NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endo, Shimpei; Castin, Yvan
2016-07-01
We consider a two-component ideal Fermi gas in an isotropic harmonic potential. Some eigenstates have a wavefunction that vanishes when two distinguishable fermions are at the same location, and would be unaffected by s-wave contact interactions between the two components. We determine the other, interaction-sensitive eigenstates, using a Faddeev ansatz. This problem is nontrivial, due to degeneracies and to the existence of unphysical Faddeev solutions. As an application we present a new conjecture for the fourth-order cluster or virial coefficient of the unitary Fermi gas, in good agreement with the numerical results of Blume and coworkers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Muktadir, Rahman; Dwaipayan, Debnath; Md. Sakhawat Hossain, Himel
2016-04-01
Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.
Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daisley, R. E.
1973-01-01
Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)
Crow Instability in Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gautam, Sandeep
2013-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the initiation and subsequent evolution of Crow instability in an inhomogeneous unitary Fermi gas using zero-temperature Galilei-invariant nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Considering a cigar-shaped unitary Fermi gas, we generate the vortex-antivortex pair either by phase-imprinting or by moving a Gaussian obstacle potential. We observe that the Crow instability in a unitary Fermi gas leads to the decay of the vortex-antivortex pair into multiple vortex rings and ultimately into sound waves.
Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.
Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A
2005-09-16
Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics. PMID:16197054
RF Spectroscopy on a Homogeneous Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zhenjie; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Over the last two decades RF spectroscopy has been established as an indispensable tool to probe a large variety of fundamental properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. This ranges from measurement of the pairing gap over tan's contact to the quasi-particle weight of Fermi polarons. So far, most RF spectroscopy experiments have been performed in harmonic traps, resulting in an averaged response over different densities. We have realized an optical uniform potential for ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms, which allows us to avoid the usual problems connected to inhomogeneous systems. Here we present recent results on RF spectroscopy of these homogeneous samples with a high signal to noise ratio. In addition, we report progress on measuring the contact of a unitary Fermi gas across the normal to superfluid transition.
Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…
Exploring the thermodynamics of a universal Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nascimbène, S.; Navon, N.; Jiang, K. J.; Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.
2010-02-01
One of the greatest challenges in modern physics is to understand the behaviour of an ensemble of strongly interacting particles. A class of quantum many-body systems (such as neutron star matter and cold Fermi gases) share the same universal thermodynamic properties when interactions reach the maximum effective value allowed by quantum mechanics, the so-called unitary limit. This makes it possible in principle to simulate some astrophysical phenomena inside the highly controlled environment of an atomic physics laboratory. Previous work on the thermodynamics of a two-component Fermi gas led to thermodynamic quantities averaged over the trap, making comparisons with many-body theories developed for uniform gases difficult. Here we develop a general experimental method that yields the equation of state of a uniform gas, as well as enabling a detailed comparison with existing theories. The precision of our equation of state leads to new physical insights into the unitary gas. For the unpolarized gas, we show that the low-temperature thermodynamics of the strongly interacting normal phase is well described by Fermi liquid theory, and we localize the superfluid transition. For a spin-polarized system, our equation of state at zero temperature has a 2 per cent accuracy and extends work on the phase diagram to a new regime of precision. We show in particular that, despite strong interactions, the normal phase behaves as a mixture of two ideal gases: a Fermi gas of bare majority atoms and a non-interacting gas of dressed quasi-particles, the fermionic polarons.
How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woody, Andrea I.
2013-01-01
Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…
Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system.
Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli
2012-08-01
We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender et al. [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy E(h) and a low constant energy E(c), respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size L(A)) for given L(A) (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η = 1 - E(c)/E(h) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value η(c) =1 - T(c)/T(h). PMID:23005748
Probing local quantities in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagi, Yoav; Drake, Tara E.; Paudel, Rabin; Chapurin, Roman; Jin, Deborah S.
2013-12-01
The collective behavior of an ensemble of strongly interacting fermions is central to many physical systems, and its theoretical description is challenging due to the many-body nature of the problem. The ultracold Fermi gas is an ideal model system to shed light on this issue, as it provides excellent controllability, reproducibility, and unique detection methods. One of the problems, however, which complicates the interpretation of such experiments is the inherent density inhomogeneity of the gas due to harmonic confinement. We have developed a technique to overcome this difficulty by selectively probing atoms near the center of a trapped gas while still retaining momentum resolution. In this contribution to the 21th International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy (ICOLS 2013), we give an overview of this technique and some of the observations that have resulted from its implementation.
Orientifolding of the ABJ Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okuyama, Kazumi
2016-03-01
The grand partition functions of ABJ theory can be factorized into even and odd parts under the reflection of fermion coordinate in the Fermi gas approach. In some cases, the even/odd part of ABJ grand partition function is equal to that of {N}=5O(n)× USp({n}^') theory, hence it is natural to think of the even/odd projection of grand partition function as an orientifolding of ABJ Fermi gas system. By a systematic WKB analysis, we determine the coefficients in the perturbative part of grand potential of such orientifold ABJ theory. We also find the exact form of the first few "half-instanton" corrections coming from the twisted sector of the reflection of fermion coordinate. For the Chern-Simons level k = 2 ,4 ,8 we find closed form expressions of the grand partition functions of orientifold ABJ theory, and for k = 2 , 4 we prove the functional relations among the grand partition functions conjectured in arXiv:1410.7658.
Parity effect in a mesoscopic Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Johannes; Lobos, Alejandro M.; Galitski, Victor
2016-06-01
We develop a quantitative analytic theory that accurately describes the odd-even effect observed experimentally in a one-dimensional, trapped Fermi gas with a small number of particles [G. Zürn et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 175302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.175302]. We find that the underlying physics is similar to the parity effect known to exist in ultrasmall mesoscopic superconducting grains and atomic nuclei. However, in contrast to superconducting nanograins, the density (Hartree) correction dominates over the superconducting pairing fluctuations and leads to a much more pronounced odd-even effect in the mesoscopic, trapped Fermi gas. We calculate the corresponding parity parameter and separation energy using both perturbation theory and a path integral framework in the mesoscopic limit, generalized to account for the effects of the trap, pairing fluctuations, and Hartree corrections. Our results are in an excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data and exact diagonalization. Finally, we discuss a few-particle to many-particle crossover between the perturbative mesoscopic regime and nonperturbative many-body physics that the system approaches in the thermodynamic limit.
Scaling in electron scattering from a relativistic Fermi gas
W. M. Alberico; A. Molinari; T. William Donnelly; E. L. Kronenberg; Wally Van Orden
1988-10-01
Within the context of the relativistic Fermi gas model, the concept of ''y scaling'' for inclusive electron scattering from nuclei is investigated. Specific kinematic shifts of the single-nucleon response in the nuclear medium can be incorporated with this model. Suggested generalizations beyond the strict Fermi gas model, including treatments of separated longitudinal and transverse responses, are also explored.
Using photoemission spectroscopy to probe a strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Stewart, J T; Gaebler, J P; Jin, D S
2008-08-01
Ultracold atomic gases provide model systems in which to study many-body quantum physics. Recent experiments using Fermi gases have demonstrated a phase transition to a superfluid state with strong interparticle interactions. This system provides a realization of the 'BCS-BEC crossover' connecting the physics of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity with that of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Although many aspects of this system have been investigated, it has not yet been possible to measure the single-particle excitation spectrum (a fundamental property directly predicted by many-body theories). Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to directly probe the elementary excitations and energy dispersion in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of (40)K atoms. In the experiments, a radio-frequency photon ejects an atom from the strongly interacting system by means of a spin-flip transition to a weakly interacting state. We measure the occupied density of single-particle states at the cusp of the BCS-BEC crossover and on the BEC side of the crossover, and compare these results to that for a nearly ideal Fermi gas. We show that, near the critical temperature, the single-particle spectral function is dramatically altered in a way that is consistent with a large pairing gap. Our results probe the many-body physics in a way that could be compared to data for the high-transition-temperature superconductors. As in photoemission spectroscopy for electronic materials, our measurement technique for ultracold atomic gases directly probes low-energy excitations and thus can reveal excitation gaps and/or pseudogaps. Furthermore, this technique can provide an analogue of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for probing anisotropic systems, such as atoms in optical lattice potentials. PMID:18685703
Topological superradiance in a degenerate Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Yi's Group Team; Liu's Group Team; Zhang's Group Team
2015-05-01
We predict the existence of a topological superradiant state in a two-component degenerate Fermi gas in a cavity. The superradiant light generation in the transversely driven cavity mode induces a cavity-assisted spin-orbit coupling in the system and opens a bulk gap at half filling. This mechanism can simultaneously drive a topological phase transition in the system, yielding a topological superradiant state. We map out the steady-state phase diagram of the system in the presence of an effective Zeeman field, and identify a critical tetracritical point beyond which the topological and the conventional superraidiant phase boundaries separate. We propose to detect the topological phase transition based on its signatures in either the momentum distribution of the atoms or in the cavity photon occupation.
How is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woody, Andrea I.
2013-07-01
Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight insights from these investigations that are salient for pedagogical concerns. Perhaps most importantly, this essay argues that science teachers should be mindful of the normative and prescriptive components of explanatory discourse both in the classroom and in science more generally. Giving attention to this dimension of explanation not only will do justice to the nature of explanatory activity in science but also will support the development of robust reasoning skills in science students while helping them understand an important respect in which science is more than a straightforward collection of empirical facts, and consequently, science education involves more than simply learning them.
Quench dynamics of a superfluid Fermi gas
Warner, G.L.; Leggett, A.J.
2005-04-01
With an eye toward the interpretation of so-called 'cosmological' experiments performed on the low-temperature phases of {sup 3}He, in which regions of the superfluid are destroyed by local heating with neutron radiation, we have studied the behavior of a Fermi gas subjected to uniform variations of an attractive BCS interaction parameter {lambda}. In {sup 3}He, the quenches induced by the rapid cooling of the 'hot spots' back through the transition may lead to the formation of vortex loops via the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. A consideration of the free energy available in the quenched region for the production of such vortices reveals that the Kibble-Zurek scaling law gives at best a lower bound on the defect spacing. Further, for quenches that fall far outside the Ginzburg-Landau regime, the dynamics on the pair subspace, as initiated by quantum fluctuations, tends irreversibly to a self-driven steady state with a gap {delta}{sub {infinity}}={epsilon}{sub C}(e{sup 2/N(0){lambda}}-1){sup -1/2}. In weak coupling, this is only half the BCS gap, the extra energy being taken up by the residual collective motion of the pairs.
Hydrodynamics in a Degenerate, Strongly Attractive Fermi Gas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomas, John E.; Kinast, Joseph; Hemmer, Staci; Turlapov, Andrey; O'Hara, Ken; Gehm, Mike; Granade, Stephen
2004-01-01
In summary, we use all-optical methods with evaporative cooling near a Feshbach resonance to produce a strongly interacting degenerate Fermi gas. We observe hydrodynamic behavior in the expansion dynamics. At low temperatures, collisions may not explain the expansion dynamics. We observe hydrodynamics in the trapped gas. Our observations include collisionally-damped excitation spectra at high temperature which were not discussed above. In addition, we observe weakly damped breathing modes at low temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the damping time and hydrodynamic frequency are not consistent with collisional dynamics nor with collisionless mean field interactions. These observations constitute the first evidence for superfluid hydrodynamics in a Fermi gas.
Trapping effect on the sound velocity of a multilayer Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salas, Patricia; Solís, M. A.
2015-03-01
We present the trapping effect on the behavior of the isothermal compressibility and sound velocity for an interactionless Fermi gas immersed in a periodic interconnected multilayer structure created by an external Dirac comb potential which can vary both in spacing and in the intensity that controls the impenetrability of the layer edge (the wall). At T = 0 , for a given layer width and respect to the free ideal Fermi gas values, the isothermal compressibility as a function of the impenetrability starts in one and then monotonically increases to reach a larger constant value which is width dependent. The sound velocity as a function of impenetrability starts in one and for a range of impenetrabilities shows a bump which suggests that the presence of the structure increases the speed. For a finite temperature, given a separation between the walls and several values of their impenetrabilities, both properties start their evolution in temperature from the ideal Fermi gas value, unfold at temperatures near and under TF, and then recover the behavior of a classical gas at higher temperatures. We acknowledge partial support from PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.
Ferromagnetism in a repulsive atomic Fermi gas with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Fratini, E.
2016-05-01
We investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas in the presence of a correlated random field that represents an optical speckle pattern. The density is tuned so that the (noninteracting) Fermi energy is close to the mobility edge of the Anderson localization transition. We employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to determine various ground-state properties, including the equation of state, the magnetic susceptibility, and the energy of an impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi gas (repulsive polaron). In the weakly interacting limit, the magnetic susceptibility is found to be suppressed by disorder. However, it rapidly increases with the interaction strength, and it diverges at a much weaker interaction strength compared to the clean gas. Both the transition from the paramagnetic phase to the partially ferromagnetic phase, and the one from the partially to the fully ferromagnetic phase, are strongly favored by disorder, indicating a case of order induced by disorder.
Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesk, Arthur M.
1974-01-01
Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)
The modified ASEP as a model of ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, D.; Sossinsky, A.
2015-01-01
A modified version of the ASEP model is interpreted as a two-dimensional model of ideal gas. Its properties are studied by simulating its behavior in different situations, using an animation program designed for that purpose.
Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in resonant Fermi gas
Yoshida, Nobukatsu; Yip, S.-K.
2007-06-15
We construct the phase diagram of a homogeneous two-component Fermi gas with population imbalance under a Feshbach resonance. In particular, we study the physics and stability of the Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase. We show that this phase is stable over a much larger parameter range than has been previously reported by other authors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin
2015-09-01
In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.
Weyl superfluidity in a three-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas.
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W Vincent
2015-01-30
Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. PMID:25679898
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: I. Thermodynamic laws.
Lavenda, B H
2005-11-01
The equations of state for an ideal relativistic, or generalized, gas, like an ideal quantum gas, are expressed in terms of power laws of the temperature. In contrast to an ideal classical gas, the internal energy is a function of volume at constant temperature, implying that the ideal generalized gas will show either attractive or repulsive interactions. This is a necessary condition in order that the third law be obeyed and for matter to have an electromagnetic origin. The transition from an ideal generalized to a classical gas occurs when the two independent solutions of the subsidiary equation to Lagrange's equation coalesce. The equation of state relating the pressure to the internal energy encompasses the full range of cosmological scenarios, from the radiation to the matter dominated universes and finally to the vacuum energy, enabling the coefficient of proportionality, analogous to the Grüeisen ratio, to be interpreted in terms of the degrees of freedom related to the temperature exponents of the internal energy and the absolute temperature expressed in terms of a power of the empirical temperature. The limit where these exponents merge is shown to be the ideal classical gas limit. A corollary to Carnot's theorem is proved, asserting that the ratio of the work done over a cycle to the heat absorbed to increase the temperature at constant volume is the same for all bodies at the same volume. As power means, the energy and entropy are incomparable, and a new adiabatic potential is introduced by showing that the volume raised to a characteristic exponent is also the integrating factor for the quantity of heat so that the second law can be based on the property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order. The vanishing of the chemical potential in extensive systems implies that energy cannot be transported without matter and is equivalent to the condition that Clapeyron's equation be satisfied. PMID:16231132
A Fermi gas in a homogeneous box potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Ku, Mark; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth; Guardado-Sanchez, Elmer; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin; Zwierlein Group Team
2015-05-01
Traditionally, bulk quantum gas experiments take place in inhomogeneous optical and/or magnetic traps. The properties of the homogeneous gas are in many cases masked by line-of-sight integration over the inhomogeneous sample. We report on the trapping of strongly interacting fermionic atoms (6Li) in a quasi-homogenous all-optical potential. We characterize the potential flatness through in-trap imaging, and discuss progress towards directly observing the momentum distribution of the fermions in a box, with the prospect to test predictions from Fermi liquid theory for interacting gases. In contrast to inhomogeneous traps, box potentials prepare a system in one particular point of the phase diagram, giving access to the properties of bulk matter with a high signal-to-noise ratio. This sets a new direction for the exploration of strongly interacting Fermi gases at finite temperature and in the presence of spin imbalance.
Thermodynamic properties of Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan
2014-12-01
We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a superfluid Fermi gas subject to Rashba spin-orbit coupling and effective Zeeman field. We adopt a T -matrix scheme that takes beyond-mean-field effects, which are important for strongly interacting systems, into account. We focus on the calculation of two important quantities: the superfluid transition temperature and the isothermal compressibility. Our calculation shows very distinct influences of the out-of-plane and the in-plane Zeeman fields on the Fermi gas. We also confirm that the in-plane Zeeman field induces a Fulde-Ferrell superfluid below the critical temperature and an exotic finite-momentum pseudogap phase above the critical temperature.
Degenerate Fermi Gas of {sup 87}Sr
DeSalvo, B. J.; Yan, M.; Mickelson, P. G.; Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Killian, T. C.
2010-07-16
We report quantum degeneracy in a gas of ultracold fermionic {sup 87}Sr atoms. By evaporatively cooling a mixture of spin states in an optical dipole trap for 10.5 s, we obtain samples well into the degenerate regime with T/T{sub F}=0.26{sub -0.06}{sup +0.05}. The main signature of degeneracy is a change in the momentum distribution as measured by time-of-flight imaging, and we also observe a decrease in evaporation efficiency below T/T{sub F{approx}}0.5.
Natural multiparticle entanglement in a Fermi gas.
Lunkes, Christian; Brukner, Caslav; Vedral, Vlatko
2005-07-15
We investigate multipartite entanglement in a noninteracting fermion gas, as a function of fermion separation, starting from the many particle fermion density matrix. We prove that all multiparticle entanglement can be built only out of two-fermion entanglement. Although from the Pauli exclusion principle we would always expect entanglement to decrease with fermion distance, we surprisingly find the opposite effect for certain fermion configurations. The von Neumann entropy is found to be proportional to the volume for a large number of particles even when they are arbitrarily close to each other. We will illustrate our results using different configurations of two, three, and four fermions at zero temperature although all our results can be applied to any temperature and any number of particles. PMID:16090728
Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov
2007-01-01
Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…
A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester
1999-01-01
Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)
From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.
2009-01-01
Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.…
Non-interacting Fermi gas in a magnetic quadrupole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lau, To Chun Johnathan; Goulko, Olga; Chevy, Frédéric; Lobo, Carlos
2014-05-01
A non-interacting gas of spin polarised 6Li Fermi gas in a magnetic quadrupole trap which is not in thermal equilibrium can nevertheless show thermal signatures in some cases. This puzzling behaviour can be seen by measuring the doubly integrated momentum distribution along a particular axis. This distribution can be extremely close to a Gaussian from which we can extract a temperature. However, we show, using molecular dynamics simulations that the temperature thus measured is generally different along different axes. We provide a general explanation of this phenomenon based on ergodicity and check it with further simulations.
Weyl Superfluidity in a Three-dimensional Dipolar Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Yin, Lan; Liu, W. Vincent
2015-03-01
Weyl superconductivity or superfluidity, a fascinating topological state of matter, features novel phenomena such as emergent Weyl fermionic excitations and anomalies. Here we report that an anisotropic Weyl superfluid state can arise as a low temperature stable phase in a 3D dipolar Fermi gas. A crucial ingredient of our model is a direction-dependent two-body effective attraction generated by a rotating external field. Experimental signatures are predicted for cold gases in radio-frequency spectroscopy. The finite temperature phase diagram of this system is studied and the transition temperature of the Weyl superfluidity is found to be within the experimental scope for atomic dipolar Fermi gases. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, DARPA-OLE-ARO, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation and The Pittsburgh Foundation, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, and NSF of China.
Energy fluctuations of a finite free-electron Fermi gas.
Pekola, Jukka P; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Kupiainen, Antti; Galperin, Yuri M
2016-08-01
We discuss the energy distribution of free-electron Fermi-gas, a problem with a textbook solution of Gaussian energy fluctuations in the limit of a large system. We find that for a small system, characterized solely by its heat capacity C, the distribution can be solved analytically, and it is both skewed and it vanishes at low energies, exhibiting a sharp drop to zero at the energy corresponding to the filled Fermi sea. The results are relevant from the experimental point of view, since the predicted non-Gaussian effects become pronounced when C/k_{B}≲10^{3} (k_{B} is the Boltzmann constant), a regime that can be easily achieved for instance in mesoscopic metallic conductors at sub-kelvin temperatures. PMID:27627262
Transverse demagnetization dynamics of a unitary Fermi gas.
Bardon, A B; Beattie, S; Luciuk, C; Cairncross, W; Fine, D; Cheng, N S; Edge, G J A; Taylor, E; Zhang, S; Trotzky, S; Thywissen, J H
2014-05-16
Understanding the quantum dynamics of strongly interacting fermions is a problem relevant to diverse forms of matter, including high-temperature superconductors, neutron stars, and quark-gluon plasma. An appealing benchmark is offered by cold atomic gases in the unitary limit of strong interactions. Here, we study the dynamics of a transversely magnetized unitary Fermi gas in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. We observe the demagnetization of the gas, caused by diffusive spin transport. At low temperatures, the diffusion constant saturates to the conjectured quantum-mechanical lower bound ≃ ħ/m, where m is the particle mass. The development of pair correlations, indicating the transformation of the initially noninteracting gas toward a unitary spin mixture, is observed by measuring Tan's contact parameter. PMID:24833387
How many is different? Answer from ideal Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2014-03-01
How many H2O molecules are needed to form water? While the precise answer is not known, it is clear that the answer should be a finite number rather than infinity. We revisit with care the ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box which is discussed in most statistical physics textbooks. We show that the isobar of the ideal gas zigzags on the temperature-volume plane featuring a boiling-like discrete phase transition, provided the number of particles is equal to or greater than a particular value: 7616. This demonstrates for the first time how a finite system can feature a mathematical singularity and realize the notion of 'Emergence', without resorting to the thermodynamic limit.
Observation of Shock Waves in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas
Joseph, J. A.; Thomas, J. E.; Kulkarni, M.; Abanov, A. G.
2011-04-15
We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.
Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.
Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J
2011-08-12
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:21902391
Rotating a Rashba-coupled Fermi gas in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doko, E.; Subaşı, A. L.; Iskin, M.
2016-03-01
We analyze the interplay of adiabatic rotation and Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the BCS-BEC evolution of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions under the assumption that vortices are not excited. First, by taking the trapping potential into account via both the semiclassical and exact quantum-mechanical approaches, we firmly establish the parameter regime where the noninteracting gas forms a ring-shaped annulus. Then, by taking the interactions into account via the BCS mean-field approximation, we study the pair-breaking mechanism that is induced by rotation, i.e., the Coriolis effects. In particular, we show that the interplay allows for the possibility of creating either an isolated annulus of rigidly rotating normal particles that is disconnected from the central core of nonrotating superfluid pairs or an intermediate mediator phase where the superfluid pairs and normal particles coexist as a partially rotating gapless superfluid.
Universal Quantum Viscosity in a Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chenglin
Unitary Fermi gases, first observed in 2002, have been widely studied as they provide model systems for tabletop research on a variety of strongly coupled systems, including the high temperature superconductors, quark-gluon plasmas and neutron stars. A two component 6Li unitary Fermi gas is created through a collisional Feshbach resonance centered around 834G, using all-optical trapping and cooling methods. In the vicinity of the Feshbach resonance, the atoms are strongly interacting and exhibit universal behaviors, where the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are universal functions of the density n and temperature T. Thus, unitary Fermi gases provide a paradigm to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and field-crossing interests. This dissertation reports the measurement of the quantum shear viscosity in a 6Li unitary Fermi gas, which is the first measurement of transport coefficients for unitary Fermi gases. Two hydrodynamic experiments are employed to measure the shear viscosity eta in different temperature regimes: the anisotropic expansion for the high temperature regime and the radial breathing mode for the low temperature regime. In order to consistently and quantitatively extract the shear viscosity from these two experiments, the hydrodynamic theory is utilized to derive the universal hydrodynamic equations, which include both friction force and heating arising from frictions. These equations are simplified and solved, considering the universal properties of unitary Fermi gases as well as the specific conditions for each experiment. Using these universal hydrodynamic equations, shear viscosity is extracted from the anisotropic expansion conducted at high temperatures and the predicted eta ∝ T3/2 scaling is demonstrated. The demonstration of the high temperature scaling sets a benchmark for measuring viscosity at low temperatures. For the low temperature breathing mode experiment, the
Low-lying excitations in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vale, Christopher; Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus
2016-05-01
We present measurements of the low-lying excitation spectrum of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover using Bragg spectroscopy. By focussing the Bragg lasers onto the central volume of the cloud we can probe atoms at near-uniform density allowing measurement of the homogeneous density-density response function. The Bragg wavevector is set to be approximately half of the Fermi wavevector to probe the collective response. Below the superfluid transition temperature the Bragg spectra dominated by the Bogoliubov-Anderson phonon mode. Single particle excitations become visible at energies greater than twice the pairing gap. As interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regime the phonon and single particle modes separate apart and both the pairing gap and speed of sound can be directly read off in certain regions of the crossover. Single particle pair-breaking excitations become heavily suppressed as interactions are tuned from the BCS to BEC regimes.
Simulating strongly correlated electrons with a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Thomas, John E.
2013-05-28
The quantum many-body physics of strongly-correlated fermions is studied in a degenerate, strongly- interacting atomic Fermi gas, first realized by our group with DOE support in 2002. This system, which exhibits strong spin pairing, is now widely studied and provides an important paradigm for testing predictions based on state-of-the-art many-body theory in fields ranging from nuclear matter to high temperature superfluidity and superconductivity. As the system is strongly interacting, both the superfluid and the normal fluid are nontrivial and of great interest. A central part of our program on Fermi gases is the connection between the study of thermodynamics, supported by DOE and the study of hydrodynamic transport, supported by NSF. This connection is especially interesting in view of a recent conjecture from the string theory community on the concept of nearly perfect normal fluids, which exhibit a minimum ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in strongly-interacting, scale-invariant systems.
Microeconomics of the ideal gas like market models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2009-10-01
We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.
Quantum critical transport in the unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enss, Tilman
2012-07-01
The thermodynamic and transport properties of the unitary Fermi gas at finite temperature T are governed by a quantum critical point at T=0 and zero density. We compute the universal shear viscosity to entropy ratio η/s in the high-temperature quantum critical regime T≫|μ| and find that this strongly coupled quantum fluid comes close to perfect fluidity η/s=ℏ/(4πkB). Using a controlled large-N expansion, we show that already at the first nontrivial order the equation of state and the Tan contact density C agree well with the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical Luttinger-Ward and bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo calculations.
Moving perturbation in a one-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visuri, A.-M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Massel, F.; Törmä, P.
2014-11-01
We simulate a balanced attractively interacting two-component Fermi gas in a one-dimensional lattice perturbed with a moving potential well or barrier. Using the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) method, we study different velocities of the perturbation and distinguish two velocity regimes based on clear differences in the time evolution of particle densities and the pair correlation function. We show that, in the slow regime, the densities deform as particles are either attracted by the potential well or repelled by the barrier, and a wave front of hole or particle excitations propagates at the maximum group velocity. Simultaneously, the initial pair correlations are broken and coherence over different sites is lost. In contrast, in the fast regime, the densities are not considerably deformed and the pair correlations are preserved.
Unitary Fermi Gas, ɛ Expansion, and Nonrelativistic Conformal Field Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishida, Yusuke; Son, Dam Thanh
We review theoretical aspects of unitary Fermi gas (UFG), which has been realized in ultracold atom experiments. We first introduce the ɛ expansion technique based on a systematic expansion in terms of the dimensionality of space. We apply this technique to compute the thermodynamic quantities, the quasiparticle cum, and the criticl temperature of UFG. We then discuss consequences of the scale and conformal invariance of UFG. We prove a correspondence between primary operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories and energy eigenstates in a harmonic potential. We use this correspondence to compute energies of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential. The scale and conformal invariance together with the general coordinate invariance constrains the properties of UFG. We show the vanishing bulk viscosities of UFG and derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian for the superfluid UFG. Finally we propose other systems exhibiting the nonrelativistic scaling and conformal symmetries that can be in principle realized in ultracold atom experiments.
Topological Superradiant States in a Degenerate Fermi Gas.
Pan, Jian-Song; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-07-24
We predict the existence of a topological superradiant state in a two-component degenerate Fermi gas in a cavity. The superradiant light generation in the transversely driven cavity mode induces a cavity-assisted spin-orbit coupling and opens a bulk gap at half filling. This mechanism can simultaneously drive a topological phase transition in the system, yielding a topological superradiant state. We map out the steady-state phase diagram in the presence of an effective Zeeman field, and identify a critical tetracritical point beyond which the topological and the conventional superraidiant phase boundaries separate. The topological phase transition can be detected from its signatures in either the momentum distribution of the atoms or the variation of the cavity photon occupation due to the nontrivial feedback of the atoms on the cavity field. PMID:26252692
Topological Superradiant States in a Degenerate Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-07-01
We predict the existence of a topological superradiant state in a two-component degenerate Fermi gas in a cavity. The superradiant light generation in the transversely driven cavity mode induces a cavity-assisted spin-orbit coupling and opens a bulk gap at half filling. This mechanism can simultaneously drive a topological phase transition in the system, yielding a topological superradiant state. We map out the steady-state phase diagram in the presence of an effective Zeeman field, and identify a critical tetracritical point beyond which the topological and the conventional superraidiant phase boundaries separate. The topological phase transition can be detected from its signatures in either the momentum distribution of the atoms or the variation of the cavity photon occupation due to the nontrivial feedback of the atoms on the cavity field.
Convection in an ideal gas at high Rayleigh numbers.
Tilgner, A
2011-08-01
Numerical simulations of convection in a layer filled with ideal gas are presented. The control parameters are chosen such that there is a significant variation of density of the gas in going from the bottom to the top of the layer. The relations between the Rayleigh, Peclet, and Nusselt numbers depend on the density stratification. It is proposed to use a data reduction which accounts for the variable density by introducing into the scaling laws an effective density. The relevant density is the geometric mean of the maximum and minimum densities in the layer. A good fit to the data is then obtained with power laws with the same exponent as for fluids in the Boussinesq limit. Two relations connect the top and bottom boundary layers: The kinetic energy densities computed from free fall velocities are equal at the top and bottom, and the products of free fall velocities and maximum horizontal velocities are equal for both boundaries. PMID:21929106
Finite size effect on classical ideal gas revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.; Mitra, J.; Bera, N.
2015-09-01
Finite size effects on classical ideal gas are revisited. The micro-canonical partition function for a collection of ideal particles confined in a box is evaluated using Euler-Maclaurin’s as well as Poisson's summation formula. In Poisson's summation formula there are some exponential terms which are absent in Euler-Maclaurin’s formula. In the thermodynamic limit the exponential correction is negligibly small but in the macro/nano dimensions and at low temperatures they may have a great significance. The consequences of finite size effects have been illustrated by redoing the calculations in one and three dimensions keeping the exponential corrections. Global and local thermodynamic properties, diffusion driven by the finite size effect, and effect on speed of sound have been discussed. Thermo-size effects, similar to thermoelectric effects, have been described in detail and may be a theoretical basis with which to design nano-scaled devices. This paper can also be very helpful for undergraduate and graduate students in physics and chemistry as an instructive exercise for a good course in statistical mechanics.
Collisional Properties of a Polarized Fermi Gas with Resonant Interactions
Bruun, G. M.; Recati, A.; Stringari, S.; Pethick, C. J.; Smith, H.
2008-06-20
Highly polarized mixtures of atomic Fermi gases constitute a novel Fermi liquid. We demonstrate how information on thermodynamic properties may be used to calculate quasiparticle scattering amplitudes even when the interaction is resonant and apply the results to evaluate the damping of the spin dipole mode. We estimate that under current experimental conditions the mode would be intermediate between the hydrodynamic and collisionless limits.
Exciting Quantized Vortex Rings in a Superfluid Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulgac, Aurel
2014-03-01
In a recent article, Yefsah et al., Nature 499, 426 (2013) report the observation of an unusual quantum excitation mode in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe collective oscillations of the superfluid atomic cloud with a period almost an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by any theory of domain walls, which they interpret as a possible new quantum phenomenon dubbed ``a heavy soliton'' with an inertial mass some 50 times larger than one expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this ``heavy soliton'' is instead a quantized vortex ring by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within an extension of the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to superfluid systems. The numerical simulations required the solution of some 260,000 nonlinear coupled time-dependent 3-dimensional partial differential equations and was implemented on 2048 GPUs on the Cray XK7 supercomputer Titan of the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility.
Faraday instability and Faraday patterns in a superfluid Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Rong-An; Li, Hao-Cai; Xue, Ju-Kui
2011-06-01
With the consideration of the coupling between the transverse width and the longitudinal density, the parametric excitations related to Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped superfluid Fermi gas are studied. A Mathieu equation is obtained, and it is demonstrated firstly that the excited actual 3D Faraday pattern is the combination of the longitudinal Faraday density wave and the corresponding transverse width fluctuation in the longitudinal direction. The Faraday instability growth index and the kinematic equations of the Faraday density wave and the width fluctuation along the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC)-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) crossover are also given for the first time. It is found that the 3D Faraday pattern presents quite different behaviours (such as the excitations and the motions) when the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side. The coupling not only plays an important role in the parametric excitation, but also determines the dominant wavelength of the spatial structure. Along the crossover, the coupling effects are more significant in the BCS side. The final numerical investigation verifies these results and gives a detailed study of the parametric excitations (i.e. Faraday instability) and the 3D pattern formation.
Viscosity and scale invariance in the unitary Fermi gas
Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2011-03-15
We compute the shear viscosity of the unitary Fermi gas above the superfluid transition temperature, using a diagrammatic technique that starts from the exact Kubo formula. The formalism obeys a Ward identity associated with scale invariance which guarantees that the bulk viscosity vanishes identically. For the shear viscosity, vertex corrections and the associated Aslamazov-Larkin contributions are shown to be crucial to reproduce the full Boltzmann equation result in the high-temperature, low fugacity limit. The frequency dependent shear viscosity {eta}({omega}) exhibits a Drude-like transport peak and a power-law tail at large frequencies which is proportional to the Tan contact. The weight in the transport peak is given by the equilibrium pressure, in agreement with a sum rule due to Taylor and Randeria. Near the superfluid transition the peak width is of the order of 0.5T{sub F}, thus invalidating a quasiparticle description. The ratio {eta}/s between the static shear viscosity and the entropy density exhibits a minimum near the superfluid transition temperature whose value is larger than the string theory bound h/(4{pi}k{sub B}) by a factor of about seven.
Dynamics of shock waves in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Wen; Shui, Tiankun; Shan, Yafei; Zhu, Changping
2015-09-01
We study the formation and dynamics of shock waves initiated by a repulsive potential in a superfluid unitary Fermi gas by using the order-parameter equation. In the theoretical framework, the regularization process of shock waves mediated by the quantum pressure term is purely dispersive. Our results show good agreement with the experiment of Joseph et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 150401). We reveal that the boxlike-shaped density peak observed in the experiment consists of many vortex rings due to the transverse instability of the dispersive shock wave. In addition, we study the transition from a sound wave to subsonic shock waves as the strength of the repulsive potential increases and show a strong qualitative change in the propagation speed of the wavefronts. For a relatively small strength of the repulsive potential, the propagation speed decreases below the sound speed with the increase of the strength as a scaling behavior. For a large strength where the shock waves are formed by colliding two spatially separated clouds, the speed is still smaller than the sound speed, but remains almost unchanged as the strength increases, which can be interpreted as the same expansion speed of the proliferation of the vortex rings originated from the transverse instability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate magnetic properties of a unitary Fermi gas in a harmonic trap. Including strong pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, as well as effects of a trap potential within the local density approximation, we calculate the local spin susceptibility χ (T,r) above the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c. We show that the formation of preformed singlet Cooper pairs anomalously suppresses χ (T,r) in the trap center near T_c. We also point out that, in the unitarity limit, the spin-gap temperature in a uniform Fermi gas can be evaluated from the observation of the spatial variation of χ (T,r). Since a real ultracold Fermi gas is always in a trap potential, our results would be useful for the study of how this spatial inhomogeneity affects thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.
Universal spin transport in a strongly interacting Fermi gas.
Sommer, Ariel; Ku, Mark; Roati, Giacomo; Zwierlein, Martin W
2011-04-14
Transport of fermions, particles with half-integer spin, is central to many fields of physics. Electron transport runs modern technology, defining states of matter such as superconductors and insulators, and electron spin is being explored as a new carrier of information. Neutrino transport energizes supernova explosions following the collapse of a dying star, and hydrodynamic transport of the quark-gluon plasma governed the expansion of the early Universe. However, our understanding of non-equilibrium dynamics in such strongly interacting fermionic matter is still limited. Ultracold gases of fermionic atoms realize a pristine model for such systems and can be studied in real time with the precision of atomic physics. Even above the superfluid transition, such gases flow as an almost perfect fluid with very low viscosity when interactions are tuned to a scattering resonance. In this hydrodynamic regime, collective density excitations are weakly damped. Here we experimentally investigate spin excitations in a Fermi gas of (6)Li atoms, finding that, in contrast, they are maximally damped. A spin current is induced by spatially separating two spin components and observing their evolution in an external trapping potential. We demonstrate that interactions can be strong enough to reverse spin currents, with components of opposite spin reflecting off each other. Near equilibrium, we obtain the spin drag coefficient, the spin diffusivity and the spin susceptibility as a function of temperature on resonance and show that they obey universal laws at high temperatures. In the degenerate regime, the spin diffusivity approaches a value set by [planck]/m, the quantum limit of diffusion, where [planck]/m is Planck's constant divided by 2π and m the atomic mass. For repulsive interactions, our measurements seem to exclude a metastable ferromagnetic state. PMID:21490670
High School Forum. The Solution: "Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.
1980-01-01
Presents responses to an earlier report concerning a procedure for the derivation of the Ideal Gas Law from Charles', Boyle's, and other gas laws. Logic errors and solutions that work are discussed. (CS)
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties for the phenyl, phenoxy, and o-biphenyl radicals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burcat, A.; Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.
1985-01-01
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of the phenyl and o-biphenyl radicals, their deuterated analogs and the phenoxy radical were calculated to 5000 K using estimated vibrational frequencies and structures. The ideal gas thermodynamic properties of benzene, biphenyl, their deuterated analogs and phenyl were also calculated.
Evaporative depolarization and spin transport in a unitary trapped Fermi gas
Parish, Meera M.; Huse, David A.
2009-12-15
We consider a partially spin-polarized atomic Fermi gas in a high-aspect-ratio trap, with a flux of predominantly spin-up atoms exiting the center of the trap. We argue that such a scenario can be produced by evaporative cooling, and we find that it can result in a substantially nonequilibrium polarization pattern for typical experimental parameters. We offer this as a possible explanation for the quantitative discrepancies in recent experiments on spin-imbalanced unitary Fermi gases.
The role of causality in tunable Fermi gas condensates.
Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Lin, Chi-Yong; Lee, Da-Shin; Rivers, Ray J
2013-10-01
We develop a new formalism for the description of the condensates of cold Fermi atoms whose speed of sound can be tuned with the aid of a narrow Feshbach resonance. We use this to look for spontaneous phonon creation that mimics spontaneous particle creation in curved space-time in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and other model universes. PMID:24025481
Flow field of a unitary Fermi gas for the scissors mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhen-Bang; Chen, Ji-Sheng; Li, Jia-Rong
2014-08-01
The scissors mode plays a crucial role in the study of the unitary Fermi gas. In this paper, we simulate the scissors mode by solving the hydrodynamic equations with appropriate initial conditions, and then extract the flow field of the gas. The flow fields in different regimes are found to be essentially different. The characteristic differences in the flow patterns between the superfluid and the normal viscous fluid are presented. Irrotational flow signals superfluidity, while rotational one indicates normal hydrodynamical behavior. These different characteristics can be visualized by the velocity portraits of the flow, which provide an intuitive way to discriminate the states of the Fermi gas.
Crossover from 2D to 3D in a Weakly Interacting Fermi Gas
Dyke, P.; Kuhnle, E. D.; Hu, H.; Mark, M.; Hoinka, S.; Lingham, M.; Hannaford, P.; Vale, C. J.; Whitlock, S.
2011-03-11
We have studied the transition from two to three dimensions in a low temperature weakly interacting {sup 6}Li Fermi gas. Below a critical atom number N{sub 2D} only the lowest transverse vibrational state of a highly anisotropic oblate trapping potential is occupied and the gas is two dimensional. Above N{sub 2D} the Fermi gas enters the quasi-2D regime where shell structure associated with the filling of individual transverse oscillator states is apparent. This dimensional crossover is demonstrated through measurements of the cloud size and aspect ratio versus atom number.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-01
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-15
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121
Lattice Boltzmann simulations of a strongly interacting two-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brewer, Jasmine; Mendoza, Miller; Young, Ryan E.; Romatschke, Paul
2016-01-01
We present fully nonlinear dissipative fluid dynamics simulations of a strongly interacting trapped two-dimensional Fermi gas using a lattice Boltzmann algorithm. We are able to simulate nonharmonic trapping potentials, temperature-dependent viscosities, as well as a discretized version of the ballistic (noninteracting) behavior. Our approach lends itself to direct comparison with experimental data, opening up the possibility of a precision determination of transport coefficients in the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Furthermore, we predict the presence of a strongly damped ("nonhydrodynamic") component in the quadrupole mode, which should be observable experimentally.
Condensate fraction of a two-dimensional attractive Fermi gas
Salasnich, Luca
2007-07-15
We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation of fermionic pairs in a two-dimensional uniform two-component Fermi superfluid obtaining an explicit formula for the condensate density as a function of the chemical potential and the energy gap. By using the mean-field extended Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, we analyze, as a function of the bound-state energy, the off-diagonal long-range order in the crossover from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer state of weakly bound Cooper pairs to the Bose-Einstein condensate of strongly-bound molecular dimers.
Large-scale behaviour of local and entanglement entropy of the free Fermi gas at any temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leschke, Hajo; Sobolev, Alexander V.; Spitzer, Wolfgang
2016-07-01
The leading asymptotic large-scale behaviour of the spatially bipartite entanglement entropy (EE) of the free Fermi gas infinitely extended in multidimensional Euclidean space at zero absolute temperature, T = 0, is by now well understood. Here, we present and discuss the first rigorous results for the corresponding EE of thermal equilibrium states at T\\gt 0. The leading large-scale term of this thermal EE turns out to be twice the first-order finite-size correction to the infinite-volume thermal entropy (density). Not surprisingly, this correction is just the thermal entropy on the interface of the bipartition. However, it is given by a rather complicated integral derived from a semiclassical trace formula for a certain operator on the underlying one-particle Hilbert space. But in the zero-temperature limit T\\downarrow 0, the leading large-scale term of the thermal EE considerably simplifies and displays a {ln}(1/T)-singularity which one may identify with the known logarithmic enhancement at T = 0 of the so-called area-law scaling. birthday of the ideal Fermi gas.
Hu Hui; Liu Xiaji; Drummond, Peter D.
2011-06-15
We compare the theoretical predictions for universal thermodynamics of a homogeneous, strongly correlated Fermi gas with the latest experimental measurements reported by the ENS group [S. Nascimbene et al., Nature (London) 463, 1057 (2010)] and the Tokyo group [M. Horikoshi et al., Science 327, 442 (2010)]. The theoretical results are obtained using two diagrammatic theories, together with a virial expansion theory combined with a Pade approximation. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. In particular, the virial expansion, using a Pade approximation up to third order, describes the experimental results extremely well down to the superfluid transition temperature, T{sub c{approx}}0.16T{sub F}, where T{sub F} is the Fermi temperature. The comparison in this work complements our previous comparative study on the universal thermodynamics of a strongly correlated but trapped Fermi gas. The comparison also raises interesting issues about the unitary entropy and the applicability of the Pade approximation.
The Phases of an Interacting Spin-1/2 Fermi Gas as seen from a New Variational Ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Sangwoo; Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos
2015-05-01
Since its introduction, the continuous matrix product states (cMPS) have demonstrated success in predicting low energy properties of repulsive one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas systems. We have extended those efforts to nonrelativistic fermions and shown that the cMPS, moreover, is able to correctly describe the ground-state superfluid and magnetic properties of interacting Fermi gases in 1D. This includes the signatures of a partially polarized superfluid regime, in agreement with the large amount of theoretical and experimental work from recent years by the cold-atoms community. The new type of ansatz promises to be ideally posed to be able to describe atomic gases in optical lattices economically but without making a lattice-model (tight-binding) approximation. Funding for this work was provided by the University of Cincinnati and by the DARPA OLE program through ARO W911NF-07-1-0464; parallel computing resources were from the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC).
Structure of a Quantized Vortex in Fermi Atom Gas
Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio
2006-09-07
In atomic Fermi gases, the pairing character changes from BCS-like to BEC-like when one decreases the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. With this crossover, the system enters the strong-coupling regime through the population enhancement of diatom molecules, and the vortex structure becomes much different from well-known core structures in BCS superfluid since the superfluid order parameter is given by a sum of BCS pairs and BEC molecular condensates. In this paper, we study the structure of a vortex by numerically solving the generalized Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation derived from the fermion-boson model and clarify how the vortex structure changes with the threshold energy of the Feshbach resonance. We find that the diatom boson condensate enhances the matter density depletion inside the vortex core and the discreteness of localized quasi-particle spectrum.
Breathing modes of a fast rotating Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antezza, Mauro; Cozzini, Marco; Stringari, Sandro
2007-05-01
We derive the frequency spectrum of the lowest compressional oscillations of a three-dimensional harmonically trapped Fermi superfluid in the presence of a vortex lattice, treated in the diffused vorticity approximation within a hydrodynamic approach. We consider the general case of a superfluid at T=0 characterized by a polytropic equation of state (˜nγ) , which includes both the Bose-Einstein condensed regime of dimers (γ=1) and the unitary limit of infinite scattering length (γ=2/3) . Important limiting cases are considered, including the centrifugal limit, the isotropic trapping, and the cigar geometry. The conditions required to enter the lowest Landau level and quantum Hall regimes at unitarity are also discussed.
Numerical study of the unitary Fermi gas across the superfluid transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goulko, Olga; Wingate, Matthew
2016-05-01
We present results from Monte Carlo calculations investigating the properties of the homogeneous, spin-balanced unitary Fermi gas in three dimensions. The temperature is varied across the superfluid transition allowing us to determine the temperature dependence of the chemical potential, the energy per particle, and the contact density. Numerical artifacts due to finite volume and discretization are systematically studied, estimated, and reduced.
Strong Coupling Effects on the Specific Heat of an Ultracold Fermi Gas in the Unitarity Limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Wyk, P.; Tajima, H.; Hanai, R.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We investigate strong-coupling corrections to the specific heat C_V in the normal state of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. A recent experiment on a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas (Ku et. al. in Science 335:563 2012) shows that C_V is remarkably amplified near the superfluid phase transition temperature T_c, being similar to the well-known λ -structure observed in liquid ^4He. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that strong pairing fluctuations are sufficient to explain the anomalous behavior of C_V observed in a ^6Li unitary Fermi gas near T_c. We also show that there is no contribution from stable preformed Cooper pairs to C_V at the unitarity. This indicates that the origin of the observed anomaly is fundamentally different from the case of liquid 4He, where stable ^4He Bose atoms induce the λ -structure in C_V near the superfluid instability. Instead, the origin is the suppression of the entropy S, near T_c, due to the increase of metastable preformed Cooper pairs. Our results indicate that the specific heat is a useful quantity to study the effects of pairing fluctuations on the thermodynamic properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region.
Shock Waves in the BEC to BCS Crossover of a Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, Lorin; Joseph, James; Thomas, John
2016-05-01
We observe shock waves in a Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance, using a micro-mirror array to create a spatially controlled, blue-detuned, repulsive optical potential. We separate an optically-trapped gas of 6 Li into two clouds with steep density profiles. When the repulsive potential beam is extinguished, the two halves of the cloud collide in the optical trap, producing shock waves. Using in-situ imaging, we find that the steep density gradients associated with shockwaves are most pronounced near resonance and become less pronounced as the magnetic field is tuned above resonance to create a weakly interacting Fermi gas or below resonance to create a weakly interacting Bose gas of dimers. Using this method, we study the crossover from dispersive to dissipative non-linear hydrodynamics as a function of interaction strength and temperature. Funding by: NSF, DOE, ARO, and AFOSR.
Quantum transport of non-interacting Fermi gas in an optical lattice combined with harmonic trapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruuska, V.; Törmä, P.
2004-06-01
We have considered non-interacting Fermi gas in a combined harmonic and periodic potential. We calculate the energy spectrum and simulate the motion of the gas after sudden replacement of the trap centre. For different parameter regimes, the system presents dipole oscillations, damped oscillations around the replaced centre as well as localization. The behaviour can be explained by a change in the energy spectrum from linear to quadratic.
Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of a Strongly Interacting Two-Dimensional Fermi Gas
Froehlich, Bernd; Feld, Michael; Vogt, Enrico; Koschorreck, Marco; Koehl, Michael; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2011-03-11
We realize and study a strongly interacting two-component atomic Fermi gas confined to two dimensions in an optical lattice. Using radio-frequency spectroscopy we measure the interaction energy of the strongly interacting gas. We observe the confinement-induced Feshbach resonance on the attractive side of the 3D Feshbach resonance and find the existence of confinement-induced molecules in very good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Universal relations for the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Fermi gas with contact interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-12-01
We present universal relations for a two-dimensional Fermi gas with pairwise contact interactions. The derivation of these relations is made possible by obtaining the explicit form of a generalized function—selector—in the momentum representation. The selector implements the short-distance boundary condition between two fermions in a straightforward manner and leads to simple derivations of the universal relations, in the spirit of Tan's original method for the three-dimensional gas.
Vortex lattices in strongly interacting Fermi gas with crossed-beam dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yuping; Yao, Xingcan; Chen, Haoze; Liu, Xiangpei; Wang, Xiaoqiong
2016-05-01
We have built an experiment system to explore the dynamic and vortex in quantum degenerate Li6 gas. By using UV MOT and crossed-beam dipole trap, we obtained BEC of 2* 105 molecules. With a tightly focused 532nm laser beam as rotating bucket wall, We observed vortex formation in strongly interacting fermi superfluid. At suitable stirring frequency we produced the condensate of fermi pairs for which up to 10 vortices were simultaneously present. We produced vortex lattices in different magnetic fields (from BEC side to BCS side). Also we measured the lifetime of vortex lattices in different interaction region. This work was funded by CAS and USTC.
Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1980-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.
Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubasiak, Anna; Korbicz, Jaroslaw K.; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Lewenstein, Maciej
2005-11-01
We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.
A Unified Theory of Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi
1998-01-01
A non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an a priori fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here.
A long-lived spin-orbit-coupled dipolar Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burdick, Nathaniel; Tang, Yijun; Kao, Wil; Lev, Benjamin
2016-05-01
We report on the demonstration of spin-orbit coupling in a quantum degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of dysprosium. The T /TF = 0 . 4 gas has a lifetime as large as 0.4 s under Raman dressing at densities exceeding 1013 cm-3. The lifetime is limited not by spontaneous emission but by dipolar relaxation loss, and the effect of the dipolar interaction is also observed in the dephasing of Rabi oscillations. This spin-orbit-coupled dipolar gas will allow future studies of fermionic systems in the presence of synthetic gauge fields wherein long lifetimes are essential to observing collective effects.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias
2015-05-01
We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.
Propagation of second sound in a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitary limit
Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro
2009-10-15
We study sound propagation in a uniform superfluid gas of Fermi atoms in the unitary limit. The existence of normal and superfluid components leads to appearance of two sound modes in the collisional regime, referred to as first and second sounds. The second sound is of particular interest as it is a clear signal of a superfluid component. Using Landau's two-fluid hydrodynamic theory, we calculate hydrodynamic sound velocities and these weights in the density response function. The latter is used to calculate the response to a sudden modification of the external potential generating pulse propagation. The amplitude of a pulse which is proportional to the weight in the response function is calculated, the basis of the approach of Nozieres and Schmitt-Rink for the BCS-BEC. We show that, in a superfluid Fermi gas at unitarity, the second-sound pulse is excited with an appreciate amplitude by density perturbations.
Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice
Liu Bo; Yin Lan
2011-10-15
In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.
Anisotropic superfluidity in the two-species polar Fermi gas
Liao Renyuan; Brand, Joachim
2010-12-15
We study the superfluid pairing in a two-species gas of heteronuclear fermionic molecules with equal density. The interplay of the isotropic s-wave interaction and anisotropic long-range dipolar interaction reveals rich physics. We find that the single-particle momentum distribution has a characteristic ellipsoidal shape that can be reasonably represented by a deformation parameter {alpha} defined similarly to the normal phase. Interesting momentum-dependent features of the order parameter are identified. We calculate the critical temperatures of both the singlet and triplet superfluids, suggesting a possible pairing symmetry transition by tuning the s-wave or dipolar interaction strength.
Collective modes in a uniform Fermi gas with Feshbach resonances
Huang, Beibing; Wan, Shaolong
2007-05-15
The collective modes in a uniform fermionic atomic gas with Feshbach resonance are investigated with the path integral method in the frame of a fermion-boson model Hamiltonian. We mainly concentrated on the long-wavelength and low-frequency limits at T=0 K and got an analytical expression for the collective modes across the whole BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. We completely recover the Anderson-Bogoliubov modes in the BCS limit and the Bogoliubov modes of the bosonic systems in the BEC limit. The numerical results show that there exists a continuous interpolation for sound velocity between BCS and BEC limits.
Site-Resolved Imaging with the Fermi Gas Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, Florian Gerhard
The recent development of quantum gas microscopy for bosonic rubidium atoms trapped in optical lattices has made it possible to study local structure and correlations in quantum many-body systems. Quantum gas microscopes are a perfect platform to perform quantum simulation of condensed matter systems, offering unprecedented control over both internal and external degrees of freedom at a single-site level. In this thesis, this technique is extended to fermionic particles, paving the way to fermionic quantum simulation, which emulate electrons in real solids. Our implementation uses lithium, the lightest atom amenable to laser cooling. The absolute timescales of dynamics in optical lattices are inversely proportional to the mass. Therefore, experiments are more than six times faster than for the only other fermionic alkali atom, potassium, and more then fourteen times faster than an equivalent rubidium experiment. Scattering and collecting a sufficient number of photons with our high-resolution imaging system requires continuous cooling of the atoms during the fluorescence imaging. The lack of a resolved excited hyperfine structure on the D2 line of lithium prevents efficient conventional sub-Doppler cooling. To address this challenge we have applied a Raman sideband cooling scheme and achieved the first site-resolved imaging of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tito, E. P.; Pavlov, V. I.
2016-07-01
We consider accretion-caused deceleration of a gravitationally-powerful compact stellar object traveling within a cold Fermi-gas medium. We provide analytical and numerical estimates of the effect manifestation.
Tunable Artificial Graphene with an Ultracold Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greif, Daniel; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Desbuquois, Remi; Hofstetter, Walter; Bissbort, Ulf; Esslinger, Tilman
2014-05-01
The engineering of systems that share their key properties with graphene, like Dirac fermions and a hexagonal structure, is gaining interest in an increasing number of disciplines in physics. The motivation for engineering graphene-like band structures is to explore regimes that are not, or not yet, accessible to research with graphene or similar materials. We create an artificial graphene system with tunable interactions by loading a two-component ultracold fermionic quantum gas into an optical lattice with hexagonal structure. We study the crossover from the metallic to the Mott insulating regime for increasing inter-particle interactions. For strong repulsive interactions, we observe a suppression of double occupancy and measure a gapped excitation spectrum. A quantitative comparison between our measurements and theory is additionally presented, making use of a novel numerical method to obtain Wannier functions for complex lattice structures. Furthermore, we will show recent results on alternative methods of accessing insulating phases, for example by controlling the tunneling structure.
Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Conduit, G. J.
2011-05-01
We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.
Pairing correlations in a trapped one-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudla, Stephen; Gautreau, Dominique M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.
2015-04-01
We use a BCS-type variational wave function to study attractively interacting quasi-one-dimensional fermionic atomic gases, motivated by cold-atom experiments that access the one-dimensional regime using an anisotropic harmonic trapping potential (with trapping frequencies ωx=ωy≫ωz ) that confines the gas to a cigar-shaped geometry. To handle the presence of the trap along the z direction, we construct our variational wave function from the harmonic oscillator Hermite functions, which are the eigenstates of the single-particle problem. Using an analytic determination of the effective interaction among harmonic oscillator states along with a numerical solution of the resulting variational equations, we make specific experimental predictions for how pairing correlations would be revealed in experimental probes, such as the local density and the momentum correlation function.
Itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting Fermi gas with mass imbalance
Keyserlingk, C. W. von; Conduit, G. J.
2011-05-15
We study the emergence of itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas with a variable mass ratio between the up- and down-spin species. Mass imbalance breaks the SU(2) spin symmetry, leading to a modified Stoner criterion. We first elucidate the phase behavior in both the grand canonical and canonical ensembles. Second, we apply the formalism to a harmonic trap to demonstrate how a mass imbalance delivers unique experimental signatures of ferromagnetism. These could help future experiments to better identify the putative ferromagnetic state. Furthermore, we highlight how a mass imbalance suppresses the three-body loss processes that handicap the formation of a ferromagnetic state. Finally, we study the time-dependent formation of the ferromagnetic phase following a quench in the interaction strength.
Growth and decay of acceleration waves in non-ideal gas flow with radiative heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Lal; Singh, Raghwendra; Ram, Subedar
2012-09-01
The present paper is concerned with the study of the propagation of acceleration waves along the characteristic path in a non-ideal gas flow with effect of radiative heat transfer. It is shown that a linear solution in the characteristic plane can exhibit non-linear behavior in the physical plane. It is also investigated as to how the radiative heat transfer under the optically thin limit will affect the formation of shock in planer, cylindrical and spherically symmetric flows. We conclude that there exists critical amplitude such that any compressive waves with initial amplitude greater than the critical one terminate into shock waves while an initial amplitude less than the critical one results in the decay of the disturbance. The critical time for shock formation has been computed. In this paper we also compare/contrast the nature of solution in ideal and non ideal gas flows.
Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.
2010-01-01
This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…
Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.
Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C
2008-02-01
The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified. PMID:18352067
Simple ideal gas model of the Pavlovskii high-explosive opening switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, T. J.
1983-08-01
The behavior of the Pavlovskii type high-explosive opening switch is modeled using an ideal gas formulation. It is shown that this simple 1 dimensional model agrees with experiment during early arc compression but that at later times the process exhibits a more complex behavior, resulting from turbulent mixing.
40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...
40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...
Quantum Mechanical Limitations to Spin Diffusion in the Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf
2012-11-01
We compute spin transport in the unitary Fermi gas using the strong-coupling Luttinger-Ward theory. In the quantum degenerate regime the spin diffusivity attains a minimum value of Ds≃1.3ℏ/m approaching the quantum limit of diffusion for a particle of mass m. Conversely, the spin drag rate reaches a maximum value of Γsd≃1.2kBTF/ℏ in terms of the Fermi temperature TF. The frequency-dependent spin conductivity σs(ω) exhibits a broad Drude peak, with spectral weight transferred to a universal high-frequency tail σs(ω→∞)=ℏ1/2C/3π(mω)3/2 proportional to the Tan contact density C. For the spin susceptibility χs(T) we find no downturn in the normal phase.
Polaron-molecule transitions in a two-dimensional Fermi gas
Parish, Meera M.
2011-05-15
We address the problem of a single 'spin-down' impurity atom interacting attractively with a spin-up Fermi gas in two dimensions (2D). We consider the case where the mass of the impurity is greater than or equal to the mass of a spin-up fermion. Using a variational approach, we resolve the questions raised by previous studies and show that there is, in fact, a transition between polaron and molecule (dimer) ground states in 2D. For the molecule state, we use a variational wave function with a single particle-hole excitation on the Fermi sea and we find that its energy matches that of the exact solution in the limit of infinite impurity mass. Thus, we expect the variational approach to provide a reliable tool for investigating 2D systems.
One-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas in a trap: quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matveeva, N.; Astrakharchik, G. E.
2016-06-01
A one-dimensional world is very unusual as there is an interplay between quantum statistics and geometry, and a strong short-range repulsion between atoms mimics Fermi exclusion principle, fermionizing the system. Instead, a system with a large number of components with a single atom in each, on the opposite acquires many bosonic properties. We study the ground-state properties of a multicomponent repulsive Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic trap by a fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction between all components is considered to be the same. We investigate how the energetic properties (energy, contact) and correlation functions (density profile and momentum distribution) evolve as the number of components is changed. It is shown that the system fermionizes in the limit of strong interactions. Analytical expressions are derived in the limit of weak interactions within the local density approximation for an arbitrary number of components and for one plus one particle using an exact solution.
Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M
2014-01-10
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906
Finite-size and particle-number effects in an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity
Braun, Jens; Diehl, Sebastian; Scherer, Michael M.
2011-12-15
We investigate an ultracold Fermi gas at unitarity confined in a periodic box V=L{sup 3} using renormalization group techniques. Within this approach we can quantitatively assess the long-range bosonic order parameter fluctuations, which dominate finite-size effects. We determine the finite-size and particle-number dependence of universal quantities, such as the Bertsch parameter and the fermion gap. Moreover, we analyze how these universal observables respond to the variation of an external pairing source. Our results indicate that the Bertsch parameter saturates rather quickly to its value in the thermodynamic limit as a function of increasing box size. On the other hand, we observe that the fermion gap shows a significantly stronger dependence on the box size, in particular for small values of the pairing source. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of finite-size and particle-number effects present in Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold Fermi gases.
Phase Separation and Pair Condensation in a Spin-Imbalanced 2D Fermi Gas.
Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter T; Schauß, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir S; Bakr, Waseem S
2016-08-26
We study a two-component quasi-two-dimensional Fermi gas with imbalanced spin populations. We probe the gas at different interaction strengths and polarizations by measuring the density of each spin component in the trap and the pair momentum distribution after time of flight. For a wide range of experimental parameters, we observe in-trap phase separation characterized by the appearance of a spin-balanced core surrounded by a polarized gas. Our momentum space measurements indicate pair condensation in the imbalanced gas even for large polarizations where phase separation vanishes, pointing to the presence of a polarized pair condensate. Our observation of zero momentum pair condensates in 2D spin-imbalanced gases opens the way to explorations of more exotic superfluid phases that occupy a large part of the phase diagram in lower dimensions. PMID:27610853
Dimensional crossover in a Fermi gas and a cross-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Guillaume; Hekking, Frank; Minguzzi, Anna
2016-01-01
We describe the dimensional crossover in a noninteracting Fermi gas in an anisotropic trap, obtained by populating various transverse modes of the trap. We study the dynamical structure factor and drag force. Starting from a dimension d , the (d +1 ) -dimensional case is obtained to a good approximation with relatively few modes. We show that the dynamical structure factor of a gas in a d -dimensional harmonic trap simulates an effective 2 d -dimensional box trap. We focus then on the experimentally relevant situation when only a portion of the gas in harmonic confinement is probed and give a condition to obtain the behavior of a d -dimensional gas in a box. Finally, we propose a generalized Tomonaga-Luttinger model for the multimode configuration and compare the dynamical structure factor in the two-dimensional limit with the exact result, finding that it is accurate in the backscattering region and at low energy.
A fully controllable Kondo system: Coupling a flux qubit and an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Kelly
We show that a composite spin-1/2 Kondo system can be formed by coupling a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to the internal hyperfine states of a trapped ultracold atomic Fermi gas. Here, the SQUID, or flux qubit, acts as an effective magnetic impurity that induces spin-flip scattering near the Fermi energies of the trapped gas. Although the ultracold gas and SQUID are at vastly different temperatures, the formation of a strongly correlated Kondo state between the two systems is found when the gas is cooled below the Kondo temperature. We find that the Kondo temperature of this hybrid system is within current experimental limits. Furthermore, the momentum distribution of the trapped fermions is calculated. We find that it clearly contains an experimental signature of this correlated state and the associated Kondo screening length. In addition to probing Kondo physics, the con- trollability of this system can be used to systematically explore the relaxation and equilibration of a strongly correlated system that has been initially prepared in a selected nonequilibrium state.
Fully controllable Kondo system: Coupling a flux qubit and an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Kelly R.
2016-02-01
We show that a composite spin-½ Kondo system can be formed by coupling a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to the internal hyperfine states of a trapped ultracold atomic Fermi gas. Here, the SQUID, or flux qubit, acts as an effective magnetic impurity that induces spin-flip scattering near the Fermi energies of the trapped gas. Although the ultracold gas and SQUID are at vastly different temperatures, the formation of a strongly correlated Kondo state between the two systems is found when the gas is cooled below the Kondo temperature. We find that the Kondo temperature of this hybrid system is within current experimental limits. Furthermore, the momentum distribution of the trapped fermions is calculated, which clearly shows an experimental signature of the Kondo screening length. In addition to probing Kondo physics, the controllability of this system can be used to systematically explore the relaxation and equilibration of a strongly correlated system that has been initially prepared in a selected nonequilibrium state.
Characters of basic steady state solutions for superfluid Fermi gas in Bessel optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Chen, Yan; He, Yong-Lin; Liu, Zheng-Lai
2015-08-01
We consider a dynamical model for superfluid Fermi gas, trapped in the central well of an axially symmetric Bessel optical lattice potential. The equation includes nonlinear power-law form of the chemical potential μ(n) = C|ψ|2γ, for γ = 2 3, which accounts for Fermi pressure. Reducing the equation to two-dimensional (2D) form, we obtain the basic steady state solutions of the system along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) side by employing the energy balance condition, which are guided by the variational approximation. It is found that the strength ɛ and the radial scale r of the Bessel optical lattice have an extreme effect on the characters of basic steady state solution. Analytically, we deduce the atomic density distribution, the average atom number and the average energy of basic steady state, where the atom distribution of the system presents on periodic change with r, and increases faster at unitarity than in the BEC limit. Furthermore, because of the Fermi pressure, the atomic density distribution at the unitarity is more extensive than that in the BEC limit. In particular, there exist very interesting changes, the average energy intends to collapse state with r, however it emerges as a stable state with varying L both in the BEC limit and at unitarity.
Stoner ferromagnetism of a strongly interacting Fermi gas in the quasirepulsive regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Lianyi; Liu, Xia-Ji; Huang, Xu-Guang; Hu, Hui
2016-06-01
Recent advances in rapidly quenched ultracold atomic Fermi gases near a Feshbach resonance have brought about a number of interesting problems in the context of observing the long-sought Stoner ferromagnetic phase transition. The possibility of experimentally obtaining a "quasirepulsive" regime in the upper branch of the energy spectrum due to the rapid quench is currently being debated, and the Stoner transition has mainly been investigated theoretically by using perturbation theory or at high polarization due to the limited theoretical approaches in the strongly repulsive regime. In this work, we present a nonperturbative theoretical approach to the quasirepulsive upper branch of a Fermi gas near a broad Feshbach resonance, and we determine the finite-temperature phase diagram for the Stoner instability. Our results agree well with the known quantum Monte Carlo simulations at zero temperature, and we recover the known virial expansion prediction at high temperature for arbitrary interaction strengths. At resonance, we find that the Stoner transition temperature becomes of the order of the Fermi temperature, around which the molecule formation rate becomes vanishingly small. This suggests a feasible way to observe Stoner ferromagnetism in the nondegenerate temperature regime.
Salasnich, Luca
2010-12-15
We investigate the low-temperature thermodynamics of the unitary Fermi gas by introducing a model based on the zero-temperature spectra of both bosonic collective modes and fermonic single-particle excitations. We calculate the Helmholtz free energy and from it we obtain the entropy, the internal energy, and the chemical potential as a function of the temperature. By using these quantities and the Landau's expression for the superfluid density we determine analytically the superfluid fraction, the critical temperature, the first sound velocity, and the second sound velocity. We compare our analytical results with other theoretical predictions and experimental data of ultracold atoms and dilute neutron matter.
Contribution of plasminos to the shear viscosity of a hot and dense Yukawa-Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadooghi, N.; Taghinavaz, F.
2016-01-01
Using the standard Green-Kubo formalism, we determine the shear viscosity η of a hot and dense Yukawa-Fermi gas. In particular, we study the effect of particle and plasmino excitations on thermal properties of the fermionic part of the shear viscosity, and explore the effects of thermal corrections to particle masses on bosonic and fermionic shear viscosities, ηb and ηf. It turns out that the effects of plasminos on ηf become negligible with increasing (decreasing) temperature (chemical potential).
Observation of ShockWaves in a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas
Kulkarni, M.; Joseph, J.A.; Thomas, J.E.; Abanov, A.G.
2011-04-11
We study collisions between two strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas clouds. We observe exotic nonlinear hydrodynamic behavior, distinguished by the formation of a very sharp and stable density peak as the clouds collide and subsequent evolution into a boxlike shape. We model the nonlinear dynamics of these collisions by using quasi-1D hydrodynamic equations. Our simulations of the time-dependent density profiles agree very well with the data and provide clear evidence of shock wave formation in this universal quantum hydrodynamic system.
Pair condensation in a spin-imbalanced two-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Peter; Mitra, Debayan; Schauss, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir; Bakr, Waseem
2016-05-01
We study the phase diagram of the strongly-interacting spin-imbalanced Fermi gas in two dimensions, where the low dimensionality enhances correlations and phase fluctuations. Our interest is motivated by the connection of this system with superconductivity in the presence of a large Zeeman field. We observe pair condensation for a range of spin imbalance and interaction strengths. The measurement of the phase diagram opens the door for a detailed investigation of exotic phases such as the Sarma/broken pair phase and the elusive FFLO phase.
Pair condensation in a spin-imbalanced 2D Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitra, Debayan; Brown, Peter; Schauss, Peter; Kondov, Stanimir; Bakr, Waseem
2016-05-01
We study the phase diagram of the strongly-interacting spin-imbalanced Fermi gas in two dimensions, where the low dimensionality enhances correlations and phase fluctuations. Our interest is motivated by the connection of this system with superconductivity in the presence of a large Zeeman field. We observe pair condensation for a range of spin imbalance and interaction strengths. The measurement of the phase diagram opens the door for a detailed investigation of exotic phases such as the Sarma/broken pair phase and the elusive FFLO phase.
Exact Solution for a Trapped Fermi Gas with Population Imbalance and BCS Pairing
Ying Zujian; Cuoco, Mario; Noce, Canio; Zhou Huanqiang
2008-04-11
The problem of a two-component Fermi gas in a harmonic trap, with an imbalanced population and a pairing interaction of zero total momentum, is mapped onto the exactly solvable reduced BCS model. For a one-dimensional trap, the complete ground state diagram is determined with various topological features in ground state energy spectra. In addition to the conventional two-shell density profile of a paired core and polarized outer wings, a three-shell structure as well as a double-peak superfluid distribution are unveiled.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Brent
2002-01-01
Describes equations of state as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of an ideal gas and explains the molar basis of REM. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (Contains 22 references.)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Brent
2002-01-01
Describes the laws of thermodynamics as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of ideal gas. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (YDS)
Semiclassical and quantum description of an ideal Bose gas in a uniform gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaduri, Rajat K.; van Dijk, Wytse
2016-07-01
We consider an ideal Bose gas contained in a cylinder in three spatial dimensions, subjected to a uniform gravitational field. It has been claimed by some authors that there is discrepancy between the semiclassical and quantum calculations in the thermal properties of such a system. To check this claim, we calculate the heat capacity and isothermal compressibility of this system semiclassically as well as from the quantum spectrum of the density of states. The quantum calculation is done for a finite number of particles. We find good agreement between the two calculations when the number of particles are taken to be large. We also find that this system has the same thermal properties as an ideal five dimensional Bose gas.
Evolutionary behavior of weak shocks in a non-ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Rajan; Siddiqui, Mohd Junaid
2013-03-01
Except some empirical methods, which have been developed in the past, no analytical method exists to describe the evolutionary behavior of a shock wave without limiting its strength. In this paper, we have derived a system of transport equations for the shock strength and the induced continuity. We generate a completely intrinsic description of plane, cylindrical, and spherical shock waves of weak strength, propagating into a non-ideal gas. It is shown that for a weak shock, the disturbance evolves like an acceleration wave at the leading order. For a weak shock, we may assume that [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We have considered a case when the effect of the first order-induced discontinuity or the disturbances that overtook the shock from behind are strong, i.e., [ p x ] = O(1). The evolutionary behavior of the weak shocks in a non-ideal gas is described using the truncation approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreis, K.; Fogarty, A. C.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.
2015-09-01
In adaptive resolution simulations, molecular fluids are modeled employing different levels of resolution in different subregions of the system. When traveling from one region to the other, particles change their resolution on the fly. One of the main advantages of such approaches is the computational efficiency gained in the coarse-grained region. In this respect the best coarse-grained system to employ in the low resolution region would be the ideal gas, making intermolecular force calculations in the coarse-grained subdomain redundant. In this case, however, a smooth coupling is challenging due to the high energetic imbalance between typical liquids and a system of non-interacting particles. In the present work, we investigate this approach, using as a test case the most biologically relevant fluid, water. We demonstrate that a successful coupling of water to the ideal gas can be achieved with current adaptive resolution methods, and discuss the issues that remain to be addressed.
Spontaneous separation of large-spin Fermi gas in the harmonic trap: a density functional study
Sun, Zongli; Gu, Qiang
2016-01-01
The component separation of the trapped large-spin Fermi gas is studied within density functional theory. The ground state and ferromagnetic transition in the gas, with and without the spin mixing collision, are calculated. In the absence of spin mixing, two patterns of separation are observed as the interaction between atoms increases, whereas only one of them corresponds to a ferromagnetic transition. The phase diagram suggests that the pattern which the system chooses depends on the interaction strength in the collision channels. With the presence of spin mixing, the distribution of phase region changes because of the interplay between different collision channels. Specifically, the spin exchange benefits the FM transition, while it suppresses the component separation of CS-II pattern. PMID:27549012
Spin Drag in an Ultracold Fermi Gas on the Verge of Ferromagnetic Instability
Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Polini, Marco; Vignale, G.
2010-06-04
Recent experiments [Jo et al., Science 325, 1521 (2009)] have presented evidence of ferromagnetic correlations in a two-component ultracold Fermi gas with strong repulsive interactions. Motivated by these experiments we consider spin drag, i.e., frictional drag due to scattering of particles with opposite spin, in such systems. We show that when the ferromagnetic state is approached from the normal side, the spin drag relaxation rate is strongly enhanced near the critical point. We also determine the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion constant. In a trapped gas the spin drag relaxation rate determines the damping of the spin dipole mode, which therefore provides a precursor signal of the ferromagnetic phase transition that may be used to experimentally determine the proximity to the ferromagnetic phase.
Breakdown of hydrodynamics in the radial breathing mode of a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Kinast, J.; Turlapov, A.; Thomas, J.E.
2004-11-01
We measure the magnetic-field dependence of the frequency and damping time for the radial breathing mode of an optically trapped Fermi gas of {sup 6}Li atoms near a Feshbach resonance. The measurements address the apparent discrepancy between the results of Kinast et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 150402 (2004)] and those of Bartenstein et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 203201 (2004)]. Over the range of magnetic field from 770 to 910 G, the measurements confirm the results of Kinast et al. Close to resonance, the measured frequencies are in excellent agreement with predictions for a unitary hydrodynamic gas. At a field of 925 G, the measured frequency begins to decrease below predictions. For fields near 1080 G, we observe a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, which is manifested by a sharp increase in frequency and damping rate. The observed breakdown is in qualitative agreement with the sharp transition observed by Bartenstein et al. at 910 G.
Orthogonality catastrophe as a consequence of qubit embedding in an ultracold Fermi gas
Goold, J.; Fogarty, T.; Lo Gullo, N.; Busch, Th.; Paternostro, M.
2011-12-15
We investigate the behavior of a two-level atom coupled to a one-dimensional, ultracold Fermi gas. The sudden switching on of the scattering between the two entities leads to the loss of any coherence in the initial state of the impurity and we show that the exact dynamics of this process is strongly influenced by the effect of the orthogonality catastrophe within the gas. We highlight the relationship between the Loschmidt echo and the retarded Green's function - typically used to formulate the dynamical theory of the catastrophe - and demonstrate that the effect is reflected in the impurity dynamics. We show that the expected nonexponential decay of the spectral function can be observed using Ramsey interferometry on the two-level atom and comment on finite temperature effects.
Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.
Hofmann, Johannes
2012-05-01
In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects. PMID:22681087
Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels.
Naplekov, D M; Semynozhenko, V P; Yanovsky, V V
2014-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown. PMID:24580310
Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naplekov, D. M.; Semynozhenko, V. P.; Yanovsky, V. V.
2014-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, H. H.; Krotscheck, E.; Lichtenegger, T.; Mateo, D.; Zillich, R. E.
2015-08-01
We present ground-state calculations for low-density Fermi gases described by two model interactions, an attractive square-well potential and a Lennard-Jones potential, of varying strength. We use the optimized Fermi-hypernetted chain integral equation method, which has been proved to provide, in the density regimes of interest here, an accuracy of better than 1%. We first examine the low-density expansion of the energy and compare it with the exact answer of H. Huang and C. N. Yang [Phys. Rev. 105, 767 (1957), 10.1103/PhysRev.105.767]. It is shown that a locally correlated wave function of the Jastrow-Feenberg type does not recover the quadratic term in the expansion of the energy in powers of a0kF , where a0 is the vacuum s -wave scattering length and kF the Fermi wave number. The problem is cured by adding second-order perturbation corrections in a correlated basis. Going to higher densities and/or more strongly coupled systems, we encounter an instability of the normal state of the system which is characterized by a divergence of the in-medium scattering length. We interpret this divergence as a phonon-exchange-driven dimerization of the system, similar to what occurs at zero density when the vacuum scattering length a0 diverges. We then study, in the stable regime, the superfluid gap and its dependence on the density and the interaction strength. We identify two corrections to low-density expansions: One is medium corrections to the pairing interaction, and the other is finite-range corrections. We show that the most important finite-range corrections are a direct manifestation of the many-body nature of the system.
Low temperatures shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with unequal population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darsheshdar, E.; Yavari, H.; Zangeneh, Z.
2016-07-01
By using the Green's functions method and linear response theory we calculate the shear viscosity of a two-component dipolar Fermi gas with population imbalance (spin polarized) in the low temperatures limit. In the strong-coupling Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) region where a Feshbach resonance gives rise to tightly bound dimer molecules, a spin-polarized Fermi superfluid reduces to a simple Bose-Fermi mixture of Bose-condensed dimers and the leftover unpaired fermions (atoms). The interactions between dimer-atom, dimer-dimer, and atom-atom take into account to the viscous relaxation time (τη) . By evaluating the self-energies in the ladder approximation we determine the relaxation times due to dimer-atom (τDA) , dimer-dimer (τcDD ,τdDD) , and atom-atom (τAA) interactions. We will show that relaxation rates due to these interactions τDA-1 ,τcDD-1, τdDD-1, and τAA-1 have T2, T4, e - E /kB T (E is the spectrum of the dimer atoms), and T 3 / 2 behavior respectively in the low temperature limit (T → 0) and consequently, the atom-atom interaction plays the dominant role in the shear viscosity in this rang of temperatures. For small polarization (τDA ,τAA ≫τcDD ,τdDD), the low temperatures shear viscosity is determined by contact interaction between dimers and the shear viscosity varies as T-5 which has the same behavior as the viscosity of other superfluid systems such as superfluid neutron stars, and liquid helium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis-Martinez, Domingo
2011-04-01
A classical (non-quantum-mechanical) relativistic ideal gas in thermodynamic equilibrium in a uniformly accelerated frame of reference is studied using Gibbs's microcanonical and grand canonical formulations of statistical mechanics. Using these methods explicit expressions for the particle, energy and entropy density distributions are obtained, which are found to be in agreement with the well known results of the relativistic formulation of Boltzmann's kinetic theory. Explicit expressions for the total entropy, total energy and rest mass of the gas are obtained. The position of the center of mass of the gas in equilibrium is found. The non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic approximations are also considered. The phase space volume of the system is calculated explicitly in the ultrarelativistic approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis-Martinez, Domingo J.
2011-02-01
A classical (non-quantum-mechanical) relativistic ideal gas in thermodynamic equilibrium in a uniformly accelerated frame of reference is studied using Gibbs's microcanonical and grand canonical formulations of statistical mechanics. Using these methods explicit expressions for the particle, energy and entropy density distributions are obtained, which are found to be in agreement with the well-known results of the relativistic formulation of Boltzmann's kinetic theory. Explicit expressions for the total entropy, total energy and rest mass of the gas are obtained. The position of the center of mass of the gas in equilibrium is found. The non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic approximations are also considered. The phase space volume of the system is calculated explicitly in the ultrarelativistic approximation.
Mixture of Tonks-Girardeau gas and Fermi gas in one-dimensional optical lattices
Chen Shu; Cao Junpeng; Gu Shijian
2010-11-15
We study the Bose-Fermi mixture with infinite boson-boson repulsion and finite boson-fermion repulsion. Using a generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation, we show that the system can be mapped to a repulsive Hubbard model and thus can be solved exactly for the case with equal boson and fermion masses. Using the Bethe-ansatz solutions, we investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture system. Our results indicate that the system with commensurate filling n=1 is a charge insulator but still a superfluid with nonvanishing superfluid density. We also briefly discuss the case with unequal boson and fermion masses.
Strong-coupling ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential
Levinsen, Jesper; Massignan, Pietro; Bruun, Georg M.; Parish, Meera M.
2015-01-01
A major challenge in modern physics is to accurately describe strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. One-dimensional systems provide fundamental insights because they are often amenable to exact methods. However, no exact solution is known for the experimentally relevant case of external confinement. We propose a powerful ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential near the limit of infinite short-range repulsion. For the case of a single impurity in a Fermi sea, we show that our ansatz is indistinguishable from numerically exact results in both the few- and many-body limits. We furthermore derive an effective Heisenberg spin-chain model corresponding to our ansatz, valid for any spin-mixture, within which we obtain the impurity eigenstates analytically. In particular, the classical Pascal’s triangle emerges in the expression for the ground-state wave function. As well as providing an important benchmark for strongly correlated physics, our results are relevant for emerging quantum technologies, where a precise knowledge of one-dimensional quantum states is paramount. PMID:26601220
Spin-orbit coupling in the strongly interacting Fermi gas: an exact quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays an essential role in a variety of intriguing condensed matter phenomena, including the quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators and superconductors. The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of SOC in a tunable, disorder-free system. Motivated by this experimental progress, we present here the first exact numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, study the spin behavior and momentum distribution, and examine the interplay of SOC and pairing in real and momentum space. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide important guidance to future experimental efforts. Supported by DOE SciDAC and NSF.
Concavity of the collective excitation branch of a Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurkjian, H.; Castin, Y.; Sinatra, A.
2016-01-01
We study the concavity of the dispersion relation q ↦ωq of the bosonic excitations of a three-dimensional spin-1/2 unpolarized Fermi gas in the random-phase approximation. In the limit of small wave numbers q , we obtain analytically the spectrum up to order 5 in q . In the neighborhood of q =0 , a change in concavity between the convex Bose-Einstein condensation limit and the concave BCS limit takes place at Δ /μ ≃0.869 (1 /kFa ≃-0.144 ), where a is the scattering length between opposite spin fermions, kF is the Fermi wave number and Δ the gap according to BCS theory, and μ is the chemical potential. At that point the branch is concave due to a negative fifth-order term. Our results are supplemented by a numerical study that shows the border between the zone of the (q ,Δ ) plane where q ↦ωq is concave and the zone where it is convex.
Ideal-gas-like market models with savings: Quenched and annealed cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2007-08-01
We analyze the ideal-gas-like models of markets and review the different cases where a ‘savings’ factor changes the nature and shape of the distribution of wealth. These models can produce similar distribution of wealth as observed across varied economies. We present a more realistic model where the saving factor can vary over time (annealed savings) and yet produce Pareto distribution of wealth in certain cases. We discuss the relevance of such models in the context of wealth distribution, and address some recent issues in the context of these models.
Two-level trap model of BEC in an ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorfman, Konstantin; Kocharovsky, Vitaly; Kocharovsky, Vladimir
2009-04-01
We consider a two-energy-level trap with arbitrary degeneracy of an upper level and find an analytical solution for the condensate statistics in a mesoscopic ideal gas with arbitrary number of atoms and any temperature, including a critical region. The solution is a cut-off negative binomial distribution that tends to a cut-off gamma distribution in the thermodynamic limit. We show how to model BEC in real traps by BEC in the two-level or three-level traps.
Second-order fluid dynamics for the unitary Fermi gas from kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schäfer, Thomas
2014-10-01
We compute second-order transport coefficients of the dilute Fermi gas at unitarity. The calculation is based on kinetic theory and the Boltzmann equation at second order in the Knudsen expansion. The second-order transport coefficients describe the shear stress relaxation time, nonlinear terms in the strain-stress relation, and nonlinear couplings between vorticity and strain. An exact calculation in the dilute limit gives τR=η /P , where τR is the shear stress relaxation time, η is the shear viscosity, and P is pressure. This relation is identical to the result obtained using the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation to the collision term, but other transport coefficients are sensitive to the exact collision integral.
Bulk Viscosity and Conformal Symmetry Breaking in the Dilute Fermi Gas near Unitarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dusling, Kevin; Schäfer, Thomas
2013-09-01
The dilute Fermi gas at unitarity is scale invariant and its bulk viscosity vanishes. We compute, in the high temperature limit, the leading contribution to the bulk viscosity when the scattering length is not infinite. A measure of scale breaking is provided by the ratio (P-2/3E)/P, where P is the pressure and E is the energy density. At high temperature this ratio scales as zλ/a, where z is the fugacity, λ is the thermal wavelength, and a is the scattering length. We show that the bulk viscosity ζ scales as the second power of this parameter, ζ˜(zλ/a)2λ-3.
Measuring Spin-Charge Separation in a 1D Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
We present progress on measurement of spin-charge separation in a two-component, strongly interacting, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. A characteristic feature of interacting 1D Fermi gases is that the velocity of a charge excitation propagates faster than a spin excitation. We create an excitation by applying a dipole force at the center of the cloud using a sheet of light. Depending on the detuning of this beam, we can either excite both spin species equally (charge excitation) or preferentially (spin excitation). Once this beam is turned off, the excitations propagate to the edges of the atomic cloud at a velocity determined by coupling strength. A magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance enables us to vary this coupling and map out the velocities of spin and charge excitations. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation
Critical temperature and superfluid gap of the unitary Fermi gas from functional renormalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Igor; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Wetterich, Christof
2014-05-01
We investigate the superfluid transition of the unitary Fermi gas by means of the functional renormalization group, aiming at quantitative precision. We extract Tc/μ=0.38(2) and Δ /μ=1.04(15) for the critical temperature and the superfluid gap at zero temperature, respectively, within a systematic improvement of the truncation for the effective average action. The key ingredient in comparison to previous approaches consists in the use of regulators which cut off both frequencies and momenta. We incorporate renormalization effects on both the bosonic and the fermionic propagators, include higher-order bosonic scattering processes, and investigate the regulator and specification parameter dependence for an error estimate. The ratio Δ /Tc=2.7(3) becomes less sensitive to the relative cutoff scale of bosons and fermions when improving the truncation. The techniques developed in this work are easily carried over to the cases of finite scattering length, lower dimensionality, and spin imbalance.
Observation of the Leggett-Rice effect in a unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beattie, Scott; Trotzky, Stefan; Luciuk, Chris; Bardon, Alma; Taylor, Edward; Zhang, Shizhong; Thywissen, Joseph
2014-05-01
Currents can reveal essential qualities of a system that are not evident from equilibrium measurements. In a trapped cloud, spin currents are natural to study because they can exist without net mass transport. Spin diffusivity, like conductivity, is a measure of the scattering rate. Precession of spin current, also called the Leggett-Rice effect, is a measure of the coherent interactions between excitations. In a degenerate Fermi gas of potassium tuned to a Feshbach resonance, we measure the dynamics of a superposition of two hyperfine states. Using a spin-echo sequence, we probe both the phase and amplitude of magnetization dynamics due to transverse spin currents. Transport coefficients are measured as a function of temperature and of scattering length, at and near unitarity.
Spin-injection spectroscopy of a spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Sommer, Ariel T; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Bakr, Waseem S; Zwierlein, Martin W
2012-08-31
The coupling of the spin of electrons to their motional state lies at the heart of recently discovered topological phases of matter. Here we create and detect spin-orbit coupling in an atomic Fermi gas, a highly controllable form of quantum degenerate matter. We directly reveal the spin-orbit gap via spin-injection spectroscopy, which characterizes the energy-momentum dispersion and spin composition of the quantum states. For energies within the spin-orbit gap, the system acts as a spin diode. We also create a spin-orbit coupled lattice and probe its spinful band structure, which features additional spin gaps and a fully gapped spectrum. In the presence of s-wave interactions, such systems should display induced p-wave pairing, topological superfluidity, and Majorana edge states. PMID:23002844
Itinerant chiral ferromagnetism in a trapped Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shang-Shun; Liu, Wu-Ming; Pu, Han
2016-04-01
We consider a repulsive two-component Fermi gas confined in a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic potential and subject to a large Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The single-particle dispersion can be tailored by the spin-orbit-coupling term, which provides an opportunity to study itinerant ferromagnetism in this system. We show that the interplay among spin-orbit coupling, correlation effect, and mean-field repulsion leads to a competition between ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic phases. The weakly correlated nonmagnetic and the ferromagnetic phases can be well described by the mean-field Hartree-Fock theory, while the transition between the ferromagnetic and a strongly correlated nonmagnetic phase is driven by beyond-mean-field quantum correlation effect. Furthermore, the ferromagnetic phase of this system possesses a chiral current density induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling, whose experimental signature is investigated.
Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover
Huang Kun; Yu Zengqiang; Yin Lan
2009-05-15
The Ginzburg-Landau theory of a trapped Fermi gas with a BEC-BCS crossover is derived by the path-integral method. In addition to the standard Ginzburg-Landau equation, a second equation describing the total atom density is obtained. These two coupled equations are necessary to describe both homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems. The Ginzburg-Landau theory is valid near the transition temperature T{sub c} on both sides of the crossover. In the weakly interacting BEC region, it is also accurate at zero temperature where the Ginzburg-Landau equation can be mapped onto the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. The applicability of GP equation at finite temperature is discussed. On the BEC side, the fluctuation of the order parameter is studied and the renormalization to the molecule coupling constant is obtained.
Universal Relations for a Fermi Gas Close to a p -Wave Interaction Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zhenhua; Thywissen, Joseph H.; Zhang, Shizhong
2015-09-01
We investigate the properties of a spinless Fermi gas close to a p -wave interaction resonance. We show that the effects of interaction near a p -wave resonance are captured by two contacts, which are related to the variation of energy with the p -wave scattering volume v and with the effective range R in two adiabatic theorems. Exact pressure and virial relations are derived. We show how the two contacts determine the leading and subleading asymptotic behavior of the momentum distribution (˜1 /k2 and ˜1 /k4) and how they can be measured experimentally by radio-frequency and photoassociation spectroscopies. Finally, we evaluate the two contacts at high temperature with a virial expansion.
Fermi Edge Polaritons in a Microcavity Containing a High Density Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabbay, A.; Preezant, Yulia; Cohen, E.; Ashkinadze, B. M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.
2007-10-01
Sharp, near band gap lines are observed in the reflection and photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs structures consisting of a modulation doped quantum well (MDQW) that contains a high density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and is embedded in a microcavity (MC). The energy dependence of these lines on the MC-confined photon energy shows level anticrossings and Rabi splittings very similar to those observed in systems of undoped QW’s embedded in a MC. The spectra are analyzed by calculating the optical susceptibility of the MDQW in the near band gap spectral range and using it within the transfer matrix method. The calculated reflection spectra indicate that the sharp spectral lines are due to k∥=0 cavity polaritons that are composed of e-h pair excitations just above the 2DEG Fermi edge and are strongly coupled to the MC-confined photons.
Phonon contribution to the shear viscosity of a superfluid Fermi gas in the unitarity limit
Mannarelli, Massimo; Manuel, Cristina; Tolos, Laura
2013-09-15
We present a detailed analysis of the contribution of small-angle Nambu–Goldstone boson (phonon) collisions to the shear viscosity, η, in a superfluid atomic Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. We show that the experimental values of the shear viscosity coefficient to entropy ratio, η/s, obtained at the lowest reached temperature can be reproduced assuming that phonons give the leading contribution to η. The phonon contribution is evaluated considering 1↔2 processes and taking into account the finite size of the experimental system. In particular, for very low temperatures, T≲0.1T{sub F}, we find that phonons are ballistic and the contribution of phonons to the shear viscosity is determined by the processes that take place at the interface between the superfluid and the normal phase. This result is independent of the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law and leads to two testable predictions: the shear viscosity should correlate with the size of the optical trap and it should decrease with decreasing temperature. For higher temperatures the detailed form of the phonon dispersion law becomes relevant and, within our model, we find that the experimental data for η/s can be reproduced assuming that phonons have an anomalous dispersion law. -- Highlights: •We study the contribution of phonons to shear viscosity of a cold Fermi gas at unitary. •The shear viscosity to entropy ratio (η/s) is reproduced for T<∼0.1T{sub F}. •For very low temperatures η/s correlates with the size of the optical trap. •We explain η/s for T>∼0.1T{sub F} assuming an anomalous dispersion law for phonons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2015-03-01
We theoretically discuss the spin susceptibility χ and effects of strong-coupling corrections in the BCS-BEC crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Using an extended T-matrix approximation, we calculate χ over the entire BCS-BEC crossover region, showing that this magnetic quantity is very sensitive to pairing fluctuations in both the normal and the superfluid phase. In the normal state, it is suppressed by preformed singlet Cooper pairs near Tc, being similar to the spin-gap phenomenon in high-Tc cuprates. Below Tc, on the other hand, pairing fluctuations enhance χ, in the sense that the suppression of this quantity by the superfluid order is weakened due to partial dissociation of Cooper pairs. From these, we determine the region where pairing fluctuations strongly affect spin excitations in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas with respect to the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. We also compare our results with the recent experiments on a 6Li Fermi gas. Our results indicate that the spin susceptibility is a useful observable in understanding strong-coupling properties of an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region. H. T. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program from Keio University.
Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Kun
1998-01-01
A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.
Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.
Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi
2010-10-28
Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise. PMID:20961156
The Ideal and Real Gas Heat Capacity of Potassium Atoms at High Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, Michael
2016-04-01
The ideal gas heat capacity, Cp, of potassium atoms is calculated to high temperatures using statistical mechanics. Since there are a large number of electronic energy levels in the partition function (Boltzmann sum) below the first ionization potential, the partition function and Cp will become very large as the temperature increases unless the number of energy levels contributing to the partition function is constrained. Two primary categories of arguments are used to do this. First, at high temperatures, the increased size of the atoms constrains the sum (Bethe method). Second, an argument based on the existence of interacting charged species at higher temperatures is used to constrain the sum (ionization potential lowering method). When potassium atoms are assumed to constitute a real gas that obeys the virial equation of state, the lowest non-ideal contribution to Cp depends on the second derivative of the second virial coefficient, B( T), which depends on the interaction potential energy curves between two potassium atoms. When two ground-state (2{S}) atoms interact, they can follow either of the two potential energy curves. When a 2{S} atom interacts with an atom in the first electronically excited (2{P}) state, they can follow any of the eight potential energy curves. The values of B( T) for the ten states are determined, then averaged, and used to calculate the nonideal contribution to Cp.
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael; Fortes, Mauricio
2011-03-11
We address the question of whether superfluidity can survive in the case of fermion pairing between different species with mismatched Fermi surfaces using as an example a population-imbalanced mixture of {sup 6}Li atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at nonzero temperatures. The collective mode is calculated from the Bethe-Salpeter equations in the general random phase approximation assuming a Fulde-Ferrell order parameter. The numerical solution shows that, in addition to low-energy (Goldstone) mode, two rotonlike minima exist, and therefore, the superfluidity can survive in this imbalanced system.
The rapid control of interactions in a two-component Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stites, Ronald William Donald
In this dissertation, we describe a variety of experiments having application to ultra-cold atomic gases. While the majority of the experimental results focus on the development of a novel laser source for cooling and manipulating a gas of fermionic 6Li atoms, we also report on a preliminary investigation of rapidly controlling interactions in a two-component Fermi gas. One of the primary tools for our ultra-cold atomic physics experiments is 671 nm laser light nearly resonant with the D1 and D2 spectroscopic lines of ultracold fermionic 6Li atoms. Traditionally, this light is generated using dye lasers or tapered amplifier systems. Here we describe a diode pumped solid state ring laser system utilizing a Nd:YVO 4 gain crystal. Nd:YVO4 has a 4F 3/2 → 4I13/2 emission line at 1342 nm. This wavelength is double the 671 nm needed for our experiments. As a part of this investigation, we also measured the Verdet constant of undoped Y3Al5O12 in the near infrared for constructing a Faraday rotator used to drive unidirectional operation of our ring laser. As an alternative method to achieve unidirectional, single-frequency operation of the laser, we developed a novel scheme of "self-injection locking" where a small portion of the output beam is coupled back into the cavity to break the symmetry. This technique is useful for high-power, single-frequency operation of a ring laser because lossy elements needed for frequency selection and unidirectional operation of the laser can be removed from the internal cavity. In addition to our laser experiments, we also drive Raman transitions between different magnetic hyperfine states within 6Li atoms. For atoms in the two lowest hyperfine states, there exists a broad Feshbach resonance at 834.1 Gauss whereby the s-wave scattering length diverges, resulting in strong interactions between the two species. By using two phase locked lasers to drive a transition from a strongly interacting state to a weakly interacting state, we can
Contact Tensor in a p-Wave Fermi Gas with Anisotropic Feshbach Resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito
2016-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have revealed that a Fermi gas with a p-wave Feshbach resonance has universal relations between the system's high-momentum behavior and thermodynamics. A new feature introduced by the p-wave interaction is anisotropy in the Feshbach resonances; three degenerate p-wave resonances split according to the magnetic quantum number of the closed-channel molecules | m | due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we investigate the consequences of the anisotropy. We show that the momentum distribution has a high-momentum asymptote nk ~k-2 ∑ m, m' = - 1 1 >Cm, m'Y1m * (\\kcirc)Y1m' (\\kcirc) , in which we introduce the p-wave contact tensor Cm ,m'. In contrast to the previous studies, it has nine components. We identify them as the number, angular momentum, and nematicity of the closed-channel molecules. We also discuss two examples, the anisotropic p-wave superfluid and a gas confined in a cigar-shaped trap, which exhibit a nematicity component in the p-wave contact tensor.
Universal Behavior of the BEC Critical Temperature for a Multi-slab Ideal Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.
2016-05-01
For an ideal Bose gas within a multi-slab periodic structure, we discuss the effect of the spatial distribution of the gas on its Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature T_c, as well as on the origin of its dimensional crossover observed in the specific heat. The multi-slabs structure is generated by applying a Kronig-Penney potential to the gas in the perpendicular direction to the slabs of width b and separated by a distance a, and allowing the particles to move freely in the other two directions. We found that T_c decreases continuously as the potential barrier height increases, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the barrier height when it is large enough. This behavior is universal as it is independent of the width and spacing of the barriers. The specific heat at constant volume shows a crossover from 3D to 2D when the height of the potential or the barrier width increases, in addition to the well-known peak related to the Bose-Einstein condensation. These features are due to the trapping of the bosons by the potential barriers and can be characterized by the energy difference between the energy bands below the potential height.
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1988 project results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.
1990-07-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weakness where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase and vapor pressure measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation are reported for 3-methylbuta 1,2-diene; 2,5-dimethylhexa 2,4-diene; acetaldoxime; N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine; 1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one; and phenanthrene. Solid and liquid phase enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are determined for benzamide. Ring corrections, group terms, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction terms useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.
Determination of some pure compound ideal-gas enthalpies of formation
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.
1989-06-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-additivity methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where ring corrections were unknown or next-nearest-neighbor interactions were only estimated because of lack of experimental data are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed- phase and vapor pressure measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation are reported for acrylamide, succinimide, ..gamma..-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidone, 2,3-dihydrofuran, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, and 1-methyl-1-phenylhydrazine. Ring corrections, group terms, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction terms useful in the application of group additivity correlations are derived. 44 refs., 2 figs., 59 tabs.
Isobars of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Imtak; Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2011-08-01
We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulas for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures that reveal an N-1/3 or N-1/4 power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation, and further show that the isobar zigzags on the temperature-volume plane if N≥14393. In particular, for the Avogadro’s number of particles, the volume expands discretely about 105 times. Our results quantitatively agree with a previous study on the canonical ensemble within 0.1% error.
Zhou, Changjie; Yang, Weihuang; Zhu, Huili
2015-06-01
Density functional theory calculations were performed to assess changes in the geometric and electronic structures of monolayer WS2 upon adsorption of various gas molecules (H2, O2, H2O, NH3, NO, NO2, and CO). The most stable configuration of the adsorbed molecules, the adsorption energy, and the degree of charge transfer between adsorbate and substrate were determined. All evaluated molecules were physisorbed on monolayer WS2 with a low degree of charge transfer and accept charge from the monolayer, except for NH3, which is a charge donor. Band structure calculations showed that the valence and conduction bands of monolayer WS2 are not significantly altered upon adsorption of H2, H2O, NH3, and CO, whereas the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of O2, NO, and NO2 are pinned around the Fermi-level when these molecules are adsorbed on monolayer WS2. The phenomenon of Fermi-level pinning was discussed in light of the traditional and orbital mixing charge transfer theories. The impacts of the charge transfer mechanism on Fermi-level pinning were confirmed for the gas molecules adsorbed on monolayer WS2. The proposed mechanism governing Fermi-level pinning is applicable to the systems of adsorbates on recently developed two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. PMID:26049513
Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui
2014-11-15
We calculate the frequency of collective modes of a one-dimensional repulsively interacting Fermi gas with high-spin symmetry confined in harmonic traps at zero temperature. This is a system realizable with fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms such as {sup 173}Yb, which displays an exact SU(κ) spin symmetry with κ⩾2 and behaves like a spinless interacting Bose gas in the limit of infinite spin components κ→∞, namely high-spin bosonization. We solve the homogeneous equation of state of the high-spin Fermi system by using Bethe ansatz technique and obtain the density distribution in harmonic traps based on local density approximation. The frequency of collective modes is calculated by exactly solving the zero-temperature hydrodynamic equation. In the limit of large number of spin-components, we show that the mode frequency of the system approaches that of a one-dimensional spinless interacting Bose gas, as a result of high-spin bosonization. Our prediction of collective modes is in excellent agreement with a very recent measurement for a Fermi gas of {sup 173}Yb atoms with tunable spin confined in a two-dimensional tight optical lattice.
Solution of the Problem of the Couette Flow for a Fermi Gas with Almost Specular Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bedrikova, E. A.; Latyshev, A. V.
2016-06-01
A solution of the Couette problem for a Fermi gas is constructed. The kinetic Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation is used. Almost specular boundary conditions are considered. Formulas for the mass flux and the heat flux of the gas are obtained. These fluxes are proportional to the difference of the tangential momentum accommodation coefficients of the molecules. An expression for the viscous drag force acting on the walls of the channel is also found. An analysis of the macroparameters of the gas is performed. The limit to classical gases is taken. The obtained results are found to go over to the known results in this limit.
Clock shifts in a Fermi gas interacting with a minority component: A soluble model
Bruun, G. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Yu Zhenhua
2010-03-15
We consider the absorption spectrum of a Fermi gas mixed with a minority species when majority fermions are transferred to another internal state by an external probe. In the limit when the minority species is much more massive than the majority one, we show that the minority species may be treated as static impurities and the problem can be solved in closed form. The analytical results bring out the importance of vertex corrections, which change qualitatively the nature of the absorption spectrum. It is demonstrated that large line shifts are not associated with resonant interactions in general. We also show that the commonly used ladder approximation fails when the majority component is degenerate for large mass ratios between the minority and majority species and that bubble diagrams, which correspond to the creation of many particle-hole pairs, must be taken into account. We carry out detailed numerical calculations, which confirm the analytical insights, and we point out the connection to shadowing phenomena in nuclear physics.
Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.
Pairing and coherence order parameters in a three-component ultracold Fermi gas
Chung, Chun Kit; Law, C. K.
2010-09-15
We investigate the mean-field ground state of a homogeneous three-component attractive Fermi gas at zero temperature. This is achieved by deriving a set of Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations of the three-component system, including pairing both order parameters {Delta}{sub ij} and coherence order parameters <{psi}{sub i}{sup {dagger}{psi}}{sub j}> (i{ne}j), where {psi}{sub j} is the field operator for spin level j. Ward-Takahashi identities are obtained to constrain these order parameters. In addition, we present an explicit analytic mean-field solution for symmetric systems and verify that the quasiparticle excitations consist of both gapped and gapless spectra, which correspond to the excitations of paired and unpaired atoms. We further point out that the omission of <{psi}{sub i}{sup {dagger}{psi}}{sub j}> in BdG equations could lead to an overestimation of {Delta}{sub ij} in the strong coupling regime.
Topological states in a one-dimensional fermi gas with attractive interaction.
Ruhman, Jonathan; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud
2015-03-13
We describe a novel topological superfluid state, which forms in a one-dimensional Fermi gas with Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling, a Zeeman field, and intrinsic attractive interactions. In spite of total number conservation and the presence of gapless excitations, Majorana-like zero modes appear in this system and can be linked with interfaces between two distinct phases that naturally form at different regions of the harmonic trap. As a result, the low lying collective excitations of the system, including the dipole oscillations and the long-wavelength phonons are all doubly degenerate. While backscattering from point impurities can lead to a splitting of the degeneracies that scales algebraically with the system size, the smooth confining potential can only cause an exponentially small splitting. We show that the topological state can be uniquely probed by a pumping effect induced by a slow sweep of the Zeeman field from a high initial value down to zero. The effect is expected to be robust to introducing a finite temperature as long as it is much smaller than the interaction induced single particle gap in the final state of the sweep. PMID:25815908
Continuous in situ fluorescence imaging of an ultracold Fermi gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Rhys; Edge, Graham; Day, Ryan; Nino, Daniel; Trotzky, Stefan; Thywissen, Joseph
2015-05-01
We demonstrate continuous in situ fluorescence imaging of ultracold fermionic 40K atoms held in a three-dimensional optical lattice with 527 nm periodicity. Using a 4S-4P1/2 grey molasses cooling scheme with a coherent dark state, we obtain a photon scattering rate exceeding 1 kHz while measuring a steady-state population of the vibrational ground state of 80%. Collecting the scattered photons through a 200 μm thin sapphire vacuum window and into a microscope objective allows us to image the in situ density distribution of the lattice gas. Spatially selective state manipulation is used to reduce the number of occupied lattice planes along the imaging direction, as well as to create density patterns along the transverse direction. We characterize the performance of the imaging protocol over a wide range of parameters. For larger-than-unity site occupation we observe efficient removal of atoms due to light-assisted collisions. Singly occupied lattice sites can be continuously imaged for several seconds. This method is suitable for high-resolution imaging of a many-body system in the Fermi-Hubbard regime.
Three-Body Recombination in a Three-State Fermi Gas with Widely Tunable Interactions
Huckans, J. H.; Williams, J. R.; Hazlett, E. L.; Stites, R. W.; O'Hara, K. M.
2009-04-24
We investigate the stability of a three spin state mixture of ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li atoms over a range of magnetic fields encompassing three Feshbach resonances. For most field values, we attribute decay of the atomic population to three-body processes involving one atom from each spin state and find that the three-body loss coefficient varies by over 4 orders of magnitude. We observe high stability when at least two of the three scattering lengths are small, rapid loss near the Feshbach resonances, and two unexpected resonant loss features. At our highest fields, where all pairwise scattering lengths are approaching a{sub t}=-2140a{sub 0}, we measure a three-body loss coefficient L{sub 3}{approx_equal}5x10{sup -22} cm{sup 6}/s and a trend toward lower decay rates for higher fields indicating that future studies of color superfluidity and trion formation in a SU(3) symmetric Fermi gas may be feasible.
Second sound and the superfluid fraction in a Fermi gas with resonant interactions.
Sidorenkov, Leonid A; Tey, Meng Khoon; Grimm, Rudolf; Hou, Yan-Hua; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro
2013-06-01
Superfluidity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as liquid helium and neutron stars. It occurs below a critical temperature and leads to peculiar behaviour such as frictionless flow, the formation of quantized vortices and quenching of the moment of inertia. Ultracold atomic gases offer control of interactions and external confinement, providing unique opportunities to explore superfluid phenomena. Many such (finite-temperature) phenomena can be explained in terms of a two-fluid mixture comprising a normal component, which behaves like an ordinary fluid, and a superfluid component with zero viscosity and zero entropy. The two-component nature of a superfluid is manifest in 'second sound', an entropy wave in which the superfluid and the non-superfluid components oscillate with opposite phases (as opposed to ordinary 'first sound', where they oscillate in phase). Here we report the observation of second sound in an ultracold Fermi gas with resonant interactions. The speed of second sound depends explicitly on the value of the superfluid fraction, a quantity that is sensitive to the spectrum of elementary excitations. Our measurements allow us to extract the temperature dependence of the superfluid fraction, a previously inaccessible quantity that will provide a benchmark for theories of strongly interacting quantum gases. PMID:23676679
Chiral superfluidity with p-wave symmetry from an interacting s-wave atomic Fermi gas.
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Wu, Biao; Liu, W Vincent
2014-01-01
Chiral p-wave superfluids are fascinating topological quantum states of matter that have been found in the liquid (3)He-A phase and arguably in the electronic Sr2RuO4 superconductor. They are fundamentally related to the fractional 5/2 quantum Hall state, which supports fractional exotic excitations. Past studies show that they require spin-triplet pairing of fermions by p-wave interaction. Here we report that a p-wave chiral superfluid state can arise from spin-singlet pairing for an s-wave interacting atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice. This p-wave state is conceptually distinct from all previous conventional p-wave states as it is for the centre-of-mass motion, instead of the relative motion. It leads to spontaneous generation of angular momentum, finite Chern numbers and topologically protected chiral fermionic zero modes bounded to domain walls, all occuring at a higher critical temperature in relative scales. Signature quantities are predicted for the cold atom experimental condition. PMID:25266996
Reproducing neutrino effects on the matter power spectrum through a degenerate Fermi gas approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perico, E. L. D.; Bernardini, A. E.
2011-06-01
Modifications on the predictions about the matter power spectrum based on the hypothesis of a tiny contribution from a degenerate Fermi gas (DFG) test-fluid to some dominant cosmological scenario are investigated. Reporting about the systematic way of accounting for all the cosmological perturbations, through the Boltzmann equation we obtain the analytical results for density fluctuation, δ, and fluid velocity divergence, θ, of the DFG. Small contributions to the matter power spectrum are analytically obtained for the radiation-dominated background, through an ultra-relativistic approximation, and for the matter-dominated and Λ-dominated eras, through a non-relativistic approximation. The results can be numerically reproduced and compared with those of considering non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic neutrinos into the computation of the matter power spectrum. Lessons concerning the formation of large scale structures of a DFG are depicted, and consequent deviations from standard ΛCDM predictions for the matter power spectrum (with and without neutrinos) are quantified.
Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-01-01
The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919
Analytical theory of mesoscopic Bose-Einstein condensation in an ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharovsky, Vitaly V.; Kocharovsky, Vladimir V.
2010-03-01
We find the universal structure and scaling of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) statistics and thermodynamics (Gibbs free energy, average energy, heat capacity) for a mesoscopic canonical-ensemble ideal gas in a trap with an arbitrary number of atoms, any volume, and any temperature, including the whole critical region. We identify a universal constraint-cutoff mechanism that makes BEC fluctuations strongly non-Gaussian and is responsible for all unusual critical phenomena of the BEC phase transition in the ideal gas. The main result is an analytical solution to the problem of critical phenomena. It is derived by, first, calculating analytically the universal probability distribution of the noncondensate occupation, or a Landau function, and then using it for the analytical calculation of the universal functions for the particular physical quantities via the exact formulas which express the constraint-cutoff mechanism. We find asymptotics of that analytical solution as well as its simple analytical approximations which describe the universal structure of the critical region in terms of the parabolic cylinder or confluent hypergeometric functions. The obtained results for the order parameter, all higher-order moments of BEC fluctuations, and thermodynamic quantities perfectly match the known asymptotics outside the critical region for both low and high temperature limits. We suggest two- and three-level trap models of BEC and find their exact solutions in terms of the cutoff negative binomial distribution (which tends to the cutoff gamma distribution in the continuous limit) and the confluent hypergeometric distribution, respectively. Also, we present an exactly solvable cutoff Gaussian model of BEC in a degenerate interacting gas. All these exact solutions confirm the universality and constraint-cutoff origin of the strongly non-Gaussian BEC statistics. We introduce a regular refinement scheme for the condensate statistics approximations on the basis of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Kashimura, Takashi; Hanai, Ryo; Watanabe, Ryota; Ohashi, Yoji
2014-03-01
We investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χs in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer)-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover regime of an ultracold Fermi gas. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of an extended T-matrix approximation, we show that χs exhibits nonmonotonic temperature dependence in the normal state. In particular, χs is suppressed near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc due to strong pairing fluctuations. To characterize this anomalous behavior, we introduce the spin-gap temperature Ts as the temperature at which χs takes a maximum value. Determining Ts in the whole BCS-BEC crossover region, we identify the spin-gap regime in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature and the strength of a pairing interaction. We also clarify how the spin-gap phenomenon is related to the pseudogap phenomenon appearing in the single-particle density of states. Our results indicate that an ultracold Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover region is a very useful system to examine the pseudogap phenomenon and the spin-gap phenomenon in a unified manner.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate the uniform spin susceptibility χ in the superfluid phase of an ultracold Fermi gas in the region of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein-condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover. In our previous paper [H. Tajima et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 033617 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.033617], including pairing fluctuations within an extended T -matrix approximation (ETMA), we showed that strong pairing fluctuations cause the so-called spin-gap phenomenon, where χ is anomalously suppressed even in the normal state near the superfluid phase transition temperature Tc. In this paper, we extend this work to the superfluid phase below Tc, to clarify how this many-body phenomenon is affected by the superfluid order. From the comparison of the ETMA χ with the Yosida function describing the spin susceptibility in a weak-coupling BCS superfluid, we identify the region where pairing fluctuations crucially affect this magnetic quantity below Tc in the phase diagram with respect to the strength of a pairing interaction and the temperature. This spin-gap regime is found to be consistent with the previous pseudogap regime determined from the pseudogapped density of states. We also compare our results with a recent experiment on a 6Li Fermi gas. Since the spin susceptibility is sensitive to the formation of spin-singlet preformed pairs, our results would be useful for the study of pseudogap physics in an ultracold Fermi gas on the viewpoint of the spin degrees of freedom.
Superfluid fermi gas in optical lattices: self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers.
Xue, Ju-Kui; Zhang, Ai-Xia
2008-10-31
We predict the existence of self-trapping, stable, moving solitons and breathers of Fermi wave packets along the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)-BCS crossover in one dimension (1D), 2D, and 3D optical lattices. The dynamical phase diagrams for self-trapping, solitons, and breathers of the Fermi matter waves along the BEC-BCS crossover are presented analytically and verified numerically by directly solving a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We find that the phase diagrams vary greatly along the BEC-BCS crossover; the dynamics of Fermi wave packet are different from that of Bose wave packet. PMID:18999797
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1989 project results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.
1991-10-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (dsc) heat capacity measurements. Ideal gas enthalpies of formation of (+ or -) butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group additivity parameters useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.
1991-10-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: II. Means of order alpha.
Lavenda, B H
2005-11-01
The property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order is shown to be the basis of the second laws not only for processes involving heat conduction, but also for processes involving deformations. This generalizes earlier work involving only pure heat conduction and underlines the incomparability of the internal energy and adiabatic potentials when expressed as powers of the adiabatic variable. In an L-potential equilibration, the final state will be one of maximum entropy, whereas in an entropy equilibration, the final state will be one of minimum L. Unlike classical equilibrium thermodynamic phase space, which lacks an intrinsic metric structure insofar as distances and other geometrical concepts do not have an intrinsic thermodynamic significance in such spaces, a metric space can be constructed for the power means: the distance between means of different order is related to the Carnot efficiency. In the ideal classical gas limit, the average change in the entropy is shown to be proportional to the difference between the Shannon and Rényi entropies for nonextensive systems that are multifractal in nature. The L potential, like the internal energy, is a Schur convex function of the empirical temperature, which satisfies Jensen's inequality, and serves as a measure of the tendency to uniformity in processes involving pure thermal conduction. PMID:16228240
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: II. Means of order α
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavenda, B. H.
2005-11-01
The property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order is shown to be the basis of the second laws not only for processes involving heat conduction, but also for processes involving deformations. This generalizes earlier work involving only pure heat conduction and underlines the incomparability of the internal energy and adiabatic potentials when expressed as powers of the adiabatic variable. In an L-potential equilibration, the final state will be one of maximum entropy, whereas in an entropy equilibration, the final state will be one of minimum L. Unlike classical equilibrium thermodynamic phase space, which lacks an intrinsic metric structure insofar as distances and other geometrical concepts do not have an intrinsic thermodynamic significance in such spaces, a metric space can be constructed for the power means: the distance between means of different order is related to the Carnot efficiency. In the ideal classical gas limit, the average change in the entropy is shown to be proportional to the difference between the Shannon and Rényi entropies for nonextensive systems that are multifractal in nature. The L potential, like the internal energy, is a Schur convex function of the empirical temperature, which satisfies Jensen's inequality, and serves as a measure of the tendency to uniformity in processes involving pure thermal conduction.
Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W entanglement witnesses for the noninteracting Fermi gas
Habibian, Hessam; Clark, John W.; Behbood, Naeimeh; Hingerl, Kurt
2010-03-15
The existence and nature of tripartite entanglement of a noninteracting Fermi gas (NIFG) is investigated. Three classes of parametrized entanglement witnesses (EWs) are introduced with the aim of detecting genuine tripartite entanglement in the three-body reduced density matrix and discriminating between the presence of the two types of genuine tripartite entanglement, W/B and GHZ/W (the convex set of B states is comprised of mixed states of product and biseparable states; that of W states is comprised of mixed states of B states and W-type pure entangled states; and the GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) set contains generic mixtures of any kind for a tripartite system). By choosing appropriate EW operators, the problem of finding GHZ and W EWs is reduced to linear programming. Specifically, we devise W EWs based on a spin-chain model with periodic boundary conditions, and we construct a class of parametrized GHZ EWs by linearly combining projection operators corresponding to all the different state-vector types arising for a three-fermion system. A third class of EWs is provided by a GHZ stabilizer operator capable of distinguishing W/B from GHZ/B entanglement, which is not possible with W EWs. Implementing these classes of EWs, it is found that all states containing genuine tripartite entanglement are of W type, and hence states containing GHZ/W genuine tripartite entanglement do not arise. Some genuine tripartite entangled states that have a positive partial transpose (PPT) with respect to some bipartition are detected. Finally, it is demonstrated that a NIFG does not exhibit 'pure'W/B genuine tripartite entanglement: three-party entanglement without any separable or biseparable admixture does not occur.
Cold Fermi gas with inverse square interaction in a harmonic trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Manas; Abanov, Alexander G.
2011-05-01
We study equilibrium density and spin density profiles for a model of cold one-dimensional spin 1/2 fermions interacting via inverse square interaction and exchange in an external harmonic trap. This model is the well-known spin-Calogero model (sCM) and its fully nonlinear collective field theory description is known. We extend the field theory description to the presence of an external harmonic trap and obtain analytic results for statics and dynamics of the system. For instance, we find how the equilibrium density profile changes upon tuning the interaction strength. The results we obtain for equilibrium configurations are very similar to the ones obtained recently by Ma and Yang (2010) [1] for a model of fermions with short ranged interactions. Our main approximation is the neglect of the terms of higher order in spatial derivatives in equations of motion - gradientless approximation (Kulkarni et al., 2009) [2]. Within this approximation the hydrodynamic equations of motion can be written as a set of decoupled forced Riemann-Hopf equations for the dressed Fermi momenta of the model. This enables us to write analytical solutions for the dynamics of spin and charge. We describe the time evolution of the charge density when an initial non-equilibrium profile is created by cooling the gas with an additional potential in place and then suddenly removing the potential. We present our results as a simple "single-particle" evolution in the phase space reminiscing a similar description of the dynamics of noninteracting one-dimensional fermions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2012-01-01
This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were…
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum MonteÂ Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Zintchenko, I.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models.
All-optical pump-and-probe detection of two-time correlations in a Fermi gas
Dao, T.-L.; Kollath, C.; Carusotto, I.; Koehl, M.
2010-04-15
We propose an all-optical scheme to probe the dynamical correlations of a strongly interacting gas of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice potential. The proposed technique is based on a pump-and-probe scheme: a coherent light pulse is initially converted into an atomic coherence and later retrieved after a variable storage time. The efficiency of the proposed method to measure the two-time one-particle Green function of the gas is validated by numerical and analytical calculations of the expected signal for the two cases of a normal Fermi gas and a BCS superfluid state. Protocols to extract the superfluid gap and the full quasiparticle dispersions are discussed.
Condensate fraction of a resonant Fermi gas with spin-orbit coupling in three and two dimensions
Dell'Anna, L.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.
2011-09-15
We study the effects of laser-induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate (BCS-BEC) crossover of a Feshbach resonance for a two-spin-component Fermi gas. We calculate the condensate fraction in three and two dimensions and find that this quantity characterizes the crossover better than other quantities, like the chemical potential or the pairing gap. By considering both the singlet and the triplet pairings, we calculate the condensate fraction and show that a large-enough spin-orbit interaction enhances the singlet condensate fraction in the BCS side while suppressing it on the BEC side.
Korolyuk, A.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.
2011-09-15
We consider the density response of a trapped two-component Fermi gas. Combining the Bogoliubov-deGennes method with the random phase approximation allows the study of both collective and single-particle excitations. Calculating the density response across a wide range of interactions, we observe a crossover from a weakly interacting pair vibration mode to a strongly interacting Goldstone mode. The crossover is associated with a depressed collective mode frequency and an increased damping rate, in agreement with density response experiments performed in strongly interacting atomic gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corro, I.; Martin, A. M.
2016-08-01
We develop a simple numerical method that allows us to calculate the BCS superfluid transition temperature Tc precisely for any interaction potential. We apply it to a polarized, ultracold Fermi gas with long-range, anisotropic, dipolar interactions and include the effects of anisotropic exchange interactions. We pay particular attention to the short-range behavior of dipolar gases and reexamine current renormalization methods. In particular, we find that dimerization of both atoms and molecules significantly hampers the formation of a superfluid. The end result is that at high density or interaction strengths, we find Tc is orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations.
A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.
2012-10-01
To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities
Baule, A; Evans, R M L; Olmsted, P D
2006-12-01
We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena, Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter lambda and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime. PMID:17280048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.; Olmsted, P. D.
2006-12-01
We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena , Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter λ and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime.
Anomalous Behavior in Ideal Fermion Gases Below 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grether, M.; de Llano, M.; Solís, M. A.
2003-03-01
``Normal" thermodynamic properties of a ideal Fermi gas in d>2 dimensions, integer or not, is manifested by monotonically increasing or decreasing of its specific heat, chemical potential or isothermal sound velocity. However, for 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bencheikh, K.; van Zyl, B. P.; Berkane, K.
2016-08-01
The semiclassical ℏ expansion of the one-particle density matrix for a two-dimensional Fermi gas is calculated within the Wigner transform method of B. Grammaticos and A. Voros [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 123, 359 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90343-9], originally developed in the context of nuclear physics. The method of Grammaticos and Voros has the virtue of preserving both the Hermiticity and idempotency of the density matrix to all orders in the ℏ expansion. As a topical application, we use our semiclassical expansion to go beyond the local-density approximation for the construction of the total dipole-dipole interaction energy functional of a two-dimensional, spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas. We find a finite, second-order gradient correction to the Hartree-Fock energy, which takes the form ɛ (∇ρ ) 2/√{ρ } , with ɛ being small (|ɛ |≪1 ) and negative. We test the quality of the corrected energy by comparing it with the exact results available for harmonic confinement. Even for small particle numbers, the gradient correction to the dipole-dipole energy provides a significant improvement over the local-density approximation.
Analytical thermodynamics of a strongly attractive three-component Fermi gas in one dimension
He Peng; Yin Xiangguo; Wang Yupeng; Guan Xiwen; Batchelor, Murray T.
2010-11-15
Ultracold three-component atomic Fermi gases in one dimension are expected to exhibit rich physics due to the presence of trions and different pairing states. Quantum phase transitions from the trion state into a paired phase and a normal Fermi liquid occur at zero temperature. We derive the analytical thermodynamics of strongly attractive three-component one-dimensional fermions with SU(3) symmetry via the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method in unequal Zeeman splitting fields H{sub 1} and H{sub 2}. We find explicitly that for low temperature the system acts like either a two-component or a three-component Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid dependent on the system parameters. The phase diagrams for the chemical potential and specific heat are presented for illustrative values of the Zeeman splitting. We also demonstrate that crossover between different Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid phases exhibit singular behavior in specific heat and entropy as the temperature tends to zero. Beyond Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid physics, we obtain the equation of state which provides a precise description of universal thermodynamics and quantum criticality in three-component, strongly attractive Fermi gases.
The Role of Multiple Representations in the Understanding of Ideal Gas Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madden, Sean P.; Jones, Loretta L.; Rahm, Jrene
2011-01-01
This study examined the representational competence of students as they solved problems dealing with the temperature-pressure relationship for ideal gases. Seven students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry course and two advanced undergraduate science majors participated in the study. The written work and transcripts from videotaped…
On the Equipartition of Kinetic Energy in an Ideal Gas Mixture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peliti, L.
2007-01-01
A refinement of an argument due to Maxwell for the equipartition of translational kinetic energy in a mixture of ideal gases with different masses is proposed. The argument is elementary, yet it may work as an illustration of the role of symmetry and independence postulates in kinetic theory. (Contains 1 figure.)
Gubler, Philipp; Yamamoto, Naoki; Hatsuda, Tetsuo; Nishida, Yusuke
2015-05-15
Making use of the operator product expansion, we derive a general class of sum rules for the imaginary part of the single-particle self-energy of the unitary Fermi gas. The sum rules are analyzed numerically with the help of the maximum entropy method, which allows us to extract the single-particle spectral density as a function of both energy and momentum. These spectral densities contain basic information on the properties of the unitary Fermi gas, such as the dispersion relation and the superfluid pairing gap, for which we obtain reasonable agreement with the available results based on quantum Monte-Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanai, Ryo; Ohashi, Yoji
2014-03-01
We investigate a two-component Fermi gas with mass imbalance (m↑ ≠m↓ , where mσ is an atomic mass in the σ-component) in the BCS-BEC crossover region. Including pairing fluctuations within a self-consistent T-matrix theory, we examine how the superfluid instability is affected by the presence of mass imbalance. We determine the superfluid region in the phase diagram of a Fermi gas in terms of the temperature, the strength of a pairing interaction, and the ratio of mass imbalance. The superfluid phase transition is shown to always occur even when m↑ ≠m↓ .[2] This behavior of Tc is quite different from the previous result in an extended T-matrix theory,[3] where Tc vanishes at a certain value of m↑ /m↓ > 0 in the BCS regime. Since Fermi condensates with mass imbalance have been discussed in various systems, such as a cold Fermi gas, an exciton(polariton) condensate, as well as color superconductivity, our results would be useful for further understandings of these novel Fermi superfluids. R.H. was supported by Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program, Keio University.
Induced Interactions and the Superfluid Transition Temperature in a Three-Component Fermi Gas
Martikainen, J.-P.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Toermae, P.; Pethick, C. J.
2009-12-31
We study many-body contributions to the effective interaction between fermions in a three-component Fermi mixture. We find that effective interactions induced by the third component can lead to a phase diagram different from that predicted if interactions with the third component are neglected. As a result, in a confining potential a superfluid shell structure can arise even for equal populations of the components. We also find a critical temperature for the BCS transition in a {sup 6}Li mixture which can deviate strongly from the one in a weakly interacting two-component system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.
2016-06-01
The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4 , our b4 agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D
2016-06-10
The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. PMID:27341213
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D.
2016-05-01
The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astro physics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b4 of such a strongly-interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab inito path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b4, our b4 agrees with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly anti-symmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions. We gratefully acknowledge support by the NSF.
Appalachian independent producers approach to marketing gas: Idealism vs. reality - a case study
Linn, M.C.
1988-08-01
The new marketplace dictates lower prices through the development of new marketing techniques and transportation policies. This environment has created a new means of doing business through the spot market. It has become routine for an end user to purchase a 30-day supply of gas from a Gulf Coast producer and enter into transportation contracts with interstate pipelines and his local utility company, thereby saving considerable sums of money at the burner tip. The end user knows that natural gas has become an openly traded commodity in a highly competitive marketplace. The Appalachian basin producer must operate within this environment by pursuing industrial end-user markets. The authors can successfully execute contracts and deliver their gas to small industries that are willing to pay a slightly higher price in order to have a reliable supply. The producer may even choose to blend his gas with other sources to provide a more competitive burner-tip price. Meridian Exploration Corporation is recognized as being a pioneer in direct gas sales. The company serves as operator for over 850 natural gas and associated oil wells located principally in Pennsylvanian and New York. Meridian is moving nearly 80% of its daily gas output to numerous end users. Meridian counts among its customers large volume industries, colleges and universities, apartment complexes, shopping centers, and greenhouses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Sazzad, Hossain; Md. Muktadir, Rahman
2016-02-01
The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1993-01-01
The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method of constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, th sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1992-01-01
The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method for constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, the sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ku, Mark J. H.; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2016-01-01
We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting 6 atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium.
Dynamics of a degenerate Fermi gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice coupled to a cavity
Sun Qing; Hu Xinghua; Liu, W. M.; Ji Anchun
2011-04-15
We systematically study the dynamics of a one-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas in an optical-lattice potential coupled to a single-mode cavity field. We derive an effective model to study the nonperturbative effect caused by the cavity field. Our numerical results show that due to the addition of the optical-lattice potential, the system undergoes second-order transition to a bistable density-wave steady state, where the atoms form a density wave and the cavity field is bistable. In addition, the coherent oscillating behavior of the cavity photon number can be observed. We also present a feasible experimental protocol to realize these phenomena, which may be beneficial for future quantum-information applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loft, N. J. S.; Kristensen, L. B.; Thomsen, A. E.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-06-01
We discuss the local density approximation approach to calculating the ground state energy of a one-dimensional Fermi gas containing a single impurity, and compare the results with exact numerical values that we have for up to 11 particles for general interaction strengths and up to 30 particles in the strongly interacting case. We also calculate the contact coefficient in the strongly interacting regime. The different theoretical predictions are compared to recent experimental results with few-atom systems. Firstly, we find that the local density approximation suffers from great ambiguity in the few-atom regime, yet it works surprisingly well for some models. Secondly, we find that the strong interaction theories quickly break down when the number of particles increase or the interaction strength decreases.
Ku, Mark J H; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yefsah, Tarik; Zwierlein, Martin W
2016-01-29
We follow the time evolution of a superfluid Fermi gas of resonantly interacting ^{6}Li atoms after a phase imprint. Via tomographic imaging, we observe the formation of a planar dark soliton, its subsequent snaking, and its decay into a vortex ring, which, in turn, breaks to finally leave behind a single solitonic vortex. In intermediate stages, we find evidence for an exotic structure resembling the Φ soliton, a combination of a vortex ring and a vortex line. Direct imaging of the nodal surface reveals its undulation dynamics and its decay via the puncture of the initial soliton plane. The observed evolution of the nodal surface represents dynamics beyond superfluid hydrodynamics, calling for a microscopic description of unitary fermionic superfluids out of equilibrium. PMID:26871342
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bolech, Carlos; Langer, Stephan; McCulloch, Ian; Orso, Giuliano; Rigol, Marcos
2013-03-01
We study the sudden expansion of a spin-imbalanced Fermi gas in an optical lattice after quenching the trapping potential to zero, described by the attractive Hubbard model. Using time-dependent density matrix renormalization group simulations we demonstrate that the momentum distribution functions (MDFs) of majority and minority fermions become stationary after surprisingly short expansion times. We explain this via a quantum distillation mechanism that results in a spatial separation of excess fermions and pairs, causing Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov correlations to disappear rapidly. We further argue that the asymptotic form of the MDFs is determined by the integrals of motion of this integrable quantum system, namely the rapidities from the Bethe ansatz solution. We discuss the relevance of our results for the observation of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov correlations in 1D systems, related to recent experiments from Rice University.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an ideal atomic gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruchkov, Alex; Slyusarenko, Yurii
2013-07-01
We study peculiarities of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons that are in thermodynamic equilibrium with atoms of noninteracting gases. General equations of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study are obtained. We examine solutions of these equations in the case of high temperatures, when the atomic components of the system can be considered as nondegenerated ideal gases of atoms, and the photonic component can form a state with the Bose condensate. Transcendental equation for transition temperature and expression for the density of condensed photons in the considered system are derived. We also obtain analytical solutions of the equation for the critical temperature in a number of particular cases. The existence of two regimes of Bose condensation of photons, which differ significantly in nature of transition temperature dependence on the total density of photons pumped into the system, is revealed. In one case, this dependence is a traditional fractional-power law, and in another one it is the logarithmic law. Applying numerical methods, we determine boundaries of existence and implementation conditions for different regimes of condensation depending on the physical parameters of the system under study. We also show that for a large range of physical systems that are in equilibrium with photons (from ultracold gases of alkali metals to certain types of ideal plasma), the condensation of photons should occur according to the logarithmic regime.
Superfluid Pairing and Majorana Zero Mode in an Ultracold Rydberg Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Bo; Jen, H. H.; You, Jhih-Shih; Wang, Daw-Wei
2013-03-01
We systematically calculate the p-wave superfluid phase of spin polarized Fermi gases in a Rydberg state. The mutual interaction between atoms are dressed by external fields and show nonlocal attractive 1/(a +r6) interaction. Different from the p-wave pairing phase of regular atoms near p-wave Feshbach resonance, the obtained p-wave superfluid phase can be stable away from three-body collision and has intrinsic nontrivial nodes in the momentum space. The critical temperature and order parameter for various interaction parameters have been calculated analytically and numerically, both in the 2D and 3D free space. When loading into optical lattice, we also show the proximity effect of Tc near half filling. Finally, when considering the harmonic confinement potential, we obtain the gapless Majorana Fermions confined to the boundary via self-consistently solving the DBG equation. We will discuss how to experimentally prepare and measure these Majorana states in Rydberg atoms.
Optical control of a magnetic Feshbach resonance in an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zhengkun; Wang, Pengjun; Huang, Lianghui; Meng, Zengming; Hu, Hui; Zhang, Jing
2013-10-01
We use laser light near resonant with a molecular bound-to-bound transition to control a magnetic Feshbach resonance in ultracold Fermi gases of 40K atoms. The spectrum of excited molecular states is measured by applying a laser field that couples the ground Feshbach molecular state to electronically excited molecular states. Nine strong bound-to-bound resonances are observed below the 2P1/2+2S1/2 threshold. We use radio-frequency spectroscopy to characterize the laser-dressed bound state near a specific bound-to-bound resonance and show clearly the shift of the magnetic Feshbach resonance using light. The demonstrated technology could be used to modify interatomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the crossover regime from a Bose-Einstein condensate to a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer superfluid.
Non-linear superflow of a unitary Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.
Universal properties of a trapped two-component fermi gas at unitarity.
Blume, D; von Stecher, J; Greene, Chris H
2007-12-01
We treat the trapped two-component Fermi system, in which unlike fermions interact through a two-body short-range potential having no bound state but an infinite scattering length. By accurately solving the Schrödinger equation for up to N=6 fermions, we show that no many-body bound states exist other than those bound by the trapping potential, and we demonstrate unique universal properties of the system: Certain excitation frequencies are separated by 2variant Planck's over 2piomega, the wave functions agree with analytical predictions and a virial theorem is fulfilled. Further calculations up to N=30 determine the excitation gap, an experimentally accessible universal quantity, and it agrees with recent predictions based on a density functional approach. PMID:18233361
Babichenko, V. S. Kagan, Yu.
2012-11-15
The influence of multiparticle correlation effects and Cooper pairing in an ultracold Fermi gas with a negative scattering length on the formation rate of molecules is investigated. Cooper pairing is shown to cause the formation rate of molecules to increase, as distinct from the influence of Bose-Einstein condensation in a Bose gas on this rate. This trend is retained in the entire range of temperatures below the critical one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Nath, Gorakh
2016-07-01
Cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas is discussed under the action of monochromatic radiation into stellar atmosphere with a constant intensity on unit area. The gas is assumed to be grey and opaque and shock to be transparent. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. To obtain some essential features of the shock propagation, small solid particles are taken as pseudo-fluid and it is assumed that the equilibrium flow condition is maintained in the flow-field. The effects of variation of the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas and the radiation parameter are investigated. It is shown that an increase in the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas and the radiation parameter have decaying effect on the shock waves; whereas with an increase in the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas the shock strength increases. It is found that an increase in the parameter non-idealness of the gas and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas have opposite behaviour on fluid velocity, pressure and shock strength. Also, it is shown that an increase in the radiation parameter has effect to decrease the flow variables and the shock strength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, M.; Inotani, D.; Ohashi, Y.
2016-05-01
We investigate strong-coupling properties of a two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas in the normal state. Including pairing fluctuations within the framework of a T-matrix approximation, we calculate the distribution function n({\\varvec{Q}}) of Cooper pairs in terms of the center of mass momentum {\\varvec{Q}}. In the strong-coupling regime, n({\\varvec{Q}}=0) is shown to exhibit a remarkable increase with decreasing the temperature in the low temperature region, which agrees well with the recent experiment on a two-dimensional ^6Li Fermi gas (Ries et al. in Phys Rev Lett 114:230401, 2015). Our result indicates that the observed remarkable increase of the number of Cooper pairs with zero center of mass momentum can be explained without assuming the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition, when one properly includes pairing fluctuations that are enhanced by the low-dimensionality of the system. Since the BKT transition is a crucial topic in two-dimensional Fermi systems, our results would be useful for the study toward the realization of this quasi-long-range order in an ultracold Fermi gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.
1981-01-01
The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.
Observing the drop of resistance in the flow of a superfluid Fermi gas.
Stadler, David; Krinner, Sebastian; Meineke, Jakob; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman
2012-11-29
The ability of particles to flow with very low resistance is characteristic of superfluid and superconducting states, leading to their discovery in the past century. Although measuring the particle flow in liquid helium or superconducting materials is essential to identify superfluidity or superconductivity, no analogous measurement has been performed for superfluids based on ultracold Fermi gases. Here we report direct measurements of the conduction properties of strongly interacting fermions, observing the well-known drop in resistance that is associated with the onset of superfluidity. By varying the depth of the trapping potential in a narrow channel connecting two atomic reservoirs, we observed variations of the atomic current over several orders of magnitude. We related the intrinsic conduction properties to the thermodynamic functions in a model-independent way, by making use of high-resolution in situ imaging in combination with current measurements. Our results show that, as in solid-state systems, current and resistance measurements in quantum gases provide a sensitive probe with which to explore many-body physics. Our method is closely analogous to the operation of a solid-state field-effect transistor and could be applied as a probe for optical lattices and disordered systems, paving the way for modelling complex superconducting devices. PMID:23192151
He, Lianyi
2014-11-26
In this study, we investigate the interaction energy and the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas at zero temperature in the absence of molecule formation. The interaction energy is obtained by summing the perturbative contributions of Galitskii-Feynman type to all orders in the gas parameter. It can be expressed by a simple phase-space integral of an in-medium scattering phase shift. In both three and two dimensions (3D and 2D), the interaction energy shows a maximum before reaching the resonance from the Bose-Einstein condensate side, which provides a possible explanation of the experimental measurements of the interactionmore » energy. This phenomenon can be theoretically explained by the qualitative change of the nature of the binary interaction in the medium. The appearance of an energy maximum has significant effects on the itinerant ferromagnetism. In 3D, the ferromagnetic transition is reentrant and itinerant ferromagnetism exists in a narrow window around the energy maximum. In 2D, the present theoretical approach suggests that itinerant ferromagnetism does not exist, which reflects the fact that the energy maximum becomes much lower than the energy of the fully polarized state.« less
He, Lianyi
2014-11-26
In this study, we investigate the interaction energy and the possibility of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas at zero temperature in the absence of molecule formation. The interaction energy is obtained by summing the perturbative contributions of Galitskii-Feynman type to all orders in the gas parameter. It can be expressed by a simple phase-space integral of an in-medium scattering phase shift. In both three and two dimensions (3D and 2D), the interaction energy shows a maximum before reaching the resonance from the Bose-Einstein condensate side, which provides a possible explanation of the experimental measurements of the interaction energy. This phenomenon can be theoretically explained by the qualitative change of the nature of the binary interaction in the medium. The appearance of an energy maximum has significant effects on the itinerant ferromagnetism. In 3D, the ferromagnetic transition is reentrant and itinerant ferromagnetism exists in a narrow window around the energy maximum. In 2D, the present theoretical approach suggests that itinerant ferromagnetism does not exist, which reflects the fact that the energy maximum becomes much lower than the energy of the fully polarized state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito
2015-05-01
A series of universal relations, which include high-momentum or short-range behaviors of correlation functions and thermodynamic relations, have attracted great attention, especially in studies of the unitary regime of the BCS-BEC crossover. So far, most studies of the universal relations have been conducted within the regime in which a contact interaction model and a local effective field theoretical approach are available. What remains elusive is a spinless Fermi gas with a resonant p-wave interaction, in which a strong singularity due to the centrifugal barrier precludes a contact interaction description. We study high-momentum or short-range behaviors in such a gas and show several relations which are insensitive to its short-range details. We find universal asymptotes in the momentum distribution and the density correlation function, which originate from the two-body collisions. We also find a common coefficient on them which we call a p-wave contact and discuss its physical interpretation. We show that the p-wave contact is proportional to the number of closed-channel molecules, and derive an adiabatic sweep theorem, which states that the p-wave contact is the adiabatic derivative of the energy with respect to the scattering volume.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.
2015-08-01
The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V ˙ ≡ d V / d t , x ˙ , and T ˙ . The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for T ˙ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures.
Alekseechkin, Nikolay V
2015-08-01
The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V̇≡dV/dt, ẋ, and Ṫ. The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for Ṫ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal. PMID:26254656
Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.
2008-07-01
This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).
Ideal quantum gas in an expanding cavity: nature of nonadiabatic force.
Nakamura, K; Avazbaev, S K; Sobirov, Z A; Matrasulov, D U; Monnai, T
2011-04-01
We consider a quantum gas of noninteracting particles confined in the expanding cavity and investigate the nature of the nonadiabatic force which is generated from the gas and acts on the cavity wall. First, with use of the time-dependent canonical transformation, which transforms the expanding cavity to the nonexpanding one, we can define the force operator. Second, applying the perturbative theory, which works when the cavity wall begins to move at time origin, we find that the nonadiabatic force is quadratic in the wall velocity and thereby does not break the time-reversal symmetry, in contrast with general belief. Finally, using an assembly of the transitionless quantum states, we obtain the nonadiabatic force exactly. The exact result justifies the validity of both the definition of the force operator and the issue of the perturbative theory. The mysterious mechanism of nonadiabatic transition with the use of transitionless quantum states is also explained. The study is done for both cases of the hard- and soft-wall confinement with the time-dependent confining length. PMID:21599141
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jeffrey M.
1999-01-01
This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kano, Yuya; Kayukawa, Yohei; Fujii, Kenichi; Sato, Haruki
2010-12-01
The isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf, which is expected to be one of the best alternative refrigerants for HFC-134a, was determined on the basis of speed-of-sound measurements in the gaseous phase. The speed of sound was measured by means of the acoustic resonance method using a spherical cavity. The resonance frequency in the spherical cavity containing the sample gas was measured to determine the speed of sound. After correcting for some effects such as the thermal boundary layer and deformation of the cavity on the resonance frequency, the speed of sound was obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.01 %. Using the measured speed-of-sound data, the acoustic-virial equation was formulated and the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity was determined with a relative uncertainty of 0.1 %. A temperature correlation function of the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf was also developed.
Thermodynamics of ideal quantum gas with fractional statistics in D dimensions.
Potter, Geoffrey G; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael
2007-06-01
We present exact and explicit results for the thermodynamic properties (isochores, isotherms, isobars, response functions, velocity of sound) of a quantum gas in dimensions D > or = 1 and with fractional exclusion statistics 0 < or = g < or =1 connecting bosons (g=0) and fermions (g=1) . In D=1 the results are equivalent to those of the Calogero-Sutherland model. Emphasis is given to the crossover between bosonlike and fermionlike features, caused by aspects of the statistical interaction that mimic long-range attraction and short-range repulsion. A phase transition along the isobar occurs at a nonzero temperature in all dimensions. The T dependence of the velocity of sound is in simple relation to isochores and isobars. The effects of soft container walls are accounted for rigorously for the case of a pure power-law potential. PMID:17677233
Zhou, Changjie; Zhu, Huili; Yang, Weihuang
2015-06-07
Density functional theory calculations were performed to assess changes in the geometric and electronic structures of monolayer WS{sub 2} upon adsorption of various gas molecules (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO). The most stable configuration of the adsorbed molecules, the adsorption energy, and the degree of charge transfer between adsorbate and substrate were determined. All evaluated molecules were physisorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2} with a low degree of charge transfer and accept charge from the monolayer, except for NH{sub 3}, which is a charge donor. Band structure calculations showed that the valence and conduction bands of monolayer WS{sub 2} are not significantly altered upon adsorption of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, and CO, whereas the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals of O{sub 2}, NO, and NO{sub 2} are pinned around the Fermi-level when these molecules are adsorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2}. The phenomenon of Fermi-level pinning was discussed in light of the traditional and orbital mixing charge transfer theories. The impacts of the charge transfer mechanism on Fermi-level pinning were confirmed for the gas molecules adsorbed on monolayer WS{sub 2}. The proposed mechanism governing Fermi-level pinning is applicable to the systems of adsorbates on recently developed two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar
2016-08-01
This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Manoj
2010-02-01
A group theoretic method is used to obtain an exact particular solution to the system of partial differential equations, describing one-dimensional unsteady planar, cylindrically and spherically symmetric motions in an ideal gas, involving shock waves. It is interesting to remark that the exact solution obtained here is precisely the blast wave solution obtained earlier using a different method of approach. Further, the evolution of a discontinuity wave and its interaction with the strong shock are studied within the state characterized by the exact particular solution. The properties of reflected and transmitted waves and the jump in the shock acceleration are completely characterized, and certain observations are noted in respect to their contrasting behavior.
Renormalization of Fermi Velocity in a Composite Two Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weger, M.; Burlachkov, L.
We calculate the self-energy Σ(k, ω) of an electron gas with a Coulomb interaction in a composite 2D system, consisting of metallic layers of thickness d ≳ a0, where a0 = ħ2ɛ1/me2 is the Bohr radius, separated by layers with a dielectric constant ɛ2 and a lattice constant c perpendicular to the planes. The behavior of the electron gas is determined by the dimensionless parameters kFa0 and kFc ɛ2/ɛ1. We find that when ɛ2/ɛ1 is large (≈5 or more), the velocity v(k) becomes strongly k-dependent near kF, and v(kF) is enhanced by a factor of 5-10. This behavior is similar to the one found by Lindhard in 1954 for an unscreened electron gas; however here we take screening into account. The peak in v(k) is very sharp (δk/kF is a few percent) and becomes sharper as ɛ2/ɛ1 increases. This velocity renormalization has dramatic effects on the transport properties; the conductivity at low T increases like the square of the velocity renormalization and the resistivity due to elastic scattering becomes temperature dependent, increasing approximately linearly with T. For scattering by phonons, ρ ∝ T2. Preliminary measurements suggest an increase in vk in YBCO very close to kF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-11-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambrosetti, A.; Lombardi, G.; Salasnich, L.; Silvestrelli, P. L.; Toigo, F.
2014-10-01
Motivated by the remarkable experimental control of synthetic gauge fields in ultracold atomic systems, we investigate the effect of an artificial Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin polarization of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas. By using a variational many-body wave function, based on a suitable spinorial structure, we find that the polarization properties of the system are indeed controlled by the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and repulsive interaction. In particular, two main effects are found: (1) The Rashba coupling determines a gradual increase of the degree of polarization beyond the critical repulsive interaction strength, at variance with conventional two-dimensional Stoner instability. (2) The critical interaction strength, above which finite polarization is developed, shows a dependence on the Rashba coupling, i.e., it is enhanced in case the Rashba coupling exceeds a critical value. A simple analytic expression for the critical interaction strength is further derived in the context of our variational formulation, which allows for a straightforward and insightful analysis of the present problem.
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-01-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion’s scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094
Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.
2010-10-15
We propose an experiment to probe ferromagnetic phenomena in an ultracold Fermi gas, while alleviating the sensitivity to three-body loss and competing many-body instabilities. The system is initialized in a small pitch spin spiral, which becomes unstable in the presence of repulsive interactions. To linear order the exponentially growing collective modes exhibit critical slowing down close to the Stoner transition point. Also, to this order, the dynamics are identical on the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic sides of the transition. However, we show that scattering off the exponentially growing modes qualitatively alters the collective mode structure. The critical slowing down is eliminated and in its place a new unstable branch develops at large wave vectors. Furthermore, long-wavelength instabilities are quenched on the paramagnetic side of the transition. We study the experimental observation of the instabilities, specifically addressing the trapping geometry and how phase-contrast imaging will reveal the emerging domain structure. These probes of the dynamical phenomena could allow experiments to detect the transition point and distinguish between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic regimes.
Dong, Hang; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhou, Li; Ma, Yongli
2015-01-01
We investigate the transition and damping of low-energy collective modes in a trapped unitary Fermi gas by solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation in a scaled form, which is combined with both the T-matrix fluctuation theory in normal phase and the mean-field theory in order phase. In order to connect the microscopic and kinetic descriptions of many-body Feshbach scattering, we adopt a phenomenological two-fluid physical approach, and derive the coupling constants in the order phase. By solving the Boltzmann-Vlasov steady-state equation in a variational form, we calculate two viscous relaxation rates with the collision probabilities of fermion's scattering including fermions in the normal fluid and fermion pairs in the superfluid. Additionally, by considering the pairing and depairing of fermions, we get results of the frequency and damping of collective modes versus temperature and s-wave scattering length. Our theoretical results are in a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, particularly for the sharp transition between collisionless and hydrodynamic behaviour and strong damping between BCS and unitary limits near the phase transition. The sharp transition originates from the maximum of viscous relaxation rate caused by fermion-fermion pair collision at the phase transition point when the fermion depair, while the strong damping due to the fast varying of the frequency of collective modes from BCS limit to unitary limit. PMID:26522094
Hozumi, T.; Sato, H.; Watanabe, K.
1996-09-01
The speed of sound in gaseous 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a, CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F) and difluoromethane (R-32, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}) has been measured by using a spherical resonator. The measurements for R-134a have been carried out along two isotherms at 323 K and 343 K and at pressures up to 400 kPa for a total of 26 values. For R-32 the measurements were made at 308 K, 323 K, 333 K, and 343 K and at pressures up to 500 kPa for a total of 44 measurements. The experimental uncertainties for R-134a in temperature, pressure, and speed of sound are estimated to be not greater than {+-}6 mK, {+-}0.2 kPa, and {+-}0.0061%, respectively. The experimental uncertainties for R-32 in temperature, pressure, and speed of sound are estimated to be not greater than {+-}8 mK, {+-}0.2 kPa, and {+-}0.0061%, respectively. The purities of the R-134a and R-32 samples were better than 99.95% and 99.99% of area percent of the gas chromatography, respectively. The authors have determined the ideal-gas heat capacities and the second acoustic virial coefficients from the speed-of-sound measurements.
Universal contact and collective excitations of a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Li Yun; Stringari, Sandro
2011-08-15
We study the relationship between Tan's contact parameter and the macroscopic dynamic properties of an ultracold trapped gas, such as the frequencies of the collective oscillations and the propagation of sound in one-dimensional (1D) configurations. We find that the value of the contact, extracted from the most recent low-temperature measurements of the equation of state near unitarity, reproduces with accuracy the experimental values of the collective frequencies of the radial breathing mode at the lowest temperatures. The available experiment results for the 1D sound velocities near unitarity are also investigated.
Pairing correlations in a trapped quasi one-dimensional Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudla, Stephen; Gautreau, Dominique; Sheehy, Daniel
2014-03-01
We utilize a BCS-type variational wavefunction to study attractively-interacting quasi one-dimensional fermionic atomic gases, motivated by cold-atom experiments that access this regime using a anisotropic harmonic trapping potential (characterized by ωx =ωy >>ωz) that confines the gas to a cigar-shaped geometry. To handle the presence of the trap along the z direction, we construct our variational wavefunction from the harmonic oscillator Hermite functions that are the eigenfunctions of the single-particle problem. Using an analytic determination of the effective interaction among Hermite function states along with a numerical calculation of the resulting variational equations, we make specific experimental predictions for how local pairing correlations will be revealed in experimental probes like the local density, the momentum distribution, and the momentum correlation function. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR-1151717.
Effect of three-body loss on itinerant ferromagnetism in an atomic Fermi gas
Conduit, G. J.; Altman, E.
2011-04-15
A recent experiment has provided tentative evidence for itinerant ferromagnetism in an ultracold atomic gas. However, the interpretation of the results is complicated by significant atom losses. We argue that during the loss process the system gradually heats up but remains in local equilibrium.To quantify the consequences of atom loss on the putative ferromagnetic transition we adopt an extended Hertz-Millis theory. The losses damp quantum fluctuations, thus increasing the critical interaction strength needed to induce ferromagnetism and revert the transition from being first order to second order. This effect may resolve a discrepancy between the experiment and previous theoretical predictions. We further illuminate the impact of loss by studying the collective spin excitations in the ferromagnet. Even in the fully polarized state, where loss is completely suppressed, spin waves acquire a decay rate proportional to the three-body loss coefficient.