essay Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    2007-01-01

    College admissions essay coaches have been hanging out shingles since the early 1990s. The business has grown sharply over the past decade thanks to the ease of editing via the Internet and students' desire to gain any possible edge as many colleges have become more selective. The companies, with names like Cambridge Essay Service, EssayEdge,…

  8. Essays on Dynamic Competition and Academic Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huyen T.

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation focuses on dynamic firm competition and academic entrepreneurship. The first essay studies the dynamics and equilibrium outcomes of a duopoly in which firms make decisions about both capacity expansion and cost reduction. The second essay is an extension of the framework used in the first essay to study the strategic roles of…

  9. The Color of Leadership. Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    On July 1, 2000, the author became the first black dean of Education in the almost 100 year existence of the formidable University of Pretoria, South Africa. This essay offers a set of meditations on being a black dean in a white university at the birth of a post-apartheid democracy. There are many sides to this narrative. It is a story of leading…

  10. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  11. Essays on La Mujer. Anthology No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rosaura, Ed.; Cruz, Rosa Martinez, Ed.

    The 10 essays introduce some concepts and topics of particular concern and interest to those wishing to analyze the situation of the Chicana within her particular historical, social and economical context. Topics of the essays are: (1) the Chicana labor force; (2) the role of the Chicana within the student movement; (3) the Chicana and the Chicano…

  12. Essays on the Economics of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of two essays that broadly consider the role human capital plays in the matching process between individuals and institutions and builds on prior education literature that has found growing evidence that economic choices and opportunities are inextricably linked to human capital investment. The essays in this…

  13. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  14. The "New" Age: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    This bibliographic essay describes and discusses important books in a variety of thematic areas associated with the New Age Movement, which is a distinctive communicative phenomenon characterized by unconventional beliefs and activities. The essay argues that the single subject pervading the peculiar phenomena and puzzling thoughtful critics is…

  15. Dialects in Culture: Essays in General Dialectology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Raven I., Jr.

    This is a collection of 60 essays on dialectology written in the period from 1942 to 1979. The essays fall into the categories of theoretical, applied, and critical dialectology. Some of the more recent titles include: "System and Variety in American English,""Dialect Differences and Social Differences in an Urban Society,""Dialectology and the…

  16. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  17. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  18. Students' Experiences with an Automated Essay Scorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharber, Cassandra; Dexter, Sara; Riedel, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze preservice teachers' use of and reactions to an automated essay scorer used within an online, case-based learning environment called ETIPS. Data analyzed include post-assignment surveys, a user log of students' actions within the cases, instructor-assigned scores on final essays, and interviews with four…

  19. Framing the Past; Essays on Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucy, Donald, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of essays presents the history of art education from a variety of perspectives. Traditional and revisionist issues are seen from broad overviews and through specific concerns. Textual analysis, cultural transmission, and prominent philosophies are discussed. Thirteen essays include: (1) "A History of Art Education Histories"…

  20. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  1. ``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Peter E.

    2007-11-01

    ``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

  2. Three essays on utility regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  3. Two Essays in Financial Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Kyle J.

    The following dissertation contains two distinct empirical essays which contribute to the overall field of Financial Economics. Chapter 1, entitled "The Determinants of Dynamic Dependence: An Analysis of Commodity Futures and Equity Markets," examines the determinants of the dynamic equity-commodity return correlations between five commodity futures sub-sectors (energy, foods and fibers, grains and oilseeds, livestock, and precious metals) and a value-weighted equity market index (S&P 500). The study utilizes the traditional DCC model, as well as three time-varying copulas: (i) the normal copula, (ii) the student's t copula, and (iii) the rotated-gumbel copula as dependence measures. Subsequently, the determinants of these various dependence measures are explored by analyzing several macroeconomic, financial, and speculation variables over different sample periods. Results indicate that the dynamic equity-commodity correlations for the energy, grains and oilseeds, precious metals, and to a lesser extent the foods and fibers, sub-sectors have become increasingly explainable by broad macroeconomic and financial market indicators, particularly after May 2003. Furthermore, these variables exhibit heterogeneous effects in terms of both magnitude and sign on each sub-sectors' equity-commodity correlation structure. Interestingly, the effects of increased financial market speculation are found to be extremely varied among the five sub-sectors. These results have important implications for portfolio selection, price formation, and risk management. Chapter 2, entitled, "US Community Bank Failure: An Empirical Investigation," examines the declining, but still pivotal role, of the US community banking industry. The study utilizes survival analysis to determine which accounting and macroeconomic variables help to predict community bank failure. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Federal Reserve Bank data are utilized to compare 452 community banks which failed between

  4. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  5. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Nida

    In these essays, I examine (i) the empirical methods that are widely used in the literature to measure total factor productivity growth and (ii) the impact of nationalization on productivity in the oil industry. The first chapter, which is an ongoing work with SHI, Wei, investigates two empirical measures, quantity-based (primal) measure and price-based (dual) measure, of total factor productivity growth. My co-author and I analyze how these two measures are affected by output market imperfection or variable capacity utilization. We find that under constant-returns-to-scale production function assumption, existence of the imperfect competition in the output market creates a gap between the measured TFP growth and the true TFP growth, no matter which method is used. However, theoretically, it does not affect the equivalence between the two measures. Under variable capacity utilization, we show that constant-returns-to-scale assumption is almost enough to guarantee the validity of the two methods in correctly capturing the true TFP growth. In the second and third chapters, I analyze the link between nationalization and productivity. The second chapter documents the trends in expropriation acts, and evaluates the impact of expropriations on labor productivity of resource-rich developing countries in the oil industry. In the first part of this chapter, I investigate the trends in the expropriation acts that took place in 102 developing countries during the period 1922-2006. I find that more than half of the acts occurred between 1970 and 1976, there has been an increase in the number of expropriations in recent years, and the extractive sector including petroleum is more likely to be expropriated. Motivated by these facts, in the second part, I examine the oil industry in a period of widespread expropriations, the 1970s. In a sample of major oil-producing countries including OPEC and non-OPEC members, I show that losses in relative labor productivity after

  6. Three essays on auction markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunda, Nicholas James

    This dissertation contains a series of theoretical investigations of auction markets. The essays it contains cover wholesale electricity markets, a popular selling mechanism on eBay, and supplier entry into multi-unit procurement auctions. The study in Chapter 1 compares the procurement cost-minimizing and productive efficiency performance of the auction mechanism used by independent system operators in wholesale electricity auction markets in the U.S. with that of a proposed alternative. The current practice allocates energy contracts as if the auction featured a discriminatory final payment method when, in fact, the markets are uniform price auctions. The proposed alternative explicitly accounts for the market-clearing price during the allocation phase. We find that the proposed alternative largely outperforms the current practice on the basis of procurement costs in the context of simple auction markets featuring both day-ahead and real-time auctions and that the procurement cost advantage of the alternative is complete when we simulate the effects of increased competition. We also find that a tradeoff between the objectives of procurement cost minimization and productive efficiency emerges in our simple auction markets and persists in the face of increased competition. The study in Chapter 2 considers a possible rationale for an auction with a buy price. In an auction with a buy price, the seller provides bidders with an option to end the auction early by accepting a transaction at a posted price. The "Buy-It-Now" option on eBay is a leading example of an auction with a buy price. The study develops a model of an auction with a buy price in which bidders use the auction's reserve price and buy price to formulate a reference price. The model both explains why a revenue-maximizing seller would want to augment her auction with a buy price and demonstrates that the seller sets a higher reserve price when she can affect the bidders' reference price through the

  7. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  8. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  9. Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Susan, Ed.

    Major issues of the debate that led to the passage of an immigration reform bill are discussed and analyzed in this collection of six papers that were delivered as public lectures at Western Michigan University during the 1984-85 academic year. The essays reflect a broad range of views on the effects of immigration on the United States economy and…

  10. Education, Training and Contexts: Studies and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    This volume provides an overview of some of the outstanding features of the work of the Norwegian sociologist and comparative educationist, Jon Lauglo. After an introduction, "'It Ain't Necessarily So!': Theories and Observations in Jon Lauglo's World of Education and Training" (Se-Yung Lim and Klaus Schaack), essays and studies are presented in…

  11. Beyond the Five-Paragraph Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kimberly Hill

    2014-01-01

    Although using the five-paragraph formula to teach essay writing is a ubiquitous practice--and many K-12 teachers defend it--Campbell argues that having students write according to this formula does more harm than good. The formula's tight structure stops the very critical thinking students need to do to strengthen their cognition and their…

  12. Art for Many Purposes: A Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sylvia K.

    1985-01-01

    An interdisciplinary art and science program for talented inner-city 11th graders is described through a photo essay. Students are involved in activities such as painting outdoors, rendering instructional charts for use in science classes, illustrating seasonal calendars, gardening, identifying insects, and learning about weather forecasting. (RM)

  13. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  14. An Analysis of Correctional Education GED Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Michael P.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    Three judges rated General Educational Development (GED) student essays that had been written by nine incarcerated youths. If judge's ratings were not consistent, students would receive a biased average rating. Traditional classical measurement theory computes an intraclass reliability coefficient to determine if judges' ratings are reliable. In…

  15. Two Essays on the Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    This document contains two essays, both of which discuss the ascendancy of the learning paradigm over the teaching paradigm. "Philosophy and the Learning Paradigm" reviews the effects of post-modernism on student learning with regard to loss of authority in the classroom, lack of academic standards in writing, and perceptions of professors as…

  16. Reconstructing Deweyan Pragmatism: A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Stefan Neubert argues that John Dewey was a philosopher of reconstruction and that the best use we can make of him today is to reconstruct his work in and for our own contexts. Neubert distinguishes three necessary and equally important components of the overall project of reconstructing Deweyan pragmatism: first, to make strong and…

  17. Perspectives on the Community College: Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John; Cohen, Arthur M., Ed.

    The essays in this collection were written by John Lombardi during the 1970s while he was a resident scholar at the ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges. Following a foreword on Lombardi's life and work by a son and two daughters, John V., Mary Luciana, and Janice P. Lombardi, is an introduction by Arthur M. Cohen giving highlights of Lombardi's…

  18. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  19. Accountability of Colleges and Universities: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Patricia Albjerg; And Others

    This essay presents the results of a study of the means that colleges and universities should use to assure proper accountability within the institution in regard to teaching and learning. It discusses the basis of institutional accountability, public perceptions of accountability (or lack thereof), the role of governments and market forces, the…

  20. Essays on Neighborhood Transition and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents new evidence on neighborhood transition and its impact on housing markets using a novel micro-level dataset on housing transactions. It focuses on three issues: the neighborhood effect, housing discrimination, and stable integration. The first essay examines the relationship between increased minority composition and…

  1. Review Essay: Inclusive Practices in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, AnneMaree

    2002-01-01

    This essay reviews "Special Education: A Matter of Choice" (Josephine Jenkinson), a book that discusses the major issues and changes that have occurred in special education in the various states and territories of Australia over the past 30 years. It is concluded that the book is an extremely useful guide. (CR)

  2. The Vision of Sequoyah: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elaine

    In 1821, Sequoyah, a Cherokee Indian, presented to his tribal council a syllabary of the Cherokee language--an invention that enabled a previously illiterate people to read and write in their own language. This document includes a brief essay describing Sequoyah's life and accomplishment and a bibliography of further resources. Sequoyah was born…

  3. Degrees of Disenchantment: A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Mark; Margonis, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this review essay, Mark Brenneman and Frank Margonis address three recent book-length contributions to the ongoing discussion around cosmopolitanism and educational thought: Mark Olssen's "Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Social Democracy: Thin Communitarian Perspectives on Political Philosophy and Education," Sharon Todd's "Toward an Imperfect…

  4. Three Essays on the Economics of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Mariesa Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of essays on three inputs into the educational production function: curriculum, peers, and teachers. The chapters are linked by their focus on understanding the importance of these inputs for student achievement and by their exploitation of the exact timing of events (i.e., student mobility, receipt of special education…

  5. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  6. The Nature of Automated Essay Scoring Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of feedback that English as a Second Language (ESL) students received on their writings either from an automated essay scoring (AES) system or from the teacher. The participants were 12 adult ESL students who were attending an intensive English center at a university in Florida. The drafts of the…

  7. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  8. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  9. Audiotape Feedback for Essays in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve students writing essays for a photochemistry course at the Open University of the Netherlands received either audiocasette or written feedback. Time spent in recording versus writing feedback differed minimally. Recorded feedback was considerably greater in amount. Students' final grades did not differ, but recorded feedback was more…

  10. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  11. Social Responsibility in Librarianship: Essays on Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.

    In a culturally complex world, librarians can best work toward the equalization of library services if they understand their institutions in the light of cultural history. The six essays in this book highlight problems that affect unempowered populations, and address a variety of cultural problems and biases--problems that contribute to the…

  12. The Theory of the Novel: New Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, John, Ed.

    This collection, containing essays by contemporary critics, analyzes such aspects of the novel as structure, history, point of view, techniques, and its future. Included are "What is Exposition?" by Meir Sternberg; "Notes Toward a Comic Fiction" by Robert B. Martin; "The Aesthetics of the Supra-Novel" by Irving H. Buchen; "The Genre of 'Ulysses'"…

  13. Learning Dilemmas in Undergraduate Student Independent Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Maria; Åse, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Essay-writing is generally viewed as the primary learning activity to foster independence and analytical thinking. In this article, we show that independent research projects do not necessarily lead to critical thinking. University-level education on conducting independent projects can, in several respects, counteract enhanced analytical skills.…

  14. A Bibliographic Essay Pertaining to Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott

    Introduced by a discussion of the fact that most of the works cited describe Navajos as they "used to be" and an admonition against the common practice of placing all Navajos, or all Indians, under one stereotype, this bibliographic essay traces the history of Navajo contact with the white man and emphasizes efforts at educational development. Six…

  15. Essaying the essay: nursing scholarship and the hegemony of the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lyn; Rolfe, Gary

    2013-01-01

    It might appear odd or even perverse to be arguing for the essay as a vehicle for academic thought and writing, particularly given the current emphasis on scientific research and evidence-based practice. In fact, the scholarly essay has virtually ceased to exist as an academic form in practice disciplines such as nursing, excluded by what we will identify and refer to as the hegemony of the laboratory. In a practical as well as an intellectual attempt to reinstate it, this paper is structured in the form of two consecutive short essays. In the first, we identify the character, features and purpose of the scholarly essay and examine its demise as an academic form. In the second, we explore some possible reasons why the essay never became fully accepted as an academic form in nursing. We suggest that the essay is thematically eclectic and stylistically promiscuous, drawing from a broad range of cultural, disciplinary and academic reference points. As such, it presents a challenge to the dominant technical rational approach to academic nursing in both its form and its content, particularly in its disregard for the rigidly imposed genres and structures increasingly demanded by academic nursing journals. PMID:22079481

  16. The Primal Screen: Essays on Film and Related Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarris, Andrew

    This book is a collection of essays by the author on film criticism. An auteurist and historical approach is taken to the primarily American films discussed. The essays are organized by basic theme: "Critical Credos and Causes,""Personal Styles,""Genres,""Politics,""Odes and Obits," and "Arts and Letters." Each essay centers either on an important…

  17. Lincoln Era Essay Contest: Seventh Annual Winners, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, William, Ed.

    The seventh annual Lincoln Era Essay Contest's theme was "Lincoln and the Elections of 1860 and 1864." The contest was open to students in grades 6 through 12 throughout the state of Indiana. This booklet includes all the winning essays. The junior high/middle school essays include: "Abraham Lincoln Journals for the 1860 and 1864 Elections" (C.…

  18. Twenty Years In: An Essay in Two Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this essay traces the evolution of my understanding of the exploratory essay as a discursive form and a genre for teaching writing. Part II explores my motivations for advocating a polarized definition of the essay and then concludes with a call to expand the purview of composition beyond first-year courses.

  19. Using Literature to Teach the Non-Literary Research Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wess, Robert C.

    The controversial uses of the generic research essay and literature in the composition class fuse together as one issue when one considers the use of literature to teach the research essay in the freshman composition class. This pedagogical approach requires that students read a novel, selected by the teacher, write several essays about it, and…

  20. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  1. The Essay Scoring and Scorer Reliability in TOEFL CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    An essay test is now an integral part of the computer based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL-CBT). This paper provides a brief overview of the current TOEFL-CBT essay test, describes the operational procedures for essay scoring, including the Online Scoring Network (OSN) of the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and discusses major…

  2. Text Structure of Korean Speakers' Argumentative Essays in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Examines text structure of argumentative writing in English by Korean speakers as compared with native speakers'(NS) writing in Korean and NS writing in English. Interactive text analysis showed English essays had a clear structural pattern that the Korean essays lacked. Sample essays and questionnaires are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

  3. Comparison of Dimension Reduction Methods for Automated Essay Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Myller, Niko; Sutinen, Erkki; Timonen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Automatic Essay Assessor (AEA) is a system that utilizes information retrieval techniques such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for automatic essay grading. The system uses learning materials and relatively few teacher-graded essays for calibrating the scoring…

  4. Rooted in the Land: Essays on Community and Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitek, William, Ed.; Jackson, Wes, Ed.

    This collection of 31 essays examines the idea of community rooted in a particular place, usually a small town or rural place. Many essays comment on the role of education in promoting the transient materialistic lifestyle or suggest ways in which education could foster place attachment and community building. Essays specifically focused on…

  5. The Computer Moves into Essay Grading: Updating the Ancient Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Ellis; Petersen, Nancy S.

    1995-01-01

    Computers may someday replace teachers at essay grading. In recent research, a blind test has demonstrated that a computer can simulate the judgment of a group of human judges on a brand-new set of essays. Moreover, the PEG (Project Essay Grade) program can do a better (and more cost-effective) job than the usual two human readers while providing…

  6. Onoufrios, the famous XVI's century iconographer, creator of the ``Berati School'': studying the technique and materials used in wall paintings of inscribed churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; Arapi, M.; Zorba, T.; Anastasiou, M.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2006-06-01

    The study of the materials and techniques employed for wall painting, complementing the information from historical and aesthetic data, contributes to the integrated knowledge of the iconographer and his period. In the 16th century, regarding the iconography in the former Byzantine area, besides the School of Crete and Francos Catelanos and his school, a third artistic personality who also created his own school, Onoufrios, appeared in central Albania and expanded his activity as a painter to northern Greece as well as nearby areas, such as Ohrid. Inscriptions documenting the works of Onoufrios are found in some of the churches that he decorated with wall paintings: “St. Apostles” (1547) Kastoria Greece, “St. Nicolas” Shelcan Albania, “St. Paraskevi” (1554), Valsh Albania, while are attributed to him the church of “St. Theodores” in Berati, Albania (before 1547) and others. He is one of the best icon painters of the whole Balkan region, and the best painter that has ever worked in Albanian territory. Onoufrios managed to combine the local painting tradition with the best tradition of the eastern (Paleologian) and western (Italian) schools, resulting in a realistic and natural depiction. He is the creator of the “Berati School” that expanded to other parts of the peninsula. His individual character can be distinguished in the work of his students: his son Nikolaos (who inherited his style in painting), Onoufrios from Cyprus, etc. Based on careful observations, we extracted number of paint samples from wall paintings of three of the above mentioned churches. Ground and paint layers were examined using micro-FTIR, Optical Microscopy, TXRF and SEM-EDS, to characterize materials and methods used by the artist to create these works. Our findings in each church are discussed and compared with the others in order to understand how and with what material and resources the painter worked and how he developed his technique. The presence of calcium

  7. A Topic-Independent Method for Scoring Student Essay Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper proposes a topic-independent method for automatically scoring essay content. Unlike conventional topic-dependent methods, it predicts the human-assigned score of a given essay without training essays written to the same topic as the target essay. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new measure called MIDF that measures how important and relevant a word is in a given essay. The proposed method predicts the score relying on the distribution of MIDF. Surprisingly, experiments show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 0.848 and performs as well as or even better than conventional topic-dependent methods.

  8. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  9. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  10. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  11. Three essays on energy efficiency policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Maryam

    This thesis is comprised of three essays which explore selected aspects of demand side energy efficiency policy of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC). The first essay models the adoption of IECC in the U.S. between 1998 and 2010. An ordered probit model with IECC adoption as the dependent variable is used to test if a set of socio-economics, political, spatial, and environmental factors predict the residential building energy code adoption. The results show that higher energy price, relative political extraction, climate extremes, pollution level, and population growth predict IECC adoption in the sample. The diffusion variable (share of neighbor states with IECC) is shown to have large impacts on the probability of IECC adoption. The next two essays examine the effect of IECC on residential electricity consumption. The second essay investigates the impact of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) on per-capita residential electricity consumption for 44 U.S. states from 1981-2008. Applying the pooled mean group (PMG) model developed by Pesaran et al. (1999), and controlling for energy specific demand factors such as: prices, income, heating degree days, and cooling degree days, I find that there is an overall 2% decrease in new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption in the states which adopted any version of IECC. The new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption has decreased by about 2.5% and 5% in the states with IECC 2000 and IECC 2003 respectively. The third essay examines the impact of building energy code on the household electricity consumption in three states in U.S. To do so; I construct a pseudo panel using household level data from the American Community Survey (ACS) over the period 2005-2010. By constructing pseudo panel, we are able to track cohorts of relatively homogeneous individuals over time, and control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias the results of cross sectional estimates

  12. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  13. [Essay on the myth of oedipus].

    PubMed

    Costa, Néstor E

    2012-01-01

    Jung conceptualized the collective unconscious as the locus of the myths, the absolutely genuine and primary patterns of thinking and feeling of humanity. The legend of Oedipus or myth of incest is a irrefutable proof of its eternal validity. The present essay is an attempt to take an alternative look to a history that belong to all of us. Situations that are developed in this drama, like the characters involved in it may charge significance as an archetypal and essentially symbolic interpretation. PMID:23145377

  14. Essays on consequences of economic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintrakarn, Pandej

    2007-12-01

    Economic integration is a term used to describe how different aspects between economies are integrated. As economic integration increases, the barriers of trade between markets diminishes. The most integrated economy today, between independent nations, is the European Union and its euro zone. This dissertation consists of three essays which examine consequences of economic integration. The debate over the environmental consequences of free trade is not only quite heated, but also entails significant policy ramifications. Recently, cross-sectional analysis at the country level has made use of exogenous determinants of trade to identify the causal effect of trade on the environment, finding moderate evidence of a beneficial impact of expanded trade on environmental quality. Given the stakes involved, the first essay revisits this finding using subnational data on 'trade' flows across US states and several measures of pollution. Not only does the analysis shed further light on the debate at the international level, but also addresses a heretofore unexamined question: Does greater inter-regional commerce at the subnational level harm the environment? The findings are striking, providing further evidence against a negative environmental impact of trade for the majority of measures analyzed. However, several sources of heterogeneity arise that are noteworthy. The second essay investigates the effect of the euro on trade among EMU members. Using various semi-nonparametric methods based on matching, the results suggest that the euro has a statistical and economic impact on trade. The results show that two countries sharing the euro currency trade somewhere between 9% and 14% more than other country-pairs. In addition, there is no evidence of trade diversion due to the euro. In one strand of research, analysts examine trends in and the determinants of energy usage and intensity. In a second strand, researchers analyze the impact of trade flows on environmental outcomes

  15. Imaging the Endometrium: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Sadro, Claudia T

    2016-08-01

    Female gynaecologic conditions arising from the endometrium are common and depend on a woman's age, her menstrual history, and the use of medications such as hormone replacement and tamoxifen. Both benign and malignant conditions affect the endometrium. Benign conditions must be distinguished from malignant and premalignant conditions. The most commonly used imaging modality for evaluating the endometrium is pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and transvaginal techniques. Additional imaging methods include hysterosonography and magnetic resonance imaging. This pictorial essay will review the normal and abnormal appearance of the endometrium and diagnostic algorithms to evaluate abnormal vaginal bleeding and abnormal endometrial thickness. PMID:27090929

  16. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Taking Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rotblat, J

    2000-08-01

    Joseph Rotblat was born in Warsaw in 1908. He trained in nuclear physics and later specialized in radiation biology. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995, with the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms." In this essay, he reflects on his experiences and recounts how he has applied his ethical principles to his work as a scientist and educator in Poland, the United Kingdom, and the world. He urges other scientists to apply ethical considerations for the survival of humankind above all others. PMID:17819567

  17. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  18. Essays on regulation, institutions, and industrial organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergara, Mario Esteban

    Essay I develops a comparative institutional analysis of network access price regulation and "light-handed" regulation. While the former is a specific-agency-based arrangement with higher political influence, the latter is a court-based system. Consequently, the main trade-off between both frameworks reflects the merits of having efficient political and judicial institutions. Price regulation is superior when distributional concerns are irrelevant and information asymmetries are lower. Poorly functioning political systems and high welfare costs of raising funds make price regulation less attractive. Light regulation is more attractive when potential rents are smaller, the monopolist is more risk averse, the judicial system is more efficient, and the threat of government intervention is more credible. The possibility of private transfers makes price regulation more advantageous. Higher information asymmetries among firms makes light-handed regulation more attractive. The main results are consistent with a plausible interpretation of the drastic deregulatory process in New Zealand. Essay II studies the preliminary effects of the deregulation of direct access in the New Zealand's electricity market. A slight improvement in quality standards and an overall efficiency increase took place after two years of deregulation. Retailers were able to successfully enter in large demand, dense areas, with a large proportion of industrial and commercial users, where incumbents were not distributing electricity efficiently. Pricing policies appears to be influenced by market forces (associated to economic and demographic characteristics) as expected in a light regulatory framework. Essay III focuses on the possibility of endogenous sunk costs and the introduction of new products. Firms that exert some monopoly power in one market and introduce a new good whose demand is determined by a broader set of consumers might be forced to change their competing strategies. If the new product

  19. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  20. Workplace Literacy. Essays from the Model Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Michael, Ed.; Connolly, Olga, Ed.

    The 20 essays in this collection are based on a project undertaken by the California Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Model Literacy Project in 1983-85. (The goal of the project was to institute changes within the CCC to enhance the literacy of corpsmembers.) Essays describe innovative approaches to literacy education, analyze bureaucratic…

  1. Meet the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest and their winning essays. The winners are Spencer Terry of Tulsa, Oklahoma (secondary), and Carrie Snyder-Renfro of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (postsecondary). The topic for secondary students is "How would you communicate the impact and importance of CTE related to your…

  2. History.edu: Essays on Teaching with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Dennis A., Ed.; Merriman, Scott A., Ed.

    Intended to be equally useful to high school and college instructors, this book contains studies in history pedagogy, among them the first three published essays measuring qualitatively and quantitatively the successes and failures of "e-teaching" and distance learning. Collectively, the essays urge instructors to take the next step with computing…

  3. Performance, Feedback, and Revision: Metacognitive Approaches to Undergraduate Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which frequent feedback and clear assessment criteria can improve students' essay writing performance in a first-year English literature course. Students (n = 68) completed a series of three scaffolded exercises over the course of a semester, where they evaluated undergraduate essays using a predetermined assessment…

  4. The Essay Test: A Look at the Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    Essay tests are easily constructed, relatively valid assessments of higher cognitive processes but are harder to score reliably. Teachers using essay tests are advised to follow clearly designed objectives, construct all-inclusive, pilot-tested questions, develop a checklist of specific scoring points and a model answer for each question, and use…

  5. How Important Is Content in the Ratings of Essay Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Attali, Yigal

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the extent to which "content" accounts for variance in scores assigned in automated essay scoring protocols. Specifically it was hypothesised that certain writing genre would emphasise content more than others. Data were drawn from 1668 essays calibrated at two grade levels (6 and 8) using "e-rater[TM]", an…

  6. Automated Essay Scoring With e-rater[R] V.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Burstein, Jill

    2006-01-01

    E-rater[R] has been used by the Educational Testing Service for automated essay scoring since 1999. This paper describes a new version of e-rater (V.2) that is different from other automated essay scoring systems in several important respects. The main innovations of e-rater V.2 are a small, intuitive, and meaningful set of features used for…

  7. Relevancy in Vocational Education (A Collection of Essays).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This collection of seven essays covers the subject of relevance in vocational education from several perspectives. Topics of the essays are the following: (1) vocational education and the curriculum; (2) the counselor and vocational education; (3) vocational education and employability skills; (4) student reentry into the curriculum; (5) remedying…

  8. Factor Structure of the MCAT and Pilot Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Molidor, John B.

    1986-01-01

    Research reported in this paper considered the construct validity of a trial essay administered in 1985-87 Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). The addition of the essay caused the non-science factor observed in previous MCAT research to be more strongly defined. (Author/LMO)

  9. Missing: Electronic Feedback in Egyptian EFL Essay Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliem, Soheir; Ahmed, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    EFL essay writing is considered one of the most important academic courses in the teacher education programmes that should help develop students' skills to write cohesively and coherently. Teachers' feedback plays a crucial role in improving and enhancing the quality of students' written essays. The aim of the current study was to shed light on…

  10. Two-Year College English: Essays for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Mark, Ed.

    Noting that the nearly 1,400 two-year colleges in the United States enroll almost half of all students in higher education, this collection of essays discusses the students, the curriculum, and the faculty at these colleges. In essence, the collection surveys what is "on the minds" of two-year college English teachers. The essays and their authors…

  11. Automatically Scoring Short Essays for Content. CRESST Report 836

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed response items over multiple choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way is found to score them automatically. Current automatic essay scoring techniques are…

  12. From Journals to Essays: Reading, Writing, Re-Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Devan

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty involved in moving from writing a journal entry toward writing an essay. Uses the background of a trip to Ireland and writing an "Irish" journal as an example. Gives four strategies to use from journal to essay: double-entry notebook, defamiliarization (or "persona switching") techniques, cross-genre writing, and allowing…

  13. Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays. Revised and Enlarged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Gary, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of composition courses, this book provides twelve bibliographic essays covering various aspects of composition studies. The list of essays are as follows: (1) "Recent Developments in Rhetorical Invention" (Richard Young); (2) "Structure and Form in Non-Narrative Prose" (Richard L. Larson); (3) "Approaches to the Study of…

  14. Reliability of Holistic Scoring for the 1985 MCAT Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Anderson, Judith A.

    A pilot essay was included in the 1985 Spring and Fall administrations of the Medical College Admission Test. A sample of 320 of the essays written by Fall examinees who had expressed an interest in allopathic medicine was used to calculate interrater reliability estimates. Sixteen of 20 readers who had been trained by White's suggestions for…

  15. A Crosscultural Analysis of Argumentative Strategies in Student Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    A study of essays on a single topic (capital punishment) written by 22 American high school students and 30 second-year Japanese college students investigated: cultural differences in organizational patterns in argumentative essays; comparative use of rational and affective appeals; differences in content of rational and affective appeals;…

  16. Performance of a Generic Approach in Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of combining and weighting these features into essay scores, and a focus on features that are not…

  17. The Great Excluded: Critical Essays on Children's Literature. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.

    This collection of essays is intended to stimulate writing, teaching, and study of children's literature by humanists. Among the essays are: "Aesop as Litmus: The Acid Test of Children's Literature,""Children's Literature in Old English,""Children's Literature in the Middle Ages,""Pilgrim's Progress as Fairy Tale,""Out of the Ordinary Road: Locke…

  18. The Kind of Schools We Need: Personal Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    This book of essays sets forth Eisner's theories of aesthetic intelligence, or theories that rethink the connections among art, literacy, research, and evaluation. The book is divided into four sections of four essays each. The first section, "Cognition and Representation," explains how the process of education expands and deepens the kinds of…

  19. An interim report on the MCAT Essay Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Koenig, J A; Mitchell, K J

    1988-01-01

    Results from four pilot administrations of the Medical College Admission Test essay question are reported. Analyses focused on (a) the performance characteristics of sample groups differentiated by gender, size of hometown, race/ethnicity, and dominant language; (b) the relationships between essay scores and academic/demographic characteristics; and (c) the reliability of one 45-minute versus two 30-minute essays. No differences were found for examinees grouped by gender and size of home community. Mean differences among the racial/ethnic groups were explained largely by reading level differences. Differences in essay performance by language group were large and unexplained by reading level differences. No relationship was found between the essay score and the academic/demographic characteristics. Reliability estimates for two 30-minute essays were higher than for one 45-minute essay; however, the 30-minute period yielded writing of poorer quality. Test-retest reliabilities for the 45-minute topics will remain the focus of future studies as will performance by examinees for whom English is a second language. The impact of the essay on the selection process will also be assessed. PMID:3336041

  20. Respecting the Pupil. Essays on Teaching Able Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Donald B., Ed.; Cornell, Robert H., Ed.

    This collection of essays deals with teaching secondary school students who are academically gifted. These students have an unusual capacity to accomplish something; they have aptitude in some special areas. They have artistic or physical skills, or they are talented verbally, linguistically, or mathematically. The essays have a broad application,…

  1. The Student's Only Survival Guide to Essay Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Steve; Jensen, Bill

    Designed primarily with the student in mind, this guide focuses on what the student needs to know about essay writing to survive in college. It details a proven, consistent, and effective method for the preparation of undergraduate essays across the disciplines. Not intended as a textbook, the guide speaks directly to the student, providing…

  2. Essays and Explorations: Studies in Ideas, Language, and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Morton W.

    Seventeen reprinted essays and an unpublished one are contained in this collection and organized under five headings: History of Ideas, Approaches to Medieval Literature, Chaucer and Fourteenth-Century English Literature, Language and Linguistics, and Essay-Reviews. Topics discussed include the origin of the concept of the Seven Cardinal Sins;…

  3. The Doctorate in Chemistry. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Ronald

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…

  4. The Word for Teaching Is Learning: Essays for James Britton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Martin, Ed.; Martin, Nancy, Ed.

    Reflecting the influence of James Britton in the field of language and learning, this book--a collection of essays by researchers and practitioners in the area of language and learning--focuses on recent issues of language development in learning. The book contains the following 27 essays: (1) "Social Interaction as Scaffold: The Power and Limits…

  5. Literacy, Language and Community Publishing. Essays in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains an introduction and 11 essays describing reading and writing projects in which adult literacy learners enrolled in the following types of programs participated: adult literacy and/or language classes, refugee groups, oral history and reminiscence projects, and community publishing and writing workshops. The following essays are…

  6. Revisiting the Personal Essay with Ben Hamper's "Rivethead"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The personal essay--a paper in which a student brings in his or her own experience or concerns--is probably familiar to most historians. Teaching at the City University of New York, the author has found grading personal essays somewhat perplexing. They are sometimes written in response to an assignment that does not call for personal reflection.…

  7. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peggy A

    2009-01-01

    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively. PMID:19954422

  8. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  9. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Meguiar (left) presents a scholarship award to Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, one of the winners of an essay contest related to the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. Meguiar and George English (second from right) head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association who sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The other scholarship winner is Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach (far right). A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  10. "Women in Astronomy: an Essay Review"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, M.

    2006-12-01

    Interest in the history of women in astronomy has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. This interest has come from the growing number of professional scientists, historians and feminists researching the lives and work of earlier generations, as well as from amateur astronomers. It is reflected in the vast amount of literature on the subject, both in books and journals, and on the internet. This Essay Review will focus on monographs published in the last 10 years (1996-2006), and will be restricted mainly to pre-20th century women. The scope includes researchers, translators, computers and astronomical assistants as well as observers. Where appropriate, it includes books that discuss the role of women scientists, as well as pure astronomy books. Part 2, to be published later, will consider encyclopaedias and large works of reference .

  11. Jeremy Bentham's essay on "Paederasty". Part 2.

    PubMed

    Crompton, L

    1978-01-01

    This is Part 2 of a transcription of Bentham's manuscript essay on "Paederasty" (1785), Part 1 of which appeared in Vol. 3, No. 4. In Part 1 Bentham argued for the decriminalization of sodomy and opposed the theories of Montesquieu and Voltaire as to its social dangers. In Part 2 Bentham speculates on its causes and alleges that the real reason such behavior is so severely punished is an irrational "antipathy" to pleasure generally and to sexual pleasure in particular. He discusses the danger of blackmail and false accusations and the punishment of lesbian acts, bestiality, and masturbation. Some miscellaneous related notes by Bentham are appended: these deal with religious fears based on the destruction of Sodom, the threat to population, the harshness of English naval law, and other topics. PMID:363935

  12. Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

    PubMed

    Lockie, C; McAleer, S; Mulholland, H; Neighbour, R; Tombleson, P

    1990-11-01

    Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers. PMID:1670201

  13. Essays in the Non-Science Major Astrobiology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2014-06-01

    The non-science major "Life in the Universe" class offers students many opportunities to explore topics such as whether or not to send manned missions to Mars, which jovian moon is a suitable candidate for harboring life, etc. Some of these topics are suited to being offered as projects. At Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL, we offer this general education class every semester to around 40 students. We expect our students to complete three short essays in a semester, instead of doing one or two large projects. The essays enable students to be engaged more deeply with some aspects of the course than is usually possible in the classroom. Some of our essay topics are based on suggestions in the textbook, others have been developed by us. In this poster, we will report on the essay topics and the attitudes of our Fall 2013 and Spring 2014 students to such essays.

  14. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided. PMID:24518584

  15. Calibrated Peer Review Essays Increase Confidence in Self-assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likkel, Lauren

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effect of the web-based tool “Calibrated Peer Review” ™ on student confidence in their ability to recognize the quality of their own work. CPR can be used in large enrollment classes to allow a controlled peer review of moderate length student essays. We expected that teaching students how to grade an essay and having them grade their own work would increase confidence in assessing the quality of their own essays, and the results support this. Three introductory astronomy classes participated in this study during 2005 at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, a four year university. Four essays were assigned in both the experimental class (104 students) and the control classes (34 students). In the comparison classes, the student was given a score on the essay and perhaps a few written comments. The experimental group used the CPR tool, in which they are taught how to evaluate the essay, evaluate assignments written by peers, and evaluate their own essay. Three survey questions were used to characterize the change in confidence level in ability to assess their own work. The survey results from a survey at the end of the semester were compared to results from the same survey administered at the beginning of the semester. A measurable effect on the average confidence level of the experimental class was found. By the final survey, significantly more of the CPR students had changed to a more positive statement in indicating their confidence in evaluating their own written work. There was no effect seen on the classes that wrote essays but did not use the CPR system, showing that this result is due to using the CPR system for the essays, not just writing essays or becoming more confident during the course of the semester.

  16. Two essays on environmental and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner

    The first essay of this dissertation, "estimating non-market economic benefits of using biodiesel fuel: a stochastic double bounded approach", is an attempt to incorporate uncertainty into double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. The double bounded approach, which entails asking respondents a follow-up question after they have answered a first question, has emerged as a means to increase efficiency in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates. However, several studies have found inconsistency between WTP estimates generated by the first and second questions. In this study, it is posited that this inconsistency is due to uncertainty facing the respondents when the second question is introduced. The author seeks to understand whether using a follow-up question in a stochastic format, which allows respondents to express uncertainty, would alleviate the inconsistency problem. In a contingent valuation survey to estimate non-market economic benefits of using more biodiesel vs. petroleum diesel fuel in an airshed encompassing South Eastern and Central Ohio, it is found that the gap between WTP estimates produced by the first and the second questions reduces when respondents are allowed to express uncertainty. The proposed stochastic follow-up approach yields more efficient WTP estimates than the conventional follow-up approach while maintaining efficiency gain over the single bounded model. From a methodological standpoint, this study distinguishes from previous research by being the first to implement a double bounded contingent valuation survey with a stochastic follow-up question. In the second essay, "analyzing the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in developing countries: an instrumental variable panel data approach", instrumental variable panel data techniques are applied to estimate the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in a sample of 73 developing countries from 1970 to 2002. The number of hungry in

  17. Morbus-Locke's early essay on disease.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J

    2000-01-01

    John Locke engaged in a systematic study of medicine from the late 1650's. In this period he acquainted himself with the three main competing natural philosophical theories of the time -Galenism, Paracelsianism and Mechanism. He was particularly interested in the work of Sennert, Helmont and Doyle. In 1666, just after the publication of Boyle's The Origine of Formes and Qualities, Locke wrote a short paper entitled Morbus. This paper gave Locke's own view of the nature of disease. Locke went out of his way to criticise Boyle's attempts to give mechanical explanations for biological phenomena. He endorsed Helmont's theory that disease was caused by "ferments" and "Archei" and re-introduced Galenic temperaments as factors of susceptibility in seminal diseases. Locke did not endorse a mechanical corpuscularianism at this stage in his career, when his contact with Boyle was most frequent. Consequently, Locke's espousal of the corpuscular philosophy in the Essay cannot be attributed to Locke's association with Boyle at this time. PMID:15025079

  18. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  19. Let Every Voice Be Heard: Focus Essays Create Democratic Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Pearl Amelia

    2004-01-01

    Pearl Amelia McHaney provides focus essays for students to develop their thoughts and contribute to meaningful class discussions. Teofilo Ruiz provides three principles to educate his students as per them.

  20. An Overview of Three Approaches to Scoring Written Essays by Computer. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Gagne, Phill

    This digest describes the three most prominent approaches to essay scoring by computer: (1) Project Essay Grade (PEG), introduced by E. Page in 1966; (2) Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), introduced for essay grading in 1997 by T. Landauer and P. Foltz; and (3) e-rater, used by the Educational Testing Service and developed by J. Burstein. PEG…

  1. The Application of the Cumulative Logistic Regression Model to Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the performances of the linear regression model and the cumulative logit model was performed on a…

  2. On-Line Grading of Student Essays: PEG Goes on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard R.; Olson, Jennifer; Harrington, Susanmarie

    2001-01-01

    Examined Project Essay Grade (PEG) software for evaluating Web-based student essays that serve as placement tests. In the first experiment, a sample of student essays was used to create a statistical model for the PEG software; the second experiment compared computer and human ratings of essays. Found that the software is an efficient means for…

  3. Does Quantity Equal Quality?: The Relationship between Length of Response and Scores on the SAT Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Deng, Hui; Shaw, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to address two frequent criticisms of the SAT essay--that essay length is the best predictor of scores, and that there is an advantage in using more "sophisticated" examples as opposed to personal experience. The study was based on 2,820 essays from the first three administrations of the new SAT. Each essay was coded for…

  4. What Price Presentation? The Effects of Typographic Variables on Essay Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Brodie, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The marks awarded to 130 second year undergraduate word processed essays were assessed in relation to their use of different typographic features. By and large most of these features had little effect on the essay grades. However, essays printed in 12-point type gained significantly higher marks (mean = 56.8) than essays printed in 10-point type…

  5. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  6. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  7. Beyond Essay Length: Evaluating e-rater[R]'s Performance on TOEFL[R] Essays. Research Reports. Report 73. RR-04-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodorow, Martin; Burstein, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between essay length and holistic scores assigned to Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) essays by e-rater[R], the automated essay scoring system developed by ETS. Results show that an early version of the system, e-rater99, accounted for little variance in human reader scores beyond that which…

  8. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    .S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and provide the first quantitative evidence that technology transfer agreements at the Labs lead to greatly increased rates of innovation spillovers. This chapter also makes a key methodological contribution by introducing a technique to utilize automated text analysis in an empirical matching design that is broadly applicable to other types of social science studies. This work has important implications for how policies should be designed to maximize the social benefits of the $125 billion in annual federal funding allocated to research and development and the extent to which private firms can benefit from technology partnerships with the government. The final chapter of this dissertation explores the effectiveness of international policy to facilitate the deployment of low-emitting energy technologies in developing countries. Together with Joern Huenteler, I examine wind energy deployment in China supported through international climate finance flows under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. Utilizing a project-level financial model of wind energy projects parameterized with high-resolution observations of Chinese wind speeds, we find that the environmental benefits of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism are substantially lower than reported, as many Chinese wind projects would have been built without the Mechanism's support, and thus do not represent additional clean energy generation. Together, the essays in this dissertation suggest several limitations of energy technology innovation policy and areas for reform. Public funds for energy research and development could be made more effective if decision making approaches were better grounded in available technical expertise and developed in framework that captures the important interactions of technologies in a research and development portfolio. The first chapter of this dissertation suggests a politically feasible path towards this type of

  9. Essays in petroleum futures market, convenience yield, and long memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Ataollah

    This thesis is a collection of three essays which address some empirical applications of long memory processes with specific interest in financial economics of energy futures market. The first essay 'Evidence of Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' studies evidence of long memory in the energy market using daily and weekly futures data. This essay concentrates on the question of interdependence between crude oil futures and the corresponding products. The empirical results provide strong support for long memory in the energy futures market. The cointegrating relations between crude oil and heating oil futures as well as crude oil and unleaded gasoline futures exhibit long memory, whereas the individual series are unit-root. The second essay 'Convenience Yield, Mean Reversion and Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' analyzes convenience yields in the petroleum market. The focus of this essay is the behavior of the spot and futures prices over the long run. The implied convenience yield for petroleum and petroleum products is found to be driven by a nonstationary and mean reverting long memory process. The theoretical implication of this finding is established. It is discussed that this might be attributed to the fact that the market is expecting mean reversion in the spot prices. Furthermore, the volatility process and its relation with the mean process and the corresponding direction of causality have been studied in detail. The third essay 'Long Memory and Conditional Heteroskedasticity, A Monte Carlo Investigation', unlike the first two, looks at the econometrics of the estimators of the long memory process. It evaluates performance of three methods of estimating the parameter of fractionally integrated noise: the exact maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), the quasi maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE), and the GPH under different realizations for variance.

  10. Essays on strategy: hostage rescue planning; maritime theater nuclear capability; strategic psychological operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, R.F.; Thomas, R.E.; Kriesel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The essays in the volume won recognition in the 1984 Joint Chiefs of Staff Strategy Essay Competition. The volume contains three essays. The author of the first essay considers the requirements for successful planning of hostage rescues, specifically reviewing the Son Tay raid, the Mayaguez crisis, the Entebbe rescue, and the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. The author of the second essay looks at the US Navy's capability for maritime theater nuclear warfare, identifying problems and recommending improvements. The author of the third essay finds the United States lacking a national-level mechanism for coordinating military psychological operations and proposes a way to remedy the problem.

  11. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    .S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and provide the first quantitative evidence that technology transfer agreements at the Labs lead to greatly increased rates of innovation spillovers. This chapter also makes a key methodological contribution by introducing a technique to utilize automated text analysis in an empirical matching design that is broadly applicable to other types of social science studies. This work has important implications for how policies should be designed to maximize the social benefits of the $125 billion in annual federal funding allocated to research and development and the extent to which private firms can benefit from technology partnerships with the government. The final chapter of this dissertation explores the effectiveness of international policy to facilitate the deployment of low-emitting energy technologies in developing countries. Together with Joern Huenteler, I examine wind energy deployment in China supported through international climate finance flows under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. Utilizing a project-level financial model of wind energy projects parameterized with high-resolution observations of Chinese wind speeds, we find that the environmental benefits of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism are substantially lower than reported, as many Chinese wind projects would have been built without the Mechanism's support, and thus do not represent additional clean energy generation. Together, the essays in this dissertation suggest several limitations of energy technology innovation policy and areas for reform. Public funds for energy research and development could be made more effective if decision making approaches were better grounded in available technical expertise and developed in framework that captures the important interactions of technologies in a research and development portfolio. The first chapter of this dissertation suggests a politically feasible path towards this type of

  12. Moving Youth from Risk to Opportunity. KIDS COUNT 2004 Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This essay, taken from the 2004 KIDS COUNT Data Book, focuses on the issues surrounding America's most at-risk young adults. For most American youth, the transition to adulthood inspires a mix of excitement and high anxiety. There is excitement about taking steps to realize emerging dreams, aspirations, and possibilities. Yet there is anxiety…

  13. Thoreau: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sherman, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sherman Paul, William Butler Yeats, Lewis Mumford, Max Lerner, Stanley Edgar Hyman, Leo Stoller, F. O. Matthiessen, William Drake, R. W. B. Lewis, Heinz Eulau, Henry W. Wells, Edwin S. Fussell, Laurence Stapleton, and…

  14. Keats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Walter Jackson, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Walter Jackson Bate, T. S. Eliot, Douglas Bush, Richard H. Fogle, Jack Stillinger, Harold Bloom, David Perkins, Earl Wasserman, and D. G. James--all dealing with the biography and literary work of John Keats. Designed for…

  15. Fielding: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Paulson, A. R. Humphreys, Winfield H. Rogers, Ian Watt, Maynard Mack, Mark Spilka, Aurelien Digeon, Andre Gide, Arnold Kettle, John Middleton Murry, William Empson, George Sherburn, and John S. Coolidge--all…

  16. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    Calling for a radical reexamination of the traditional foundation of composition instruction--the thesis/support form, this book argues that the essay, with its informality, conversational tone, meditative mood, and integration of form and content, is better suited to developmental, epistemological, ideological, and feminist rhetorical…

  17. Speaking in Many Tongues: Essays in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M.

    This collection of 10 essays on the nature of second language learning focuses mainly on distinctions between the audiolingual and the cognitive-code theory of learning and also on the interrelationships between psychology, linguistics, and second language learning. A synthesis which cuts across divisions in methodology, caused by superficial…

  18. Three Epiphanic Fragments: Education and the Essay in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, David

    2014-01-01

    Pádraig Hogan has argued for a powerful conception of education as epiphany that is illuminated by the work of Heidegger and Joyce. But what are we to make of Stephen Dedalus' intention (pretension?) to "Remember your epiphanies"? Developing the phenomenological Erinnerungsversuch or "essay in memory" of David Farrell…

  19. Byron: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by G. Wilson Knight, Bernard Blackstone, Mario Praz, Paul West, Guy Steffan, F. R. Leavis, W. W. Robson, Helen Gardner, George M. Ridenour, Edmund Wilson, Gilbert Highet, Bertrand Russell, and John Wain--all dealing with the…

  20. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  1. Black Studies in the United States. Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; And Others

    Three essays are presented that discuss, in general terms, information that was collected in 1987-88 concerning the current status of black studies in the United States. The researchers were invited to survey selected black studies departments, programs, institutes, and centers judged to be representative of the structural diversity and…

  2. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  3. Training in Industrial Technology: A Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    Prepared as part of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum's efforts to explore issues related to economic development and technology training, the three essays in this collection describe industrial training efforts at community colleges, focusing on partnerships with the private sector, programs targeted at women, and the use of…

  4. Certainty Judgements and the Status of Propositions in Undergraduate Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew Mei, Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the expression of certainty in a set of high- and low-rated Geography argumentative essays. Using one aspect of Hunston's (1989, 2000) concept of the evaluation of status, the paper compares the statement types used to construe the writer's expression of certainty in the construction of arguments. Drawing on the…

  5. The Oldest Cave Art: An Essay on Giftedness and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Maureen; White, David A.

    1996-01-01

    This essay examines issues of giftedness and excellence, beginning with classical references to human striving toward the "good," the attraction of gifted children to quality, and the recent discovery of the oldest known cave art with its manifest excellence. Classroom activities related to cave art and language arts, social studies, sciences,…

  6. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  7. Mass Media and the National Experience; Essays in Communications History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Ronald T., Ed.; Stevens, John D., Ed.

    In 11 different essays, journalism historians reflect on the present state of their art and suggest ways and means of doing the important work that lies ahead. Areas of productive research suggested include freedom of expression, politics and economics, technology regionalism, Black journalism, the journalist as social critic, photographic…

  8. A Sense of Story: Essays on Contemporary Writers for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    This is an introduction to the work of 19 contemporary English-language writers for children. It consists of critical essays on the works of Joan Aiken, L. M. Boston, H. F. Brinsmead, John Christopher, Helen Cresswell, Meindert DeJong, Eleanor Estes, Paula Fox, Leon Garfield, Alan Garner, Madeleine L'Engle, William Mayne, Andre Norton, Scott…

  9. Tough Love for Schools: Essays on Competition, Accountability, and Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2006-01-01

    The author forthrightly declares in this book of essays on school reform that teachers are no more saintly than anyone else, that poor schools should be closed and lousy teachers should be fired, that philanthropy may sometimes do more harm than good, that teaching experience is not essential to being a school principal, that schools should be…

  10. Essays of a peripheral mind: An opinion on policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strengthening the connections between science and policy is critical if science is to have meaningful impacts. Policy is often primarily based on arrays of opinion and experience. Science typically shapes some of these opinions. This essay addresses characteristics of science and its communicatio...

  11. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  12. The Order of Learning: Essays on the Contemporary University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shils, Edward

    The 14 essays in this book, written from 1938 through 1995, examine the modern research university, focusing on the relationship of these institutions to government, academic freedom, and the responsibilities of the academic profession. The book contends that the university has been deflected from its essential commitment to teaching, learning,…

  13. John Brown's Elementa Medicinae: An Introductory Bibliographical Essay *

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    This Gottlieb essay reports the initial findings of an in-progress bibliographic study of the Elementa Medicinae of the eighteenth century Scottish physician, John Brown (1735-1788). The bibliographic history of each of the three pivotal London editions of 1788, 1795, and 1804 is described in detail; Mexican, German, and American editions are also described. Images PMID:7052167

  14. The Unlikelihood of Family: A Photographic Essay on Transnational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Cristina Llerena

    2015-01-01

    In this photo essay, Cristina Llerena Navarro captures moments in the everyday lives of mixed-status families. Through her narrative and images, Llerena shares the stories of these families, their journeys to the United States as well as the consequences of deportation on the family unity. She evokes the children's deep yearning to be reunited…

  15. The Experience of Knowledge. Essays on American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John Fentress

    Part one of this book of essays concerns the need to bring thinking to life and the need for a spiritual concept of man. It argues that both traditional and progressive educators fail children in by not giving them a full sense of their humanity. It denies a conception of the universe divorced from idealism and founded only in scientific inquiry.…

  16. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  17. Writing at Century's End: Essays on Computer-Assisted Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Lisa, Ed.

    Most of the essays in this collection originated as presentations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Conference on Computers and Writing, held in May 1985. Issues addressed in the volume range from concrete, practical considerations (such as designing classroom exercises) to political and theoretical ones (such as the instructor's…

  18. Rhetoric as Preventive Medicine: The Essays of E. M. Forster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuiness, Ilona M.

    Through the art of the essay, as conceived by E. M. Forster, Virginia Woolf and others, college readers and writers can play a role in the continual weaving of the fabric of civilization--not by delivering lessons, or sermons, or polemical arguments, but by participating in the essayistic dialogue about what comprises a healthy human community…

  19. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  20. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Four essays on U.S. government documents address the didactic nature of many government publications; the reliability of government information and statistics on energy, crime, consumer prices, and unemployment; user needs and access to government information; and sources and services for science and technology libraries. (EM)

  1. The Barbarian within and Other Fugitive Essays and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    The fifteen essays collected here are grouped under three sections, each dealing with a different, but related theme. The first section, exploring the relationship of literature to the human being, includes "The Jinnee in the Well Wrought Urn,""A Dialectic of Aural and Objective Correlatives,""Metaphor and the Twinned Vision," and"Voice as Summons…

  2. The Analysis of Essays by Computer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Ellis B.; Paulus, Dieter H.

    This study aimed at expanding a new field of educational measurement, by investigating the feasibility of using computer programs for the automatic analysis and evaluation of student writing. Essays written by secondary students in their English classes were rated by multiple independent judges on a number of traits usually considered important:…

  3. Emerging as a Scholar Practitioner: A Reflective Essay Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nganga, Christine W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author interrogated who she is as a scholar practitioner and integrated three texts. Using some salient features from these texts, she framed her identity development around the theme of affirming encounters. These affirming encounters created spaces for personal and professional growth as a scholar practitioner while…

  4. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  5. Melville: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Richard Chase, D. H. Lawrence, Newton Arvin, Alfred Kazin, Henry A. Murray, R. P. Blackmur, Marius Bewley, Richard Harter Fogle, Daniel G. Hoffman, Robert Penn Warren, and F. O. Matthiessen--all dealing with the biography…

  6. Essays on the Economics of Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Arce Novaro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in the economics of education with an empirical focus on Mexico. The first two chapters study a college in Mexico whose admission decisions are made through a lottery. Some applicants are randomly assigned into a group that can immediately enroll and the rest into a group that can only do so after waiting…

  7. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part III--Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The third in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course, this article is dedicated to the treatment of inventory and its related conceptual connections. In addition, this paper addresses inventory measurement dilemmas, describes scandalous accounting episodes that have made the headlines, and…

  8. Assessing Student Writing: The Self-Revised Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano-King, Janine

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to assess student writing in a way that reflects current views of writing (i.e., as a social process supported by the interaction of a number of cognitive sub-processes), and yet still seeks to determine what students can do independently, it has become a common practice to include timed essays in student portfolios. However, this…

  9. Essays on Government Documents and Public Policies (5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Six essays describe the Pentagon's magazine publishing empire, how the Reagan Administration's "War on Waste" eliminated both substantive and frivolous publications, the employment outlook for librarians in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the 1979 Yearbook on Agriculture, the often unintelligible language of government documents, and the…

  10. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

  11. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  12. The Mimbres: Art and Archeology. A Reprint of Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewkes, Jesse Walter

    This book contains reprints of three essays by Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) on the pottery of the prehistoric Mimbres Indians. The three papers were originally published by the Smithsonian Institution between 1914 and 1924. The first, "Archeology of the Lower Mimbres Valley, New Mexico," examines historical references to ancient Indian…

  13. Hesse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection contains essays by Thomas Mann, Andre Gide, Martin Buber, Ernst Robert Curtius, Oskar Seidlin, Hans Mayer, G. W. Field, Jeffrey Sammons, and the editor, Theodore Ziolkowski--all dealing with the biography and literary work of Hermann Hesse.…

  14. Language and Teaching: Essays in Honor of W. Wilbur Hatfield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Virginia, Ed.

    This collection of 10 essays is concerned with the leadership and current trends in English language teaching. Specific topics of papers are (1) W. Wilbur Hatfield as "The Pattern Maker," by James Mason, (2) Hatfield as an innovator in the teaching of literature and language, by Irwin Suloway, (3) "Changes in English Teaching in the Past Decades,"…

  15. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part V--Intangible Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article represents the fifth in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course and investigates the accounting treatment and related conceptual connections for intangibles. In addition, intangibles present unique accounting issues, conceptual challenges, and measurement dilemmas not found…

  16. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing versus Revisiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition…

  17. Proust: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Girard, Robert Vigneron, Henri Peyre, Jacques Riviere, Albert Thibaudet, Walter A. Strauss, Germaine Bree, Georges Cattaui, Elliott Coleman, Leo Spitzer, Richard Macksey, Robert Champigny, Charles Du Bos, Ramon…

  18. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  19. Essays on Pricing of Information Goods and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Atanu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that examine, in three specific contexts, issues related to pricing of information goods and services. As the ability to measure technology resource usage gets easier with increased connectivity, the question whether a technology resource should be priced by the amount of the resource used or by the…

  20. Cosmopolitanism and Peace in Kant's Essay on "Perpetual Peace"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggler, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever…

  1. Coherence, Cohesion and Comments on Students' Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard Watson; Khongput, Somreudee; Darasawang, Pornapit

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between connectedness in discourse and the in-text comments that tutors write on postgraduate essays at a Thai university. Connectedness was divided into cohesion, propositional coherence and interactional coherence which were analysed using Hoey's lexical analysis [Hoey, M. (1991). "Patterns of lexis in…

  2. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  3. Communicating Evaluation Findings: The Use of a Chart Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. Kathryn; And Others

    The experience of the research and evaluation department in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District in pioneering the use of a policy-oriented report to communicate evaluation findings is described. The report--the chart essay--replaced a methods-oriented report. In restructuring the methods-oriented report into a policy-oriented report,…

  4. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  5. Sources of Social Control in School: A Speculative Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Burke, William I.

    1980-01-01

    This essay attempts to demonstrate that age segregation and subject matter specialization are two important supports of the authority of teachers and the school's ability to control students. Therefore, efforts to change these organizational patterns without considering alternative means of establishing control are doomed to failure. (Author/SJL)

  6. As We Are Now: Mixblood Essays on Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, William S., Ed.

    The narrative essays in this collection offer a vision of the race and identity of Native Americans, focusing on American Indians that have grown up in cities and towns. It is a unique collection in that it represents the ways that mixed blood people ("mixbloods") envision Indian race and heritage. It is also unique in that it extends the…

  7. Teaching: What We Do. Essays by Amherst College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amherst Coll., MA.

    In this book, 14 members of the Amherst College faculty write on the subject of teaching: how they teach; what comprises their own research; and what kind of relationship between the two they fashion in their lives. Essays and their authors are as follows: "English and the Promise of Happiness" (Benjamin DeMott); "The Dragon" (George Greenstein);…

  8. Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Erich, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Erich Segal, William Arrowsmith, G. M. A. Grube, Anne Pippin Burnett, Eilhard Schlesinger, Bernard M. W. Knox, Eric A. Havelock, Jean-Paul Sartre, Christian Wolff, and Thomas G. Rosenmeyer--all dealing with the plays of…

  9. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  10. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  11. Timed Essay Writing: Implications for High-Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Davis, Mark; Chalk, Jill C.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of high-stakes tests from elementary school through postsecondary education include the timed impromptu essay as a measure of writing performance. For adolescents with writing disorders, this type of evaluation often presents a significant barrier. The purpose of the current study was twofold. First, we investigated the influence of…

  12. Review Essay: Recent Additions to the Rosenwald Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilke, Jayne R.

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on Julius Rosenwald and the Rosenwald Fund and places them within the historiography of the Fund. "Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South," is a biography written by Peter M. Ascoli. The book entitled "The Rosenwald Schools of the American…

  13. Essays of a peripheral mind: clean and simple, but stupid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands of the U.S. are still providing basic provisionary sciences, such as food production, that they have over the past 150 years. However, these services are diminishing as Americans demand other products form these landscapes. This essay discusses a specific example of the demand for recre...

  14. Hemingway; A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Robert P., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Lillian Ross, Malcolm Crowley, E.M. Halliday, Harry Levin, Leslie Fiedler, D.H. Lawrence, Philip Young, Sean O'Faolain, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, Carlos Baker, Mark Spilka, Ray B. West, Jr., Nemi D'Agostino,…

  15. Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetz, Peter, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sergey Tretiakov, Hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hannah Arendt, Eric Bentley, Oscar Budel, Ernst Schumacher, I. Fradkin, Hans Egon Holthusen, Gunter Rohrmoser, Walter H. Sokol, Franz Norbert…

  16. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  17. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  18. Re-Conceiving the Five-Paragraph Essay in an Era of Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the arguments for and against teaching the traditional five-paragraph essay model. Describes a teaching approach in which students critically examine these arguments while learning the principle features of the five-paragraph essay. (SR)

  19. A Comparison of a Multiple Choice and an Essay Test of Writing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer; Ramsdell, Rae

    1982-01-01

    The test scores of college freshmen given both a multiple choice test and an essay test of writing skills were compared to assess the validity of a multiple choice test compared with an essay test. (HOD)

  20. Informative, Compare and Contrast, and Persuasive Essay Composing of Fifth and Seventh Graders: Not All Essay Writing Is the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing writers in fifth (n = 110, M = 10 years 8 months) or seventh (n = 97, M = 12 years 7 months) grade wrote informative, compare and contrast, and persuasive essays for which the content was held constant--two mountains with a history of volcanic eruption. Relevant background knowledge was provided by reading text and showing…

  1. What Made Your Essay Successful? I "T.A.C.K.L.E.D" the Essay Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in Singapore, Tze Kwang Teo cannot conceive of a history teacher unfamiliar with the mnemonic "PEE" (or "PEEL") used to structure students' essays. Its ubiquity is testimony to its power, reminding students both to explain and to substantiate their claims. Yet, as Foster and Gadd have argued, its neat formulation can…

  2. Concepts for Care: 20 Essays on Infant/Toddler Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald, Ed.; Mangione, Peter L., Ed.; Greenwald, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Leading experts in infant/toddler development have contributed succinct essays drawn from research, theory, clinical case studies, and carefully documented practice. Each essay represents current thinking in the field of infant/toddler development and care. Individually and as a collection, the essays provide a springboard for reflection,…

  3. Variability in ESL Essay Rating Processes: The Role of the Rating Scale and Rater Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols…

  4. President Lincoln and His Vice-Presidents. Lincoln Era Essay Contest Eleventh Annual Winners-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, William, Ed.

    Sponsored by an endowment to Indiana University, the Lincoln Era Essay Contest has been held since 1982. Students in grades 6 to 12 may submit essays that address some topic dealing with Abraham Lincoln's presidency. A new topic is chosen each year. Written by middle school/junior high and high school students, this year's 19 essays concern…

  5. Influence of Cultural Norms and Collaborative Discussions on Children's Reflective Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Il-Hee; Anderson, Richard C.; Miller, Brian; Jeong, Jongseong; Swim, Terri

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and discussion participation on rhetorical patterns in the reflective essays of 238 Korean and 196 American 4th-graders. Results showed significant differences between Korean children's essays and American children's essays in types of reasons, uses of argument elements, and uses of rhetorical…

  6. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  7. An Overview of Three Approaches to Scoring Written Essays by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Gagne, Phill

    2001-01-01

    Describes the three most promising approaches to essay scoring by computer: (1) Project Essay Grade (PEG; E. Page, 1966); (2) Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA; T. Landauer, 1997); and (3) E-rater (J. Burstein, Educational Testing Service). All of these proprietary systems return grades that correlate meaningfully with those of human raters. (SLD)

  8. Bitten By The Biology Bug. Monograph VI. Essays from "The American Biology Teacher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    A collection of 18 essays originally published in "The American Biology Teacher" in a column headed "Biology Today" are presented. The essays have been reprinted in chronological order and begin with an essay published in March 1982. A variety of types of writings were selected: some focus on teaching biology, others on the science itself. Several…

  9. Three Essays on Teacher Education Programs and Test-Takers' Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation includes three essays: one essay focuses on the effect of teacher preparation programs on teacher knowledge while the other two focus on test-takers' response times on test items. Essay One addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher preparation programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers'…

  10. GED Essay Writing: Writing with Spirit. A Notebook for GED Writing Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Rosalie; Barreiro, Mathilda

    This guide was developed to help teachers prepare adult students for the essay writing section of the General Educational Development (GED) tests. It informs teachers of what is expected of students on the essay section of the GED examination, and leads them through the writing process in preparation for teaching students how to write an essay.…

  11. Effects of Marking Method and Rater Experience on ESL Essay Scores and Rater Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL (English as a Second Language) essay test scores and rater performance. Each of 31 novice and 29 experienced raters rated a sample of ESL essays both holistically and analytically. Essay scores were analysed using a multi-faceted Rasch model to compare test-takers'…

  12. Effectiveness of An Essay Writing Strategy for Post-Secondary Students with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Shaw, Julia W.; Hughes, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the ANSWER Strategy (Hughes, Schumaker, & Deshler, 2005) in improving the essay composition skills of post-secondary students with developmental disabilities. The six-step strategy incorporated analyzing essay prompts, creating an outline, generating an essay response, and reviewing the answer. The students…

  13. Gender, "Bias", Assessment and Feedback: Analyzing the Written Assessment of Undergraduate History Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Robson, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on findings relating to a project on gender and essay assessment in HE. It focuses on one aspect of the study: the assessment of and feedback given to two sample essays by 50 historians based at universities in England and Wales. We found considerable variation both as to the classification awarded to the essays and to positive…

  14. Calibrated Peer Review Essays Increase Student Confidence in Assessing Their Own Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likkel, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The online writing software Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a useful tool for assigning writing assignments in large college classes. In this system, students submit essays online and are guided in how to rate essays using criteria written by the instructor. The instructor does not have to grade the essays, and CPR has educational benefits that…

  15. Design of an Automated Essay Grading (AEG) System in Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Fatima, Sameen S.

    2007-01-01

    Automated essay grading or scoring systems are no more a myth, but they are a reality. As of today, the human written (not hand written) essays are corrected not only by examiners/teachers but also by machines. The TOEFL exam is one of the best examples of this application. The students' essays are evaluated both by human and web based automated…

  16. The Association between SAT Prompt Characteristics, Response Features, and Essay Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Deng, Hui; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of prompt characteristics and response features with essay scores on the SAT Reasoning Test. A sample of essays was coded on a variety of features regarding their length and content. Analyses included descriptive statistics and computation of effect sizes, correlations between essay features and scores, and…

  17. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  18. Essays on pricing electricity and electricity derivatives in deregulated markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Julia

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation is composed of four essays on the behavior of wholesale electricity prices and their derivatives. The first essay provides an empirical model that takes into account the spatial features of a transmission network on the electricity market. The spatial structure of the transmission grid plays a key role in determining electricity prices, but it has not been incorporated into previous empirical models. The econometric model in this essay incorporates a simple representation of the transmission system into a spatial panel data model of electricity prices, and also accounts for the effect of dynamic transmission system constraints on electricity market integration. Empirical results using PJM data confirm the existence of spatial patterns in electricity prices and show that spatial correlation diminishes as transmission lines become more congested. The second essay develops and empirically tests a model of the influence of natural gas storage inventories on the electricity forward premium. I link a model of the effect of gas storage constraints on the higher moments of the distribution of electricity prices to a model of the effect of those moments on the forward premium. Empirical results using PJM data support the model's predictions that gas storage inventories sharply reduce the electricity forward premium when demand for electricity is high and space-heating demand for gas is low. The third essay examines the efficiency of PJM electricity markets. A market is efficient if prices reflect all relevant information, so that prices follow a random walk. The hypothesis of random walk is examined using empirical tests, including the Portmanteau, Augmented Dickey-Fuller, KPSS, and multiple variance ratio tests. The results are mixed though evidence of some level of market efficiency is found. The last essay investigates the possibility that previous researchers have drawn spurious conclusions based on classical unit root tests incorrectly applied to

  19. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  20. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  1. Essays on the behavior of the oil market and OPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algudhea, Salim

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay is mainly concerned with investigating the risk-responsive behavior of OPEC members. Economic theory suggests that producers respond to the risk of volatile price by lowering production level. In the case of OPEC, the risk of the volatility in the price of crude oil does not seem to be a key determinant in the production decision-making process. Engineering constraints, data frequency, and political consideration may be the main causes of such a result. In the second essay, we tested the presence of the asymmetric adjustment in the cheating behavior as a result of crude oil price shocks. We utilize a set of cointegration and error correction methods that do not assume a linear adjustment to test whether cheaters within OPEC respond more to positive or negative crude oil price shocks. We conclude that cheaters respond more to negative shocks than positive shocks in oil price. The inelastic nature of demand for oil seems to play a crucial role in such asymmetric behavior. When there is a negative price shock, OPEC producers compensate for the loss in revenue by overproducing (i.e. cheat). Yet, if there is a positive shock in the price of crude oil, OPEC producers have less incentive to overproduce because of the inelastic demand for oil. The third essay is concerned with testing for the asymmetric adjustment in gasoline prices in the U.S. We consider a Momentum Threshold Autoregressive (MTAR) process to test for the asymmetric adjustment in all of the possible stages that a gallon of gasoline goes through in order to find the source of asymmetry. Then, we examine the dynamics of gasoline prices using asymmetric error correction models based on the MTAR specifications. We find the asymmetric adjustment present in all stages. The asymmetry in the retail stage seems to be the result of insufficient demand faced by retailers.

  2. Malignant hyperechoic breast lesions at ultrasound: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Tiang, Stephen; Metcalf, Cecily; Dissanayake, Deepthi; Wylie, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Malignant breast lesions are typically hypoechoic at sonography. However, a small subgroup of hyperechoic malignant breast lesions is encountered in clinical practice. We present a pictorial essay of a number of different hyperechoic breast malignancies with mammographic, sonographic and histopathologic correlation. Suspicious sonographic features in a hyperechoic lesion include inhomogeneity in echogenic pattern, an irregular margin, posterior acoustic shadowing and internal vascularity. A hyperechoic lesion at ultrasound does not discount the need to undertake histological assessment of a mammographically suspicious lesion. PMID:27216965

  3. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  4. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A J; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C Niek

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the ankle are grouped, depending on their anatomic orientation, and each of the ankle ligaments is discussed in detail. PMID:27052302

  5. Effectiveness of student admission essays in identifying attrition.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Judith

    2003-11-01

    Nursing school admission selection processes exist to select the "best and brightest" applicants assuming that those selected will be successful. However, attrition occurs. Effectiveness of grade point averages (GPAs) and test scores have been reported, while the effectiveness of essays in predicting attrition in undergraduate nursing education has not been reported in the literature. For the purposes of this study, attrition was defined as students enrolled in courses following acceptance into the program who did not complete the program. Data from a retrospective longitudinal sample including 236 students from one baccalaureate nursing program were analyzed for differences between students who completed the program ("completers", n=193) and those who dropped out ("non-completers", n=43). t-tests between the group mean essay scores revealed a statistical difference (t=2.092, p=0.043), while there was no statistical difference (t=0.22, p=ns) between the mean admission GPAs of the groups. Content analysis revealed thematic differences in the essays. Non-completers tended to write about nursing as external to themselves, in contrast to the completers who described an internalization of the role. Answers to questions of motivation for entering nursing and personal experience with a nurse may provide helpful information in selecting those students most likely to complete the program. PMID:14554116

  6. Assessing the use of multiple sources in student essays.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Peter; Hughes, Simon; Magliano, Joseph P; Goldman, Susan R; Lawless, Kimberly

    2012-09-01

    The present study explored different approaches for automatically scoring student essays that were written on the basis of multiple texts. Specifically, these approaches were developed to classify whether or not important elements of the texts were present in the essays. The first was a simple pattern-matching approach called "multi-word" that allowed for flexible matching of words and phrases in the sentences. The second technique was latent semantic analysis (LSA), which was used to compare student sentences to original source sentences using its high-dimensional vector-based representation. Finally, the third was a machine-learning technique, support vector machines, which learned a classification scheme from the corpus. The results of the study suggested that the LSA-based system was superior for detecting the presence of explicit content from the texts, but the multi-word pattern-matching approach was better for detecting inferences outside or across texts. These results suggest that the best approach for analyzing essays of this nature should draw upon multiple natural language processing approaches. PMID:22653561

  7. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing Versus Revisiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-12-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition where they criticized an explanation or the revisit condition where they reviewed visualizations. Within each condition, the student was assigned one of two types of tailored guidance based on the sophistication of their original essay. Both forms of guidance led to significant improvement in student understanding on the posttest. Guidance was more effective for students with low prior knowledge than for those with high prior knowledge (consistent with regression toward the mean). However, analysis of student responses to the guidance illustrates the value of aligning guidance with prior knowledge. All students were required to revise their essay as an embedded assessment. While effective, teachers involved in this study reported that revising is resisted by students and does not align with typical, vocabulary-focused classroom writing activities.

  8. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  9. Can Online Peer Review Assignments Replace Essays in Third Year University Courses? And If So, What Are the Challenges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Essays are a traditional component of the course requirements in many post-secondary courses. However, the practical and pedagogical disadvantages of essays are significant. These include the increasing ease with which essays can be plagiarized, the lack of peer involvement in the traditional essay submission and feedback process, the usual lack…

  10. A Differential Word Use Measure for Content Analysis in Automated Essay Scoring. Research Report. ETS RR-11-36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative content measure for essay scoring, based on the "difference" in the relative frequency of a word in high-scored versus low-scored essays. The "differential word use" (DWU) measure is the average of these differences across all words in the essay. A positive value indicates the essay is using vocabulary more…

  11. The SAT® Essay and College Performance: Understanding What Essay Scores Add to HSGPA and SAT. Research Report 2012-9 (REV: 4-2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between students' SAT essay scores and college outcomes, including first-year grade point average (FYGPA) and first-year English course grade average (FY EngGPA), overall and by various demographic and academic performance subgroups. Results showed that the SAT essay score has a positive relationship with both…

  12. Characteristic imaging features of body packers: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ab Hamid, Suzana; Abd Rashid, Saiful Nizam; Mohd Saini, Suraini

    2012-06-01

    The drug-trafficking business has risen tremendously because of the current increased demand for illegal narcotics. The smugglers conceal the drugs in their bodies (body packers) in order to bypass the tight security at international borders. A suspected body packer will normally be sent to the hospital for imaging investigations to confirm the presence of drugs in the body. Radiologists, therefore, need to be familiar with and able to identify drug packets within the human body because they shoulder the legal responsibilities. This pictorial essay describes the characteristic imaging features of drug packets within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:22415809

  13. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Of Comets and Meteors.

    PubMed

    Whipple, F L

    2000-08-01

    Fred L. Whipple was born in Iowa in 1906. During his career as an astronomer, he discovered six comets and advanced the study of comets and meteors. He has encouraged amateur astronomers and advised many U.S. governmental and scientific agencies. He deduced that comets consist of ice and dust from observing that their orbits and timing change slightly through the gas vaporization from the ices. In this essay, he recounts highlights of his career, including developing radar-disrupting chaff and the promise of the global positioning system. PMID:17819566

  14. Defense of Europe: a European perception. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Vlis, A.K.

    1984-04-01

    Since its foundation in 1949 NATO has achieved remarkable success: the prevention of war with the Warsaw Pact. However, the continuation of relative peace in Europe is not assured. One of the present, disturbing developments is the decline of the cohesiveness of the Alliance. Different perspectives on the defense of Europe in the United States in the European countries are the main cause for this decline and are not well understood. This essay describes the European perception of NATO as a whole and the European perspectives on the nuclear and conventional aspects of the defense of Europe. The distinction between nuclear and conventional defense demonstrates the European perspective. Important aspects of the role of Europe in NATO in relation to the position and interests of the United States are discussed. Misunderstandings exist in this relationship on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, which in turn render limitations upon Europe in its efforts to reinforce the European pillar of NATO. The essay concludes with a short and long term outlook on the future of NATO. Three subjects directly related to the future of the defense of Europe and of NATO are presented. These are: (1) Alternatives to the defense of Europe; (2) Implications of new technological developments; (3) Improvement of conventional capabilities.

  15. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  16. Contextual essay for integrated thematic unit: Kids, Quarks, and Quanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draeger, Vicki Lee

    This essay provides the research and rationale to support the theory that early adolescence is the best time to present an introduction to quantum mechanics. It supports the creation of an integrated thematic unit to be used with students ages 11--14 in an inclusion classroom without limiting the unit to only an inclusion setting. The first section sets forth five problems the unit was written to address. Citing The National Center for Education Statistics 2000 version of The Nation's Report Card, the problems with current practices in science education resulting in poor student performance are presented. References to Project 2061: Science for All Americans help to demonstrate that students with disabilities are seldom considered when physical science curriculum is being developed, supporting the position that equity in science education is necessary, while maintaining challenging subject matter. The problem of the poor quality of many physical science texts is addressed, with an emphasis on the importance of curricular connections. The poor quality of physical science teacher training in many university teacher training courses is discussed, and the nature of the integrated thematic unit as a curriculum design is examined with reference to what is considered the over-emphasis on "reality-based" content to the exclusion of abstract subject matter. Having presented the problems and supporting their validity, the essay then demonstrated how Kids, Quarks, and Quanta specifically addresses each problem. The two and a half year study of Dr. John Hubisz and the committee he formed under The David and Lucille Packard Foundation grant to review and critique the physical science textbooks currently used with early adolescents is often referenced to support both the problems of teacher training and the poor quality of many texts. Recent brain research conducted by researchers of the National Institute of Mental Health is used to support the presentation of more abstract

  17. Essays on environmental, energy, and natural resource economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    My dissertation focuses on examining the interrelationship among the environment, energy and economic development. In the first essay, I explore the effects of increased uncertainty over future output prices, input costs and productivity levels on intertemporal emission permits trading. In a dynamic programming setting, a permit price is a convex function of each of these three sources of uncertainty. Increased uncertainty about future market conditions increases the expected permit price and causes risk-neutral firms to reduce ex ante emissions to smooth marginal abatement costs over time. Empirical analysis shows that increased price volatility induced by electricity market restructuring could explain 8-11% of the allowances banked during Phase I of the U.S. sulfur dioxide trading program. Numerical simulation suggests that high uncertainty may generate substantial initial compliance costs, thereby deterring new entrants and reducing efficiency; sharp emission spikes are also more likely to occur under industry-wide uncertainty shocks. In the second essay, I examine whether electricity restructuring improves the efficiency of U.S. nuclear power generation. Based on the full sample of 73 investor-owned nuclear plants in the United States from 1992 to 1998, I estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal efficiency changes associated with restructuring, at the plant level. Various modeling strategies are presented to deal with the policy endogeneity bias that high cost plants are more likely to be restructured. Overall, I find a strikingly positive relationship between the multiple steps of restructuring and plant operating efficiency. In the third essay, I estimate the economic impact of China's national land conversion program on local farm-dependent economies. The impact of the program on 14 industrial sectors in Gansu provinces are investigated using an input-output model. Due to regulatory restrictions, the agricultural sector cannot automatically expand or shrink

  18. Argument-Counterargument Structure in Indonesian EFL Learners' English Argumentative Essays: A Dialogic Concept of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusfandi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential use of the argument-counterargument structure in English L2 essays written by Indonesian EFL learners. It examines whether L2 proficiency affects the use of opposing views in their essays, and measures whether there is a correlation between the use of the rhetorical structure and the participants' overall…

  19. Eliciting Students' Understandings of Chemical Reactions Using Two Forms of Essay Questions during a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.; McNeely, Jack C.; Marek, Edmund A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines 9th grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of open-ended essay questions, those providing students with key terms to be used as "anchors" on which to base their essay, and those that do not provide terms. Results indicate that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the…

  20. Wisconsin Women, Graduate School, and the Professions. University Women: A Series of Essays, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoboda, Marian J., Ed.; Roberts, Audrey J., Ed.

    This volume of essays examines the role of women in the development of public higher education at the University of Wisconsin and Wisconsin State Universities. Part 1, "Turn of the Century Beginnings," contains an essay by Jean Droste titled "Vocational Aspirations and Job Realities." Part 2 focuses on women in the professional schools on the…

  1. Complementing Human Judgment of Essays Written by English Language Learners with E-Rater[R] Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Mary K.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    E-rater[R] is an automated essay scoring system that uses natural language processing techniques to extract features from essays and to model statistically human holistic ratings. Educational Testing Service has investigated the use of e-rater, in conjunction with human ratings, to score one of the two writing tasks on the TOEFL-iBT[R] writing…

  2. Technical and Business Communication: Bibliographic Essays for Teachers and Corporate Trainers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sides, Charles H., Ed.

    This collection of essays addresses the challenges of technical communication and provides detailed information for instructors and researchers who wish to further their knowledge of particular areas within technical communication. The essays in this collection also address the problems of a large, complex, and growing academic endeavor. The…

  3. The Relationship of Teacher-Personality Type to Grading Freshman Composition Essays: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covner, Thelma Crockin

    To gain insight into the evaluation of college freshman compositions, a study explored the relationship between the personality type of the instructor and the grades assigned to essays written by freshman composition students. The sample comprised 23 college instructors who answered a short questionnaire, graded the same expository essay, and…

  4. Applications of Agent Based Approaches in Business (A Three Essay Dissertation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawesh, Shankar

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the enabling role that agent based simulation plays in business and policy. The aforementioned issue has been addressed in this dissertation through three distinct, but related essays. The first essay is a literature review of different research applications of agent based simulation in various…

  5. Comparison of Human and Machine Scoring of Essays: Differences by Gender, Ethnicity, and Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine; Attali, Yigal

    2012-01-01

    Essay scores generated by machine and by human raters are generally comparable; that is, they can produce scores with similar means and standard deviations, and machine scores generally correlate as highly with human scores as scores from one human correlate with scores from another human. Although human and machine essay scores are highly related…

  6. Libraries and the Future: Essays on the Library in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Frederick Wilfrid, Ed.

    The essays collected in this volume present the personal visions of several individuals, mostly librarians and other information professionals, on what the library might look like 25 or 30 years from now. The contributors represent a wide variety of libraries and related institutions on four continents. The essays collected are: "Introduction:…

  7. An Evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] Essay Scoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Garcia, Veronica; Welch, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a two-part evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] automated essay scoring system based on its performance scoring essays from the Analytic Writing Assessment of the Graduate Management Admission Test[TM] (GMAT[TM]). The IntelliMetric system performance is first compared to that of individual human raters, a Bayesian system…

  8. Effects of Scoring by Section and Independent Scorers' Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.; Ezeudu, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of scoring by section, use of independent scorers and conventional patterns on scorer reliability in Biology essay tests. It was revealed from literature review that conventional pattern of scoring all items at a time in essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable. The study was true experimental study…

  9. A Comparison of EFL Raters' Essay-Rating Processes across Two Types of Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hang; He, Lianzhen

    2015-01-01

    This study used think-aloud protocols to compare essay-rating processes across holistic and analytic rating scales in the context of China's College English Test Band 6 (CET-6). A group of 9 experienced CET-6 raters scored the same batch of 10 CET-6 essays produced in an operational CET-6 administration twice, using both the CET-6 holistic…

  10. Essays on the Teaching of English: Reports of the Yale Conference on the Teaching of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edward J., Ed.; Noyes, Edward S., Ed.

    In this collection of 18 essays drawn from reports of the Yale Conferences on the Teaching of English, high school teachers present ways to handle problems relevant to all English classrooms. Essays on the teaching of language include a discussion of grammar, a definition and illustration of language study, and a consideration of the kinds of…

  11. On the Relation between Automated Essay Scoring and Modern Views of the Writing Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the construct measured by automated essay scoring (AES) systems. AES systems measure features of the text structure, linguistic structure, and conventional print form of essays; as such, the systems primarily measure text production skills. In the current state-of-the-art, AES provide little direct evidence about such matters…

  12. Intellect and Public Life: Essays on the Social History of Academic Intellectuals in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Thomas

    Eight essays discuss the relation of urban patterns of intellectual life and academic forms of higher learning. Themes that run through the essays include: the increasing incorporation of academic culture into the center of American life, socially and intellectually, is accompanied and causally related to a progressive impoverishment of the public…

  13. Passages to Literature: Essays on Teaching in Australia, Canada, England, the United States, and Wales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O'Beirne, Ed.; Milner, Lucy Floyd Morcock, Ed.

    Representing Australia, Canada, England, the United States, and Wales, this collection of essays focuses on ways in which teachers can adapt classroom activities and modify writing assignments to encourage personal response and exploration of texts. Essays, their authors, and nationalities are as follows: (1) "The River and Its Banks: Response and…

  14. Scoring with the Computer: Alternative Procedures for Improving the Reliability of Holistic Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Lewis, Will; Steier, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Automated essay scoring can produce reliable scores that are highly correlated with human scores, but is limited in its evaluation of content and other higher-order aspects of writing. The increased use of automated essay scoring in high-stakes testing underscores the need for human scoring that is focused on higher-order aspects of writing. This…

  15. Experimenting with a Computer Essay-Scoring Program Based on ESL Student Writing Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the computer essay-scoring program BETSY. While the use of computers in rating written scripts has been criticised in some quarters for lacking transparency or lack of fit with how human raters rate written scripts, a number of essay rating programs are available commercially, many of which claim to offer comparable…

  16. The Effects of Browse Time on the Internet on Students' Essay Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Kim; Bloomfield, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how 30 minutes of search time on the Web affected students' essay scores in response to a writing prompt. Expository essays were obtained from 49 fourth- and fifth-grade students enrolled in an elementary school in Virginia, in the United States. Students were placed by random assignment into three groups with the same…

  17. Comparing Essays Written under Different Timing Conditions. Research Summary. RS-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.

    2003-01-01

    Previous research on differences in the reliability, validity, and difficulty of essay tests given under different timing conditions has indicated that giving examinees more time to complete an essay may raise their scores to a certain extent, but does not change the meaning of those scores, or the rank ordering of students. There is no evidence…

  18. Critical Thinking and Writing: Reclaiming the Essay. Monographs on Teaching Critical Thinking Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    Intended for teachers, this monograph argues that, unlike the structured, formulaic "school" essay, personal essays in the manner of Michel de Montaigne lead students to explore their connections with ideas and texts. The monograph describes several strategies which use writing as a tool for critical thinking. The monograph contains the following…

  19. Command Strategies for Balancing Respect and Authority in Undergraduate Expository Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sook Hee

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the paper is to examine how undergraduate writers adopt various commanding strategies of "shouldness" in their expository essays and the extent to which their adoptions relate to the success in the assessment of essay writing. The theoretical bases of the commands operating both within and across clause complexes are derived…

  20. Educational Exchanges: Essays on the Sino-American Experience. Research Papers and Policy Studies 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallgren, Joyce K., Ed.; Simon, Denis Fred, Ed.

    The essays in this monograph (except one) were originally presented and discussed at the Conference on Sino-American Cultural and Scientific Exchanges held in Honolulu, Hawaii in February 1985. Frank Ninkovich presents some of the thoughts that characterized the U.S. approach to cultural exchanges before 1940. In her essay on the pre-World War II…

  1. The Effect of Peer Reviewing on Writing Apprehension and Essay Writing Ability of Prospective EFL Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahin, Jamal Hamed

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to ascertain the current level of writing apprehension experienced by Saudi prospective EFL teachers and their current level of essay writing ability. It also aimed to assess the impact of peer reviewing on their writing apprehension level and essay writing ability. Data collection was carried out via two instruments: Second…

  2. Lure and Loathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Gerald, Ed.

    Black intellectuals and writers were invited to write essays on assimilation, race, and identity, using a famous quotation from W. E. B. Du Bois about the double soul of the American Negro as a point of departure. Considering the double consciousness of which Du Bois wrote resulted in the following essays: (1) "Free at Last? A Personal Perspective…

  3. Team Dynamics. Essays in the Sociology and Social Psychology of Sport Including Methodological and Epistemological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Hans

    This document contains nine essays on the sociology and social psychology of team dynamics, including methodological and epistemological issues involved in such study. Essay titles are: (1) Conflict and Achievement in Top Athletic Teams--Sociometric Structures of Racing Eight Oar Crews; (2) Top Performance Despite Internal Conflict--An Antithesis…

  4. Deriving and Measuring Group Knowledge Structure from Essays: The Effects of Anaphoric Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Wallace, Patricia E.; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2009-01-01

    Essays are an important measure of complex learning, but pronouns can confound an author's intended meaning for both readers and text analysis software. This descriptive investigation considers the effect of pronouns on a computer-based text analysis approach, "ALA-Reader," which uses students' essays as the data source for deriving individual and…

  5. Teaching for a Tolerant World, Grades K-6: Essays and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Judith P., Ed.

    This book presents essays and resources that address crucial questions regarding how children should learn about genocide and intolerance and the literature used in teaching these topics. Part 1 (Guidelines on Teaching about Genocide and Intolerance through Language Arts/English Studies Education) includes the following 2 essays: "Editor's…

  6. "EJ" Extra: The Five-Paragraph Essay and the Deficit Model of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Lil; Courtney, Jennifer Pooler; Urbanski, Cynthia P.; Woodward, Shana V.; Reynolds, Jeanie Marklin; Iannone, Anthony E.; Haag, Karen D.; Mach, Karen; Manship, Lacy Arnold; Kendrick, Mary

    2008-01-01

    There is a seductive "commonsense" logic to two opinion pieces that have appeared over the last two years in the "Speaking My Mind" section of "English Journal": (1) Byung-In Seo's "Defending the Five-Paragraph Essay," which appeared in the November 2007 issue; and (2) Kerri Smith's "In Defense of the Five-Paragraph Essay," which appeared in March…

  7. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  8. Teaching Leadership: Essays in Theory and Practice. American University Studies. Series XIV, Education. Volume 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temes, Peter S., Ed.

    All the essays in this collection explicitly or implicitly discuss the ethics of leadership. Paul Johnson's "Plato's Republic as Leadership Text" is an essay on Plato and Nietzsche that considers two fundamental issues: the use of force and persuasion and the tension between the actions that lead to a position of leadership and the actions after…

  9. Why I Can't Read Wallace Stegner and Other Essays: A Tribal Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    In this collection of essays, a Native American feminist intellectual, poet, and literary scholar grapples with issues she encountered as a Native American in academia. The essays examine and criticize the enormous impact of America's media culture and ask questions about who is telling Native peoples' stories, where cultural authority lies, and…

  10. Essays on the Impact of Social Media: Evidence from the Music Industry and the Stock Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    As both individuals and businesses are starting to embrace social media, understanding the power and influence of social media becomes an important question. This dissertation aims to address this issue and study the impact of social media in different contexts. It consists of two essays. The first essay examines the effectiveness of social media…

  11. Teaching for a Tolerant World, Grades 9-12. Essays and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Carol, Ed.; Rabinsky, Leatrice B., Ed.

    The essays and resources in this book are designed to help high school English teachers adapt their own classroom lessons for teaching about genocide and intolerance. Beginning with guidelines developed by the National Council of teachers of English's Committee on Teaching about Genocide and Intolerance, the 16 essays present approaches to…

  12. Effects of Technology on Critical Thinking and Essay Writing among Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Felicia; Cassady, Jerrell; Cross, Tracy; Williams, David

    2005-01-01

    This article presents results of a study that compared critical thinking in two writing samples (essays) from gifted adolescents who attended a residential school. The essays were written at the beginning of the junior year (when students were admitted to the school) and at the beginning of the senior year. All students in the study composed their…

  13. Effects of Composition Mode and Self-Perceived Computer Skills on Essay Scores of Sixth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jennifer N.; Cizek, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to gather evidence regarding effects of the mode of writing (handwritten vs. word-processed) on compositional quality in a sample of sixth grade students. Questionnaire data and essay scores were gathered to examine the effect of composition mode on essay scores of students of differing computer skill levels. The study was…

  14. Analytical Essay Writing: A New Activity Introduced to a Traditional Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kommalage, Mahinda

    2012-01-01

    Medical students following a traditional curriculum get few opportunities to engage in activities such as a literature search, scientific writing, and active and collaborative learning. An analytical essay writing activity (AEWA) in physiology was introduced to first-year students. Each student prepared an essay incorporating new research findings…

  15. A Strategy for Detection of Inconsistency in Evaluation of Essay Type Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Archana; Chaudhary, Banshi D.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of evaluation of essay type answer books involving multiple evaluators for courses with large number of enrollments is likely to be affected due to heterogeneity in experience, expertise and maturity of evaluators. In this paper, we present a strategy to detect anomalies in evaluation of essay type answers by multiple evaluators based…

  16. Women Emerge in the Seventies. University Women: A Series of Essays, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoboda, Marian J., Ed.; Roberts, Audrey J., Ed.

    This monograph reviews the role of women in the development of public higher education at the University of Wisconsin with special focus on the period of the 1970s. Essays are presented in the categories of the politicization of women, curriculum, language, athletics, lifestyle, and the re-entry woman. Essays include: "The Women's Movement and the…

  17. Three Essays on Educator Labor Markets: Evidence from Missouri Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Shishan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay investigates the feasibility of moving high-performing teachers to low-performing schools using administrative micro data from Missouri. I define teacher labor markets concentrically and construct models to allow teachers' local labor markets, within teaching, to influence their mobility…

  18. Knowledge, Difference, and Power: Essays Inspired by "Women's Ways of Knowing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Nancy Rule, Ed.; Tarule, Jill Mattuck, Ed.; Clinchy, Blythe McVicker, Ed.; Belenky, Mary Field, Ed.

    This book contains 14 essays exploring how the theory of women's psychology, development, and ways of knowing has developed during the past decade. The following essays are included: "The Beginning of the Story: Collaboration and Separation" (Nancy Rule Goldberger); "Looking Backward, Looking Forward" (Nancy Rule Goldberger); "Reconfiguring…

  19. "You Have 45 Minutes, Starting from Now": Helping Students Develop Their Exam Essay Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In recent years academics have commonly bemoaned the lack of essay-writing ability exhibited by their students. Whether or not the halcyon era in which undergraduates routinely knew how to construct a persuasive essay ever truly existed, it is certainly the case that contemporary students can benefit from advice on preparation of a long-format…

  20. The Determination of Children's Knowledge of Global Lunar Patterns from Online Essays Using Text Mining Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheon, Jongpil; Lee, Sangno; Smith, Walter; Song, Jaeki; Kim, Yongjin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use text mining analysis of early adolescents' online essays to determine their knowledge of global lunar patterns. Australian and American students in grades five to seven wrote about global lunar patterns they had discovered by sharing observations with each other via the Internet. These essays were analyzed for…

  1. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Terry

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, University of North Carolina's associate dean of research and assessment at the School of Education Terry Ackerman poses questions and shares his thoughts on David Thissen's essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory" (this issue). Ackerman begins by considering the two purposes of Item Response…

  2. The three essays and the meaning of the infantile sexual in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Scarfone, Dominique

    2014-04-01

    Freud's Three Essays on Sexual Theory (1905a) are still today highly significant because of their novel way of considering the human sexual dimension. The author intends to show that a close reading of the Essays, combined with the reintroduction of the seduction theory by Jean Laplanche, provides a specific and foundational sexual theory for psychoanalysis. PMID:24777367

  3. Determining the Exchangeability of Concept Map and Problem-Solving Essay Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Keith; Twyman, Todd; Tindal, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the score exchangeability of concept maps with problem-solving essays. Of interest was whether sixth-grade students' concept maps predicted their scores on essay responses that used concept map content. Concept maps were hypothesized to be alternatives to performance assessments for content-area domain knowledge in science.…

  4. Essay Writing in a Mandarin Chinese WebCT Discussion Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, De

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a classroom-based study on the use of a Mandarin Chinese WebCT discussion board to support essay writing in a second-year Chinese language class consisting of mostly heritage learners at a midwestern U.S. university. The researcher describes the design and the implementation of essay writing and evaluates its effectiveness.…

  5. Improving EFL Graduate Students' Proficiency in Writing through an Online Automated Essay Assessing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using an online Automated Essay Assessing (AEA) system on EFL graduate students' writing. Eighty four EFL graduate students divided into the treatment group and the control group participated in this study. The treatment group was asked to use an AEA system to assist their essay writing. Both groups were…

  6. Academic Essay Writing as Imitative Problem Solving: Examples from Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sydney Ian

    2014-01-01

    Students in tertiary education are often faced with the prospect of writing an essay on a topic they know nothing about in advance. In distance learning institutions, essays are a common method of assessment in the UK, and specified course texts remain the main sources of information the students have. How do students use a source text to…

  7. Assessing Writing in MOOCs: Automated Essay Scoring and Calibrated Peer Review™

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Two of the largest Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) organizations have chosen different methods for the way they will score and provide feedback on essays students submit. EdX, MIT and Harvard's non-profit MOOC federation, recently announced that they will use a machine-based Automated Essay Scoring (AES) application to assess written work in…

  8. The Impact of Training Students How to Write Introductions for Academic Essays: An Exploratory, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Marshall, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Successful academic writing requires strong command of the rhetorical moves that orient the reader to the theme and substantive material of an academic essay. Effective control of the introduction leads to better overall writing. The goal of this study was to devise and evaluate a pedagogy for teaching the writing of academic essay introductions.…

  9. The Use of Discourse Markers among Form Four SLL Students in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunis, Melor Md; Haris, Siti Nor Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of discourse markers among Form Four second language learner (SLL) students in essay writing. The objectives of this study are to discover how Form Four SLL students use discourse markers in their essay writing and to identify the teachers' perception about the usage of discourse markers among students. 30…

  10. Factors in Performance on Brief, Impromptu Essay Examinations. College Board Report No. 95-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    Brief, impromptu essays written for the 1990 administration of the College Board's English Composition Test (ECT) were randomly sampled for four groups of examinees. These essays were subjected to further holistic ratings beyond those conducted for the ECT, and analytical ratings were also obtained. The holistic scores were correlated with the…

  11. Lexical Cohesion in Students' Argumentative Essay among a Select Group of Filipino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Josephine B.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the lexical devices used by undergraduate students in their argumentative text using Halliday and Hasan (1976) and Halliday's (2004) taxonomy. One hundred forty-eight argumentative essays were analyzed. The essays underwent interrating by three independent raters using a 20-point rubric and were grouped according to rating.…

  12. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  13. Superradiance: An essay on the theory of collective spontaneous emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Haroche, S.

    1982-12-01

    This essay presents a theoretical description of the superradiance phenomenon, in which both the quantal and the classical aspects are discussed. Starting from the simple two-level atom-small sample Dicke model, we successively introduce various complications inherent to a realistic superradiance experiment: effects of Van der Waals interaction between the atoms, propagation and diffraction of the electromagnetic field in the sample and finally the effects related to atomic level degeneracy or near degeneracy. We recall how to calculate the field radiated by a superradiant system in a single experiment and how to determine, for a series of identically prepared superradiant samples, the large shot to shot fluctuations of the emitted light properties. The presentation tries to unify various points of view and formalisms developed in previous works and to introduce simply and progressively the basic physical concepts relevant to the superradiance phenomenon.

  14. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  15. [Pierre Bayen rediscovers the Essays of Jean Rey].

    PubMed

    Lafont, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Jean Rey, a physician from The Bugue, a little town near Bergerac, published, in 1630, a book entitled "Essays" in which he explained the increase of the mass of lead, when it was strongly heated, by the fixation of a part of the air. This revolutionary publication was not received by the European scientists, because the Father Mersenne, "the secretary of learned Europe", was not able to repeat his experiments. Between 1774 and 1775, Pierre Bayen, who was a military apothecary, published his Works concerning the "precipitate per se", for us HgO, showing that when this compound was destroyed by heating, it produced a gas, and that the mass of this gas and the mass of the mercury obtained were equal to the mass of the "precipitate per se". He concluded that the phlogiston theory was contradictory with the results of the experiments. When, later on, Lavoisier published his important article on the increase of the mass of steal when it was heated in the air, he "forgot" to cite the Works of Bayen. In January 1775, Pierre Bayen published a letter in which he mentioned that he had discovered an exemplar of Jean Rey's book and explained that this physician of the 17th century had supposed the explanation that had been proved by Lavoisier. Nicolas Gobet then published a new edition of the "Essays" in 1777, but this new edition became itself quite rare. An inscription pencilled on the book kept by the British Museum pretends that all the exemplars Lavoisier could find were destroyed. It is not rigorous to conclude on a single document, especially when it is not signed, but it is sufficient to induce doubt. PMID:25671980

  16. They Came To Learn, They Came To Teach, They Came To Stay. University Women: A Series of Essays, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swoboda, Marian J., Ed.; Roberts, Audrey J., Ed.

    This anthology of essays, impressions, and sketches attempts to reassess the role of women in the development of public higher education in Wisconsin, especially in the setting of the University of Wisconsin (UW) System. The essays provide a female perspective from the post Civil War days to today. Some essays focus on the beginnings of the…

  17. Essays on Admissions Matching and Associated Outcomes in the Market for Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rodney P.

    2013-01-01

    This is a dissertation in three essays. The first essay traces changes over time in three factors that drive students' sensitivity to changes in tuition prices and presents an argument that these factors have changed differently for access to higher education and choice among alternative institutions. The essay explores the application of a…

  18. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  19. Radiologic manifestations of colloid cysts: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Algin, Oktay; Ozmen, Evrim; Arslan, Halil

    2013-02-01

    Colloid cysts are among rare benign tumours of the third ventricle. Although the most frequent symptoms are headache and syncope, arrest hydrocephalus or sudden death could appear with colloid cysts. The aim of this pictorial essay was to increase awareness of the clinical presentation, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging spectrum, and treatment options of the colloid cysts. The data of 11 patients with histopathologically and/or clinically proven colloid cyst were analysed, retrospectively; and the neuroradiologic appearances of the cysts were evaluated. The CT and MR appearance of colloid cysts may change, depending on the viscosity or the cholesterol content of the cysts. However, the cystic content is the most important factor that could affect the success of treatment. Cysts that are especially rich in protein and cholesterol tend to be hyperdense on CT, hypointense on T2-weighted sequences and hyperintense on T1-weighted sequences. These cysts are viscous, and the success of aspiration is significantly low. In the diagnosis and evaluation of small-sized cysts that have an ingredient similar to cerebrospinal fluid, 3-dimensional sequences might be useful. The radiologic appearances of colloid cysts could play an important role in directing these patients to alternative surgical modalities, including resection. PMID:22575594

  20. On Einstein's Path, essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex

    This collection of essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking spans the gamut of research in general relativity and presents a lively and personal account of current work in the field. Contributions include: E.L. Schucking: Jordan, Pauli, Politics, Brecht... and a Variable Gravitational Constant J.L. Anderson: Thomson Scattering in an Expanding Universe A. Ashtekar & T.A. Schilling: Geometrical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics J. Baugh, D.R. Finkelstein, H. Saller, and Zhong Tang: General Covariance is Bose-Einstein Statistics S.L. Bazanski: The Split and Propagation of Light Rays in Relativity L. Bel: How to Define a Unique Vacuum in Cosmology P.G. Bergmann: EIH Theory and Noether's Theorem W.B. Bonnor: The Static Cylinder in General Relativity C.H. Brahns: Gravity and the Tenacious Scalar Field D. Brill: The Cavendish Experiment in General Relativity Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Wave Maps in General Relativity T. Damour: General Relativty and Experiment J. Ehlers: Some Developments in Newtonian Cosmology G.F.R. Ellis & H. van Elst: Deviation of Geodesics in FLRW Spacetime Geometries S. Frittelli & E.T. Newman: Poincar Pseudo-symmetries in Asymptotically Flat Spacetimes E.N. Glass: Taub Numbers and Asymptotic Invariants J.N. Goldberg: Second Class Constraints F.W. Hehl, A. Macias, E.W. Mielke, & Yu.N. Obukhov: On the Structure of the Energy-momentum and the Spin Currents in Dirac's Electron

  1. A Comment on Harriet Malinowitz's "Business, Pleasure, and the Personal Essay"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Karen

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between composition and literature is presented in Harriet Malinowitz's "Business, Pleasure, and the Personal Essay". The importance of praising and analyzing various interpretations of a text to English studies is emphasized.

  2. MRI of Uncommon Lesions of the Large Bowel: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine U; Glockner, James F

    2014-01-01

    This pictorial essay briefly discusses methods for optimizing bowel imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and illustrates the MRI appearance of a variety of unusual lesions involving or related specifically to the large bowel. PMID:25806129

  3. Killers in the Brain - Essays in Science and Technology from the Royal Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Peter

    1999-09-01

    This fascinating and diverse selection of essays from the Royal Institution provides a glimpse of some of the most current and exciting scientific research, ranging from the global increase in asthma and allergies to neurodegenerative diseases known as "brain killers."

  4. Essays on modeling derivative claims. Essay titles: Essay 1. Modeling energy commodity futures: Is seasonality part of it? Essay 2. Modeling corporate liabilities under regime-switching asset volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Milena

    Essay 1. The paper analyzes the price dynamics of two commodity futures prices---crude oil and natural gas. Some of the latest models of commodity prices are tested here---the two-factor model of Schwartz-Smith (2000), which nests other important models developed earlier. The two-factor model includes a mean-reverting short-term deviation and uncertain equilibrium level to which prices gravitate. The Schwartz-Smith two-factor model is the base case model in the paper. The model parameters of the Schwartz-Smith two-factor model are estimated from traded futures on natural gas and crude oil, using the fixed maturity format I create for futures prices. Analysis of the variance structure of natural gas prices suggests seasonality. The model is estimated on seasonally adjusted data. Model-based seasonality approaches are developed---seasonal dummies and a three-factor model with a stochastic seasonality component of log spot prices. The prediction ability of the various parameterized and non-parameterized versions of models with seasonality is compared in-sample and out-of-sample. The volatility functions model, based on principal components extraction from daily data, with seasonality in short-term volatility, seems to have the best forecasting ability, followed by the two-factor model on Kendall-type deseasonalized data and the seasonal dummies specification. Essay 2. This paper contributes to the extant structural model literature by introducing a time-varying risk-shifting barrier, to model asset substitution, and studying its theoretical and empirical implications on corporate credit spreads. Risk-shifting is expected to affect the default component of corporate spreads, because by switching to a higher level of asset volatility, managers precipitate the onset of distress and endogenously alter the probability of default. I test cross-sectionally whether the risk of volatility regime switching, measured by agency cost, is priced in market corporate spreads. The

  5. Three essays on the incentive structure of energy conservation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwelum, Edson Ogochukwu

    This dissertation is comprised of three related essays examining the potential effectiveness of government energy efficiency programs from both the producer and consumer perspectives. The first chapter is based on a paper I coauthored with Corey Lang. In this manuscript, I address the question of whether strategic behavior by consumers could result in the erosion of energy savings in a demand response program. Understanding how the strategic behavior of consumers affects the net benefits from a demand response program has policy implications because of the increasing importance that demand response has come to play in utility load and reliability management during peak times. Using data from a large field experiment in California in 2007, we test the hypothesis that under a technology program, consumers' strategic behavior results in outcomes that are opposite what is obtainable under a program with price incentive or based of behavior. Chapter II is also an empirical study which explores how the preferences of consumers for large and heavy vehicles imposes costs on society in the form of external costs of accident. This chapter looks at how fleet changes in weight distribution due to corporate average fuel economy and consumer demand for heavier vehicles results in fatalities. It is important to understand how consumer behavior affects the accident rates so that one can obtain unbiased estimates of accident costs that go into benefit-cost analysis of the impact of regulations in automobiles. Chapter three addresses how unobserved heterogeneity and sorting affect the estimates of the consumer willingness to pay for reduction in future gasoline costs. This tradeoff is important to policy makers and manufactures because it could help explain why manufacturers fail to adopt technologies for which the fuel savings far outweigh the costs. The remainder of the abstract provides a more detailed outlines of the three essays. Chapter 1 explores strategic behavior by

  6. Essays on Applied Resource Economics Using Bioeconomic Optimization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affuso, Ermanno

    With rising demographic growth, there is increasing interest in analytical studies that assess alternative policies to provide an optimal allocation of scarce natural resources while ensuring environmental sustainability. This dissertation consists of three essays in applied resource economics that are interconnected methodologically within the agricultural production sector of Economics. The first chapter examines the sustainability of biofuels by simulating and evaluating an agricultural voluntary program that aims to increase the land use efficiency in the production of biofuels of first generation in the state of Alabama. The results show that participatory decisions may increase the net energy value of biofuels by 208% and reduce emissions by 26%; significantly contributing to the state energy goals. The second chapter tests the hypothesis of overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in U.S. peanut farming with respect to other inputs and address genetic research to reduce the use of the most overused chemical input. The findings suggest that peanut producers overuse fungicide with respect to any other input and that fungi resistant genetically engineered peanuts may increase the producer welfare up to 36.2%. The third chapter implements a bioeconomic model, which consists of a biophysical model and a stochastic dynamic recursive model that is used to measure potential economic and environmental welfare of cotton farmers derived from a rotation scheme that uses peanut as a complementary crop. The results show that the rotation scenario would lower farming costs by 14% due to nitrogen credits from prior peanut land use and reduce non-point source pollution from nitrogen runoff by 6.13% compared to continuous cotton farming.

  7. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three Essays on the Challenge of Implementation. Innocenti Essays, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, James R.

    A growing international consensus exists that societies have an obligation to promote and protect children's rights to survival, protection, participation, and development. These three essays consider UNICEF's role in implementing the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. "The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: More…

  8. Discuss: If Essays Are Dead, Then Where Does That Leave Everything Else? A Response to: Shirley Alexander's "Buying Essays: How to Make Sure Assessment Is Authentic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Kelvin

    2015-01-01

    Professor Shirley Alexander is the Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President (Teaching, Learning & Equity) at the University of Technology, Sydney. On 12 November 2014, an article of hers appeared in "The Conversation": "Buying essays: how to make sure assessment is authentic." That article traverses, in an abbreviated way,…

  9. The Information Search Process (the ISP) and the Research Essay. How One School Library Supports Student Learning by Using the ISP as the Framework for the Extended Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Helen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland Academy for Health Sciences (QAHS) is a senior secondary high school offering the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP). As part of the Diploma, students are required to complete a referenced research essay of four thousand words. For most, this will be their first experience of such a challenging undertaking.…

  10. "O Ensaio como Forma" ou Um Ensaio acerca da Teoria Critica da Sociedade ("The Essay as Form" or An Essay about the Critical Theory of Society).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Rosely

    2000-01-01

    Illuminates the critical theory project, with themes permeating the theoretical constructions of Frankfurt (Germany). Debates the predominance of positivism in the production of knowledge. Speculates that "the essay as form" constitutes itself as a representation of the concept of the Enlightenment. Concludes with a dialogue between Theodor Adorno…

  11. Astr 101 Students' Attitudes Towards Essays On Transits, Eclipses And Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2012-05-01

    Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL offers a one semester introductory astronomy course each semester. We teach over 110 primarily non-science major students each semester. We use proven active learning strategies such lecture tutorials, think-pair-share questions and small group discussions to help these students develop and retain a good understanding of astrophysical concepts. Occasionally, we offer projects that allow students to explore course topics beyond the classroom. We hope that such projects will increase students' interest in astronomy. We also hope that these assignments will help students to improve their critical thinking and writing skills. In Spring 12, we are offering three short individual essay assignments in our face-to-face sections. The essays focus on transits, eclipses and occultations to highlight the 2012 transit of Venus. For the first essay, students will find images of transit and occultation events using the Astronomy Picture of the Day website and describe their chosen events. In addition, students will predict how variations in certain physical and orbital parameters would alter their particular events. The second essay involves transits, eclipses and occultations observed by spacecraft. Students will describe their transit event, their spacecraft's mission, orbital path, how the orbital path was achieved, etc. The third essay deals with transiting exoplanets. Students will choose at least two exoplanets from an exoplanet database, one of which has been discovered through the transit method. This essay will enable students to learn about detecting exoplanets and how they compare with our solar system. Details of the essay assignments and students' reactions to them will be presented at the meeting.

  12. Essays on forecasting stationary and nonstationary economic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmeier, Lance Joseph

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II considers the question of whether M2 growth can be used to forecast inflation at horizons of up to ten years. A vector error correction (VEC) model serves as our benchmark model. We find that M2 growth does have marginal predictive content for inflation at horizons of more than two years, but only when allowing for cointegration and when the cointegrating rank and vector are specified a priori. When estimating the cointegration vector or failing to impose cointegration, there is no longer evidence of causality running from M2 growth to inflation at any forecast horizon. Finally, we present evidence that M2 needs to be redefined, as forecasts of the VEC model using data on M2 observed after 1993 are worse than the forecasts of an autoregressive model of inflation. Chapter III reconsiders the evidence for a "rockets and feathers" effect in gasoline markets. We estimate an error correction model of gasoline prices using daily data for the period 1985--1998 and fail to find any evidence of asymmetry. We show that previous work suffered from two problems. First, nonstationarity in some of the regressors was ignored, leading to invalid inference. Second, the weekly data used in previous work leads to a temporal aggregation problem, and thus biased estimates of impulse response functions. Chapter IV tests for a forecasting relationship between the volume of litigation and macroeconomic variables. We analyze annual data for the period 1960--2000 on the number of cases filed, real GDP, real consumption expenditures, inflation, unemployment, and interest rates. Bivariate Granger causality tests show that several of the macroeconomic variables can be used to forecast the volume of litigation, but show no evidence that the volume of litigation can be used to forecast any of the macroeconomic variables. The analysis is then extended to bivariate and multivariate regression models, and we find similar evidence to that of the

  13. Essays on pricing dynamics, price dispersion, and nested logit modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinda, Jeremy Alan

    The body of this dissertation comprises three standalone essays, presented in three respective chapters. Chapter One explores the possibility that local market power contributes to the asymmetric relationship observed between wholesale costs and retail prices in gasoline markets. I exploit an original data set of weekly gas station prices in Southern California from September 2002 to May 2003, and take advantage of highly detailed station and local market-level characteristics to determine the extent to which spatial differentiation influences price-response asymmetry. I find that brand identity, proximity to rival stations, bundling and advertising, operation type, and local market features and demographics each influence a station's predicted asymmetric relationship between prices and wholesale costs. Chapter Two extends the existing literature on the effect of market structure on price dispersion in airline fares by modeling the effect at the disaggregate ticket level. Whereas past studies rely on aggregate measures of price dispersion such as the Gini coefficient or the standard deviation of fares, this paper estimates the entire empirical distribution of airline fares and documents how the shape of the distribution is determined by market structure. Specifically, I find that monopoly markets favor a wider distribution of fares with more mass in the tails while duopoly and competitive markets exhibit a tighter fare distribution. These findings indicate that the dispersion of airline fares may result from the efforts of airlines to practice second-degree price discrimination. Chapter Three adopts a Bayesian approach to the problem of tree structure specification in nested logit modelling, which requires a heavy computational burden in calculating marginal likelihoods. I compare two different techniques for estimating marginal likelihoods: (1) the Laplace approximation, and (2) reversible jump MCMC. I apply the techniques to both a simulated and a travel mode

  14. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  15. Essays on the economics of natural gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Matthew E.

    The natural gas pipeline transportation industry is comprised of a primary market and a secondary market. In the primary market, pipelines sell 'firm' transport capacity contracts to gas traders, local distribution companies, and other parties. The (per unit) secondary market value of transport is rarely comparable to the regulated primary market two-part tariff. When and where available capacity in the secondary market is scarce, its value can far exceed the primary market tariffs paid by firm contract holders, generating scarcity rents. The following essays demonstrate that this phenomenon has predictable effects on natural gas spot prices, firm capacity reservations, the pipeline's capacity construction and expansion decisions, and the economic welfare of producers and consumers at the market hubs connected by the pipeline. Chapter 1 provides a theoretical framework for understanding how pipeline congestion affects natural gas spot prices within the context of the current regulatory environment, and empirically quantifies this effect over a specific regional pipeline network. As available pipeline capacity over a given route connecting two hubs becomes scarce, the spot prices for gas at the hubs are driven apart---a phenomenon indicative of some market friction that inhibits the ability of spot price arbitrage to fully integrate the two prices, undermining economic efficiency. The theoretical component of Chapter 1 illuminates a potential source of this friction: the deregulated structure of the secondary market for gas transportation services. To support and quantify the predictions of the theoretical model, the empirical component demonstrates that the effect of congestion on the secondary market value of transport---the key factor in driving apart spot prices---can be quite strong. Coefficient estimates indicate that dramatic increases in transport costs are likely to result from marginal increases in congestion. This result has important implications because

  16. Tales from the front lines: the creative essay as a tool for teaching genetics.

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, K E; Hawley, R S

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the more typical mock grant proposals or literature reviews, we describe the use of the creative essay as a novel tool for teaching human genetics at the college level. This method has worked well for both nonmajor and advanced courses for biology majors. The 10- to 15-page essay is written in storylike form and represents a student's response to the choice of 6-8 scenarios describing human beings coping with various genetic dilemmas. We have found this tool to be invaluable both in developing students' ability to express genetic concepts in lay terms and in promoting student awareness of genetic issues outside of the classroom. Examples from student essays are presented to illustrate these points, and guidelines are suggested regarding instructor expectations of student creativity and scientific accuracy. Methods of grading this assignment are also discussed. PMID:10388836

  17. Urban Observation and Sentiment in James Parkinson’s Essay on the Shaking Palsy (1817)

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Brian

    2014-01-01

    James Parkinson’s Essay on the Shaking Palsy (1817) has long been considered the foundational text of the disease which now bears the author’s name. This paper shows how the Essay radically re-formulated a diverse array of human dysmobilities as a “species” of disease. Parkinson incorporated medical observation with a clear focus on patient experience and subjectivity in a deeply affecting narrative, fusing clinical and urban case-descriptions within the genre of a sentimental natural history. His detailed, diagnostic portrayal of the malady recast earlier descriptions of trembling, posture and gait disorder within a new narrative order, simultaneously recruiting reader involvement to the plight of sufferers. Hardly any clinical examination as we know it today undergirds what remains an exemplary account of disciplined medical witness. The Essay demonstrates the potential of case construction and powerful, sympathetic case writing to transform clinical understanding of a complex medical condition of long duration. PMID:25055707

  18. Between inner space and outer space. Essays on science, art, and philosophy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, J. D.

    In this fascinating and entertaining collection of essays, the author addresses the many question that we ponder in our quest to discover the universe. Key topics are: the popularity of Big Science, and physics and cosmology in particular; life on other planets; issues of time and space and quantum reality; the ancient foundations of science, mathematics, and their most modern expression - complexity theory; and how science relates to religion and aesthetics. Taken as a whole, these thought-provoking essays provide a rich introduction to contemporary scientific debate.

  19. An essay concerning human understanding: how the cerebri anatome of Thomas Willis influenced John Locke.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley C

    2006-03-01

    Neurosurgeons are familiar with the anatomic investigations of Thomas Willis, but his intellectual legacy actually extends into the arena of philosophy. John Locke was a student of Willis while at Oxford, and this essay explores how some of Willis's anatomic discoveries might have influenced the ideas Locke expressed in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. It also includes historical information about 17th century England and the group of men (including Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle) who worked with Willis and founded the Oxford Experimental Philosophy Club, which became the Royal Society. PMID:16528199

  20. On Writing Essay Topics for a Test of the Composition Skills of Prospective Teachers: With a Review of Literature on the Creation, Validation, and Effects of Topics on Essay Examination. Volume Four of Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoetker, James

    The literature on essay testing, and particularly the selection of topics which will stimulate the writing of essays, was reviewed in order to recommend a set of specifications that will produce topics that are maximally fair to all teacher certificate candidates. It was found that by far the greater part of the research relating to writing…

  1. Three essays on the incentive structure of energy conservation programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okwelum, Edson Ogochukwu

    This dissertation is comprised of three related essays examining the potential effectiveness of government energy efficiency programs from both the producer and consumer perspectives. The first chapter is based on a paper I coauthored with Corey Lang. In this manuscript, I address the question of whether strategic behavior by consumers could result in the erosion of energy savings in a demand response program. Understanding how the strategic behavior of consumers affects the net benefits from a demand response program has policy implications because of the increasing importance that demand response has come to play in utility load and reliability management during peak times. Using data from a large field experiment in California in 2007, we test the hypothesis that under a technology program, consumers' strategic behavior results in outcomes that are opposite what is obtainable under a program with price incentive or based of behavior. Chapter II is also an empirical study which explores how the preferences of consumers for large and heavy vehicles imposes costs on society in the form of external costs of accident. This chapter looks at how fleet changes in weight distribution due to corporate average fuel economy and consumer demand for heavier vehicles results in fatalities. It is important to understand how consumer behavior affects the accident rates so that one can obtain unbiased estimates of accident costs that go into benefit-cost analysis of the impact of regulations in automobiles. Chapter three addresses how unobserved heterogeneity and sorting affect the estimates of the consumer willingness to pay for reduction in future gasoline costs. This tradeoff is important to policy makers and manufactures because it could help explain why manufacturers fail to adopt technologies for which the fuel savings far outweigh the costs. The remainder of the abstract provides a more detailed outlines of the three essays. Chapter 1 explores strategic behavior by

  2. Write Your Ticket to College: A Genre-Based College Admission Essay Workshop for Ethnically Diverse, Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Jessica Singer; DeCosta-Smith, Meredith; Valdespino, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a writing workshop that took place with 41 low-income, multi-ethnic 12th-grade students who received instruction on specific genre features for writing college admission essays. As a result, students improved the quality of their college admission essays and demonstrated greater confidence with this writing task. This…

  3. Investigating Information Technologies in Disasters: Three Essays on Micro-Blogging and Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Pu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to investigate how advanced information technologies cope with the various demands of disaster response. It consists of three essays on the exploration of micro-blogging and FOSS environments. The first essay looks at the usage of micro-blogging in the aftermath of the massive 2008 China earthquake and explores the…

  4. Current Issues for the Community College: Essays by Fellows in the Mid-Career Fellowship Program at Princeton University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Patricia; And Others

    This collection of essays focuses on contemporary issues for two-year college education related to instruction, students, and faculty. The following essays are included: (1) "Entrance Testing at Community Colleges," by Patricia McElroy; (2) "Academic Advising in the Community College," by Ann Houpt; (3) "New Jersey Community College General…

  5. The Impact of Interactive Whiteboard Technology on Medical Students' Achievement in ESL Essay Writing: An Early Study in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albaaly, Emad; Higgins, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of the interactive whiteboard on Egyptian medical students' achievement in essay writing in English as a second language (ESL). First, the writing micro-skills judged essential to help these students improve their essay writing were identified, using a questionnaire which investigated experts' views. This gave…

  6. Automated Subscores for TOEFL iBT[R] Independent Essays. Research Report. ETS RR-11-39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    The e-rater[R] automated essay scoring system is used operationally in the scoring of TOEFL iBT[R] independent essays. Previous research has found support for a 3-factor structure of the e-rater features. This 3-factor structure has an attractive hierarchical linguistic interpretation with a word choice factor, a grammatical convention within a…

  7. Issues of Education at Community Colleges: Essays by Fellows in the Mid-Career Fellowship Program at Princeton University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Princeton Univ., NJ. Mid-Career Fellowship Program.

    This collection includes essays on contemporary issues facing community colleges written by fellows in Princeton University's Mid-Career Fellowship Program. The following essays are provided: (1) "A Human Development Workshop on Cultural Identity for International Students," by Cecilia Castro-Abad; (2) "Generating Moral Dialogue on a College…

  8. Sex Differences in the Relationship of Advanced Placement Essay and Multiple-Choice Scores to Grades in College Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Lewis, Charles

    Essay and multiple-choice scores from Advanced Placement (AP) examinations in American History, European History, English Language and Composition, and Biology were matched with freshman grades in a sample of 32 colleges. Multiple-choice scores from the American History and Biology examinations were superior to essays for predicting overall grade…

  9. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  10. Op-ed Essays: Sharing the Perspective of Alabama's Two-Year Colleges, Volume I-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainous, Fred

    This document consists of three separately-published collections of essays by the chancellor of the Alabama College System, presenting his perspectives on aspects of the two-year college system in that state. The document begins with the system's mission statement, and an explanation of the principles underlying the mission. The essays that follow…

  11. Relationships between Writer-Audience Proximity, Register, and Quality in the Essays of First-Year College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Vincent D.

    A study explored the complexities of audience adaptation by examining the relationships between writer/audience proximity, register, and overall quality in essays written for assigned audiences. Subjects, 100 college freshmen, each wrote one essay in response to two audience-specified tasks in which subjects were to write persuasive letters to…

  12. Between the Cracks of History: Essays on Teaching and Illustrating Folklore. Publications of the Texas Folklore Society: 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Francis Edward, Ed.; Satterwhite, Carolyn Fiedler, Ed.

    This book is composed of 21 essays that define and illustrate the folklore of Texas. Following the introduction, the six essays concerned with defining are: "Classroom Definitions of Folklore" (F. E. Abernethy); "Defining Folklore for My Students" (Joyce Roach); "Folklore and Cinema" (Jim Harris); "Toward a Definition of Folk Culture" (Joe S.…

  13. To Write or to Type? The Effects of Handwriting and Word-Processing on the Written Style of Examination Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, Nora; Hartley, James

    2013-01-01

    There is much debate about whether or not these days students should be able to word-process essay-type examinations as opposed to handwriting them, particularly when they are asked to word-process everything else. This study used word-processing software to examine the stylistic features of 13 examination essays written by hand and 24 by…

  14. The Role of Women in Foreign-Language Textbooks: A Collection of Essays. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques" No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenstein, R., Ed.

    Essays that consider the way that women are portrayed in foreign language textbooks are presented. The selected essays were submitted to a competition sponsored by the Federation Internationale des Professeurs de Langues Vivantes, which requested that language teachers assess such concerns as: (1) whether women were described in a stereotyped way;…

  15. Automatic Short Essay Scoring Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Semantic Information in the Form of Propositions. CRESST Report 831

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed-response items over multiple-choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way to score them automatically can be found. Current automatic essay-scoring techniques…

  16. Quantitative Content Analysis Procedures to Analyse Students' Reflective Essays: A Methodological Review of Psychometric and Edumetric Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poldner, E.; Simons, P. R. J.; Wijngaards, G.; van der Schaaf, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective essays are a common way to develop higher education students' reflection ability. Researchers frequently analyse reflective essays based on quantitative content analysis procedures (QCA). However, the quality criteria that should be met in QCA are not straightforward. This article aims to: (1) develop a framework of quality requirements…

  17. A Computer-Based Approach for Deriving and Measuring Individual and Team Knowledge Structure from Essay Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Wallace, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This proof-of-concept investigation describes a computer-based approach for deriving the knowledge structure of individuals and of groups from their written essays, and considers the convergent criterion-related validity of the computer-based scores relative to human rater essay scores and multiple-choice test scores. After completing a…

  18. Perspectives on Comparative Higher Education: Essays on Faculty, Students and Reform. Special Studies in Comparative Education No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    Three essays by the Director of the Comparative Education Center at the State University of New York (Buffalo) have the following titles: "Comparative Perspectives on the Academic Profession,""Student Political Activism," and "University Reform". The first essay discusses the role of the academic profession in the university, stressing the…

  19. Academic Achievement, Race, and Reform: Six Essays on Understanding Assessment Policy, Standardized Achievement Tests, and Anti-Racist Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlak, Harold

    This set of six essays was written as a resource for those working in their schools and communities to promote social justice, combat racism, and encourage quality education for all youth. The six essays address the following set of questions: (1) What is the Academic Performance Index (API)? Where did it come from? What are the connections…

  20. University and Society. Essays on the Social Role of Research and Higher Education. Higher Education Policy Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trow, Martin A.; Nybom, Thorsten

    This volume contains 14 essays on the role of research and higher education in society today and in historical perspective. The essays' titles and authors are as follows: "Vagabonds, Specialists or the Voice of the People: Scandinavian Students and the Rise of the Modern Research University in the 19th Century" (Nils Runeby); "Knowledge and Power:…

  1. An Investigation of the Effects of Exam Essay Questions on Student Learning in United States History Survey Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Sara Brooks

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores whether or not the simple addition of essay questions in examinations increased the learning of the sort normally tested by objective questions alone. Thirteen sections of a "United States History to 1877" class comprised the study group. The experimental group, consisting of nine sections, wrote essay questions on all the…

  2. Do ESL Essay Raters' Evaluation Criteria Change with Experience? A Mixed-Methods, Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    This study adopted a mixed-methods cross-sectional approach to identify similarities and differences in the English as a second language (ESL) essay holistic scores and evaluation criteria of raters with different levels of experience. Each of 31 experienced and 29 novice raters rated a sample of ESL essays holistically and analytically and…

  3. Effectiveness of a Test-Taking Strategy on Achievement in Essay Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning…

  4. Write On or Write Off? An Exploration of Asian International Students' Approaches to Essay Writing at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the approaches taken to essay writing by five Asian international students at an Australian university. Analysis of their in-depth interviews reveals links between their perceptions of learning, their perceptions of essay writing, their motivation for completing the task, and their awareness of the structural conventions of…

  5. There are No Wrong Answers: An Investigation into the Assessment of Candidates Responses to Essay-Based Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Nick

    2005-01-01

    Essay-based examinations form a cornerstone of the public assessment system in the UK, but comparatively little research has been conducted into the processes involved in designing, answering and appraising essay-based questions/responses. This study explores the idea of examination validity through a qualitative review of these processes, based…

  6. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  7. The Condition of American Liberal Education: Pragmatism and a Changing Tradition. An Essay with Commentaries and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Orrill, Robert, Ed.

    This book presents an essay on U.S. liberal education and 24 commentaries on it. The essay, "Toward Pragmatic Liberal Education" by Bruce A. Kimball suggests that a consensus is emerging in reform efforts that a new and distinctly American version of liberal education is emerging which owes much to the current resurgence of American pragmatic…

  8. On Assuming a College or University Presidency: Lessons & Advice from the Field. Essays and a Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Estela M.; And Others

    Three essays and a resource guide are offered to assist new college and university presidents in contemplating their tasks, both the "big picture" and "daily detail." Estala Mara Bensimon's essay, titled "Five Approaches to Think About: Lessons Learned from Experienced Presidents," presents five recommendations, including making campus visits…

  9. An Evaluation of Computerised Essay Marking for National Curriculum Assessment in the UK for 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of human and computer marking of approximately 600 essays produced by 11-year-olds in the UK. Each essay script was scored by three human markers. Scripts were also scored by the "e-rater" program. There was a good agreement between human and machine marking. Scripts with highly discrepant scores were flagged and…

  10. Effectiveness of a test-taking strategy on achievement in essay tests for students with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Therrien, William J; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning disabilities nominated by teachers as average writers. A 6-step essay strategy was taught that included analyzing the essay prompt, outlining, writing a response, and reviewing the answer. On the posttest, intervention group students significantly outperformed control group students on essay measures related to strategy use, content, and organization. There was no significant difference between treatment group and students without learning disabilities on posttest measures of content and organization. PMID:19103797

  11. Making the Case for Family Support: An Essay with Supporting Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Support America, Chicago, IL.

    Noting the potential of family support as an effective agent for change, this essay explores family support as community-based services to promote the well-being of children and families designed to increase the strength and stability of families, to increase parents' confidence and competence in their parenting abilities, to afford children a…

  12. High School Mathematics at Work: Essays and Examples for the Education of All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Mathematical Sciences Education Board.

    Traditionally, vocational mathematics and precollege mathematics have been separate in schools. This book illuminates the interplay between technical and academic mathematics. This collection of essays by mathematicians, educators, and other experts is enhanced with illustrative tasks from workplace and everyday contexts that suggest ways to…

  13. Eavesdropping on Contemporary Minds: Why We Need More Essays in Our High School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kimberly Hill

    2010-01-01

    The essay is the most intimate of reading experiences, in which the reader is invited to eavesdrop as the writer works through a thought or excavates a memory. The writer can be explicit, in the first person, or just implicit, as the person behind the words, but he or she is absolutely, powerfully present. It's as if, for those few thousand words,…

  14. Recalling 40 Years of Teacher Education in the USA: A Personal Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Taking the form of a personal essay, the author describes developments within teacher education in the USA over a 40-year period, since the founding of "JET." Beginning with his work within teacher education as a graduate student and moving across time, he describes major movements in teacher education, discusses several of the most…

  15. A Ministry of Enthusiasm: Centenary Essays on the Workers' Educational Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Stephen K., Ed.

    This collection of scholarly essays marks the centenary of the Workers' Educational Association (WEA), the largest voluntary provider of adult education in the United Kingdom. The chapters are as follows: "Introduction" (Roberts); "The WEA The Foundation and the Founder" (Jennings); "Battersea and the Formation of the Workers' Educational…

  16. Henry James: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edel, Leon, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Leon Edel, Joseph Conrad, Max Beerbohm, Ezra Pound, Edith Wharton, Percy Lubbock, Virginia Woolf, T. S. Eliot, Van Wyck Brooks, Edmund Wilson, E. M. Forster, William Troy, Pelham Edgar, Stephen Spender, Graham Greene,…

  17. Native and Nonnative Rater Behavior in Grading Korean Students' English Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate rating behavior between Korean and native English speaking (NES) raters. Five Korean English teachers and five NES teachers graded 420 essays written by Korean college freshmen and completed survey questionnaires. The grading data were analyzed with FACETS program. The results revealed Korean raters'…

  18. A Photographic Essay of Apache Children in Early Times, Volume 2-Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on life of the Apache child from 1880 to the early 20th century. Each of the 12 photographs is accompanied by an historical narrative which describes one or more cultural aspects of Apache childhood.…

  19. An Automated Essay-Evaluation Corpus of English as a Foreign Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yaoyi

    2015-01-01

    The Report of Chinese Students' English Writing Ability (2014) focuses on the Chinese students' English writing in the automated essay-evaluation context. The data and samples are primarily from a national-wide writing project involving 300,814 English as a Foreign Language participants from 452 schools in China during a period of April 10 to May…

  20. Mark Twain: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Henry Nash, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Henry Nash Smith, Van Wyck Brooks, Maurice Le Breton, Kenneth Lynn, Leo Marx, Walter Blair, Daniel G. Hoffman, W. H. Auden, James M. Cox, Leslie Fiedler, Bernard DeVoto, and Tony Tanner--all dealing with the biography and…

  1. Advancing Democratic Principles: A European Examines a Neglected American Asset. Ethics and Public Policy Essay 49.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseler, Stephen

    According to this essay by a visiting scholar from Great Britain, there will always be a debate in democratic societies, about the proper role of morality in fashioning and articulating foreign policy. This ambivalence has been reflected in the uneven approach to the problem exhibited by successive United States administrations. There are two…

  2. Wallace Stevens: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borroff, Marie, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Marie Borroff, Wallace Stevens, Joseph N. Riddle, Hi Simons, Sister M. Bernetta Quinn, C. Roland Wagner, Harold Bloom, Ralph J. Mills, Jr., Roy Harvey Pearce, Louis L. Martz, Morton Dauwen Zabel, and Northrop Frye--all…

  3. CSCC Review Series Essay: Education Abroad in the U.S. Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    This article--the first in the Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) Review Essays Series--reviews the literature concerning education-abroad opportunities for community college students. The article examines the benefits accrued to students through overseas study, briefly notes the history of education-abroad programs, and summarizes…

  4. Undergraduate Essay Writing: Online and Face-to-Face Peer Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Mike R.; Goff, Lori; Dej, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    We implemented two different approaches of using peer review to support undergraduate essay assignments for students taking large second-year courses in life sciences and biology: a web-based online peer review (OPR) approach and a more traditional face-to-face peer review (FPR) approach that was conducted in tutorial settings. The essays…

  5. What Makes a Good History Essay? Assessing Historical Aspects of Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    Teaching students to write standard arguments in history classes is certainly worthwhile; teaching them to write historical arguments is even more so. Learning historical writing is something that a range of students can do. But what does it mean to write a good history essay and what might students' attempts to do so look like? Here, the author…

  6. A Photographic Essay of the San Carlos Apache Indians, Volume 2-Part A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Ed; And Others

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on the San Carlos Apache Reservation founded in the late 1800's and located in Arizona's Gila County. An historical narrative and discussion questions accompany each of the 12 photographs. Photographic…

  7. A Photographic Essay of Apache Chiefs and Warriors, Volume 2-Part B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkan, Gerald; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay describing forts, Indian agents, and Apache chiefs, warriors, and scouts of the 19th century. Accompanying each picture is a brief historical-biographical narrative. Focus is on Apache resistance to the reservation.…

  8. Using Automated Scores of Student Essays to Support Teacher Guidance in Classroom Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Libby F.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Computer scoring of student written essays about an inquiry topic can be used to diagnose student progress both to alert teachers to struggling students and to generate automated guidance. We identify promising ways for teachers to add value to automated guidance to improve student learning. Three teachers from two schools and their 386 students…

  9. Spanish Society. Government and Political Economy: A Bibliographic Essay. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agranoff, Robert

    This bibliographic essay is designed to help the student begin to investigate both context and content of contemporary Spanish society, government, politics, and economy. Coverage is selective because the focus is on sources in English, although where important subject matter gaps exist, Spanish sources are provided. Many of these are available in…

  10. Edgeware Security Risk Management: A Three Essay Thesis on Cloud, Virtualization and Wireless Grid Vulnerabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Tyson T.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis identifies three essays which contribute to the foundational understanding of the vulnerabilities and risk towards potentially implementing wireless grid Edgeware technology in a virtualized cloud environment. Since communication networks and devices are subject to becoming the target of exploitation by hackers (e.g. individuals who…

  11. The Flight from Reason. Essays on Intellectual Freedom in the Academy, the Press, and the Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninghausen, David K.

    David K. Berninghousen's writings on intellectual freedom in the library, the university, and the press are collected in this volume. These essays cover the education of librarians for intellectual freedom, the communications process, the threat to liberal values (intellectualism, objectivity) in the communications institutions, the erosion of…

  12. Drafting and acting on feedback supports student learning when writing essay assignments.

    PubMed

    Freestone, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    A diverse student population is a relatively recent feature of the higher education system in the United Kingdom. Consequently, it may be thought that more "traditional" types of assessment based around essay writing skills for science undergraduates may be of decreasing value and relevance to contemporary students. This article describes a study in which the process of feedback on, and associated redrafting of, an essay was closely supervised to improve essay writing skills and subsequent exam performance. The results of this study show that students can significantly improve their learning and academic performance, as assessed by final examination mark, by a process that more closely mimics a "real-world" situation of review and redrafting. Additionally, the data show that students benefit from feedback only when this is used appropriately by the student. The article also discusses the continuing importance and relevance of essay writing skills so that writing, and acting upon feedback to do with that writing, remains an integral part of the process of learning. PMID:19509394

  13. Drafting and Acting on Feedback Supports Student Learning when Writing Essay Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freestone, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    A diverse student population is a relatively recent feature of the higher education system in the United Kingdom. Consequently, it may be thought that more "traditional" types of assessment based around essay writing skills for science undergraduates may be of decreasing value and relevance to contemporary students. This article describes a study…

  14. What Is Successful Writing? An Investigation into the Multiple Ways Writers Can Write Successful Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Roscoe, Rod; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies multiple profiles of successful essays via a cluster analysis approach using linguistic features reported by a variety of natural language processing tools. The findings from the study indicate that there are four profiles of successful writers for the samples analyzed. These four profiles are linguistically distinct from one…

  15. Duality of Mathematical Thinking When Making Sense of Simple Word Problems: Theoretical Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polotskaia, Elena; Savard, Annie; Freiman, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This essay proposes a reflection on the learning difficulties and teaching approaches associated with arithmetic word problem solving. We question the development of word problem solving skills in the early grades of elementary school. We are trying to revive the discussion because first, the knowledge in question--reversibility of arithmetic…

  16. Evelyn Waugh's "Sword of Honour": An Essay in the Philosophy of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Evelyn Waugh, a controversial and notable author, wrote a war trilogy, Sword of Honour. Although the study of the philosophy of art is complicated, entailing serious problems for the philosopher, particularly with respect to literature, the aim of this essay is to evaluate Waugh's trilogy. Examines Waugh's use of literary elements and includes…

  17. Sometimes There Are No Notes: An Auto Ethnographic Essay of a Collaboration at the Engagement Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doberneck, Diane M.; Miller, Paula K.; Schweitzer, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnographic essay represents the authors' critical reflection on their experiences partnering with Liz Lerman and Dance Exchange (a dance company) artists on a collaborative evaluation of "The Matter of Origins", a contemporary art and science dance performance. They describe meaningful moments in their collaboration and reexamine those…

  18. This Bridge Called My Leadership: An Essay on Black Women as Bridge Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black woman leader…

  19. Essays from the Edge: Citizenship and the Outsider in Literature and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Priscilla, Comp.; And Others

    This book of essays and poetry by participants in a National Endowment for the Humanities summer seminar explores the portrayal in arts and literature of the "outsider" or "alien" who is cut off from country and citizenship, either by choice or circumstance. The book is divided into seven categories. Part 1, "Preliminary," contains: (1)…

  20. From Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom: Hopeful Essays for 21st Century Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2012-01-01

    What can you learn on a cell phone? Almost anything! How does that concept fit with our traditional system of education? It doesn't. Best-selling author and futurist Marc Prensky's book of essays challenges educators to "reboot" and make the changes necessary to prepare students for 21st century careers. His "bottom-up" vision is based on…

  1. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part I--Introduction to Accounting Theory and Cash

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Recent accounting scandals challenge academics to refocus the educational process on the theoretical underpinnings of accounting. This is the first in a series of articles designed to facilitate this realignment. Intended as a supplement for the introductory accounting course, the essay series connects each of the primary accounting elements to…

  2. Feeding Forward from Summative Assessment: The Essay Feedback Checklist as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, Caroline; Adie, James; Pitt, Edd; Owens, Tessa

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the increasing diversity of assessments in higher education, feedback should be provided to students in a format that can assist future and alternative work. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Essay Feedback Checklist on future alternative assessments. Participants were assigned to one of two groups, one of which…

  3. Evaluating the Validity and Applicability of Automated Essay Scoring in Two Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin Dawna; Stafford, Rose Eleanore; Williams, Kyle Marie; Corliss, Stephanie Brooks

    2014-01-01

    The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to expand students' access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, MOOC platforms have begun utilizing automated essay scoring (AES) systems that allow…

  4. Are Women Prepared to Be School Superintendents? An Essay on the Myths and Misunderstandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, C. Cryss; Kim, Yong-Lyun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to examine and respond to Tom Glass's (2000) assertions about the dearth of women in the superintendency using the lenses of new data (from two large national studies) and analysis--an analysis that primarily focuses on women superintendents' and central office administrators' formal, experiential, and personal…

  5. Inventing Ourselves: An Informed Essay for Black Female Scholars in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Black women and men often work in academic spaces that were not made for them, where they are often viewed as outsiders and in many cases where they find little support for their efforts. But being a Black female professor in a predominantly white institution can sometimes be especially challenging. The purpose of this essay is to provide a brief…

  6. A Window to the Past: What an Essay Contest Reveals about Early American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    In 1795 America's premier scholarly association, the American Philosophical Society (APS), posed the following question: [Write] an essay on a system of liberal education, and literary instruction, adapted to the genius of the government, and best calculated to promote the general welfare of the United States; comprehending, also, a plan for…

  7. The Effect of Specific Language Features on the Complexity of Systems for Automated Essay Scoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Yoav; Ben-Simon, Anat; Hovav, Myra

    This paper focuses on the relationship between different aspects of the linguistic structure of a given language and the complexity of the computer program, whether existing or prospective, that is to be used for the scoring of essays in that language. The first part of the paper discusses common scales used to assess writing products, then…

  8. FAX-Technology for Essay Exchanges with German Students as an Enhancement of "c"-Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Gerhard F.

    1995-01-01

    Describes two projects promoting the exchange of essays between American students in intensive German language courses and German high school students. The article maintains that the easy availability of fax equipment in the United States and in Germany permits the use of this technology as a means of increasing the relevance of the writing…

  9. Humangrowth: An Essay on Growth, Values and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan; Wilson, Thomas W., Jr.

    Five essays analyze human needs and values in relation to population and economic growth. The first, "The Trouble With Growth," discusses current problems: the benefits of growth are unfairly distributed; growth can damage the environment and waste resources; unproductive and dysfunctional growth is not distinguished from productive and socially…

  10. Applying Computerized Text Measurement Strategies from Project Essay Grade (PEG) to Military and Civilian Organizational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Jack H.

    Project Essay Grade (PEG), developed by E. Page (1968) uses computerized methodology to grade student writing. PEG can also be used to assess the quality of civilian and military writing products, such as regulations or instructional texts. Application of PEG offers the potential for enhancing government efforts to monitor writing quality and…

  11. State of the Art TESOL Essays: Celebrating 25 Years of the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Sandra, Ed.

    A collection of essays for the 25th anniversary of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) addresses both theory and practice in the field of English-as-a-Second-Language teaching. Articles include: "Internationalism and Our 'Strenuous Family'"; "TESOL at Twenty-Five: What Are the Issues?"; "Communicative Language Teaching:…

  12. Factors Influencing Student Preference When Comparing Handwriting and Typing for Essay Style Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogey, Nora; Fluck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    It seems anachronistic that we expect students to handwrite essay examinations when almost all their other work is mediated by computer. Two universities, one in the UK and one in Australia, are exploring the use of computers in free text response examinations. This paper compares both the attitudes and the behaviours of their students concerning…

  13. Scoring the Essay on the SAT® Writing Section. Research Summary RS-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.

    2003-01-01

    The essay on the writing section of the SAT will be scored using a holistic approach. In holistic scoring, a piece of writing is considered as a total piece of work--the whole of which is greater than the sum of its parts.

  14. Picturing Oppression: Seventh Graders' Photo Essays on Racism, Classism, and Sexism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem

    2011-01-01

    This study, situated in an inner-city school in Western Canada, involved 20 seventh graders producing photo essays about living with racism, classism, or sexism. Two questions guided the study: (1) How do students working with a critical pedagogue conceptualize their own experiences with race, class, and gender in ways that either interrupt or…

  15. The Dynamics of the Values of School Students: (Based on Autobiographies and Essays)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divisenko, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of the dynamics of the value orientations of upper-grade students, based on an analysis of biographical texts and essays. The empirical material, gathered in 1989-1993 and 2002 in St. Petersburg schools, was not published and is kept in the Biography Collection of the sector of social and cultural…

  16. John Donne: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Helen, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Helen Gardner, George Saintsbury, Herbert J. C. Grierson, Pierre Legouis, William Empson, Mario Praz, J. E. V. Crofts, C. S. Lewis, Cleanth Brooks, J. B. Leishman, Evelyn M. Simpson, Louis L. Martz, and A. J. Smith--all dealing…

  17. A Photographic Essay of Apache Clothing, War Charms, and Weapons, Volume 2-Part D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Doris; Jacobs, Ben

    As part of a series of guides designed for instruction of American Indian children and youth, this resource guide constitutes a pictorial essay on Apache clothing, war charms, and weaponry. A brief historical introduction is followed by 21 question suggestions for classroom use. Each of the 12 photographic topics is accompanied by a descriptive…

  18. Supporting Student Learning: Improving Performance on Short-Essay Exams Using Realistic Practice Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Wesley H.; Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The present manuscript reports an attempt to support students in learning to apply knowledge from class to novel situations on course exams. Students took short-essay exams at the end of each unit. Students were offered two practice opportunities during each unit: answering practice questions and participating in a mock exam study session. On…

  19. A Collection of Original Essays on Curriculum for the Workplace. EAE604 Curriculum and Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deakin Univ., Victoria (Australia).

    This publication contains six essays that offer a range of practical and theoretical perspectives on work-related curriculum. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Curriculum and Competencies, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). An introduction proposes a course design and pedagogy…

  20. Jane Austen: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Ian, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Virginia Woolf, C. S. Lewis, Edmund Wilson, Ian Watt, Alan D. McKillop, Reuben A. Brower, Marvin Mudrick, Mark Schorer, Arnold Kettle, Lionel Trilling, Kingsley Amis, Andrew H. Wright, Donald J. Greene, and D. W.…

  1. Shakespeare, The Tragedies: A collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbage, Alfred, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Alfred Harbage, H. B. Charlton, Willard Farnham, H. T. Price, Donald A. Stauffer, Brents Stirling, Maynard Mack, Helen Gardner, C. S. Lewis, Alvin Kernan, Bernard Spivack, L. C. Knights, Francis Fergusson, G. Wilson…

  2. Effects of Study Behavior on Objective-Style and Essay-Style Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, J. B.

    In this study, the effects of motivational and behavioral dimensions of study behavior on objective and essay modes of evaluating course content were investigated. Several performance measures in two undergraduate Educational Psychology courses were factor analyzed, and three orthogonal performance factors were obtained: general achievement,…

  3. Fidelity and Flexibility: An Essay on Religious Adherence and Pragmatic Accommodation in Our Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmur, Dow

    2007-01-01

    During their history, Jews have faced the challenge of retaining their identity while adapting to their living conditions. Many people of many cultures now must win this bet. In this essay, the author shares his thoughts on the challenges cultural diversity places on the society and on the systems. The author calls for a political order. For him,…

  4. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  5. An Essay on the History and Management of Literary, Scientific, & Mechanics' Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, James

    The object of this essay is to establish the right of the working class to a popular culture. It was written in reaction to the great disparity which existed in England between the progress achieved in terms of material wealth and the low moral and intellectual state of those whose labor had produced it. Chapter I, History, delves into the origin…

  6. Ben Jonson: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barish, Jonas A., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jonas A. Barish, T. S. Eliot, L. C. Knights, Harry Levin, Edmund Wilson, Arthur Sale, C. H. Herford, Paul Goodman, Edward B. Partridge, Ray L. Heffner, Jr., Joseph Allen Bryant, Jr., and Dolora Cunningham--all dealing…

  7. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorder How to Write Persuasive Essays Fluently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerar, Nancy Irby

    2012-01-01

    A multiprobe, multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of persuasive writing strategy instruction. Six middle school students with emotional and behavioral disabilities (EBD) received two instructional phases of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for writing persuasive essays over 33 days of intervention.…

  8. The Use of Metacognitive Knowledge in Essay Writing among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surat, Shahlan; Rahman, Saemah; Mahamod, Zamri; Kummin, Saadiah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a bigger project aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of metacognitive strategies on students' performance in essay writing. The aspects of metacognitive strategies considered in this study include the use of declarative knowledge, conditional knowledge, and procedural knowledge. The focus of this paper is on the use of…

  9. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IX--Statement of Cash Flows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2009-01-01

    This essay series, beginning with Laux [2007a], defends the proposition that eliminating the theoretical chapter from the principles level accounting course has weakened the introduction for students new to this subject, perhaps resulting in some adverse selection for the accounting profession. As a remedy, it offers concise theoretical articles…

  10. ...And How Not To: A Critique of the Portland Baseline Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Erich

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the inaccuracies and distortions found within the Portland Baseline Essays, one of the most widespread Afrocentric teacher resource materials in use. Specific distortions examined are that ancient Egypt was a Black nation and that the achievements of ancient Greece had African origins. (GLR)

  11. Detecting and Analyzing Differential Item Functioning in an Essay Test Using the Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steven; Walker-Bartnick, Leslie

    A procedure was developed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in a standardized essay test using the Partial Credit Model, the general polychotomous form of the Rasch model. Using a panel of experts in the writing process, hypothesized explanations for DIF at some score points were developed. Data for the study included averaged…

  12. Tutor Feedback on Draft Essays: Developing Students' Academic Writing and Subject Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Providing feedback on draft essays is an accepted means of enacting a social-constructivist approach to assessment, aligning with current views on the value of formative feedback and assessment for learning (AFL). However, the use of this process as a means of improving not only content but also students' academic writing skills has not been…

  13. Three Essays on the Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ada, Serkan

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICT) have an essential role in today's organizations and ever-changing dynamic environments. ICT has substantial tangible and intangible impact on organizations not only in usual environments, but also in extreme environments. This dissertation is composed of three essays on the impact of ICT in…

  14. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  15. The Marble in the Water: Essays on Contemporary Writers of Fiction for Children and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, David

    The purposes of this collection of 15 essays on specific works of fiction for children and adolescents are threefold: to explore some of the similarities and differences in fiction for children in England and the United States; to point out some of the qualities of American literature that are of particular interest to children in England and to…

  16. One Hundred Classic Books about Higher Education: A Compendium and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron; Keller, George; Bogue, E. Grady; Thelin, John R.

    This compendium by four professors and longtime students of higher education lists what they regard as 100 of the most influential books about U.S. colleges and universities in the 20th century, although they cannot be considered "the" classics. Following the annotated list, these essays provide commentary: (1) The Changing World of Books about…

  17. From Traditional Essay to "Ready Steady Cook" Presentation: Reasons for Innovative Changes in Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leedham, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The prose essay, case study and laboratory report, composed by individual students in isolation from their peers, used to be the mainstay of undergraduate writing. However, in recent years an array of alternative assignment types such as blogs, letters and e-posters have widened the repertoire of texts expected. This article attempts to describe…

  18. Comparability of Scores on Word-Processed and Handwritten Essays on the Graduate Management Admissions Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; Cooper, Peter

    Essays for the Graduate Management Admissions Test must be written with a word processor (except in some foreign countries). The test sponsors, the Graduate Management Admissions Council, believed that this is fair because some word processing skill is a prerequisite for advanced management education. Furthermore, it might also be unfair to…

  19. Essay Test Strategies and Cultural Diversity: Pragmatic Failure, Pragmatic Accommodation, and the Definition of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    A study examined the responses of five university students from linguistically diverse backgrounds to an unfamiliar essay examination task to be performed in English. Subjects were an East Indian educated entirely in English, a Korean-English bilingual, a Norwegian fluent in English, a black middle-class American, and an urban American. Data were…

  20. Writing Evaluation: What Can Analytic versus Holistic Essay Scoring Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacha, Nahla

    2001-01-01

    Reports a study carried out on a sample of final exam essays written by native-speaking Arabic students of English attending the freshman English course in the English-as-a-foreign-language program at the Lebanese American University. Examines what analytic and holistic scoring using one evaluation instrument can tell teachers about their…

  1. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  2. The Slow Handwriting of Undergraduate Students Constrains Overall Performance in Exam Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Vincent; Dockrell, Julie E.; Barnett, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduates producing handwritten essays in university exams need to transcribe information onto the page in a rapid and efficient manner under considerable time pressure. In fact, capacity models of the writing process predict that the more automated students can make the transcription process then the more resources will be available for…

  3. Comparing Several Human and Computer-Based Methods for Scoring Concept Maps and Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Ravinder; Clariana, Roy B.; Salehi, Roya

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of the convergent criterion-related validity of two computer-based tools for scoring concept maps and essays as part of the ongoing formative evaluation of these tools. In pairs, participants researched a science topic online and created a concept map of the topic. Later, participants…

  4. The AP United States History Exam: Have Free Response Essays Changed in the Last Thirty Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of the free response essays in the Advance Placement U.S. history test from 1963-92. Asserts that there were four significant transition years: 1964, 1965, 1973, and 1976 and predicts another in 1994. Presents data indicating trends toward social history, cultural pluralism, and economic/business topics. (CFR)

  5. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  6. The Eye of the Reporter: Literature's Heritage in the Press. An Essays in Literature Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Bill, Ed.; McLean, Deckle, Ed.

    Noting that the reporting-to-writing route is sometimes circuitous and rough, although reliable, this essay collection considers the road from writing journalism to writing other literary genres such as fiction and poetry. The collection points out that newspapers have provided a proving ground for many aspiring authors, from Walt Whitman and Mark…

  7. The Higher Education of Women: Essays in Honor of Rosemary Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Hirsch, Werner Z.

    Essays include: some considerations on the higher education of women (Rosemary Park); three women, creators of change (Esther Raushenbush); women's education, the case for the single-sex college (Susan Romer Kaplan); liberal arts education and women's development (C. Robert Pace); women's studies, its origin, organization, and prospects (Sheila…

  8. Essays on the Economics of Education: Structured Transfer Programs, Enrollment Patterns, and Efficiency at Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosta, Peter Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, community colleges serve nearly half of the 18 million students enrolled in postsecondary education. However, it has only been the last decade or so where these public, two-year institutions have claimed substantial attention from the research community. This dissertation consists of three essays that focus on aspects of the…

  9. Of Heart and Mind. Social Policy Essays in Honor of Sar A. Levitan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangum, Garth, Ed.; Mangum, Stephen, Ed.

    This book contains 17 social policy essays on various topics related to labor and full employment policies in the United States. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Stephen Mangum); "Secular Rabbi: The Life and Times of Sar A. Levitan" (Garth Mangum); "Young Workers, Young Families, and Child Poverty" (Andrew Sum, Clifford Johnson,…

  10. An Evaluation of Methods for Setting Standards on the Essay Portion of the National Teacher Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, John Christian; Jaeger, Richard M.

    This study addressed seven questions regarding the methods used in setting passing scores on the essay subtest of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Communication Skills test for the North Carolina State Board of Education. North Carolina uses these tests to screen prospective applicants to teacher education programs. The judges (five college…

  11. Second Language Learners' Performance and Strategies When Writing Direct and Translated Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Alsheikh, Negmeldin Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ESL students' performance and strategies when writing direct and translated essays. The study also aimed at exploring students' strategies when writing in L2 (English) and L1 (Arabic). The study used a mixture of quantitative and qualitative procedures for data collection and analysis. Adapted strategy…

  12. Boston College Sees a Sharp Drop in Applications after Adding an Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boston College saw a 26-percent decrease in applications this year, a drop officials largely attribute to a new essay requirement. Last year the private Jesuit institution received a record 34,051 applications for 2,250 spots in its freshman class. This year approximately 25,000 students applied, and all of them had to do one thing their…

  13. Essays in Comparative Popular Culture: Coffee, Comics, and Communication. Paper No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Hidetoshi

    Based on papers presented at the East-West Communication Institute conferences and seminars in Hawaii between 1973 and 1975, these five essays focus on intercultural communication, emphasizing that popular culture existed with great diversity for centuries before modern media and that popular cultures have importance and impact on the everyday…

  14. The Influence of Process Approach on English as Second Language Students' Performances in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinwamide, Timothy Kolade

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Process Approach on English as second language Students' performances in essay writing. The purpose was to determine how far this current global approach could be of assistance to the writing skill development of these bilingual speakers of English language. The study employed the pre-test post-test control…

  15. Academic Writing in a Second Language: Essays on Research and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Diane, Ed.; Braine, George, Ed.

    Essays on research and teaching of academic writing in English as a second language include:"When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: The Case of a Graduate ESL Student" (Melanie Schneider, Naomi K. Fujishima); "Good Writing: I Know It When I See It" (Ilona Leki); "Redefining the Task: An Ethnographic Examination of Writing and Response in Graduate…

  16. A Comparison of Tenth and Twelfth Grade Students' Essay Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan D.

    A longitudinal study of advanced senior high students' writing abilities indicates that, over a three-year period, students exhibit significantly improved writing skills. Follow a continuous program of writing enhancement, graduating seniors exit the system with reasonable or better than reasonable skills in essay organization, sentence formation,…

  17. An Exploration of L1, L2, and Bilingual Students' Writing Features on the SAT Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2012-01-01

    It is well-documented that students' prior knowledge, cultural background, and language proficiency play a role in how they read, interpret, and respond to writing tasks (Barkaoui, 2007; Connor & Kramer, 1995; Hinkel, 2002). Essays written by students from different language backgrounds often differ in their linguistic, stylistic, and…

  18. Writing Essays on a Laptop or a Desktop Computer: Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Bridgeman, Brent

    2013-01-01

    To explore the potential effect of computer type on the Test of English as a Foreign Language-Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) Writing Test, a sample of 444 international students was used. The students were randomly assigned to either a laptop or a desktop computer to write two TOEFL iBT practice essays in a simulated testing environment, followed…

  19. Emphasizing Planning for Essay Writing with a Computer-Based Graphic Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evmenova, Anya S.; Regan, Kelley; Boykin, Andrea; Good, Kevin; Hughes, Melissa; MacVittie, Nichole; Sacco, Donna; Ahn, Soo Y.; Chirinos, David

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a multiple-baseline study to investigate the effects of a computer-based graphic organizer (CBGO) with embedded self-regulated learning strategies on the quantity and quality of persuasive essay writing by students with high-incidence disabilities. Ten seventh- and eighth-grade students with learning disabilities, emotional…

  20. Globalizations and Education: Collected Essays on Class, Race, Gender, and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Spanning an extraordinary 30-year career, this book collects seminal essays by critical theorist Carlos Alberto Torres. Torres is among the foremost scholars devoted to interpreting the work of Paulo Freire and has done much over the years to raise the visibility of Freire's contribution to educational theory. In addition, he has helped to…

  1. The Role of Essay Tests Assessment in e-Learning: A Japanese Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Yamamoto, Hiroh; Santiago, Rowena

    2010-01-01

    e-Learning has some restrictions on how learning performance is assessed. Online testing is usually in the form of multiple-choice questions, without any essay type of learning assessment. Major reasons for employing multiple-choice tasks in e-learning include ease of implementation and ease of managing learner's responses. To address this…

  2. Essays of a peripheral mind: The range problem in New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This essay reviews the 1908 report on the condition of rangelands in New Mexico written by Elmer Ottis Wooton. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the central recommendation in that report which encouraged a federally based system of land resource management. The premise of this review is th...

  3. Essay-Writing Strategy for Students Enrolled in a Postsecondary Program for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Therrien, William J.; Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a writing (ANSWER) strategy to improve the essay test responses of students who were enrolled in a campus-based, postsecondary education program for individuals with developmental disabilities. Random assignment to treatment or control groups and a pre- and posttest design were employed. Students used the…

  4. Improving the Persuasive Essay Writing of High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Laura Thompson; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often experience serious academic deficits. One area that is particularly problematic is written expression. This study assesses the effectiveness of a persuasive essay-writing strategy taught by using the self-regulated strategy development model on the writing skills of 3 high school…

  5. Is the Essay Dead? Revitalising Argument in the Era of Multiliteracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyenes, Tom; Wilks, Judith

    2014-01-01

    While the essay is the default assessment tool of the Humanities in upper secondary and tertiary education, it is a text type that has been slowly bled of communicative purpose. It is suffered by students, taught according to restrictive formula and ignored in the literature. Evidence from the tertiary sector, employers and public examinations…

  6. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  7. Methodological Considerations: Using Student Essays as Historical Sources. The Example of Postwar Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blessing, Benita

    2007-01-01

    Pupils' essays represent an overlooked resource for historical inquiry. Historians have often ignored young people's work as 'unauthentic', falsely believing it to be merely the mimicking of teachers' and parents' beliefs. But young people are not merely mouthpieces for adults, as research on teacher-student interactions has demonstrated. By…

  8. Guns, Gangs, and Gossip: An Analysis of Student Essays on Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marc A.; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Wong, Naima; Tarver, Darian; Rabiah, Deana; White, Sharrice

    2004-01-01

    Youth violence is an important public health problem, but few researchers have studied violence from youth's perspectives. Middle school students' essays about the causes of youth violence were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods. The causes of violence identified by students were categorized into individual, peer, family, and…

  9. Three Essays on Grade Configuration, Academic Achievement, and the Gender Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parekh, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three essays exploring the performance of students on standardized tests in public schools. Since the passage of the "No Child Left Behind Act" (NCLB) in 2002, public schools have been subject to penalties for poor student achievement. In particular, NCLB requires states to measure reading and math test scores…

  10. Will the Real Franz Rosenzweig Please Stand Up?: Two Reflections on Two Educational Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Alan; Schein, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The views of Jewish education articulated by Rosenzweig in his essays "It is Time" and in "The Opening of the Lehrhaus" are quite different. So different, in fact, that an account of how one mind can produce such different accounts is necessary. Following the lead of a 1950's popular television quiz show, the authors ask "Will the Real Franz…

  11. Marking Time? A Review of the Assessment of Essays in Economics at A-Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunder, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the dearth of material concerning how A-level boards assess British students' economics essays. Describes the practices of the Joint Matriculation Board (JMB) in grading papers on various subjects. Reveals how the London Board grades advanced level economics papers. Includes a chart showing London Board grading criteria. (SG)

  12. What To Look for in a Classroom...and Other Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    This book presents a collection of essays that suggest how to improve the education system in the United States. There are 19 chapters in 5 parts. Part 1, "Classroom Management," includes: (1) "The Limits of Teaching Skills"; (2) "The Trouble with School Uniforms"; (3) "Beyond Discipline"; and (4) "How Not To Teach Values: A Critical Look at…

  13. Research on Essay Exams: Using Inquiry To Enhance Students' Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Christy M.

    A study focused on teaching students to write effectively in time-pressure situations, particularly on essay exams. Thirteen sections of freshman composition (205 students) were divided into two treatment groups. Half of the classes completed the exam-taking unit in a standard freshman text. The other half of the classes worked through an inquiry…

  14. Writing Put to the Test: Teaching for the High Stakes Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This book helps educators improve students' ability to write clear, coherent essays in response to on-demand writing prompts. While it focuses on students' abilities to succeed at on-demand writing, it also promotes the teaching of writing as an expression of art and self. For grades 4-12, it provides examples of responses to narrative and…

  15. Our Economic System: Essays and Teacher's Guides. Sears Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R., Comp.

    This series of 12 short essays with teacher's guides is designed to provide secondary students with practical skills and knowledge of our economic system. Objectives are for students to: (1) identify basic concepts which underlie our economic system, (2) understand how systems operate, (3) analyze strengths and weaknesses of the economic system,…

  16. Narrative Plus: Designing and Implementing the Common Core State Standards with the Gift Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Zeleznik, John

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe their inquiry into implementation of the writing-focused Common Core State Standards in a co-taught English 9 class in an urban school. They describe instructional moves designed to increase student success with an assignment called the Gift Essay, with particular focus on planning and other organizational…

  17. Ezra Pound: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Walter, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Walter Sutton, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, T. S. Eliot, F. R. Leavis, Hugh Kenner, M. L. Rosenthal, Forrest Read, David W. Evans, W. M. Frohock, Harold H. Watts, Earl Miner, Murray Schafer, J. P.…

  18. Lifeworlds and Learning. Essays in the Theory, Philosophy and Practice of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Bill

    These 11 essays explore the promise and limitations of current models of lifelong learning. "The Sociology of Lifelong Learning" discusses the relevance of various movements to understanding learning in modern society. "Knowledge, Power, and Ignorance" suggests that a new kind of society--the expert society--is emerging. "Knowing, Understanding,…

  19. Mexican and Mexican-American Literature for the Senior High School. Poetry, Essay, Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Jose Unified School District, CA.

    Four poems, 4 essays, and 1 play are reproduced in full in this curriculum guide designed to supplement traditional literature programs with Mexican and Mexican American literature at the senior high school level. Content descriptions, reference materials, and suggested activities relating to the literary works are included. Concepts which have…

  20. Mexican and Mexican-American Literature for the Junior High School. Poetry, Essay, Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Jose Unified School District, CA.

    Three poems, 3 essays, and 1 play are reproduced in full in this curriculum guide designed to supplement traditional literature programs with Mexican and Mexican American literature at the junior high school level. Content descriptions, reference materials, and suggested activities relating to the literary works are included. Concepts which have…