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Sample records for iconographic essay osteoartropatia

  1. Aspiration pneumonia in children: an iconographic essay*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Antonio; Pessanha, Laís Bastos; Guerra, Luiz Felipe Alves; Martins, Diego Lima Nava; Rondina, Ronaldo Garcia; Silva, Jamine Ronacher Passos

    2015-01-01

    In most cases of aspiration pneumonia in children, the disease is specific to this age group. Clinical and radiological correlation is essential for the diagnosis. The present pictorial essay is aimed at showing typical images of the most common etiologies. PMID:26811557

  2. Uncommon hepatic tumors: iconographic essay - Part 1*

    PubMed Central

    Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; da Rocha, Eduardo Lima; Kierszenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Torres, Lucas Rios; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Most malignant liver tumors are represented by hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma; however a variety of other uncommon hepatic lesions might also be found. Common lesions such as hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia and metastases are well known and have already been extensively documented in the literature. The diagnosis of typical hepatic lesions may be done with some reliability by means of several imaging methods; on the other hand, uncommon lesions normally represent a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In this first part of the study, the authors will approach five uncommon liver tumors - angiosarcoma, angiomyolipoma, cystadenoma/biliary carcinoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma -, describing their main characteristics and image findings with focus on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25741106

  3. Uncommon hepatic tumors: iconographic essay – Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Pedrassa, Bruno Cheregati; da Rocha, Eduardo Lima; Kierzenbaum, Marcelo Longo; Bormann, Renata Lilian; Francisc, Viviane Vieira; D’Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    In cases where typical aspects are shown, the diagnosis of most frequent hepatic lesions can be made with some safety by means of several imaging methods; on the other hand, uncommon lesions generally represent a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In the present second part of the study, the authors describe four rare hepatic lesions, as follows: primary hepatic lymphoma, myofibroblastic tumor, primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor and desmoplastic small round cell tumor, approaching their main characteristics and imaging findings with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25741121

  4. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  5. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP): A New Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Boerchi, Diego; Magnano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular) for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old) of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job) in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas (“things”, “people”, “leisure”, and “culture”). Moreover, Holland’s RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs. PMID:27247679

  6. Scholarly Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A selection of essays by 12 1983 Presidential Scholars entitled Opportunity in America; Under the Influence of High Fashion; Law and Human Freedom; The Effects of Computers in Education; Prejudice, Cultural Heritage, and National Unity; The Visual Artist in a Technological Society; Dorothy Meets Schopenhauer; Rise Above; and Mathematics as a…

  7. The Essay Canon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relation of essays to canon theory, explains why the only essay canon to be publicly identified in the 20th century is a powerful teaching canon. Shows "where essays live," how they arrive in the teaching canon, and why they stay there. Examines how essays are taught. Looks at the future of the essay canon. (SR)

  8. Step-by-step iconographic description of a prolonged but still favourable course of orbital cellulitis in a child with acute rhinosinusitis: an iconographic case study.

    PubMed

    Torretta, Sara; Marchisio, Paola; Gaffuri, Michele; Capaccio, Pasquale; Esposito, Susanna; Pignataro, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Orbital cellulitis is an infrequent complication of acute ethmoiditis possibly leading to life- or visual-threatening complications. Despite its natural history is well known, its clinical evolution may widely vary among patients, and even in the most favourable cases long-term sequelae may persist. We here provide a step-by-step iconographic description of a periorbital and orbital cellulitis occurring in a child with ipsilateral acute rhinosinusitis. Our report shows that an unusual long-term evolution of periorbital and orbital cellulitis is possible also in apparently favourable cases. PMID:24594215

  9. Primary Essay Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, L. Ramon; Biesbrock, Edieann F.

    1971-01-01

    Reports the development of an experimental essay test for use with young children based on the now-obsolete STEP Essay Tests. The child's essay on an assigned topic is rated in comparison with previously rated and scaled essays which serve as performance models. (Author)

  10. Assessment of embryo/fetus during pregnancy by threedimensional ultrasonography using the HD live software: iconographic essay

    PubMed Central

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Santana, Eduardo Félix Martins; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Fetal development is studied since the advent of two-dimensional ultrasonography. However, a detailed assessment of structures and surfaces improved with three-dimensional ultrasonography. Currently, it is possible to identify embryonic components and fetal parts with greater detail, at all pregnancy trimesters, using the HD live software, where the images gain realistic features by means of appropriate control of lighting and shadowing effects. In the present study, the authors utilized this resource to follow-up, by means of images, the development of a normal pregnancy along all trimesters. PMID:25798008

  11. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  12. The Dreaded Essay Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys in 2 undergraduate psychology classes (N = 86) found that students felt less comfortable taking all-essay tests than taking multiple-choice or short-answer tests. The dominant examination format for students in university and in high school had been multiple-choice tests. We describe measures to encourage essay writing in large classes.…

  13. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  14. Rubric Sorting Astronomy Essays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, P. M.

    2014-07-01

    Student essays on introductory astronomy exams can be consistently and efficiently graded by a single instructor, or by multiple graders for a large class. This is done by constructing a robust outcome rubric while sorting exams into separate stacks, then checking each stack for consistency. Certain online resources readily provide primary source prompts for writing astronomy exam essay questions.

  15. Essays on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Thomas E., Ed.

    The monograph presents a series of essays written by well known educators sharing their perceptions, problems, and projects and documenting some of the practical, philosophical, situational, and theoretical aspects of career education. The essays include: The Case for Career Education, by Kenneth B. Hoyt; Basic Constructs of the School-Based…

  16. Improving Achievement Via Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Ohmer

    1979-01-01

    The benefits of using essay tests rather than objective tests in professional education programs are discussed. Essay tests offer practice in writing, creativity and formal communications. Guidelines for using and scoring a sample essay test in biology are presented. (BH)

  17. Achondroplasia among ancient populations of mesoamerica and South America: Iconographic and Archaeological Evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Carolina; Pachajoa, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Achondroplasia is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, genu varum, and trident hand. Although the etiology of this disease was reported in 1994, evidence of this disease in ancient populations has been found in populations of ancient Egypt (2500 BC) and it has been documented in ancient American populations. Objective: To analyze the presence of individuals with achondroplasia in the Mayan state society of Mexico and Guatemala, during the Classical (100- 950 AC ) and Post-Classical (950 - 1519 AC ) periods; likewise, in the hierarchical-chieftain society of Tumaco-la Tolita (300 BC - 600 AC ) from the Colombia-Ecuador Pacific coast, and the Moche state society (100 - 600 AC ) from the northern coast of Peru. Methods: Iconographic and clinical-morphological studies of some of the most important artistic representations of individuals of short stature in these three cultures. Conclusion: We present the hypothesis that the individuals with short stature were somehow associated with the political and religious power elite. PMID:24893194

  18. Essays on symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismael, Jenann Tareq

    1997-04-01

    Structures of many different sorts arise in physics, e.g., the concrete structures of material bodies, the structure exemplified by the spatiotemporal configuration of a set of bodies, the structures of more abstract objects like states, state-spaces, laws, and so on. To each structure of any of these types there corresponds a set of transformations which map it onto itself. These are its symmetries. Increasingly ubiquitous in theoretical discussions in physics, the notion of symmetry is also at the root of some time-worn philosophical debates. This dissertation consists of a set of essays on topics drawn from places where the two fields overlap. The first essay is an informal introduction to the mathematical study of symmetry. The second essay defends a famous principle of Pierre Curie which states that the symmetries of a cause are always symmetries of its effect. The third essay takes up the case of reflection in space in the context of a controversy stemming from one of Kant's early arguments for the substantivality of space. The fourth essay is a discussion of the general conditions under which an asymmetry in a phenomenon suggests an asymmetry in the laws which govern it. The case of reflection in time-specifically, the theoretical strategy used in statistical mechanics to subsume the time-asymmetric phenomena of Thermodynamics under the time-symmetric classical dynamical laws-is used to illustrate the general points. The philosophical heart of the thesis lies in its fifth essay. Here a somewhat novel way of conceiving scientific theorizing is articulated, one suggested by the abstract mathematical perspective of symmetry.

  19. Marking Advanced Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Michael

    1978-01-01

    A list of points to aid essay writers is suggested as the basis of a marking system for the teacher of English as a foreign language. The checklist, obtained from a book on higher education by Ruth Beard, can be adapted to the English as a foreign language situation. (SW)

  20. The Centennial Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshan, Bob

    1991-01-01

    In this essay, the star of "Captain Kangaroo" points out that more than 20 percent of America's children live below the poverty line. School boards, administrators, and teachers need to make a commitment to address the needs of the whole child. Schools have an opportunity to play a critical role in saving our children. (MLF)

  1. A Personal Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki, Terry Myers

    The personal essay does not rely on the straight, even rows of a carefully laid out vegetable garden, on strings pulled tight to connect beginnings to ends. Instead it meanders, pulls from here and there, thinks out loud, asks questions, and proceeds leisurely through disconnections to make connections, as an ever-changing flower garden in which…

  2. Essays on Character & Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Children and Families at Brookings, 2014

    2014-01-01

    These essays provide richer set of writings on the philosophical, empirical and practical issues raised by a focus on character, and in particular its relationship to questions of opportunity. Each one is an intellectual pemmican: sharp and to the point. Two scholars draw attention to the gendered nature of character formation (Segal and Lexmond);…

  3. Rethinking the Argumentative Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneer, David

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of the argumentative essay as it is commonly presented in academic writing textbooks and classrooms for English language learners. The author first examines the traditional three-stage structure (thesis-argument-conclusion) and then problematizes it within a genre-based approach to academic writing. He…

  4. Writing Your College Application Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pett, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Advice to American Indian students on writing a college application essay focuses on conveying an honest portrayal of significant aspects of their lives. Distinctive stories grounded in Native American experience are likely to catch the interest of the admissions officer. A sample essay and representative essay questions are included. (SV)

  5. Essays in microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Tim

    This dissertation consists of three essays in applied microeconomics. Each essay explores a different issue of economic interest. The essay in Chapter 2 describes an experiment designed to investigate if using assets with an intrinsic value that increases over time leads to persistent undervaluation in laboratory asset trading markets. This question has not previously been investigated by researchers. Results from ten sessions are reported. Three used assets with an intrinsic value that decreased over time. The results from these sessions are consistent with the findings by prior researchers who frequently observed price bubbles in laboratory asset trading experiments. The remaining seven sessions used assets with an intrinsic value that increased over time. In all these sessions trading generally occurred at prices below the asset's intrinsic value. In Chapter 3, in an essay co-authored with Adrian Stoian, we study road running races. Tournaments, where ordinal position determines rewards, are an important component of our economy. By studying sporting tournaments, we hope to shed light on the nature of other economically significant tournaments where data may be less readily available. We separately quantify the sorting and incentive effects of tournament prizes by employing a novel two-part model which we apply to a unique data set of road running race results. We present a counterfactual example of how a hypothetical change in prizes would be predicted to change race participation and speed. In Chapter 4, in an essay co-authored with Jedidiah Brewer and Joseph Cullen, we examine the combined effects of the locations and the brands of retail gasoline outlets in Tucson, Arizona on market prices. We apply an innovative approach to model the impact of competing gas stations that avoids limiting analysis to predetermined nearby locations. We show that increased brand diversity is associated with higher prices and that gas stations affiliated with mass

  6. Essays on strategy VII

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Revolutionary developments in Europe and their global reverberations since 1989 have affected certain aspects of our national strategy. This volume presents nine essays dealing imaginatively with the issues of the post-Cold War period. One of them addresses general US strategy for the 1990s. Three focus on high-level strategic matters: the future of flexible response, antisatellite weapons, and forward, mobile defenses. The others address US chemical weapons policy, use of civilian aircraft for defense airlift, neutrality of the Panama Canal after 1999, arms sales by China, and strategic defense at reduced cost.

  7. Three Essays on Macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doda, Lider Baran

    This dissertation consists of three independent essays in macroeconomics. The first essay studies the transition to a low carbon economy using an extension of the neoclassical growth model featuring endogenous energy efficiency, exhaustible energy and explicit climate-economy interaction. I derive the properties of the laissez faire equilibrium and compare them to the optimal allocations of a social planner who internalizes the climate change externality. Three main results emerge. First, the exhaustibility of energy generates strong market based incentives to improve energy efficiency and reduce CO 2 emissions without any government intervention. Second, the market and optimal allocations are substantially different suggesting a role for the government. Third, high and persistent taxes are required to implement the optimal allocations as a competitive equilibrium with taxes. The second essay focuses on coal fired power plants (CFPP) - one of the largest sources of CO2 emissions globally - and their generation efficiency using a macroeconomic model with an embedded CFPP sector. A key feature of the model is the endogenous choice of production technologies which differ in their energy efficiency. After establishing four empirical facts about the CFPP sector, I analyze the long run quantitative effects of energy taxes. Using the calibrated model, I find that sector-specific coal taxes have large effects on generation efficiency by inducing the use of more efficient technologies. Moreover, such taxes achieve large CO2 emissions reductions with relatively small effects on consumption and output. The final essay studies the procyclicality of fiscal policy in developing countries, which is a well-documented empirical observation seemingly at odds with Neoclassical and Keynesian policy prescriptions. I examine this issue by solving the optimal fiscal policy problem of a small open economy government when the interest rates on external debt are endogenous. Given an

  8. Essays in applied economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  9. Essays in applied microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Lucas William

    2005-11-01

    The first essay measures the impact of an outbreak of pediatric leukemia on local housing values. A model of residential location choice is used to describe conditions under which the gradient of the hedonic price function with respect to health risk is equal to household marginal willingness to pay to avoid pediatric leukemia risk. This equalizing differential is estimated using property-level sales records from a county in Nevada where residents have recently experienced a severe increase in pediatric leukemia. Housing values are compared before and after the increase with a nearby county acting as a control group. The results indicate that housing values decreased 15.6% during the period of maximum risk. Results are similar for alternative measures of risk and across houses of different sizes. With risk estimates derived using a Bayesian learning model the results imply a statistical value of pediatric leukemia of $5.6 million. The results from the paper provide some of the first market-based estimates of the value of health for children. The second essay evaluates the cost-effectiveness of public incentives that encourage households to purchase high-efficiency durable goods. The demand for durable goods and the demand for energy and other inputs are modeled jointly as the solution to a household production problem. The empirical analysis focuses on the case of clothes washers. The production technology and utilization decision are estimated using household-level data from field trials in which participants received front-loading clothes washers free of charge. The estimation strategy exploits this quasi-random replacement of washers to derive robust estimates of the utilization decision. The results indicate a price elasticity, -.06, that is statistically different from zero across specifications. The parameters from the utilization decision are used to estimate the purchase decision using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey, 1994-2002. Households

  10. [Malthus's Essay and Newton's Principia].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The author examines a natural scientific approach to demography using the example of Malthus's "Essay on the Principle of Population." The work is analyzed and compared to Newton's "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica." PMID:12342767

  11. Three essays on contingent valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beatty, Timothy Kenneth Munro

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the contingent valuation methodology. The first essay develops a theoretical model of how agents respond to willingness to pay questions in a survey context. In particular, this essay focuses on the difference between a voluntary contribution mechanism and a mandatory contribution mechanism. The second essay applies this theory to a survey of willingness to pay for renewable energy by varying the mechanism by which the public good is supplied. The third essay proposes a methodology for choosing the number, location and range of contributions or bid levels in dichotomous choice contingent valuation surveys. The first essay, "Mandatory vs. Voluntary Payment to a Public Good" models the differing incentive effects of two different payment mechanisms in contingent valuations surveys. It is shown that under rationed voluntary payment (where each agent can contribute either a fixed amount or nothing) there exists a Nash equilibrium in which the level of public good provided is strictly below the level provided under a mandatory provision rule. This result is generalized to hypothetical valuation surveys and a set of condition ranking willingness to pay under each mechanism is described. The second essay "Valuing a Public Good" describes the result of a survey designed to test the above theory. This essay considers willingness to pay for renewable energy. In order to test the theory, a split sample survey of over fifteen hundred respondents was conducted. One half of the sample was asked whether they would volunteer to pay for green power and the other half was asked whether they would vote to support a program in which the entire population was required to contribute towards the provision of the public good. On average, respondents' willingness to pay was higher for the public good provided by the mandatory provision mechanism. The third essay describes the literature on how the contribution or bid levels can be chosen to

  12. Using Voice and Audience in Essay Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlan, Dan

    Students dislike writing essay examinations as much as teachers dislike reading them. Perhaps no alternatives to the essay exam exist, but certainly the task can be lessened by altering the format of the essay exam. In an education class at a California university, students select in advance one essay question from a list of several, and field…

  13. Essays in public economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  14. Three Essays on College Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seki, Mai

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on adolescents' post secondary education choices and labor market returns. The first chapter analyzes returns to selectivity of four-year colleges by different post-bachelor's degree schooling paths. The second chapter documents the role of family income in college application and enrollment…

  15. Two Essays in Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brent A.

    2013-01-01

    Prior researchers (Anderson et al. 1994; Ballard & Johnson 2004; Hoag & Benedict 2010) have shown that different math abilities do not equally correlate with success in economics, yet no research has specifically compared algebra and geometry skills as predictors of economics success. In the first essay, I find that students' standardized…

  16. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  17. An Encyclopedic Undertaking. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the 10-volume "International Encyclopedia of Education: Research and Studies," edited by Torsten Husen and T. Neville Postlethwaite. Discusses useful features, organizational framework, clusters of educational themes, bias toward English-language sources, articles on specific national educational systems, theme essays concerning…

  18. Essays in Education and Macroeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on education and macroeconomics. The first chapter analyzes whether public education financing systems can account for large differences among developed countries in earnings inequality and intergenerational earnings persistence. I first document facts about public education in the U.S. and Norway, which…

  19. Halley's Comet: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Stephen L.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliographic essay evaluates six books on Halley's Comet as science writings that fall into three categories: middle school and junior high-level books; senior high to adult-level books; and advanced level. Author, number of pages, publication date, price, International Standard Book Number, and publisher information are provided. (EJS)

  20. Women's Studies: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirtland, Monika

    The essay section provides a definition and short history of women's studies and explores the implications in regard to the administration and teaching of such courses. The bibliography lists and annotates material useful for all levels of education. Information sources covered include government agencies and societies, reference sources (such as…

  1. Two Essays on Shared Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    These two essays present philosophical ideas on the development of shared governance in academic institutions. What philosophy has to contribute to governance is the very level of generality on which it "thinks." Philosophy places value on general principles and long-term goals, rather than particular cases and practical solutions. Philosophy also…

  2. Going Further: Essays in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Colin, Ed.; Austin, Michael, Ed.

    This volume contains 16 essays on Further Education (FE) in the context of its changing status and role in the educational and economic life of Great Britain. The essays are grouped around four main themes: (1) FE and mission; (2) managerial responsibilities; (3) context; and (4) diversity. The essays are: "FE Makes Itself Indispensable" (Tony…

  3. In Defense of the Formula Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan Charles

    2007-01-01

    In 1970, the author learned a simple step in making essays from his advisor. His advisor used a drawing of the Parthenon to illustrate the creation of a five-paragraph essay. It was obvious that his advisor was hesitant on teaching them a very simple concept of essay writing because it was pretty mechanical. Like his advisor, a lot of teachers…

  4. Enriching Automated Essay Scoring Using Discourse Marking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Jill; Kukich, Karen; Wolff, Susanne; Lu, Chi; Chodorow, Martin

    Electronic Essay Rater (e-rater) is a prototype automated essay scoring system built at Educational Testing Service that uses discourse marking in addition to syntactic information and topical content vector analyses to assign essay scores automatically. This paper gives a general description of e-rater as a whole, but its emphasis is on the…

  5. A Reflective Essaying Model for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a reflective essaying model as a useful way of encouraging learning in higher education. It aims to define reflective essaying as the free and serious play of mind on an interesting topic in an attempt to learn. Design/methodology/approach: Reflective essaying is first introduced as a unifying…

  6. Essays on Dynamic Competition and Academic Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Huyen T.

    2012-01-01

    My dissertation focuses on dynamic firm competition and academic entrepreneurship. The first essay studies the dynamics and equilibrium outcomes of a duopoly in which firms make decisions about both capacity expansion and cost reduction. The second essay is an extension of the framework used in the first essay to study the strategic roles of…

  7. The Rise of the Essay Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    2007-01-01

    College admissions essay coaches have been hanging out shingles since the early 1990s. The business has grown sharply over the past decade thanks to the ease of editing via the Internet and students' desire to gain any possible edge as many colleges have become more selective. The companies, with names like Cambridge Essay Service, EssayEdge,…

  8. Restructuring for Urban Student Success: Essay Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara, Ed.; Levine, Jodi, Ed.; Patton, Judy, Ed.

    This publication presents essays by members of Restructuring for Urban Student Success (RUSS) and other faculty, administrators, staff, and graduate students on participating campuses. The essays describe the work of RUSS and document curricular restructuring and reform efforts occurring at RUSS partner institutions. Part 1 includes essays by RUSS…

  9. The Color of Leadership. Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    On July 1, 2000, the author became the first black dean of Education in the almost 100 year existence of the formidable University of Pretoria, South Africa. This essay offers a set of meditations on being a black dean in a white university at the birth of a post-apartheid democracy. There are many sides to this narrative. It is a story of leading…

  10. Fetal MRI: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Rathee, Sapna; Joshi, Priscilla; Kelkar, Abhimanyu; Seth, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is the primary method for antenatal fetal evaluation. However, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has now become a valuable adjunct to USG in confirming/excluding suspected abnormalities and in the detection of additional abnormalities, thus changing the outcome of pregnancy and optimizing perinatal management. With the development of ultrafast sequences, fetal MRI has made remarkable progress in recent times. In this pictorial essay, we illustrate a spectrum of structural abnormalities affecting the central nervous system, thorax, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract, as well as miscellaneous anomalies. Anomalies in twin gestations and placental abnormalities have also been included. PMID:27081224

  11. Dialects in Culture: Essays in General Dialectology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Raven I., Jr.

    This is a collection of 60 essays on dialectology written in the period from 1942 to 1979. The essays fall into the categories of theoretical, applied, and critical dialectology. Some of the more recent titles include: "System and Variety in American English,""Dialect Differences and Social Differences in an Urban Society,""Dialectology and the…

  12. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  13. 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2012 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest. They are Naim Owens from Washington, DC, and Colissa Menke from Warrensburg, Missouri. The 2012 essay topic is "How do you feel CTE prepares individuals, including yourself, for a future career?"

  14. Essays on La Mujer. Anthology No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rosaura, Ed.; Cruz, Rosa Martinez, Ed.

    The 10 essays introduce some concepts and topics of particular concern and interest to those wishing to analyze the situation of the Chicana within her particular historical, social and economical context. Topics of the essays are: (1) the Chicana labor force; (2) the role of the Chicana within the student movement; (3) the Chicana and the Chicano…

  15. Essays on the Economics of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of two essays that broadly consider the role human capital plays in the matching process between individuals and institutions and builds on prior education literature that has found growing evidence that economic choices and opportunities are inextricably linked to human capital investment. The essays in this…

  16. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  17. The "New" Age: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Daniel Ross

    This bibliographic essay describes and discusses important books in a variety of thematic areas associated with the New Age Movement, which is a distinctive communicative phenomenon characterized by unconventional beliefs and activities. The essay argues that the single subject pervading the peculiar phenomena and puzzling thoughtful critics is…

  18. Students' Experiences with an Automated Essay Scorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharber, Cassandra; Dexter, Sara; Riedel, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze preservice teachers' use of and reactions to an automated essay scorer used within an online, case-based learning environment called ETIPS. Data analyzed include post-assignment surveys, a user log of students' actions within the cases, instructor-assigned scores on final essays, and interviews with four…

  19. Framing the Past; Essays on Art Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucy, Donald, Ed.; Stankiewicz, Mary Ann, Ed.

    This collection of essays presents the history of art education from a variety of perspectives. Traditional and revisionist issues are seen from broad overviews and through specific concerns. Textual analysis, cultural transmission, and prominent philosophies are discussed. Thirteen essays include: (1) "A History of Art Education Histories"…

  20. Three essays on access pricing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of

  1. ``Water Drops'' Essays Available for Public Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Peter E.

    2007-11-01

    ``Water Drops'' are 90-second essays on water science, hydrology, culture, history, organizations, law, and policy that have aired weekly on radio station WRVO-FM in Oswego, N.Y., since January 2006. Created for the lay public with a basic understanding of Earth science, the 133 essays now are available on Public Radio Exchange (http://www.prx.org) for free use by public radio stations, according to terms set forth at the Exchange Web site that include citing appropriate credits. If aired weekly, there are enough essays for 2.5 years of radio programming.

  2. Three essays on utility regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  3. Two Essays in Financial Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnam, Kyle J.

    The following dissertation contains two distinct empirical essays which contribute to the overall field of Financial Economics. Chapter 1, entitled "The Determinants of Dynamic Dependence: An Analysis of Commodity Futures and Equity Markets," examines the determinants of the dynamic equity-commodity return correlations between five commodity futures sub-sectors (energy, foods and fibers, grains and oilseeds, livestock, and precious metals) and a value-weighted equity market index (S&P 500). The study utilizes the traditional DCC model, as well as three time-varying copulas: (i) the normal copula, (ii) the student's t copula, and (iii) the rotated-gumbel copula as dependence measures. Subsequently, the determinants of these various dependence measures are explored by analyzing several macroeconomic, financial, and speculation variables over different sample periods. Results indicate that the dynamic equity-commodity correlations for the energy, grains and oilseeds, precious metals, and to a lesser extent the foods and fibers, sub-sectors have become increasingly explainable by broad macroeconomic and financial market indicators, particularly after May 2003. Furthermore, these variables exhibit heterogeneous effects in terms of both magnitude and sign on each sub-sectors' equity-commodity correlation structure. Interestingly, the effects of increased financial market speculation are found to be extremely varied among the five sub-sectors. These results have important implications for portfolio selection, price formation, and risk management. Chapter 2, entitled, "US Community Bank Failure: An Empirical Investigation," examines the declining, but still pivotal role, of the US community banking industry. The study utilizes survival analysis to determine which accounting and macroeconomic variables help to predict community bank failure. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Federal Reserve Bank data are utilized to compare 452 community banks which failed between

  4. Three essays in energy and environmental economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redlinger, Michael

    This thesis exploits the boom in U.S. oil and gas production to explore several empirical questions in environmental and energy economics. In the first essay, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate learning-by-doing in the Bakken Shale Play. Furthermore, the essay demonstrates organizational forgetting and knowledge spillovers among firms. The results show rates of learning in an important sector the U.S. economy and may have broader lessons for productivity gains and losses. The second essay investigates interfirm learning economies in oil well drilling in terms of productivity improvements and increases in environmental safety. The empirical results improve our understanding of how interfirm relationships influence productivity as well as the drivers of environmental incidents. Lastly, the third essay analyzes the impacts of stricter environmental regulations on oil production and well drilling in North Dakota. The results have particular relevance for policymakers seeking to understand the trade-offs between resource development and environmental quality. These three essays ultimately expand our knowledge of how learning economies occur and the effects of environmental regulations on economic activity.

  5. Three essays on auction markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunda, Nicholas James

    This dissertation contains a series of theoretical investigations of auction markets. The essays it contains cover wholesale electricity markets, a popular selling mechanism on eBay, and supplier entry into multi-unit procurement auctions. The study in Chapter 1 compares the procurement cost-minimizing and productive efficiency performance of the auction mechanism used by independent system operators in wholesale electricity auction markets in the U.S. with that of a proposed alternative. The current practice allocates energy contracts as if the auction featured a discriminatory final payment method when, in fact, the markets are uniform price auctions. The proposed alternative explicitly accounts for the market-clearing price during the allocation phase. We find that the proposed alternative largely outperforms the current practice on the basis of procurement costs in the context of simple auction markets featuring both day-ahead and real-time auctions and that the procurement cost advantage of the alternative is complete when we simulate the effects of increased competition. We also find that a tradeoff between the objectives of procurement cost minimization and productive efficiency emerges in our simple auction markets and persists in the face of increased competition. The study in Chapter 2 considers a possible rationale for an auction with a buy price. In an auction with a buy price, the seller provides bidders with an option to end the auction early by accepting a transaction at a posted price. The "Buy-It-Now" option on eBay is a leading example of an auction with a buy price. The study develops a model of an auction with a buy price in which bidders use the auction's reserve price and buy price to formulate a reference price. The model both explains why a revenue-maximizing seller would want to augment her auction with a buy price and demonstrates that the seller sets a higher reserve price when she can affect the bidders' reference price through the

  6. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Nida

    In these essays, I examine (i) the empirical methods that are widely used in the literature to measure total factor productivity growth and (ii) the impact of nationalization on productivity in the oil industry. The first chapter, which is an ongoing work with SHI, Wei, investigates two empirical measures, quantity-based (primal) measure and price-based (dual) measure, of total factor productivity growth. My co-author and I analyze how these two measures are affected by output market imperfection or variable capacity utilization. We find that under constant-returns-to-scale production function assumption, existence of the imperfect competition in the output market creates a gap between the measured TFP growth and the true TFP growth, no matter which method is used. However, theoretically, it does not affect the equivalence between the two measures. Under variable capacity utilization, we show that constant-returns-to-scale assumption is almost enough to guarantee the validity of the two methods in correctly capturing the true TFP growth. In the second and third chapters, I analyze the link between nationalization and productivity. The second chapter documents the trends in expropriation acts, and evaluates the impact of expropriations on labor productivity of resource-rich developing countries in the oil industry. In the first part of this chapter, I investigate the trends in the expropriation acts that took place in 102 developing countries during the period 1922-2006. I find that more than half of the acts occurred between 1970 and 1976, there has been an increase in the number of expropriations in recent years, and the extractive sector including petroleum is more likely to be expropriated. Motivated by these facts, in the second part, I examine the oil industry in a period of widespread expropriations, the 1970s. In a sample of major oil-producing countries including OPEC and non-OPEC members, I show that losses in relative labor productivity after

  7. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  8. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  9. Starting with "I": Personal Essays by Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, Andrea, Ed.; Kay, Philip, Ed.

    In personal essays, teenagers express their views on serious subjects like violence, racism, and teen parenting, and discuss common teen experiences like dating, getting a job, and starting college. This collection contains the following: (1) "Brotherly Love" (Jessica Vicuna); (2) "How To Survive Shopping with Mom" (Chris Kanarick); (3) "A…

  10. Social Responsibility in Librarianship: Essays on Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Donnarae, Ed.

    In a culturally complex world, librarians can best work toward the equalization of library services if they understand their institutions in the light of cultural history. The six essays in this book highlight problems that affect unempowered populations, and address a variety of cultural problems and biases--problems that contribute to the…

  11. Perspectives on the Community College: Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, John; Cohen, Arthur M., Ed.

    The essays in this collection were written by John Lombardi during the 1970s while he was a resident scholar at the ERIC Clearinghouse for Junior Colleges. Following a foreword on Lombardi's life and work by a son and two daughters, John V., Mary Luciana, and Janice P. Lombardi, is an introduction by Arthur M. Cohen giving highlights of Lombardi's…

  12. An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003). AES systems are mainly used to overcome time, cost, reliability, and generalizability issues in writing assessment (Bereiter, 2003; Burstein,…

  13. Accountability of Colleges and Universities: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Patricia Albjerg; And Others

    This essay presents the results of a study of the means that colleges and universities should use to assure proper accountability within the institution in regard to teaching and learning. It discusses the basis of institutional accountability, public perceptions of accountability (or lack thereof), the role of governments and market forces, the…

  14. Essays on Neighborhood Transition and Housing Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marcus D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents new evidence on neighborhood transition and its impact on housing markets using a novel micro-level dataset on housing transactions. It focuses on three issues: the neighborhood effect, housing discrimination, and stable integration. The first essay examines the relationship between increased minority composition and…

  15. Review Essay: Inclusive Practices in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, AnneMaree

    2002-01-01

    This essay reviews "Special Education: A Matter of Choice" (Josephine Jenkinson), a book that discusses the major issues and changes that have occurred in special education in the various states and territories of Australia over the past 30 years. It is concluded that the book is an extremely useful guide. (CR)

  16. The Vision of Sequoyah: A Bibliographic Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Elaine

    In 1821, Sequoyah, a Cherokee Indian, presented to his tribal council a syllabary of the Cherokee language--an invention that enabled a previously illiterate people to read and write in their own language. This document includes a brief essay describing Sequoyah's life and accomplishment and a bibliography of further resources. Sequoyah was born…

  17. Degrees of Disenchantment: A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Mark; Margonis, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this review essay, Mark Brenneman and Frank Margonis address three recent book-length contributions to the ongoing discussion around cosmopolitanism and educational thought: Mark Olssen's "Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Social Democracy: Thin Communitarian Perspectives on Political Philosophy and Education," Sharon Todd's "Toward an Imperfect…

  18. Three Essays on the Economics of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Mariesa Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of essays on three inputs into the educational production function: curriculum, peers, and teachers. The chapters are linked by their focus on understanding the importance of these inputs for student achievement and by their exploitation of the exact timing of events (i.e., student mobility, receipt of special education…

  19. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  20. Essays on Legal and Illegal Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozo, Susan, Ed.

    Major issues of the debate that led to the passage of an immigration reform bill are discussed and analyzed in this collection of six papers that were delivered as public lectures at Western Michigan University during the 1984-85 academic year. The essays reflect a broad range of views on the effects of immigration on the United States economy and…

  1. Education, Training and Contexts: Studies and Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    This volume provides an overview of some of the outstanding features of the work of the Norwegian sociologist and comparative educationist, Jon Lauglo. After an introduction, "'It Ain't Necessarily So!': Theories and Observations in Jon Lauglo's World of Education and Training" (Se-Yung Lim and Klaus Schaack), essays and studies are presented in…

  2. Beyond the Five-Paragraph Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kimberly Hill

    2014-01-01

    Although using the five-paragraph formula to teach essay writing is a ubiquitous practice--and many K-12 teachers defend it--Campbell argues that having students write according to this formula does more harm than good. The formula's tight structure stops the very critical thinking students need to do to strengthen their cognition and their…

  3. Art for Many Purposes: A Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sylvia K.

    1985-01-01

    An interdisciplinary art and science program for talented inner-city 11th graders is described through a photo essay. Students are involved in activities such as painting outdoors, rendering instructional charts for use in science classes, illustrating seasonal calendars, gardening, identifying insects, and learning about weather forecasting. (RM)

  4. Toward More Substantively Meaningful Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Simon, Anat; Bennett, Randy Elliott

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a "substantively driven" method for scoring NAEP writing assessments automatically. The study used variations of an existing commercial program, e-rater[R], to compare the performance of three approaches to automated essay scoring: a "brute-empirical" approach in which variables are selected and weighted solely according to…

  5. An Analysis of Correctional Education GED Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Michael P.; Schumacker, Randall E.

    Three judges rated General Educational Development (GED) student essays that had been written by nine incarcerated youths. If judge's ratings were not consistent, students would receive a biased average rating. Traditional classical measurement theory computes an intraclass reliability coefficient to determine if judges' ratings are reliable. In…

  6. Two Essays on the Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doud, Robert E.

    This document contains two essays, both of which discuss the ascendancy of the learning paradigm over the teaching paradigm. "Philosophy and the Learning Paradigm" reviews the effects of post-modernism on student learning with regard to loss of authority in the classroom, lack of academic standards in writing, and perceptions of professors as…

  7. Reconstructing Deweyan Pragmatism: A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Stefan Neubert argues that John Dewey was a philosopher of reconstruction and that the best use we can make of him today is to reconstruct his work in and for our own contexts. Neubert distinguishes three necessary and equally important components of the overall project of reconstructing Deweyan pragmatism: first, to make strong and…

  8. A Bibliographic Essay Pertaining to Navajo Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Scott

    Introduced by a discussion of the fact that most of the works cited describe Navajos as they "used to be" and an admonition against the common practice of placing all Navajos, or all Indians, under one stereotype, this bibliographic essay traces the history of Navajo contact with the white man and emphasizes efforts at educational development. Six…

  9. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  10. Automated Essay Scoring: Psychometric Guidelines and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramineni, Chaitanya; Williamson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an overview of psychometric procedures and guidelines Educational Testing Service (ETS) uses to evaluate automated essay scoring for operational use. We briefly describe the e-rater system, the procedures and criteria used to evaluate e-rater, implications for a range of potential uses of e-rater, and directions for…

  11. Audiotape Feedback for Essays in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twelve students writing essays for a photochemistry course at the Open University of the Netherlands received either audiocasette or written feedback. Time spent in recording versus writing feedback differed minimally. Recorded feedback was considerably greater in amount. Students' final grades did not differ, but recorded feedback was more…

  12. The Theory of the Novel: New Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, John, Ed.

    This collection, containing essays by contemporary critics, analyzes such aspects of the novel as structure, history, point of view, techniques, and its future. Included are "What is Exposition?" by Meir Sternberg; "Notes Toward a Comic Fiction" by Robert B. Martin; "The Aesthetics of the Supra-Novel" by Irving H. Buchen; "The Genre of 'Ulysses'"…

  13. Learning Dilemmas in Undergraduate Student Independent Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Maria; Åse, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Essay-writing is generally viewed as the primary learning activity to foster independence and analytical thinking. In this article, we show that independent research projects do not necessarily lead to critical thinking. University-level education on conducting independent projects can, in several respects, counteract enhanced analytical skills.…

  14. The Nature of Automated Essay Scoring Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the nature of feedback that English as a Second Language (ESL) students received on their writings either from an automated essay scoring (AES) system or from the teacher. The participants were 12 adult ESL students who were attending an intensive English center at a university in Florida. The drafts of the…

  15. Essaying the essay: nursing scholarship and the hegemony of the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lyn; Rolfe, Gary

    2013-01-01

    It might appear odd or even perverse to be arguing for the essay as a vehicle for academic thought and writing, particularly given the current emphasis on scientific research and evidence-based practice. In fact, the scholarly essay has virtually ceased to exist as an academic form in practice disciplines such as nursing, excluded by what we will identify and refer to as the hegemony of the laboratory. In a practical as well as an intellectual attempt to reinstate it, this paper is structured in the form of two consecutive short essays. In the first, we identify the character, features and purpose of the scholarly essay and examine its demise as an academic form. In the second, we explore some possible reasons why the essay never became fully accepted as an academic form in nursing. We suggest that the essay is thematically eclectic and stylistically promiscuous, drawing from a broad range of cultural, disciplinary and academic reference points. As such, it presents a challenge to the dominant technical rational approach to academic nursing in both its form and its content, particularly in its disregard for the rigidly imposed genres and structures increasingly demanded by academic nursing journals. PMID:22079481

  16. Rooted in the Land: Essays on Community and Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitek, William, Ed.; Jackson, Wes, Ed.

    This collection of 31 essays examines the idea of community rooted in a particular place, usually a small town or rural place. Many essays comment on the role of education in promoting the transient materialistic lifestyle or suggest ways in which education could foster place attachment and community building. Essays specifically focused on…

  17. Twenty Years In: An Essay in Two Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this essay traces the evolution of my understanding of the exploratory essay as a discursive form and a genre for teaching writing. Part II explores my motivations for advocating a polarized definition of the essay and then concludes with a call to expand the purview of composition beyond first-year courses.

  18. Using Literature to Teach the Non-Literary Research Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wess, Robert C.

    The controversial uses of the generic research essay and literature in the composition class fuse together as one issue when one considers the use of literature to teach the research essay in the freshman composition class. This pedagogical approach requires that students read a novel, selected by the teacher, write several essays about it, and…

  19. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  20. The Primal Screen: Essays on Film and Related Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarris, Andrew

    This book is a collection of essays by the author on film criticism. An auteurist and historical approach is taken to the primarily American films discussed. The essays are organized by basic theme: "Critical Credos and Causes,""Personal Styles,""Genres,""Politics,""Odes and Obits," and "Arts and Letters." Each essay centers either on an important…

  1. Lincoln Era Essay Contest: Seventh Annual Winners, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, William, Ed.

    The seventh annual Lincoln Era Essay Contest's theme was "Lincoln and the Elections of 1860 and 1864." The contest was open to students in grades 6 through 12 throughout the state of Indiana. This booklet includes all the winning essays. The junior high/middle school essays include: "Abraham Lincoln Journals for the 1860 and 1864 Elections" (C.…

  2. The Computer Moves into Essay Grading: Updating the Ancient Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Ellis; Petersen, Nancy S.

    1995-01-01

    Computers may someday replace teachers at essay grading. In recent research, a blind test has demonstrated that a computer can simulate the judgment of a group of human judges on a brand-new set of essays. Moreover, the PEG (Project Essay Grade) program can do a better (and more cost-effective) job than the usual two human readers while providing…

  3. The Essay Scoring and Scorer Reliability in TOEFL CBT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    An essay test is now an integral part of the computer based Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL-CBT). This paper provides a brief overview of the current TOEFL-CBT essay test, describes the operational procedures for essay scoring, including the Online Scoring Network (OSN) of the Educational Testing Service (ETS), and discusses major…

  4. Text Structure of Korean Speakers' Argumentative Essays in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Examines text structure of argumentative writing in English by Korean speakers as compared with native speakers'(NS) writing in Korean and NS writing in English. Interactive text analysis showed English essays had a clear structural pattern that the Korean essays lacked. Sample essays and questionnaires are included in Appendix. (Author/LMO)

  5. Comparison of Dimension Reduction Methods for Automated Essay Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Myller, Niko; Sutinen, Erkki; Timonen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Automatic Essay Assessor (AEA) is a system that utilizes information retrieval techniques such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for automatic essay grading. The system uses learning materials and relatively few teacher-graded essays for calibrating the scoring…

  6. Onoufrios, the famous XVI's century iconographer, creator of the ``Berati School'': studying the technique and materials used in wall paintings of inscribed churches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, E.; Arapi, M.; Zorba, T.; Anastasiou, M.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2006-06-01

    The study of the materials and techniques employed for wall painting, complementing the information from historical and aesthetic data, contributes to the integrated knowledge of the iconographer and his period. In the 16th century, regarding the iconography in the former Byzantine area, besides the School of Crete and Francos Catelanos and his school, a third artistic personality who also created his own school, Onoufrios, appeared in central Albania and expanded his activity as a painter to northern Greece as well as nearby areas, such as Ohrid. Inscriptions documenting the works of Onoufrios are found in some of the churches that he decorated with wall paintings: “St. Apostles” (1547) Kastoria Greece, “St. Nicolas” Shelcan Albania, “St. Paraskevi” (1554), Valsh Albania, while are attributed to him the church of “St. Theodores” in Berati, Albania (before 1547) and others. He is one of the best icon painters of the whole Balkan region, and the best painter that has ever worked in Albanian territory. Onoufrios managed to combine the local painting tradition with the best tradition of the eastern (Paleologian) and western (Italian) schools, resulting in a realistic and natural depiction. He is the creator of the “Berati School” that expanded to other parts of the peninsula. His individual character can be distinguished in the work of his students: his son Nikolaos (who inherited his style in painting), Onoufrios from Cyprus, etc. Based on careful observations, we extracted number of paint samples from wall paintings of three of the above mentioned churches. Ground and paint layers were examined using micro-FTIR, Optical Microscopy, TXRF and SEM-EDS, to characterize materials and methods used by the artist to create these works. Our findings in each church are discussed and compared with the others in order to understand how and with what material and resources the painter worked and how he developed his technique. The presence of calcium

  7. A Topic-Independent Method for Scoring Student Essay Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Ryo; Kakegawa, Jun-Ichi; Yabuta, Yukiko

    This paper proposes a topic-independent method for automatically scoring essay content. Unlike conventional topic-dependent methods, it predicts the human-assigned score of a given essay without training essays written to the same topic as the target essay. To achieve this, this paper introduces a new measure called MIDF that measures how important and relevant a word is in a given essay. The proposed method predicts the score relying on the distribution of MIDF. Surprisingly, experiments show that the proposed method achieves an accuracy of 0.848 and performs as well as or even better than conventional topic-dependent methods.

  8. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  9. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  10. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  11. Three essays on energy efficiency policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Maryam

    This thesis is comprised of three essays which explore selected aspects of demand side energy efficiency policy of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC). The first essay models the adoption of IECC in the U.S. between 1998 and 2010. An ordered probit model with IECC adoption as the dependent variable is used to test if a set of socio-economics, political, spatial, and environmental factors predict the residential building energy code adoption. The results show that higher energy price, relative political extraction, climate extremes, pollution level, and population growth predict IECC adoption in the sample. The diffusion variable (share of neighbor states with IECC) is shown to have large impacts on the probability of IECC adoption. The next two essays examine the effect of IECC on residential electricity consumption. The second essay investigates the impact of International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) on per-capita residential electricity consumption for 44 U.S. states from 1981-2008. Applying the pooled mean group (PMG) model developed by Pesaran et al. (1999), and controlling for energy specific demand factors such as: prices, income, heating degree days, and cooling degree days, I find that there is an overall 2% decrease in new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption in the states which adopted any version of IECC. The new residential buildings per-capita electricity consumption has decreased by about 2.5% and 5% in the states with IECC 2000 and IECC 2003 respectively. The third essay examines the impact of building energy code on the household electricity consumption in three states in U.S. To do so; I construct a pseudo panel using household level data from the American Community Survey (ACS) over the period 2005-2010. By constructing pseudo panel, we are able to track cohorts of relatively homogeneous individuals over time, and control for cohort unobserved heterogeneity that may bias the results of cross sectional estimates

  12. Three essays on "making" electric power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kench, Brian Thomas

    2000-10-01

    Technological change over the past three decades has altered most of the basic conditions in the electric power industry. Because of technical progress, the dominant paradigm has shifted from the provision of electric power by regulated and vertically integrated local natural monopolies to competition and vertical separation. In the first essay I provide a historical context of the electric industry's power current deregulation debate. Then a dynamic model of induced institutional change is used to investigate how endogenous technological advancements have induced radical institutional change in the generation and transmission segments of the electric power industry. Because the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ordered regulated utilities to provide open access to their transmission networks and to separate their generation and transmission functions, transmission networks have been used more intensively and in much different ways then in the past. The second essay tests experimentally the predictions of neoclassical theory for a radial electric power market under two alternative deregulated transmission institutions: financial transmission rights and physical transmission rights. Experimental evidence presented there demonstrates that an electric power market with physical transmission rights governing its transmission network generates more "right" market signals relative to a transmission network governed by financial transmission rights. The move to a greater reliance on markets for electric power is an idea that has animated sweeping and dramatic changes in the traditional business of electric power. The third essay examines two of the most innovative and complex initiatives of making electric power markets in the United States: California and PJM. As those markets mature and others are made, they must revise their governance mechanisms to eliminate rules that create inefficiency and adopt rules that work efficiently elsewhere. I argue that

  13. [Essay on the myth of oedipus].

    PubMed

    Costa, Néstor E

    2012-01-01

    Jung conceptualized the collective unconscious as the locus of the myths, the absolutely genuine and primary patterns of thinking and feeling of humanity. The legend of Oedipus or myth of incest is a irrefutable proof of its eternal validity. The present essay is an attempt to take an alternative look to a history that belong to all of us. Situations that are developed in this drama, like the characters involved in it may charge significance as an archetypal and essentially symbolic interpretation. PMID:23145377

  14. Imaging the Endometrium: A Pictorial Essay.

    PubMed

    Sadro, Claudia T

    2016-08-01

    Female gynaecologic conditions arising from the endometrium are common and depend on a woman's age, her menstrual history, and the use of medications such as hormone replacement and tamoxifen. Both benign and malignant conditions affect the endometrium. Benign conditions must be distinguished from malignant and premalignant conditions. The most commonly used imaging modality for evaluating the endometrium is pelvic ultrasound with transabdominal and transvaginal techniques. Additional imaging methods include hysterosonography and magnetic resonance imaging. This pictorial essay will review the normal and abnormal appearance of the endometrium and diagnostic algorithms to evaluate abnormal vaginal bleeding and abnormal endometrial thickness. PMID:27090929

  15. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Taking Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rotblat, J

    2000-08-01

    Joseph Rotblat was born in Warsaw in 1908. He trained in nuclear physics and later specialized in radiation biology. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995, with the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms." In this essay, he reflects on his experiences and recounts how he has applied his ethical principles to his work as a scientist and educator in Poland, the United Kingdom, and the world. He urges other scientists to apply ethical considerations for the survival of humankind above all others. PMID:17819567

  16. Essays on consequences of economic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintrakarn, Pandej

    2007-12-01

    Economic integration is a term used to describe how different aspects between economies are integrated. As economic integration increases, the barriers of trade between markets diminishes. The most integrated economy today, between independent nations, is the European Union and its euro zone. This dissertation consists of three essays which examine consequences of economic integration. The debate over the environmental consequences of free trade is not only quite heated, but also entails significant policy ramifications. Recently, cross-sectional analysis at the country level has made use of exogenous determinants of trade to identify the causal effect of trade on the environment, finding moderate evidence of a beneficial impact of expanded trade on environmental quality. Given the stakes involved, the first essay revisits this finding using subnational data on 'trade' flows across US states and several measures of pollution. Not only does the analysis shed further light on the debate at the international level, but also addresses a heretofore unexamined question: Does greater inter-regional commerce at the subnational level harm the environment? The findings are striking, providing further evidence against a negative environmental impact of trade for the majority of measures analyzed. However, several sources of heterogeneity arise that are noteworthy. The second essay investigates the effect of the euro on trade among EMU members. Using various semi-nonparametric methods based on matching, the results suggest that the euro has a statistical and economic impact on trade. The results show that two countries sharing the euro currency trade somewhere between 9% and 14% more than other country-pairs. In addition, there is no evidence of trade diversion due to the euro. In one strand of research, analysts examine trends in and the determinants of energy usage and intensity. In a second strand, researchers analyze the impact of trade flows on environmental outcomes

  17. Essays on regulation, institutions, and industrial organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergara, Mario Esteban

    Essay I develops a comparative institutional analysis of network access price regulation and "light-handed" regulation. While the former is a specific-agency-based arrangement with higher political influence, the latter is a court-based system. Consequently, the main trade-off between both frameworks reflects the merits of having efficient political and judicial institutions. Price regulation is superior when distributional concerns are irrelevant and information asymmetries are lower. Poorly functioning political systems and high welfare costs of raising funds make price regulation less attractive. Light regulation is more attractive when potential rents are smaller, the monopolist is more risk averse, the judicial system is more efficient, and the threat of government intervention is more credible. The possibility of private transfers makes price regulation more advantageous. Higher information asymmetries among firms makes light-handed regulation more attractive. The main results are consistent with a plausible interpretation of the drastic deregulatory process in New Zealand. Essay II studies the preliminary effects of the deregulation of direct access in the New Zealand's electricity market. A slight improvement in quality standards and an overall efficiency increase took place after two years of deregulation. Retailers were able to successfully enter in large demand, dense areas, with a large proportion of industrial and commercial users, where incumbents were not distributing electricity efficiently. Pricing policies appears to be influenced by market forces (associated to economic and demographic characteristics) as expected in a light regulatory framework. Essay III focuses on the possibility of endogenous sunk costs and the introduction of new products. Firms that exert some monopoly power in one market and introduce a new good whose demand is determined by a broader set of consumers might be forced to change their competing strategies. If the new product

  18. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  19. Essays in energy economics: The electricity industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Chombo, Eduardo

    Electricity demand analysis using cointegration and error-correction models with time varying parameters: The Mexican case. In this essay we show how some flexibility can be allowed in modeling the parameters of the electricity demand function by employing the time varying coefficient (TVC) cointegrating model developed by Park and Hahn (1999). With the income elasticity of electricity demand modeled as a TVC, we perform tests to examine the adequacy of the proposed model against the cointegrating regression with fixed coefficients, as well as against the spuriousness of the regression with TVC. The results reject the specification of the model with fixed coefficients and favor the proposed model. We also show how some flexibility is gained in the specification of the error correction model based on the proposed TVC cointegrating model, by including more lags of the error correction term as predetermined variables. Finally, we present the results of some out-of-sample forecast comparison among competing models. Electricity demand and supply in Mexico. In this essay we present a simplified model of the Mexican electricity transmission network. We use the model to approximate the marginal cost of supplying electricity to consumers in different locations and at different times of the year. We examine how costs and system operations will be affected by proposed investments in generation and transmission capacity given a forecast of growth in regional electricity demands. Decomposing electricity prices with jumps. In this essay we propose a model that decomposes electricity prices into two independent stochastic processes: one that represents the "normal" pattern of electricity prices and the other that captures temporary shocks, or "jumps", with non-lasting effects in the market. Each contains specific mean reverting parameters to estimate. In order to identify such components we specify a state-space model with regime switching. Using Kim's (1994) filtering algorithm

  20. Literacy, Language and Community Publishing. Essays in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains an introduction and 11 essays describing reading and writing projects in which adult literacy learners enrolled in the following types of programs participated: adult literacy and/or language classes, refugee groups, oral history and reminiscence projects, and community publishing and writing workshops. The following essays are…

  1. Relevancy in Vocational Education (A Collection of Essays).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    This collection of seven essays covers the subject of relevance in vocational education from several perspectives. Topics of the essays are the following: (1) vocational education and the curriculum; (2) the counselor and vocational education; (3) vocational education and employability skills; (4) student reentry into the curriculum; (5) remedying…

  2. Factor Structure of the MCAT and Pilot Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Molidor, John B.

    1986-01-01

    Research reported in this paper considered the construct validity of a trial essay administered in 1985-87 Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). The addition of the essay caused the non-science factor observed in previous MCAT research to be more strongly defined. (Author/LMO)

  3. Missing: Electronic Feedback in Egyptian EFL Essay Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seliem, Soheir; Ahmed, Abdelhamid

    2009-01-01

    EFL essay writing is considered one of the most important academic courses in the teacher education programmes that should help develop students' skills to write cohesively and coherently. Teachers' feedback plays a crucial role in improving and enhancing the quality of students' written essays. The aim of the current study was to shed light on…

  4. Two-Year College English: Essays for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Mark, Ed.

    Noting that the nearly 1,400 two-year colleges in the United States enroll almost half of all students in higher education, this collection of essays discusses the students, the curriculum, and the faculty at these colleges. In essence, the collection surveys what is "on the minds" of two-year college English teachers. The essays and their authors…

  5. Automatically Scoring Short Essays for Content. CRESST Report 836

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Deirdre; Mousavi, Hamid; Iseli, Markus R.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core assessments emphasize short essay constructed response items over multiple choice items because they are more precise measures of understanding. However, such items are too costly and time consuming to be used in national assessments unless a way is found to score them automatically. Current automatic essay scoring techniques are…

  6. From Journals to Essays: Reading, Writing, Re-Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Devan

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty involved in moving from writing a journal entry toward writing an essay. Uses the background of a trip to Ireland and writing an "Irish" journal as an example. Gives four strategies to use from journal to essay: double-entry notebook, defamiliarization (or "persona switching") techniques, cross-genre writing, and allowing…

  7. Teaching Composition: Twelve Bibliographical Essays. Revised and Enlarged Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Gary, Ed.

    Intended for teachers of composition courses, this book provides twelve bibliographic essays covering various aspects of composition studies. The list of essays are as follows: (1) "Recent Developments in Rhetorical Invention" (Richard Young); (2) "Structure and Form in Non-Narrative Prose" (Richard L. Larson); (3) "Approaches to the Study of…

  8. Reliability of Holistic Scoring for the 1985 MCAT Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Anderson, Judith A.

    A pilot essay was included in the 1985 Spring and Fall administrations of the Medical College Admission Test. A sample of 320 of the essays written by Fall examinees who had expressed an interest in allopathic medicine was used to calculate interrater reliability estimates. Sixteen of 20 readers who had been trained by White's suggestions for…

  9. A Crosscultural Analysis of Argumentative Strategies in Student Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    A study of essays on a single topic (capital punishment) written by 22 American high school students and 30 second-year Japanese college students investigated: cultural differences in organizational patterns in argumentative essays; comparative use of rational and affective appeals; differences in content of rational and affective appeals;…

  10. Performance of a Generic Approach in Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Bridgeman, Brent; Trapani, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    A generic approach in automated essay scoring produces scores that have the same meaning across all prompts, existing or new, of a writing assessment. This is accomplished by using a single set of linguistic indicators (or features), a consistent way of combining and weighting these features into essay scores, and a focus on features that are not…

  11. The Great Excluded: Critical Essays on Children's Literature. Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.

    This collection of essays is intended to stimulate writing, teaching, and study of children's literature by humanists. Among the essays are: "Aesop as Litmus: The Acid Test of Children's Literature,""Children's Literature in Old English,""Children's Literature in the Middle Ages,""Pilgrim's Progress as Fairy Tale,""Out of the Ordinary Road: Locke…

  12. The Kind of Schools We Need: Personal Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    This book of essays sets forth Eisner's theories of aesthetic intelligence, or theories that rethink the connections among art, literacy, research, and evaluation. The book is divided into four sections of four essays each. The first section, "Cognition and Representation," explains how the process of education expands and deepens the kinds of…

  13. Workplace Literacy. Essays from the Model Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Michael, Ed.; Connolly, Olga, Ed.

    The 20 essays in this collection are based on a project undertaken by the California Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Model Literacy Project in 1983-85. (The goal of the project was to institute changes within the CCC to enhance the literacy of corpsmembers.) Essays describe innovative approaches to literacy education, analyze bureaucratic…

  14. Meet the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers (J3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the winners of the 2008 Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest and their winning essays. The winners are Spencer Terry of Tulsa, Oklahoma (secondary), and Carrie Snyder-Renfro of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (postsecondary). The topic for secondary students is "How would you communicate the impact and importance of CTE related to your…

  15. History.edu: Essays on Teaching with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinkle, Dennis A., Ed.; Merriman, Scott A., Ed.

    Intended to be equally useful to high school and college instructors, this book contains studies in history pedagogy, among them the first three published essays measuring qualitatively and quantitatively the successes and failures of "e-teaching" and distance learning. Collectively, the essays urge instructors to take the next step with computing…

  16. Performance, Feedback, and Revision: Metacognitive Approaches to Undergraduate Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores ways in which frequent feedback and clear assessment criteria can improve students' essay writing performance in a first-year English literature course. Students (n = 68) completed a series of three scaffolded exercises over the course of a semester, where they evaluated undergraduate essays using a predetermined assessment…

  17. The Essay Test: A Look at the Advantages and Disadvantages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    Essay tests are easily constructed, relatively valid assessments of higher cognitive processes but are harder to score reliably. Teachers using essay tests are advised to follow clearly designed objectives, construct all-inclusive, pilot-tested questions, develop a checklist of specific scoring points and a model answer for each question, and use…

  18. How Important Is Content in the Ratings of Essay Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Attali, Yigal

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the extent to which "content" accounts for variance in scores assigned in automated essay scoring protocols. Specifically it was hypothesised that certain writing genre would emphasise content more than others. Data were drawn from 1668 essays calibrated at two grade levels (6 and 8) using "e-rater[TM]", an…

  19. Automated Essay Scoring With e-rater[R] V.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Burstein, Jill

    2006-01-01

    E-rater[R] has been used by the Educational Testing Service for automated essay scoring since 1999. This paper describes a new version of e-rater (V.2) that is different from other automated essay scoring systems in several important respects. The main innovations of e-rater V.2 are a small, intuitive, and meaningful set of features used for…

  20. Essays and Explorations: Studies in Ideas, Language, and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomfield, Morton W.

    Seventeen reprinted essays and an unpublished one are contained in this collection and organized under five headings: History of Ideas, Approaches to Medieval Literature, Chaucer and Fourteenth-Century English Literature, Language and Linguistics, and Essay-Reviews. Topics discussed include the origin of the concept of the Seven Cardinal Sins;…

  1. An interim report on the MCAT Essay Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Koenig, J A; Mitchell, K J

    1988-01-01

    Results from four pilot administrations of the Medical College Admission Test essay question are reported. Analyses focused on (a) the performance characteristics of sample groups differentiated by gender, size of hometown, race/ethnicity, and dominant language; (b) the relationships between essay scores and academic/demographic characteristics; and (c) the reliability of one 45-minute versus two 30-minute essays. No differences were found for examinees grouped by gender and size of home community. Mean differences among the racial/ethnic groups were explained largely by reading level differences. Differences in essay performance by language group were large and unexplained by reading level differences. No relationship was found between the essay score and the academic/demographic characteristics. Reliability estimates for two 30-minute essays were higher than for one 45-minute essay; however, the 30-minute period yielded writing of poorer quality. Test-retest reliabilities for the 45-minute topics will remain the focus of future studies as will performance by examinees for whom English is a second language. The impact of the essay on the selection process will also be assessed. PMID:3336041

  2. Respecting the Pupil. Essays on Teaching Able Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Donald B., Ed.; Cornell, Robert H., Ed.

    This collection of essays deals with teaching secondary school students who are academically gifted. These students have an unusual capacity to accomplish something; they have aptitude in some special areas. They have artistic or physical skills, or they are talented verbally, linguistically, or mathematically. The essays have a broad application,…

  3. The Student's Only Survival Guide to Essay Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Steve; Jensen, Bill

    Designed primarily with the student in mind, this guide focuses on what the student needs to know about essay writing to survive in college. It details a proven, consistent, and effective method for the preparation of undergraduate essays across the disciplines. Not intended as a textbook, the guide speaks directly to the student, providing…

  4. The Doctorate in Chemistry. Carnegie Essays on the Doctorate: Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslow, Ronald

    The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…

  5. The Word for Teaching Is Learning: Essays for James Britton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Martin, Ed.; Martin, Nancy, Ed.

    Reflecting the influence of James Britton in the field of language and learning, this book--a collection of essays by researchers and practitioners in the area of language and learning--focuses on recent issues of language development in learning. The book contains the following 27 essays: (1) "Social Interaction as Scaffold: The Power and Limits…

  6. Revisiting the Personal Essay with Ben Hamper's "Rivethead"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The personal essay--a paper in which a student brings in his or her own experience or concerns--is probably familiar to most historians. Teaching at the City University of New York, the author has found grading personal essays somewhat perplexing. They are sometimes written in response to an assignment that does not call for personal reflection.…

  7. Jeremy Bentham's essay on "Paederasty". Part 2.

    PubMed

    Crompton, L

    1978-01-01

    This is Part 2 of a transcription of Bentham's manuscript essay on "Paederasty" (1785), Part 1 of which appeared in Vol. 3, No. 4. In Part 1 Bentham argued for the decriminalization of sodomy and opposed the theories of Montesquieu and Voltaire as to its social dangers. In Part 2 Bentham speculates on its causes and alleges that the real reason such behavior is so severely punished is an irrational "antipathy" to pleasure generally and to sexual pleasure in particular. He discusses the danger of blackmail and false accusations and the punishment of lesbian acts, bestiality, and masturbation. Some miscellaneous related notes by Bentham are appended: these deal with religious fears based on the destruction of Sodom, the threat to population, the harshness of English naval law, and other topics. PMID:363935

  8. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peggy A

    2009-01-01

    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively. PMID:19954422

  9. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, George Meguiar (center left) and George English (center right) present scholarships to two students who entered an essay contest in conjunction with the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. The winners shown are Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, and Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach. A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. Meguiar and English head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association which sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  10. Winners of student essay contest receive awards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    George Meguiar (left) presents a scholarship award to Kyla Davis Horn, of Cocoa Beach, one of the winners of an essay contest related to the 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11. Meguiar and George English (second from right) head the Apollo 11 Commemoration Association who sponsored the contest in conjunction with Florida Today newspaper. The other scholarship winner is Kyle Rukaczewski, of Satellite Beach (far right). A third winner, Jason Gagnon, of Viera, was unable to attend. The presentation was made at the Apollo/Saturn V Center during an anniversary banquet that honored all the people who made the Apollo Program possible. Special guests included former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham, who shared their experiences with the audience.

  11. "Women in Astronomy: an Essay Review"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, M.

    2006-12-01

    Interest in the history of women in astronomy has increased dramatically in the last 30 years. This interest has come from the growing number of professional scientists, historians and feminists researching the lives and work of earlier generations, as well as from amateur astronomers. It is reflected in the vast amount of literature on the subject, both in books and journals, and on the internet. This Essay Review will focus on monographs published in the last 10 years (1996-2006), and will be restricted mainly to pre-20th century women. The scope includes researchers, translators, computers and astronomical assistants as well as observers. Where appropriate, it includes books that discuss the role of women scientists, as well as pure astronomy books. Part 2, to be published later, will consider encyclopaedias and large works of reference .

  12. Modified essay question (MEQ) paper: perestroika.

    PubMed

    Lockie, C; McAleer, S; Mulholland, H; Neighbour, R; Tombleson, P

    1990-11-01

    Traditionally the modified essay question (MEQ) paper has attempted to test problem solving and decision making based on an on-going family saga using seven or eight questions to be answered in 90 minutes. Candidates' scripts are double marked by two College examiners. This format imposes constraints on the range of questions asked and results in contrived scenarios. It is possible to be 'coached' for this and double marking is expensive in examiner time. Recent studies show that validity and reliability are improved by increasing the number and range of questions in a 'surgery type' paper. Single marking has been instituted and the MEQ paper will in future consist of 10 or more questions to be answered in 2 hours. Examiners' marking performance is monitored by senior examiners. Technical and statistical considerations are discussed, as are implications for candidates and course organizers. PMID:1670201

  13. Essays in the Non-Science Major Astrobiology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.

    2014-06-01

    The non-science major "Life in the Universe" class offers students many opportunities to explore topics such as whether or not to send manned missions to Mars, which jovian moon is a suitable candidate for harboring life, etc. Some of these topics are suited to being offered as projects. At Joliet Junior College, Joliet, IL, we offer this general education class every semester to around 40 students. We expect our students to complete three short essays in a semester, instead of doing one or two large projects. The essays enable students to be engaged more deeply with some aspects of the course than is usually possible in the classroom. Some of our essay topics are based on suggestions in the textbook, others have been developed by us. In this poster, we will report on the essay topics and the attitudes of our Fall 2013 and Spring 2014 students to such essays.

  14. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided. PMID:24518584

  15. Calibrated Peer Review Essays Increase Confidence in Self-assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likkel, Lauren

    2006-12-01

    We studied the effect of the web-based tool “Calibrated Peer Review” ™ on student confidence in their ability to recognize the quality of their own work. CPR can be used in large enrollment classes to allow a controlled peer review of moderate length student essays. We expected that teaching students how to grade an essay and having them grade their own work would increase confidence in assessing the quality of their own essays, and the results support this. Three introductory astronomy classes participated in this study during 2005 at the University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, a four year university. Four essays were assigned in both the experimental class (104 students) and the control classes (34 students). In the comparison classes, the student was given a score on the essay and perhaps a few written comments. The experimental group used the CPR tool, in which they are taught how to evaluate the essay, evaluate assignments written by peers, and evaluate their own essay. Three survey questions were used to characterize the change in confidence level in ability to assess their own work. The survey results from a survey at the end of the semester were compared to results from the same survey administered at the beginning of the semester. A measurable effect on the average confidence level of the experimental class was found. By the final survey, significantly more of the CPR students had changed to a more positive statement in indicating their confidence in evaluating their own written work. There was no effect seen on the classes that wrote essays but did not use the CPR system, showing that this result is due to using the CPR system for the essays, not just writing essays or becoming more confident during the course of the semester.

  16. Two essays on environmental and food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner

    The first essay of this dissertation, "estimating non-market economic benefits of using biodiesel fuel: a stochastic double bounded approach", is an attempt to incorporate uncertainty into double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. The double bounded approach, which entails asking respondents a follow-up question after they have answered a first question, has emerged as a means to increase efficiency in willingness to pay (WTP) estimates. However, several studies have found inconsistency between WTP estimates generated by the first and second questions. In this study, it is posited that this inconsistency is due to uncertainty facing the respondents when the second question is introduced. The author seeks to understand whether using a follow-up question in a stochastic format, which allows respondents to express uncertainty, would alleviate the inconsistency problem. In a contingent valuation survey to estimate non-market economic benefits of using more biodiesel vs. petroleum diesel fuel in an airshed encompassing South Eastern and Central Ohio, it is found that the gap between WTP estimates produced by the first and the second questions reduces when respondents are allowed to express uncertainty. The proposed stochastic follow-up approach yields more efficient WTP estimates than the conventional follow-up approach while maintaining efficiency gain over the single bounded model. From a methodological standpoint, this study distinguishes from previous research by being the first to implement a double bounded contingent valuation survey with a stochastic follow-up question. In the second essay, "analyzing the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in developing countries: an instrumental variable panel data approach", instrumental variable panel data techniques are applied to estimate the effects of civil wars and violent conflicts on food security in a sample of 73 developing countries from 1970 to 2002. The number of hungry in

  17. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  18. Morbus-Locke's early essay on disease.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J

    2000-01-01

    John Locke engaged in a systematic study of medicine from the late 1650's. In this period he acquainted himself with the three main competing natural philosophical theories of the time -Galenism, Paracelsianism and Mechanism. He was particularly interested in the work of Sennert, Helmont and Doyle. In 1666, just after the publication of Boyle's The Origine of Formes and Qualities, Locke wrote a short paper entitled Morbus. This paper gave Locke's own view of the nature of disease. Locke went out of his way to criticise Boyle's attempts to give mechanical explanations for biological phenomena. He endorsed Helmont's theory that disease was caused by "ferments" and "Archei" and re-introduced Galenic temperaments as factors of susceptibility in seminal diseases. Locke did not endorse a mechanical corpuscularianism at this stage in his career, when his contact with Boyle was most frequent. Consequently, Locke's espousal of the corpuscular philosophy in the Essay cannot be attributed to Locke's association with Boyle at this time. PMID:15025079

  19. Let Every Voice Be Heard: Focus Essays Create Democratic Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Pearl Amelia

    2004-01-01

    Pearl Amelia McHaney provides focus essays for students to develop their thoughts and contribute to meaningful class discussions. Teofilo Ruiz provides three principles to educate his students as per them.

  20. An Overview of Three Approaches to Scoring Written Essays by Computer. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Gagne, Phill

    This digest describes the three most prominent approaches to essay scoring by computer: (1) Project Essay Grade (PEG), introduced by E. Page in 1966; (2) Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA), introduced for essay grading in 1997 by T. Landauer and P. Foltz; and (3) e-rater, used by the Educational Testing Service and developed by J. Burstein. PEG…

  1. The Application of the Cumulative Logistic Regression Model to Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    Most automated essay scoring programs use a linear regression model to predict an essay score from several essay features. This article applied a cumulative logit model instead of the linear regression model to automated essay scoring. Comparison of the performances of the linear regression model and the cumulative logit model was performed on a…

  2. Does Quantity Equal Quality?: The Relationship between Length of Response and Scores on the SAT Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Deng, Hui; Shaw, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to address two frequent criticisms of the SAT essay--that essay length is the best predictor of scores, and that there is an advantage in using more "sophisticated" examples as opposed to personal experience. The study was based on 2,820 essays from the first three administrations of the new SAT. Each essay was coded for…

  3. What Price Presentation? The Effects of Typographic Variables on Essay Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; Trueman, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Brodie, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    The marks awarded to 130 second year undergraduate word processed essays were assessed in relation to their use of different typographic features. By and large most of these features had little effect on the essay grades. However, essays printed in 12-point type gained significantly higher marks (mean = 56.8) than essays printed in 10-point type…

  4. On-Line Grading of Student Essays: PEG Goes on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Mzumara, Howard R.; Olson, Jennifer; Harrington, Susanmarie

    2001-01-01

    Examined Project Essay Grade (PEG) software for evaluating Web-based student essays that serve as placement tests. In the first experiment, a sample of student essays was used to create a statistical model for the PEG software; the second experiment compared computer and human ratings of essays. Found that the software is an efficient means for…

  5. Essays on U.S. energy markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightwell, David A.

    2008-04-01

    This dissertation examines three facets of U.S. energy use and policy. First, I examine the Gulf Coast petroleum refining industry to determine the structure of the industry. Using the duality between cost-minimization and production functions, I estimate the demand for labor to determine the underlying production function. The results indicate that refineries have become more capital intensive due to the relative price increase of labor. The industry has consolidated in response to higher labor costs and costs of environmental compliance. Next, I examine oil production in the United States. An empirical model based on the theoretical framework of Pindyck is used to estimate production. This model differs from previous research by using state level data rather than national level data. The results indicate that the production elasticity with respect to reserves and the price elasticity of supply are both inelastic in the long run. The implication of these findings is that policies designed to increase domestic production through subsidies, tax breaks, or royalty reductions will likely provide little additional oil. We simulate production under three scenarios. In the most extreme scenario, prices double between 2005 and 2030 while reserves increase by 50%. Under this scenario, oil production in 2030 is approximately the same as the 2005 level. The third essay estimates demand for fossil fuels in the U.S. and uses these estimates to forecast CO2 emissions. The results indicate that there is almost no substitution from one fossil fuel to another and that all three fossil fuels are inelastic in the long run. Additionally, all three fuels respond differently to changes in GDP. The result of the differing elasticities with respect to GDP is that the energy mix has changed over time. The implication for forecasting CO2 emissions is that models that cannot distinguish changes in the energy mix are not effective in forecasting CO2 emissions.

  6. Essays on information disclosure and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Koshy

    The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and

  7. Beyond Essay Length: Evaluating e-rater[R]'s Performance on TOEFL[R] Essays. Research Reports. Report 73. RR-04-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodorow, Martin; Burstein, Jill

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between essay length and holistic scores assigned to Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) essays by e-rater[R], the automated essay scoring system developed by ETS. Results show that an early version of the system, e-rater99, accounted for little variance in human reader scores beyond that which…

  8. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    .S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and provide the first quantitative evidence that technology transfer agreements at the Labs lead to greatly increased rates of innovation spillovers. This chapter also makes a key methodological contribution by introducing a technique to utilize automated text analysis in an empirical matching design that is broadly applicable to other types of social science studies. This work has important implications for how policies should be designed to maximize the social benefits of the $125 billion in annual federal funding allocated to research and development and the extent to which private firms can benefit from technology partnerships with the government. The final chapter of this dissertation explores the effectiveness of international policy to facilitate the deployment of low-emitting energy technologies in developing countries. Together with Joern Huenteler, I examine wind energy deployment in China supported through international climate finance flows under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. Utilizing a project-level financial model of wind energy projects parameterized with high-resolution observations of Chinese wind speeds, we find that the environmental benefits of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism are substantially lower than reported, as many Chinese wind projects would have been built without the Mechanism's support, and thus do not represent additional clean energy generation. Together, the essays in this dissertation suggest several limitations of energy technology innovation policy and areas for reform. Public funds for energy research and development could be made more effective if decision making approaches were better grounded in available technical expertise and developed in framework that captures the important interactions of technologies in a research and development portfolio. The first chapter of this dissertation suggests a politically feasible path towards this type of

  9. Essays in petroleum futures market, convenience yield, and long memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Ataollah

    This thesis is a collection of three essays which address some empirical applications of long memory processes with specific interest in financial economics of energy futures market. The first essay 'Evidence of Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' studies evidence of long memory in the energy market using daily and weekly futures data. This essay concentrates on the question of interdependence between crude oil futures and the corresponding products. The empirical results provide strong support for long memory in the energy futures market. The cointegrating relations between crude oil and heating oil futures as well as crude oil and unleaded gasoline futures exhibit long memory, whereas the individual series are unit-root. The second essay 'Convenience Yield, Mean Reversion and Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' analyzes convenience yields in the petroleum market. The focus of this essay is the behavior of the spot and futures prices over the long run. The implied convenience yield for petroleum and petroleum products is found to be driven by a nonstationary and mean reverting long memory process. The theoretical implication of this finding is established. It is discussed that this might be attributed to the fact that the market is expecting mean reversion in the spot prices. Furthermore, the volatility process and its relation with the mean process and the corresponding direction of causality have been studied in detail. The third essay 'Long Memory and Conditional Heteroskedasticity, A Monte Carlo Investigation', unlike the first two, looks at the econometrics of the estimators of the long memory process. It evaluates performance of three methods of estimating the parameter of fractionally integrated noise: the exact maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), the quasi maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE), and the GPH under different realizations for variance.

  10. Essays on strategy: hostage rescue planning; maritime theater nuclear capability; strategic psychological operations

    SciTech Connect

    Brauer, R.F.; Thomas, R.E.; Kriesel, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The essays in the volume won recognition in the 1984 Joint Chiefs of Staff Strategy Essay Competition. The volume contains three essays. The author of the first essay considers the requirements for successful planning of hostage rescues, specifically reviewing the Son Tay raid, the Mayaguez crisis, the Entebbe rescue, and the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. The author of the second essay looks at the US Navy's capability for maritime theater nuclear warfare, identifying problems and recommending improvements. The author of the third essay finds the United States lacking a national-level mechanism for coordinating military psychological operations and proposes a way to remedy the problem.

  11. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    .S. Department of Energy's National Laboratories, and provide the first quantitative evidence that technology transfer agreements at the Labs lead to greatly increased rates of innovation spillovers. This chapter also makes a key methodological contribution by introducing a technique to utilize automated text analysis in an empirical matching design that is broadly applicable to other types of social science studies. This work has important implications for how policies should be designed to maximize the social benefits of the $125 billion in annual federal funding allocated to research and development and the extent to which private firms can benefit from technology partnerships with the government. The final chapter of this dissertation explores the effectiveness of international policy to facilitate the deployment of low-emitting energy technologies in developing countries. Together with Joern Huenteler, I examine wind energy deployment in China supported through international climate finance flows under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism. Utilizing a project-level financial model of wind energy projects parameterized with high-resolution observations of Chinese wind speeds, we find that the environmental benefits of projects financed under the Clean Development Mechanism are substantially lower than reported, as many Chinese wind projects would have been built without the Mechanism's support, and thus do not represent additional clean energy generation. Together, the essays in this dissertation suggest several limitations of energy technology innovation policy and areas for reform. Public funds for energy research and development could be made more effective if decision making approaches were better grounded in available technical expertise and developed in framework that captures the important interactions of technologies in a research and development portfolio. The first chapter of this dissertation suggests a politically feasible path towards this type of

  12. Sources of Social Control in School: A Speculative Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.; Burke, William I.

    1980-01-01

    This essay attempts to demonstrate that age segregation and subject matter specialization are two important supports of the authority of teachers and the school's ability to control students. Therefore, efforts to change these organizational patterns without considering alternative means of establishing control are doomed to failure. (Author/SJL)

  13. As We Are Now: Mixblood Essays on Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, William S., Ed.

    The narrative essays in this collection offer a vision of the race and identity of Native Americans, focusing on American Indians that have grown up in cities and towns. It is a unique collection in that it represents the ways that mixed blood people ("mixbloods") envision Indian race and heritage. It is also unique in that it extends the…

  14. Timed Essay Writing: Implications for High-Stakes Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Davis, Mark; Chalk, Jill C.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of high-stakes tests from elementary school through postsecondary education include the timed impromptu essay as a measure of writing performance. For adolescents with writing disorders, this type of evaluation often presents a significant barrier. The purpose of the current study was twofold. First, we investigated the influence of…

  15. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  16. The Order of Learning: Essays on the Contemporary University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shils, Edward

    The 14 essays in this book, written from 1938 through 1995, examine the modern research university, focusing on the relationship of these institutions to government, academic freedom, and the responsibilities of the academic profession. The book contends that the university has been deflected from its essential commitment to teaching, learning,…

  17. John Brown's Elementa Medicinae: An Introductory Bibliographical Essay *

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, Judith A.

    1982-01-01

    This Gottlieb essay reports the initial findings of an in-progress bibliographic study of the Elementa Medicinae of the eighteenth century Scottish physician, John Brown (1735-1788). The bibliographic history of each of the three pivotal London editions of 1788, 1795, and 1804 is described in detail; Mexican, German, and American editions are also described. Images PMID:7052167

  18. The Unlikelihood of Family: A Photographic Essay on Transnational Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Cristina Llerena

    2015-01-01

    In this photo essay, Cristina Llerena Navarro captures moments in the everyday lives of mixed-status families. Through her narrative and images, Llerena shares the stories of these families, their journeys to the United States as well as the consequences of deportation on the family unity. She evokes the children's deep yearning to be reunited…

  19. The Experience of Knowledge. Essays on American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John Fentress

    Part one of this book of essays concerns the need to bring thinking to life and the need for a spiritual concept of man. It argues that both traditional and progressive educators fail children in by not giving them a full sense of their humanity. It denies a conception of the universe divorced from idealism and founded only in scientific inquiry.…

  20. Last Interview with W. Eugene Smith on the Photo Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobre, Ken

    An interview with W. Eugene Smith, well-known photographer and photographic essayist, is presented in this paper. The introductory section of the paper contains a biographical sketch of Smith and a discussion of his photographic essays on a number of topics, including World War II scenes, life in a Spanish village, the work of a black midwife in…

  1. Writing at Century's End: Essays on Computer-Assisted Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Lisa, Ed.

    Most of the essays in this collection originated as presentations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Conference on Computers and Writing, held in May 1985. Issues addressed in the volume range from concrete, practical considerations (such as designing classroom exercises) to political and theoretical ones (such as the instructor's…

  2. Rhetoric as Preventive Medicine: The Essays of E. M. Forster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuiness, Ilona M.

    Through the art of the essay, as conceived by E. M. Forster, Virginia Woolf and others, college readers and writers can play a role in the continual weaving of the fabric of civilization--not by delivering lessons, or sermons, or polemical arguments, but by participating in the essayistic dialogue about what comprises a healthy human community…

  3. Stendhal: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brombert, Victor, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Victor Brombert, Martin Turnell, Erich Auerbach, Jean Prevost, Raymond Giraud, Irving Howe, Judd D. Hubert, Leon Blum, Jean Starobinski, Jean-Pierre Richard, and Simone de Beauvoir--all dealing with the biography and…

  4. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Four essays on U.S. government documents address the didactic nature of many government publications; the reliability of government information and statistics on energy, crime, consumer prices, and unemployment; user needs and access to government information; and sources and services for science and technology libraries. (EM)

  5. The Barbarian within and Other Fugitive Essays and Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    The fifteen essays collected here are grouped under three sections, each dealing with a different, but related theme. The first section, exploring the relationship of literature to the human being, includes "The Jinnee in the Well Wrought Urn,""A Dialectic of Aural and Objective Correlatives,""Metaphor and the Twinned Vision," and"Voice as Summons…

  6. The Analysis of Essays by Computer. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Ellis B.; Paulus, Dieter H.

    This study aimed at expanding a new field of educational measurement, by investigating the feasibility of using computer programs for the automatic analysis and evaluation of student writing. Essays written by secondary students in their English classes were rated by multiple independent judges on a number of traits usually considered important:…

  7. Emerging as a Scholar Practitioner: A Reflective Essay Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nganga, Christine W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author interrogated who she is as a scholar practitioner and integrated three texts. Using some salient features from these texts, she framed her identity development around the theme of affirming encounters. These affirming encounters created spaces for personal and professional growth as a scholar practitioner while…

  8. Profiling Learners' Achievement Goals when Completing Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence

    2009-01-01

    This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…

  9. Melville: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Richard, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Richard Chase, D. H. Lawrence, Newton Arvin, Alfred Kazin, Henry A. Murray, R. P. Blackmur, Marius Bewley, Richard Harter Fogle, Daniel G. Hoffman, Robert Penn Warren, and F. O. Matthiessen--all dealing with the biography…

  10. Essays of a peripheral mind: clean and simple, but stupid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands of the U.S. are still providing basic provisionary sciences, such as food production, that they have over the past 150 years. However, these services are diminishing as Americans demand other products form these landscapes. This essay discusses a specific example of the demand for recre...

  11. Moving Youth from Risk to Opportunity. KIDS COUNT 2004 Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This essay, taken from the 2004 KIDS COUNT Data Book, focuses on the issues surrounding America's most at-risk young adults. For most American youth, the transition to adulthood inspires a mix of excitement and high anxiety. There is excitement about taking steps to realize emerging dreams, aspirations, and possibilities. Yet there is anxiety…

  12. Thoreau: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sherman, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sherman Paul, William Butler Yeats, Lewis Mumford, Max Lerner, Stanley Edgar Hyman, Leo Stoller, F. O. Matthiessen, William Drake, R. W. B. Lewis, Heinz Eulau, Henry W. Wells, Edwin S. Fussell, Laurence Stapleton, and…

  13. Keats: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bate, Walter Jackson, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Walter Jackson Bate, T. S. Eliot, Douglas Bush, Richard H. Fogle, Jack Stillinger, Harold Bloom, David Perkins, Earl Wasserman, and D. G. James--all dealing with the biography and literary work of John Keats. Designed for…

  14. Fielding: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Paulson, A. R. Humphreys, Winfield H. Rogers, Ian Watt, Maynard Mack, Mark Spilka, Aurelien Digeon, Andre Gide, Arnold Kettle, John Middleton Murry, William Empson, George Sherburn, and John S. Coolidge--all…

  15. The Essay: Theory and Pedagogy for an Active Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilker, Paul

    Calling for a radical reexamination of the traditional foundation of composition instruction--the thesis/support form, this book argues that the essay, with its informality, conversational tone, meditative mood, and integration of form and content, is better suited to developmental, epistemological, ideological, and feminist rhetorical…

  16. Speaking in Many Tongues: Essays in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Wilga M.

    This collection of 10 essays on the nature of second language learning focuses mainly on distinctions between the audiolingual and the cognitive-code theory of learning and also on the interrelationships between psychology, linguistics, and second language learning. A synthesis which cuts across divisions in methodology, caused by superficial…

  17. Three Epiphanic Fragments: Education and the Essay in Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, David

    2014-01-01

    Pádraig Hogan has argued for a powerful conception of education as epiphany that is illuminated by the work of Heidegger and Joyce. But what are we to make of Stephen Dedalus' intention (pretension?) to "Remember your epiphanies"? Developing the phenomenological Erinnerungsversuch or "essay in memory" of David Farrell…

  18. Byron: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Paul, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by G. Wilson Knight, Bernard Blackstone, Mario Praz, Paul West, Guy Steffan, F. R. Leavis, W. W. Robson, Helen Gardner, George M. Ridenour, Edmund Wilson, Gilbert Highet, Bertrand Russell, and John Wain--all dealing with the…

  19. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  20. Black Studies in the United States. Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert L., Jr.; And Others

    Three essays are presented that discuss, in general terms, information that was collected in 1987-88 concerning the current status of black studies in the United States. The researchers were invited to survey selected black studies departments, programs, institutes, and centers judged to be representative of the structural diversity and…

  1. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  2. Training in Industrial Technology: A Collection of Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    Prepared as part of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum's efforts to explore issues related to economic development and technology training, the three essays in this collection describe industrial training efforts at community colleges, focusing on partnerships with the private sector, programs targeted at women, and the use of…

  3. Certainty Judgements and the Status of Propositions in Undergraduate Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew Mei, Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the expression of certainty in a set of high- and low-rated Geography argumentative essays. Using one aspect of Hunston's (1989, 2000) concept of the evaluation of status, the paper compares the statement types used to construe the writer's expression of certainty in the construction of arguments. Drawing on the…

  4. The Oldest Cave Art: An Essay on Giftedness and Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Maureen; White, David A.

    1996-01-01

    This essay examines issues of giftedness and excellence, beginning with classical references to human striving toward the "good," the attraction of gifted children to quality, and the recent discovery of the oldest known cave art with its manifest excellence. Classroom activities related to cave art and language arts, social studies, sciences,…

  5. Education in a Global City: Essays from London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Tim, Ed.; Fullick, Leisha, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This collection of essays by academic and policy experts brings together a wide range of data to offer a clear picture of London's changing education scene. Its mapping of new and developing strategies for successful urban education will be useful to educators and policymakers not only in London but also in other cities operating in similar…

  6. Mass Media and the National Experience; Essays in Communications History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Ronald T., Ed.; Stevens, John D., Ed.

    In 11 different essays, journalism historians reflect on the present state of their art and suggest ways and means of doing the important work that lies ahead. Areas of productive research suggested include freedom of expression, politics and economics, technology regionalism, Black journalism, the journalist as social critic, photographic…

  7. A Sense of Story: Essays on Contemporary Writers for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, John Rowe

    This is an introduction to the work of 19 contemporary English-language writers for children. It consists of critical essays on the works of Joan Aiken, L. M. Boston, H. F. Brinsmead, John Christopher, Helen Cresswell, Meindert DeJong, Eleanor Estes, Paula Fox, Leon Garfield, Alan Garner, Madeleine L'Engle, William Mayne, Andre Norton, Scott…

  8. Tough Love for Schools: Essays on Competition, Accountability, and Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.

    2006-01-01

    The author forthrightly declares in this book of essays on school reform that teachers are no more saintly than anyone else, that poor schools should be closed and lousy teachers should be fired, that philanthropy may sometimes do more harm than good, that teaching experience is not essential to being a school principal, that schools should be…

  9. Essays of a peripheral mind: An opinion on policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strengthening the connections between science and policy is critical if science is to have meaningful impacts. Policy is often primarily based on arrays of opinion and experience. Science typically shapes some of these opinions. This essay addresses characteristics of science and its communicatio...

  10. Euripides: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Erich, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Erich Segal, William Arrowsmith, G. M. A. Grube, Anne Pippin Burnett, Eilhard Schlesinger, Bernard M. W. Knox, Eric A. Havelock, Jean-Paul Sartre, Christian Wolff, and Thomas G. Rosenmeyer--all dealing with the plays of…

  11. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  12. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Seies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bree, Germaine, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Germaine Bree, Nicola Chairmonte, Serge Doubrovsky, Justin O'Brien, Wilfrid Sheed, Roger Quilliot, Thomas L. Hanna, Bernard C. Murchland, Henri Peyre, S. Beynon John, Rachel Bespaloff, Jean-Paul Sartre, Robert Champigny,…

  13. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a…

  14. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  15. Essays on Pricing of Information Goods and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Atanu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that examine, in three specific contexts, issues related to pricing of information goods and services. As the ability to measure technology resource usage gets easier with increased connectivity, the question whether a technology resource should be priced by the amount of the resource used or by the…

  16. Cosmopolitanism and Peace in Kant's Essay on "Perpetual Peace"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggler, Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    Immanuel Kant's essay on Perpetual Peace (1795/96) contains a rejection of the idea of a world government (earlier advocated by Kant himself). In connexion with a substantial argument for cosmopolitan rights based on the human body and its need for a space on the surface of the Earth, Kant presents the most rigorous philosophical formulation ever…

  17. Coherence, Cohesion and Comments on Students' Academic Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard Watson; Khongput, Somreudee; Darasawang, Pornapit

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between connectedness in discourse and the in-text comments that tutors write on postgraduate essays at a Thai university. Connectedness was divided into cohesion, propositional coherence and interactional coherence which were analysed using Hoey's lexical analysis [Hoey, M. (1991). "Patterns of lexis in…

  18. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  19. Review Essay: Recent Additions to the Rosenwald Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilke, Jayne R.

    2011-01-01

    This essay reviews two books on Julius Rosenwald and the Rosenwald Fund and places them within the historiography of the Fund. "Julius Rosenwald: The Man Who Built Sears, Roebuck and Advanced the Cause of Black Education in the American South," is a biography written by Peter M. Ascoli. The book entitled "The Rosenwald Schools of the American…

  20. Communicating Evaluation Findings: The Use of a Chart Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, B. Kathryn; And Others

    The experience of the research and evaluation department in the Dallas (Texas) Independent School District in pioneering the use of a policy-oriented report to communicate evaluation findings is described. The report--the chart essay--replaced a methods-oriented report. In restructuring the methods-oriented report into a policy-oriented report,…

  1. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  2. Teaching: What We Do. Essays by Amherst College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amherst Coll., MA.

    In this book, 14 members of the Amherst College faculty write on the subject of teaching: how they teach; what comprises their own research; and what kind of relationship between the two they fashion in their lives. Essays and their authors are as follows: "English and the Promise of Happiness" (Benjamin DeMott); "The Dragon" (George Greenstein);…

  3. Essays on Government Documents and Public Policies (5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Six essays describe the Pentagon's magazine publishing empire, how the Reagan Administration's "War on Waste" eliminated both substantive and frivolous publications, the employment outlook for librarians in the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the 1979 Yearbook on Agriculture, the often unintelligible language of government documents, and the…

  4. Essays on Public Documents and Government Policies (2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehead, Joe

    1986-01-01

    Eight essays address a range of topics including government serials and economic analysis, crime statistics and the F.B.I., nuclear holocaust and public policy, the history of the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, Congressman William Steiger and the Congressional Record, and the public papers of Richard Nixon. (EM)

  5. Homer: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, George, Ed.; Fagles, Robert, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by George Steiner, Leo Tolstoy, Ezra Pound, Erich Auerbach, Edwin Muir, Cedric H. Whitman, Albert B. Lord, W. H. Auden, Ernst Bloch, Georg Lukacs, C. Day Lewis, Gabriel Germain, Franz Kafka, Rachel Bespaloff, Robert…

  6. The Mimbres: Art and Archeology. A Reprint of Three Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewkes, Jesse Walter

    This book contains reprints of three essays by Jesse Walter Fewkes (1850-1930) on the pottery of the prehistoric Mimbres Indians. The three papers were originally published by the Smithsonian Institution between 1914 and 1924. The first, "Archeology of the Lower Mimbres Valley, New Mexico," examines historical references to ancient Indian…

  7. Hesse: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziolkowski, Theodore, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection contains essays by Thomas Mann, Andre Gide, Martin Buber, Ernst Robert Curtius, Oskar Seidlin, Hans Mayer, G. W. Field, Jeffrey Sammons, and the editor, Theodore Ziolkowski--all dealing with the biography and literary work of Hermann Hesse.…

  8. Language and Teaching: Essays in Honor of W. Wilbur Hatfield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDavid, Virginia, Ed.

    This collection of 10 essays is concerned with the leadership and current trends in English language teaching. Specific topics of papers are (1) W. Wilbur Hatfield as "The Pattern Maker," by James Mason, (2) Hatfield as an innovator in the teaching of literature and language, by Irwin Suloway, (3) "Changes in English Teaching in the Past Decades,"…

  9. Proust: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Girard, Robert Vigneron, Henri Peyre, Jacques Riviere, Albert Thibaudet, Walter A. Strauss, Germaine Bree, Georges Cattaui, Elliott Coleman, Leo Spitzer, Richard Macksey, Robert Champigny, Charles Du Bos, Ramon…

  10. Hemingway; A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Robert P., Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Lillian Ross, Malcolm Crowley, E.M. Halliday, Harry Levin, Leslie Fiedler, D.H. Lawrence, Philip Young, Sean O'Faolain, Cleanth Brooks and Robert Penn Warren, Carlos Baker, Mark Spilka, Ray B. West, Jr., Nemi D'Agostino,…

  11. Brecht: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetz, Peter, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Sergey Tretiakov, Hearings of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, Hannah Arendt, Eric Bentley, Oscar Budel, Ernst Schumacher, I. Fradkin, Hans Egon Holthusen, Gunter Rohrmoser, Walter H. Sokol, Franz Norbert…

  12. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  13. Essays on the Economics of Education in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Arce Novaro, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in the economics of education with an empirical focus on Mexico. The first two chapters study a college in Mexico whose admission decisions are made through a lottery. Some applicants are randomly assigned into a group that can immediately enroll and the rest into a group that can only do so after waiting…

  14. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part III--Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The third in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course, this article is dedicated to the treatment of inventory and its related conceptual connections. In addition, this paper addresses inventory measurement dilemmas, describes scandalous accounting episodes that have made the headlines, and…

  15. Assessing Student Writing: The Self-Revised Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano-King, Janine

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to assess student writing in a way that reflects current views of writing (i.e., as a social process supported by the interaction of a number of cognitive sub-processes), and yet still seeks to determine what students can do independently, it has become a common practice to include timed essays in student portfolios. However, this…

  16. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part V--Intangible Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This article represents the fifth in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course and investigates the accounting treatment and related conceptual connections for intangibles. In addition, intangibles present unique accounting issues, conceptual challenges, and measurement dilemmas not found…

  17. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing versus Revisiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition…

  18. A Comparison of a Multiple Choice and an Essay Test of Writing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culpepper, Marilyn Mayer; Ramsdell, Rae

    1982-01-01

    The test scores of college freshmen given both a multiple choice test and an essay test of writing skills were compared to assess the validity of a multiple choice test compared with an essay test. (HOD)

  19. Re-Conceiving the Five-Paragraph Essay in an Era of Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the arguments for and against teaching the traditional five-paragraph essay model. Describes a teaching approach in which students critically examine these arguments while learning the principle features of the five-paragraph essay. (SR)

  20. Informative, Compare and Contrast, and Persuasive Essay Composing of Fifth and Seventh Graders: Not All Essay Writing Is the Same

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing writers in fifth (n = 110, M = 10 years 8 months) or seventh (n = 97, M = 12 years 7 months) grade wrote informative, compare and contrast, and persuasive essays for which the content was held constant--two mountains with a history of volcanic eruption. Relevant background knowledge was provided by reading text and showing…

  1. What Made Your Essay Successful? I "T.A.C.K.L.E.D" the Essay Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tze Kwang

    2015-01-01

    Teaching in Singapore, Tze Kwang Teo cannot conceive of a history teacher unfamiliar with the mnemonic "PEE" (or "PEEL") used to structure students' essays. Its ubiquity is testimony to its power, reminding students both to explain and to substantiate their claims. Yet, as Foster and Gadd have argued, its neat formulation can…

  2. Influence of Cultural Norms and Collaborative Discussions on Children's Reflective Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Il-Hee; Anderson, Richard C.; Miller, Brian; Jeong, Jongseong; Swim, Terri

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of culture and discussion participation on rhetorical patterns in the reflective essays of 238 Korean and 196 American 4th-graders. Results showed significant differences between Korean children's essays and American children's essays in types of reasons, uses of argument elements, and uses of rhetorical…

  3. Technology Education for the 21st Century: A Collection of Essays. 49th Yearbook, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, G. Eugene, Ed.

    These 38 essays in 4 units are directed toward the future of technology education. Unit I: Evolving into the 21st Century has one essay, entitled "The Past Defines the Paths to be Taken" (Jerry Streichler). Essays 2-18, in Unit II: Exemplary Practices for the 21st Century, are "Developing a Curriculum Process" (Bryan Albrecht); "Design Problem…

  4. An Overview of Three Approaches to Scoring Written Essays by Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Gagne, Phill

    2001-01-01

    Describes the three most promising approaches to essay scoring by computer: (1) Project Essay Grade (PEG; E. Page, 1966); (2) Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA; T. Landauer, 1997); and (3) E-rater (J. Burstein, Educational Testing Service). All of these proprietary systems return grades that correlate meaningfully with those of human raters. (SLD)

  5. Bitten By The Biology Bug. Monograph VI. Essays from "The American Biology Teacher."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    A collection of 18 essays originally published in "The American Biology Teacher" in a column headed "Biology Today" are presented. The essays have been reprinted in chronological order and begin with an essay published in March 1982. A variety of types of writings were selected: some focus on teaching biology, others on the science itself. Several…

  6. Three Essays on Teacher Education Programs and Test-Takers' Response Times on Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation includes three essays: one essay focuses on the effect of teacher preparation programs on teacher knowledge while the other two focus on test-takers' response times on test items. Essay One addresses the problem of how opportunities to learn in teacher preparation programs influence future elementary mathematics teachers'…

  7. GED Essay Writing: Writing with Spirit. A Notebook for GED Writing Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Rosalie; Barreiro, Mathilda

    This guide was developed to help teachers prepare adult students for the essay writing section of the General Educational Development (GED) tests. It informs teachers of what is expected of students on the essay section of the GED examination, and leads them through the writing process in preparation for teaching students how to write an essay.…

  8. Concepts for Care: 20 Essays on Infant/Toddler Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald, Ed.; Mangione, Peter L., Ed.; Greenwald, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Leading experts in infant/toddler development have contributed succinct essays drawn from research, theory, clinical case studies, and carefully documented practice. Each essay represents current thinking in the field of infant/toddler development and care. Individually and as a collection, the essays provide a springboard for reflection,…

  9. Variability in ESL Essay Rating Processes: The Role of the Rating Scale and Rater Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Various factors contribute to variability in English as a second language (ESL) essay scores and rating processes. Most previous research, however, has focused on score variability in relation to task, rater, and essay characteristics. A few studies have examined variability in essay rating processes. The current study used think-aloud protocols…

  10. President Lincoln and His Vice-Presidents. Lincoln Era Essay Contest Eleventh Annual Winners-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, William, Ed.

    Sponsored by an endowment to Indiana University, the Lincoln Era Essay Contest has been held since 1982. Students in grades 6 to 12 may submit essays that address some topic dealing with Abraham Lincoln's presidency. A new topic is chosen each year. Written by middle school/junior high and high school students, this year's 19 essays concern…