Semiclassical and quantum description of an ideal Bose gas in a uniform gravitational field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaduri, Rajat K.; van Dijk, Wytse
2016-07-01
We consider an ideal Bose gas contained in a cylinder in three spatial dimensions, subjected to a uniform gravitational field. It has been claimed by some authors that there is discrepancy between the semiclassical and quantum calculations in the thermal properties of such a system. To check this claim, we calculate the heat capacity and isothermal compressibility of this system semiclassically as well as from the quantum spectrum of the density of states. The quantum calculation is done for a finite number of particles. We find good agreement between the two calculations when the number of particles are taken to be large. We also find that this system has the same thermal properties as an ideal five dimensional Bose gas.
Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-01-01
The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919
Ideal quantum gas in an expanding cavity: nature of nonadiabatic force.
Nakamura, K; Avazbaev, S K; Sobirov, Z A; Matrasulov, D U; Monnai, T
2011-04-01
We consider a quantum gas of noninteracting particles confined in the expanding cavity and investigate the nature of the nonadiabatic force which is generated from the gas and acts on the cavity wall. First, with use of the time-dependent canonical transformation, which transforms the expanding cavity to the nonexpanding one, we can define the force operator. Second, applying the perturbative theory, which works when the cavity wall begins to move at time origin, we find that the nonadiabatic force is quadratic in the wall velocity and thereby does not break the time-reversal symmetry, in contrast with general belief. Finally, using an assembly of the transitionless quantum states, we obtain the nonadiabatic force exactly. The exact result justifies the validity of both the definition of the force operator and the issue of the perturbative theory. The mysterious mechanism of nonadiabatic transition with the use of transitionless quantum states is also explained. The study is done for both cases of the hard- and soft-wall confinement with the time-dependent confining length. PMID:21599141
Thermodynamics of ideal quantum gas with fractional statistics in D dimensions.
Potter, Geoffrey G; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael
2007-06-01
We present exact and explicit results for the thermodynamic properties (isochores, isotherms, isobars, response functions, velocity of sound) of a quantum gas in dimensions D > or = 1 and with fractional exclusion statistics 0 < or = g < or =1 connecting bosons (g=0) and fermions (g=1) . In D=1 the results are equivalent to those of the Calogero-Sutherland model. Emphasis is given to the crossover between bosonlike and fermionlike features, caused by aspects of the statistical interaction that mimic long-range attraction and short-range repulsion. A phase transition along the isobar occurs at a nonzero temperature in all dimensions. The T dependence of the velocity of sound is in simple relation to isochores and isobars. The effects of soft container walls are accounted for rigorously for the case of a pure power-law potential. PMID:17677233
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianhui; Ma, Yongli; He, Jizhou
2015-07-01
Based on quantum thermodynamic processes, we make a quantum-mechanical (QM) extension of the typical heat engine cycles, such as the Carnot, Brayton, Otto, Diesel cycles, etc., with no introduction of the concept of temperature. When these QM engine cycles are implemented by an ideal gas confined in an arbitrary power-law trap, a relation between the quantum adiabatic exponent and trap exponent is found. The differences and similarities between the efficiency of a given QM engine cycle and its classical counterpart are revealed and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Muktadir Rahman, Md
2016-03-01
The well known relation for ideal classical gas $\\Delta \\epsilon^2=kT^2 C_V$ which does not remain valid for quantum system is revisited. A new connection is established between energy fluctuation and specific heat for quantum gases, valid in the classical limit and the degenerate quantum regime as well. Most importantly the proposed Biswas-Mitra-Bhattacharyya (BMB) conjecture (Biswas $et.$ $al.$, J. Stat. Mech. P03013, 2015.) relating hump in energy fluctuation and discontinuity of specific heat is proved and precised in this manuscript.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sevilla, F. J.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.
2012-01-01
In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential [mu] in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state [mu] = [mu](n, T) where n is the particle density and "T" the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daisley, R. E.
1973-01-01
Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)
Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef
2007-01-01
Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…
How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woody, Andrea I.
2013-01-01
Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: I. Thermodynamic laws.
Lavenda, B H
2005-11-01
The equations of state for an ideal relativistic, or generalized, gas, like an ideal quantum gas, are expressed in terms of power laws of the temperature. In contrast to an ideal classical gas, the internal energy is a function of volume at constant temperature, implying that the ideal generalized gas will show either attractive or repulsive interactions. This is a necessary condition in order that the third law be obeyed and for matter to have an electromagnetic origin. The transition from an ideal generalized to a classical gas occurs when the two independent solutions of the subsidiary equation to Lagrange's equation coalesce. The equation of state relating the pressure to the internal energy encompasses the full range of cosmological scenarios, from the radiation to the matter dominated universes and finally to the vacuum energy, enabling the coefficient of proportionality, analogous to the Grüeisen ratio, to be interpreted in terms of the degrees of freedom related to the temperature exponents of the internal energy and the absolute temperature expressed in terms of a power of the empirical temperature. The limit where these exponents merge is shown to be the ideal classical gas limit. A corollary to Carnot's theorem is proved, asserting that the ratio of the work done over a cycle to the heat absorbed to increase the temperature at constant volume is the same for all bodies at the same volume. As power means, the energy and entropy are incomparable, and a new adiabatic potential is introduced by showing that the volume raised to a characteristic exponent is also the integrating factor for the quantity of heat so that the second law can be based on the property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order. The vanishing of the chemical potential in extensive systems implies that energy cannot be transported without matter and is equivalent to the condition that Clapeyron's equation be satisfied. PMID:16231132
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, Vladimir A.
2001-01-01
The distribution function ω0(n0) of the number n0 of particles in the condensate of an ideal Bose gas confined by a trap is found. It is shown that at the temperature above the critical one (T > Tc) this function has the usual form ω0(n0) =(1 — eμ)eμno, where μ is the chemical potential in the temperature units. For T < Tc, this distribution changes almost in a jump to a Gaussian distribution, which depends on the trap potential only parametrically. The centre of this function shifts to larger values of n0 with decreasing temperature and its width tends to zero, which corresponds to the suppression of fluctuations.
How is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woody, Andrea I.
2013-07-01
Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight insights from these investigations that are salient for pedagogical concerns. Perhaps most importantly, this essay argues that science teachers should be mindful of the normative and prescriptive components of explanatory discourse both in the classroom and in science more generally. Giving attention to this dimension of explanation not only will do justice to the nature of explanatory activity in science but also will support the development of robust reasoning skills in science students while helping them understand an important respect in which science is more than a straightforward collection of empirical facts, and consequently, science education involves more than simply learning them.
Quantum afterburner: improving the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.
Scully, Marlan O
2002-02-01
By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion. PMID:11863710
Quantum Afterburner: Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scully, Marlan O.
2002-02-01
By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a ``quantum afterburner'' involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the ``ideal'' Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion.
Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lesk, Arthur M.
1974-01-01
Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)
The modified ASEP as a model of ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mironov, D.; Sossinsky, A.
2015-01-01
A modified version of the ASEP model is interpreted as a two-dimensional model of ideal gas. Its properties are studied by simulating its behavior in different situations, using an animation program designed for that purpose.
A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester
1999-01-01
Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)
From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.
2009-01-01
Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.…
Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov
2007-01-01
Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…
A Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Potassium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Okan, Melih; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have enabled experimental studies of quantum many-body physics in Hubbard-type lattice systems in a clean and well-controlled environment. In particular, the advent of quantum gas microscopes has made available new experimental probes ideally suited for observing magnetic order and spatial correlations. In the past year, several groups, including ours, first realized quantum gas microscopes for fermionic atoms. In this talk, we describe our experimental setup, which combines high-resolution imaging with Raman sideband cooling to achieve single-site-resolved fluorescent imaging of fermionic 40 K atoms. We also report on recent progress towards observing quantum phases of the Fermi-Hubbard model with single-site resolution.
How many is different? Answer from ideal Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2014-03-01
How many H2O molecules are needed to form water? While the precise answer is not known, it is clear that the answer should be a finite number rather than infinity. We revisit with care the ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box which is discussed in most statistical physics textbooks. We show that the isobar of the ideal gas zigzags on the temperature-volume plane featuring a boiling-like discrete phase transition, provided the number of particles is equal to or greater than a particular value: 7616. This demonstrates for the first time how a finite system can feature a mathematical singularity and realize the notion of 'Emergence', without resorting to the thermodynamic limit.
Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi
2016-03-01
The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.
Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.
Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J
2011-08-12
Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:21902391
Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks
Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.
2011-08-15
A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.
Microeconomics of the ideal gas like market models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2009-10-01
We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.
Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas
Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2010-07-23
We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.
Convection in an ideal gas at high Rayleigh numbers.
Tilgner, A
2011-08-01
Numerical simulations of convection in a layer filled with ideal gas are presented. The control parameters are chosen such that there is a significant variation of density of the gas in going from the bottom to the top of the layer. The relations between the Rayleigh, Peclet, and Nusselt numbers depend on the density stratification. It is proposed to use a data reduction which accounts for the variable density by introducing into the scaling laws an effective density. The relevant density is the geometric mean of the maximum and minimum densities in the layer. A good fit to the data is then obtained with power laws with the same exponent as for fluids in the Boussinesq limit. Two relations connect the top and bottom boundary layers: The kinetic energy densities computed from free fall velocities are equal at the top and bottom, and the products of free fall velocities and maximum horizontal velocities are equal for both boundaries. PMID:21929106
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis-Martinez, Domingo
2011-04-01
A classical (non-quantum-mechanical) relativistic ideal gas in thermodynamic equilibrium in a uniformly accelerated frame of reference is studied using Gibbs's microcanonical and grand canonical formulations of statistical mechanics. Using these methods explicit expressions for the particle, energy and entropy density distributions are obtained, which are found to be in agreement with the well known results of the relativistic formulation of Boltzmann's kinetic theory. Explicit expressions for the total entropy, total energy and rest mass of the gas are obtained. The position of the center of mass of the gas in equilibrium is found. The non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic approximations are also considered. The phase space volume of the system is calculated explicitly in the ultrarelativistic approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Louis-Martinez, Domingo J.
2011-02-01
A classical (non-quantum-mechanical) relativistic ideal gas in thermodynamic equilibrium in a uniformly accelerated frame of reference is studied using Gibbs's microcanonical and grand canonical formulations of statistical mechanics. Using these methods explicit expressions for the particle, energy and entropy density distributions are obtained, which are found to be in agreement with the well-known results of the relativistic formulation of Boltzmann's kinetic theory. Explicit expressions for the total entropy, total energy and rest mass of the gas are obtained. The position of the center of mass of the gas in equilibrium is found. The non-relativistic and ultrarelativistic approximations are also considered. The phase space volume of the system is calculated explicitly in the ultrarelativistic approximation.
Finite size effect on classical ideal gas revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.; Mitra, J.; Bera, N.
2015-09-01
Finite size effects on classical ideal gas are revisited. The micro-canonical partition function for a collection of ideal particles confined in a box is evaluated using Euler-Maclaurin’s as well as Poisson's summation formula. In Poisson's summation formula there are some exponential terms which are absent in Euler-Maclaurin’s formula. In the thermodynamic limit the exponential correction is negligibly small but in the macro/nano dimensions and at low temperatures they may have a great significance. The consequences of finite size effects have been illustrated by redoing the calculations in one and three dimensions keeping the exponential corrections. Global and local thermodynamic properties, diffusion driven by the finite size effect, and effect on speed of sound have been discussed. Thermo-size effects, similar to thermoelectric effects, have been described in detail and may be a theoretical basis with which to design nano-scaled devices. This paper can also be very helpful for undergraduate and graduate students in physics and chemistry as an instructive exercise for a good course in statistical mechanics.
Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system.
Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli
2012-08-01
We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender et al. [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy E(h) and a low constant energy E(c), respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size L(A)) for given L(A) (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η = 1 - E(c)/E(h) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value η(c) =1 - T(c)/T(h). PMID:23005748
Ideal quantum glass transitions: Many-body localization without quenched disorder
Schiulaz, M.; Müller, M.
2014-08-20
We explore the possibility for translationally invariant quantum many-body systems to undergo a dynamical glass transition, at which ergodicity and translational invariance break down spontaneously, driven entirely by quantum effects. In contrast to analogous classical systems, where the existence of such an ideal glass transition remains a controversial issue, a genuine phase transition is predicted in the quantum regime. This ideal quantum glass transition can be regarded as a many-body localization transition due to self-generated disorder. Despite their lack of thermalization, these disorder-free quantum glasses do not possess an extensive set of local conserved operators, unlike what is conjectured for many-body localized systems with strong quenched disorder.
High School Forum. The Solution: "Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.
1980-01-01
Presents responses to an earlier report concerning a procedure for the derivation of the Ideal Gas Law from Charles', Boyle's, and other gas laws. Logic errors and solutions that work are discussed. (CS)
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties for the phenyl, phenoxy, and o-biphenyl radicals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burcat, A.; Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.
1985-01-01
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of the phenyl and o-biphenyl radicals, their deuterated analogs and the phenoxy radical were calculated to 5000 K using estimated vibrational frequencies and structures. The ideal gas thermodynamic properties of benzene, biphenyl, their deuterated analogs and phenyl were also calculated.
Influence of quantum degeneracy on the performance of a gas Stirling engine cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Ji-Zhou; Mao, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Hui
2006-09-01
Based on the state equation of an ideal quantum gas, the regenerative loss of a Stirling engine cycle working with an ideal quantum gas is calculated. Thermal efficiency of the cycle is derived. Furthermore, under the condition of quantum degeneracy, several special thermal efficiencies are discussed. Ratios of thermal efficiencies versus the temperature ratio and volume ratio of the cycle are made. It is found that the thermal efficiency of the cycle not only depends on high and low temperatures but also on maximum and minimum volumes. In a classical gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is equal to that of the Carnot cycle. In an ideal quantum gas state the thermal efficiency of the cycle is smaller than that of the Carnot cycle. This will be significant for deeper understanding of the gas Stirling engine cycle.
Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1980-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.
Quantum lattice-gas model of spinor superfluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yepez, Jeffrey; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min
2010-04-01
Spinor Bose Einstein Condensates are intriguing because of their vast range of different topological vortices. These states occur when a BEC gas is trapped in an optical lattice rather than in a magnetic well (which would result in scalar BEC vortices). A spinor BEC states also occur in a quantum gas when several hyperfine states of the atom co-exist in the same trap. A unitary quantum lattice algorithm that is ideally parallelized to all available processors is used to solve the evolution of non-eigenstate Skyrmions in a coupled BEC system. The incompressible kinetic energy spectrum of the inner quantum vortex ring core rapidly deviates from the k-3 spectrum found in the evolution of scalar BECs.
A Unified Theory of Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Li-Shi
1998-01-01
A non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an a priori fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shech, Elay
2015-09-01
This paper looks at the nature of idealizations and representational structures appealed to in the context of the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically, with respect to the emergence of anyons and fractional statistics. Drawing on an analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is suggested that the standard approach to the effects—(what we may call) the topological approach to fractional statistics—relies essentially on problematic idealizations that need to be revised in order for the theory to be explanatory. An alternative geometric approach is outlined and endorsed. Roles for idealizations in science, as well as consequences for the debate revolving around so-called essential idealizations, are discussed.
Growth and decay of acceleration waves in non-ideal gas flow with radiative heat transfer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Lal; Singh, Raghwendra; Ram, Subedar
2012-09-01
The present paper is concerned with the study of the propagation of acceleration waves along the characteristic path in a non-ideal gas flow with effect of radiative heat transfer. It is shown that a linear solution in the characteristic plane can exhibit non-linear behavior in the physical plane. It is also investigated as to how the radiative heat transfer under the optically thin limit will affect the formation of shock in planer, cylindrical and spherically symmetric flows. We conclude that there exists critical amplitude such that any compressive waves with initial amplitude greater than the critical one terminate into shock waves while an initial amplitude less than the critical one results in the decay of the disturbance. The critical time for shock formation has been computed. In this paper we also compare/contrast the nature of solution in ideal and non ideal gas flows.
Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.
Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C
2008-02-01
The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified. PMID:18352067
Simple ideal gas model of the Pavlovskii high-explosive opening switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tucker, T. J.
1983-08-01
The behavior of the Pavlovskii type high-explosive opening switch is modeled using an ideal gas formulation. It is shown that this simple 1 dimensional model agrees with experiment during early arc compression but that at later times the process exhibits a more complex behavior, resulting from turbulent mixing.
Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.
2010-01-01
This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…
40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...
40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...
Quantum learning in a quantum lattice gas computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James
2015-04-01
Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. At low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.
Quantum learning for a quantum lattice gas computer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James
2015-03-01
Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. In low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Brent
2002-01-01
Describes equations of state as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of an ideal gas and explains the molar basis of REM. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (Contains 22 references.)…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Brent
2002-01-01
Describes the laws of thermodynamics as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of ideal gas. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (YDS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreis, K.; Fogarty, A. C.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.
2015-09-01
In adaptive resolution simulations, molecular fluids are modeled employing different levels of resolution in different subregions of the system. When traveling from one region to the other, particles change their resolution on the fly. One of the main advantages of such approaches is the computational efficiency gained in the coarse-grained region. In this respect the best coarse-grained system to employ in the low resolution region would be the ideal gas, making intermolecular force calculations in the coarse-grained subdomain redundant. In this case, however, a smooth coupling is challenging due to the high energetic imbalance between typical liquids and a system of non-interacting particles. In the present work, we investigate this approach, using as a test case the most biologically relevant fluid, water. We demonstrate that a successful coupling of water to the ideal gas can be achieved with current adaptive resolution methods, and discuss the issues that remain to be addressed.
Evolutionary behavior of weak shocks in a non-ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, Rajan; Siddiqui, Mohd Junaid
2013-03-01
Except some empirical methods, which have been developed in the past, no analytical method exists to describe the evolutionary behavior of a shock wave without limiting its strength. In this paper, we have derived a system of transport equations for the shock strength and the induced continuity. We generate a completely intrinsic description of plane, cylindrical, and spherical shock waves of weak strength, propagating into a non-ideal gas. It is shown that for a weak shock, the disturbance evolves like an acceleration wave at the leading order. For a weak shock, we may assume that [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We have considered a case when the effect of the first order-induced discontinuity or the disturbances that overtook the shock from behind are strong, i.e., [ p x ] = O(1). The evolutionary behavior of the weak shocks in a non-ideal gas is described using the truncation approximation.
Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naplekov, D. M.; Semynozhenko, V. P.; Yanovsky, V. V.
2014-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown.
Equation of state of an ideal gas with nonergodic behavior in two connected vessels.
Naplekov, D M; Semynozhenko, V P; Yanovsky, V V
2014-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional collisionless ideal gas in the two vessels connected through a small hole. One of them is a well-behaved chaotic billiard, another one is known to be nonergodic. A significant part of the second vessel's phase space is occupied by an island of stability. In the works of Zaslavsky and coauthors, distribution of Poincaré recurrence times in similar systems was considered. We study the gas pressure in the vessels; it is uniform in the first vessel and not uniform in second one. An equation of the gas state in the first vessel is obtained. Despite the very different phase-space structure, behavior of the second vessel is found to be very close to the behavior of a good ergodic billiard but of different volume. The equation of state differs from the ordinary equation of ideal gas state by an amendment to the vessel's volume. Correlation of this amendment with a share of the phase space under remaining intact islands of stability is shown. PMID:24580310
History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata
Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu
2014-12-15
Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.
History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeel, Asif; Meyer, David A.; Love, Peter J.
2014-12-01
Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.
Ideal-gas-like market models with savings: Quenched and annealed cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2007-08-01
We analyze the ideal-gas-like models of markets and review the different cases where a ‘savings’ factor changes the nature and shape of the distribution of wealth. These models can produce similar distribution of wealth as observed across varied economies. We present a more realistic model where the saving factor can vary over time (annealed savings) and yet produce Pareto distribution of wealth in certain cases. We discuss the relevance of such models in the context of wealth distribution, and address some recent issues in the context of these models.
Two-level trap model of BEC in an ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorfman, Konstantin; Kocharovsky, Vitaly; Kocharovsky, Vladimir
2009-04-01
We consider a two-energy-level trap with arbitrary degeneracy of an upper level and find an analytical solution for the condensate statistics in a mesoscopic ideal gas with arbitrary number of atoms and any temperature, including a critical region. The solution is a cut-off negative binomial distribution that tends to a cut-off gamma distribution in the thermodynamic limit. We show how to model BEC in real traps by BEC in the two-level or three-level traps.
Quantum gas mixtures in different correlation regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Busch, Thomas
2013-06-01
We present a many-body description for two-component ultracold bosonic gases when one of the species is in the weakly interacting regime and the other is either weakly or strongly interacting. In the one-dimensional limit the latter is a hybrid in which a Tonks-Girardeau gas is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, which is an example of a class of quantum system involving a tunable, superfluid environment. We describe the process of phase separation microscopically as well as semiclassically in both situations and show that quantum correlations are maintained even in the separated phase.
Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, Kun
1998-01-01
A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.
Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.
Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi
2010-10-28
Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise. PMID:20961156
The Ideal and Real Gas Heat Capacity of Potassium Atoms at High Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biolsi, Louis; Biolsi, Michael
2016-04-01
The ideal gas heat capacity, Cp, of potassium atoms is calculated to high temperatures using statistical mechanics. Since there are a large number of electronic energy levels in the partition function (Boltzmann sum) below the first ionization potential, the partition function and Cp will become very large as the temperature increases unless the number of energy levels contributing to the partition function is constrained. Two primary categories of arguments are used to do this. First, at high temperatures, the increased size of the atoms constrains the sum (Bethe method). Second, an argument based on the existence of interacting charged species at higher temperatures is used to constrain the sum (ionization potential lowering method). When potassium atoms are assumed to constitute a real gas that obeys the virial equation of state, the lowest non-ideal contribution to Cp depends on the second derivative of the second virial coefficient, B( T), which depends on the interaction potential energy curves between two potassium atoms. When two ground-state (2{S}) atoms interact, they can follow either of the two potential energy curves. When a 2{S} atom interacts with an atom in the first electronically excited (2{P}) state, they can follow any of the eight potential energy curves. The values of B( T) for the ten states are determined, then averaged, and used to calculate the nonideal contribution to Cp.
[Development and application of quantum cascade laser based gas sensing system].
Wen, Zhi-yu; Wang, Ling-fang; Chen, Gang
2010-08-01
Quantum cascade laser (QCL) is an ideal mid-infrared source for gas sensing in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 25 microm, due to its fast response, high sensitivity and selectivity for gas detecting. Prototypes of gas sensing system based on QCL have been developed by worldwide research groups. They have great potential in many applications, such as environment monitoring, space exploration, anti-terrorism and so on. The present paper gives a broad review of QCL gas sensing system, including the basic working principle, existing systems, and its application and future development. PMID:20939303
A quantum gas microscope for ytterbium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-05-01
In this talk, I report on the development of a quantum gas microscope for ytterbium (Yb) atoms. By using a dual molasses technique in which 399 nm molasses beams of the broad singlet transition are applied for fluorescence imaging and 556 nm molasses beams of the narrow intercombination transition are applied for cooling during the imaging, we successfully demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic 174 Yb atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice with a lattice constant of 266 nm.We also apply a high resolution laser spectroscopy using the ultranarrow intercombination transition between the 1 S0 and 3 P2 states to manipulate an atom distribution in an optical lattice. We expect the demonstrated technique will similarly work for other isotopes of Yb atoms. We are also developing a different mode of an Yb quantum gas microscope.
Optical Lattices With Quantum Gas Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Amy Wan-Chih
In this thesis, we demonstrate how the recent achievement of single site resolution using the "Quantum Gas Microscope" can be integrated with a system of ultra-cold atoms in a two dimensional optical lattice, to facilitate the study of condensed matter Hamiltonians in the strongly interacting regime. With the combination of magnetic and optical manipulation of atoms, we show how to reproducibly generate cold two dimensional Bose Einstein Condensates of 87Rb situated at the focus of our "Quantum Gas Microscope", allowing us to utilise the high numerical aperture for both lattice generation and single atom detection. As a first demonstration of the type of study we can perform with this apparatus, we implement the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian and give some evidence of the superfluid to Mott insulator transition in this system, seen on the single lattice site level.
Unitary quantum lattice gas representation of 2D quantum turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bo; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Soe, Min
2011-05-01
Quantum vortex structures and energy cascades are examined for two dimensional quantum turbulence (2D QT) using a special unitary evolution algorithm. The qubit lattice gas (QLG) algorithm, is employed to simulate the weakly-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. A parameter regime is uncovered in which, as in 3D QT, there is a very short Poincare recurrence time. This short recurrence time is destroyed as the nonlinear interaction energy is increased. Energy cascades for 2D QT are considered to examine whether 2D QT exhibits the inverse cascades of 2D classical turbulence. In the parameter regime considered, the spectra analysis reveals no such dual cascades---dual cascades being a hallmark of 2D classical turbulence.
Universal Behavior of the BEC Critical Temperature for a Multi-slab Ideal Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.
2016-05-01
For an ideal Bose gas within a multi-slab periodic structure, we discuss the effect of the spatial distribution of the gas on its Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature T_c, as well as on the origin of its dimensional crossover observed in the specific heat. The multi-slabs structure is generated by applying a Kronig-Penney potential to the gas in the perpendicular direction to the slabs of width b and separated by a distance a, and allowing the particles to move freely in the other two directions. We found that T_c decreases continuously as the potential barrier height increases, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the barrier height when it is large enough. This behavior is universal as it is independent of the width and spacing of the barriers. The specific heat at constant volume shows a crossover from 3D to 2D when the height of the potential or the barrier width increases, in addition to the well-known peak related to the Bose-Einstein condensation. These features are due to the trapping of the bosons by the potential barriers and can be characterized by the energy difference between the energy bands below the potential height.
Isobars of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Imtak; Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Jeong-Hyuck
2011-08-01
We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulas for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures that reveal an N-1/3 or N-1/4 power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation, and further show that the isobar zigzags on the temperature-volume plane if N≥14393. In particular, for the Avogadro’s number of particles, the volume expands discretely about 105 times. Our results quantitatively agree with a previous study on the canonical ensemble within 0.1% error.
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1988 project results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.
1990-07-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weakness where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase and vapor pressure measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation are reported for 3-methylbuta 1,2-diene; 2,5-dimethylhexa 2,4-diene; acetaldoxime; N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine; 1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one; and phenanthrene. Solid and liquid phase enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are determined for benzamide. Ring corrections, group terms, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction terms useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.
Determination of some pure compound ideal-gas enthalpies of formation
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.
1989-06-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-additivity methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where ring corrections were unknown or next-nearest-neighbor interactions were only estimated because of lack of experimental data are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed- phase and vapor pressure measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation are reported for acrylamide, succinimide, ..gamma..-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidone, 2,3-dihydrofuran, 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, 1,4-cyclohexadiene, and 1-methyl-1-phenylhydrazine. Ring corrections, group terms, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction terms useful in the application of group additivity correlations are derived. 44 refs., 2 figs., 59 tabs.
Analytical theory of mesoscopic Bose-Einstein condensation in an ideal gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharovsky, Vitaly V.; Kocharovsky, Vladimir V.
2010-03-01
We find the universal structure and scaling of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) statistics and thermodynamics (Gibbs free energy, average energy, heat capacity) for a mesoscopic canonical-ensemble ideal gas in a trap with an arbitrary number of atoms, any volume, and any temperature, including the whole critical region. We identify a universal constraint-cutoff mechanism that makes BEC fluctuations strongly non-Gaussian and is responsible for all unusual critical phenomena of the BEC phase transition in the ideal gas. The main result is an analytical solution to the problem of critical phenomena. It is derived by, first, calculating analytically the universal probability distribution of the noncondensate occupation, or a Landau function, and then using it for the analytical calculation of the universal functions for the particular physical quantities via the exact formulas which express the constraint-cutoff mechanism. We find asymptotics of that analytical solution as well as its simple analytical approximations which describe the universal structure of the critical region in terms of the parabolic cylinder or confluent hypergeometric functions. The obtained results for the order parameter, all higher-order moments of BEC fluctuations, and thermodynamic quantities perfectly match the known asymptotics outside the critical region for both low and high temperature limits. We suggest two- and three-level trap models of BEC and find their exact solutions in terms of the cutoff negative binomial distribution (which tends to the cutoff gamma distribution in the continuous limit) and the confluent hypergeometric distribution, respectively. Also, we present an exactly solvable cutoff Gaussian model of BEC in a degenerate interacting gas. All these exact solutions confirm the universality and constraint-cutoff origin of the strongly non-Gaussian BEC statistics. We introduce a regular refinement scheme for the condensate statistics approximations on the basis of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Nguyen Ba
2009-04-01
Three novel probabilistic yet conclusive schemes are proposed to teleport a general two-mode coherent-state superposition via attenuated quantum channels with ideal and/or threshold detectors. The calculated total success probability is highest (lowest) when only ideal (threshold) detectors are used.
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: II. Means of order alpha.
Lavenda, B H
2005-11-01
The property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order is shown to be the basis of the second laws not only for processes involving heat conduction, but also for processes involving deformations. This generalizes earlier work involving only pure heat conduction and underlines the incomparability of the internal energy and adiabatic potentials when expressed as powers of the adiabatic variable. In an L-potential equilibration, the final state will be one of maximum entropy, whereas in an entropy equilibration, the final state will be one of minimum L. Unlike classical equilibrium thermodynamic phase space, which lacks an intrinsic metric structure insofar as distances and other geometrical concepts do not have an intrinsic thermodynamic significance in such spaces, a metric space can be constructed for the power means: the distance between means of different order is related to the Carnot efficiency. In the ideal classical gas limit, the average change in the entropy is shown to be proportional to the difference between the Shannon and Rényi entropies for nonextensive systems that are multifractal in nature. The L potential, like the internal energy, is a Schur convex function of the empirical temperature, which satisfies Jensen's inequality, and serves as a measure of the tendency to uniformity in processes involving pure thermal conduction. PMID:16228240
Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: II. Means of order α
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavenda, B. H.
2005-11-01
The property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order is shown to be the basis of the second laws not only for processes involving heat conduction, but also for processes involving deformations. This generalizes earlier work involving only pure heat conduction and underlines the incomparability of the internal energy and adiabatic potentials when expressed as powers of the adiabatic variable. In an L-potential equilibration, the final state will be one of maximum entropy, whereas in an entropy equilibration, the final state will be one of minimum L. Unlike classical equilibrium thermodynamic phase space, which lacks an intrinsic metric structure insofar as distances and other geometrical concepts do not have an intrinsic thermodynamic significance in such spaces, a metric space can be constructed for the power means: the distance between means of different order is related to the Carnot efficiency. In the ideal classical gas limit, the average change in the entropy is shown to be proportional to the difference between the Shannon and Rényi entropies for nonextensive systems that are multifractal in nature. The L potential, like the internal energy, is a Schur convex function of the empirical temperature, which satisfies Jensen's inequality, and serves as a measure of the tendency to uniformity in processes involving pure thermal conduction.
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.
1991-10-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.
Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1989 project results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.
1991-10-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (dsc) heat capacity measurements. Ideal gas enthalpies of formation of (+ or -) butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group additivity parameters useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.
2012-01-01
This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were…
Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danilishin, S. L.; Gräf, C.; Leavey, S. S.; Hennig, J.; Houston, E. A.; Pascucci, D.; Steinlechner, S.; Wright, J.; Hild, S.
2015-04-01
The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the standard quantum limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalized, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally, we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with metre- and kilometre-long baselines.
Quantum-gas microscope for fermionic atoms.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V; Bakr, Waseem S; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W
2015-05-15
We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic ^{40}K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. PMID:26024169
Quantum-Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Bakr, Waseem S.; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2015-05-01
We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic 40K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schieve, William C.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.
2009-04-01
1. Foundations of quantum statistical mechanics; 2. Elementary examples; 3. Quantum statistical master equation; 4. Quantum kinetic equations; 5. Quantum irreversibility; 6. Entropy and dissipation: the microscopic theory; 7. Global equilibrium: thermostatics and the microcanonical ensemble; 8. Bose-Einstein ideal gas condensation; 9. Scaling, renormalization and the Ising model; 10. Relativistic covariant statistical mechanics of many particles; 11. Quantum optics and damping; 12. Entanglements; 13. Quantum measurement and irreversibility; 14. Quantum Langevin equation: quantum Brownian motion; 15. Linear response: fluctuation and dissipation theorems; 16. Time dependent quantum Green's functions; 17. Decay scattering; 18. Quantum statistical mechanics, extended; 19. Quantum transport with tunneling and reservoir ballistic transport; 20. Black hole thermodynamics; Appendix; Index.
Quantum gas microscopy of ytterbium: cool me twice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-03-01
The site-resolved detection of ultracold atoms in optical lattice potentials is a powerful technique to study lattice models of correlated quantum matter. In their recent paper, Yamamoto et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 023016) demonstrate a quantum gas microscope for ultracold ytterbium atoms. By simultaneously cooling these atoms on two optical transitions, they show that fluorescent images of the lattice gas can be obtained while keeping the atoms pinned to their lattice sites even for a lattice spacing as small as 266 nm. This promises to be a powerful enabling tool for studies of metrology and quantum magnetism with quantum degenerate gases of ytterbium.
A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.
2012-10-01
To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.
2014-08-01
We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.
Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain
Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2015-11-30
We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axis anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.
Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain
Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2015-11-30
We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axismore » anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.« less
Baule, A; Evans, R M L; Olmsted, P D
2006-12-01
We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena, Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter lambda and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime. PMID:17280048
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.; Olmsted, P. D.
2006-12-01
We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena , Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter λ and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime.
The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Robert L.
2006-01-01
The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…
Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okan, Melih; Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter throughout nature, from atomic nuclei and modern solid state materials to neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. In this poster we demonstrate the realization of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice and the recent experiments which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high- resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single lattice site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. NSF, AFOSR-PECASE, AFOSR-MURI on Exotic Phases of Matter, ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, ONR, a Grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
The Role of Multiple Representations in the Understanding of Ideal Gas Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Madden, Sean P.; Jones, Loretta L.; Rahm, Jrene
2011-01-01
This study examined the representational competence of students as they solved problems dealing with the temperature-pressure relationship for ideal gases. Seven students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry course and two advanced undergraduate science majors participated in the study. The written work and transcripts from videotaped…
On the Equipartition of Kinetic Energy in an Ideal Gas Mixture
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peliti, L.
2007-01-01
A refinement of an argument due to Maxwell for the equipartition of translational kinetic energy in a mixture of ideal gases with different masses is proposed. The argument is elementary, yet it may work as an illustration of the role of symmetry and independence postulates in kinetic theory. (Contains 1 figure.)
Measurement-induced control with a nondestructive quantum gas microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Minwoo; Madjarov, Ivaylo S.; Rabinowitz, Jacob; Wellner, Zoe; Chen, Huiyao Y.; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
The physics of ultracold lattice gases has expanded from understanding Hubbard models to a much broader set of questions of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics, quantum thermodynamics, manybody entanglement, etc. These studies are increasingly being enabled by the advent of quantum gas microscopy, i.e. acquiring in-situ real space information, that is gaining prominence as a very powerful technique to study lattice gases. Nonetheless, the realization of fascinating correlated manybody states requires prohibitively low temperatures and entropies, far below what can be accessed through conventional evaporative cooling. The combination of quantum gas microscopy and measurement based quantum control offers an alternate route to state preparation of lattice gases in regimes of strong correlations. In this poster, we present our ongoing work on using site resolved imaging for the preparation of correlated manybody phases. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics.
Appalachian independent producers approach to marketing gas: Idealism vs. reality - a case study
Linn, M.C.
1988-08-01
The new marketplace dictates lower prices through the development of new marketing techniques and transportation policies. This environment has created a new means of doing business through the spot market. It has become routine for an end user to purchase a 30-day supply of gas from a Gulf Coast producer and enter into transportation contracts with interstate pipelines and his local utility company, thereby saving considerable sums of money at the burner tip. The end user knows that natural gas has become an openly traded commodity in a highly competitive marketplace. The Appalachian basin producer must operate within this environment by pursuing industrial end-user markets. The authors can successfully execute contracts and deliver their gas to small industries that are willing to pay a slightly higher price in order to have a reliable supply. The producer may even choose to blend his gas with other sources to provide a more competitive burner-tip price. Meridian Exploration Corporation is recognized as being a pioneer in direct gas sales. The company serves as operator for over 850 natural gas and associated oil wells located principally in Pennsylvanian and New York. Meridian is moving nearly 80% of its daily gas output to numerous end users. Meridian counts among its customers large volume industries, colleges and universities, apartment complexes, shopping centers, and greenhouses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1993-01-01
The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method of constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, th sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yates, Leslie A.
1992-01-01
The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method for constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, the sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Sazzad, Hossain; Md. Muktadir, Rahman
2016-02-01
The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.
Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.
Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-01-31
We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9) K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases. PMID:24580421
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an ideal atomic gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruchkov, Alex; Slyusarenko, Yurii
2013-07-01
We study peculiarities of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons that are in thermodynamic equilibrium with atoms of noninteracting gases. General equations of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study are obtained. We examine solutions of these equations in the case of high temperatures, when the atomic components of the system can be considered as nondegenerated ideal gases of atoms, and the photonic component can form a state with the Bose condensate. Transcendental equation for transition temperature and expression for the density of condensed photons in the considered system are derived. We also obtain analytical solutions of the equation for the critical temperature in a number of particular cases. The existence of two regimes of Bose condensation of photons, which differ significantly in nature of transition temperature dependence on the total density of photons pumped into the system, is revealed. In one case, this dependence is a traditional fractional-power law, and in another one it is the logarithmic law. Applying numerical methods, we determine boundaries of existence and implementation conditions for different regimes of condensation depending on the physical parameters of the system under study. We also show that for a large range of physical systems that are in equilibrium with photons (from ultracold gases of alkali metals to certain types of ideal plasma), the condensation of photons should occur according to the logarithmic regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Endo, Shimpei; Castin, Yvan
2016-07-01
We consider a two-component ideal Fermi gas in an isotropic harmonic potential. Some eigenstates have a wavefunction that vanishes when two distinguishable fermions are at the same location, and would be unaffected by s-wave contact interactions between the two components. We determine the other, interaction-sensitive eigenstates, using a Faddeev ansatz. This problem is nontrivial, due to degeneracies and to the existence of unphysical Faddeev solutions. As an application we present a new conjecture for the fourth-order cluster or virial coefficient of the unitary Fermi gas, in good agreement with the numerical results of Blume and coworkers.
Quantum lattice gas algorithm for the telegraph equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffey, Mark W.; Colburn, Gabriel G.
2009-06-01
The telegraph equation combines features of both the diffusion and wave equations and has many applications to heat propagation, transport in disordered media, and elsewhere. We describe a quantum lattice gas algorithm (QLGA) for this partial differential equation with one spatial dimension. This algorithm generalizes one previously known for the diffusion equation. We present an analysis of the algorithm and accompanying simulation results. The QLGA is suitable for simulation on combined classical-quantum computers.
Expansion of a Quantum Gas Released from an Optical Lattice
Gerbier, F.; Trotzky, S.; Schnorrberger, U.; Thompson, J. D.; Bloch, I.; Foelling, S.; Widera, A.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.
2008-10-10
We analyze the interference pattern produced by ultracold atoms released from an optical lattice, commonly interpreted as the momentum distributions of the trapped quantum gas. We show that for finite times of flight the resulting density distribution can, however, be significantly altered, similar to a near-field diffraction regime in optics. We illustrate our findings with a simple model and realistic quantum Monte Carlo simulations for bosonic atoms and compare the latter to experiments.
Expansion of a Quantum Gas Released from an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerbier, F.; Trotzky, S.; Fölling, S.; Schnorrberger, U.; Thompson, J. D.; Widera, A.; Bloch, I.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Prokof'Ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.
2008-10-01
We analyze the interference pattern produced by ultracold atoms released from an optical lattice, commonly interpreted as the momentum distributions of the trapped quantum gas. We show that for finite times of flight the resulting density distribution can, however, be significantly altered, similar to a near-field diffraction regime in optics. We illustrate our findings with a simple model and realistic quantum Monte Carlo simulations for bosonic atoms and compare the latter to experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vahala, George; Yepez, Jeffrey; Vahala, Linda
2008-04-01
The ground state wave function for a Bose Einstein condensate is well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A Type-II quantum algorithm is devised that is ideally parallelized even on a classical computer. Only 2 qubits are required per spatial node. With unitary local collisions, streaming of entangled states and a spatially inhomogeneous unitary gauge rotation one recovers the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Quantum vortex reconnection is simulated - even without any viscosity or resistivity (which are needed in classical vortex reconnection).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahu, Praveen Kumar; Nath, Gorakh
2016-07-01
Cylindrical shock wave in a dusty gas is discussed under the action of monochromatic radiation into stellar atmosphere with a constant intensity on unit area. The gas is assumed to be grey and opaque and shock to be transparent. The dusty gas is assumed to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles. To obtain some essential features of the shock propagation, small solid particles are taken as pseudo-fluid and it is assumed that the equilibrium flow condition is maintained in the flow-field. The effects of variation of the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas, the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture, the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas and the radiation parameter are investigated. It is shown that an increase in the parameters of the non-idealness of the gas and the radiation parameter have decaying effect on the shock waves; whereas with an increase in the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas the shock strength increases. It is found that an increase in the parameter non-idealness of the gas and the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas have opposite behaviour on fluid velocity, pressure and shock strength. Also, it is shown that an increase in the radiation parameter has effect to decrease the flow variables and the shock strength.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.
1981-01-01
The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.
Quantum dew: Formation of quantum liquid in a nonequilibrium Bose gas
Khlebnikov, S.; Tkachev, I.; TH Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland,; Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312, Russia
2000-04-15
We consider phase separation in a nonequilibrium Bose gas with an attractive interaction between particles. Using numerical integrations on a lattice, we show that the system evolves into a state that contains drops of a Bose-Einstein condensate suspended in uncondensed gas. When the initial gas is sufficiently rarefied, the rate of formation of this quantum dew scales with the initial density as expected for a process governed by two-particle collisions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.
2015-08-01
The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V ˙ ≡ d V / d t , x ˙ , and T ˙ . The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for T ˙ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal.
Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures.
Alekseechkin, Nikolay V
2015-08-01
The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V̇≡dV/dt, ẋ, and Ṫ. The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for Ṫ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal. PMID:26254656
Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.
2008-07-01
This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).
A quantum-gas microscope for fermionic 40-potassium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhr, Stefan
2016-05-01
Single-atom-resolved detection in optical lattices using quantum-gas microscopes has enabled a new generation of experiments in the field of quantum simulation. Here we demonstrate single-site- and single-atom-resolved florescence imaging of fermionic potassium-40 atoms in a quantum-gas microscope setup using electromagnetically-induced-transparency cooling. We detected on average 1000 fluorescence photons from a single atom within 1.5 s, while keeping it close to the vibrational ground state of the optical lattice. Our fermionic quantum-gas microscope will provide the possibility to probe quantities that are difficult to access in bulk systems, such as spin-spin-correlation functions or string-order. It would allow the study of, e.g. the Fermi-Hubbard Model and allow for the direct observation of band insulators, metallic phases and Mott insulators at the single-atom level. Future studies could include out-of-equilibrium dynamics, and the direct observation of entanglement build-up of in many-particle fermionic quantum systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jeffrey M.
1999-01-01
This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kano, Yuya; Kayukawa, Yohei; Fujii, Kenichi; Sato, Haruki
2010-12-01
The isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf, which is expected to be one of the best alternative refrigerants for HFC-134a, was determined on the basis of speed-of-sound measurements in the gaseous phase. The speed of sound was measured by means of the acoustic resonance method using a spherical cavity. The resonance frequency in the spherical cavity containing the sample gas was measured to determine the speed of sound. After correcting for some effects such as the thermal boundary layer and deformation of the cavity on the resonance frequency, the speed of sound was obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.01 %. Using the measured speed-of-sound data, the acoustic-virial equation was formulated and the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity was determined with a relative uncertainty of 0.1 %. A temperature correlation function of the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf was also developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar
2016-08-01
This paper made attempt to investigate thermodynamically a nano scale irreversible Otto cycle for optimizing its performance. This system employed an ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas as a working fluid. Two different scenarios were proposed in the multi-objective optimization process and the results of each of the scenarios were examined separately. The first scenario made attempt to maximize the dimensionless ecological function and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. Furthermore, the second scenario tried to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance and minimize the dimensionless entransy dissipation of the system. The multi objective evolutionary method integrated with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was used to optimize the proposed objective functions. To determine the final output of each scenario, three efficient decision makers were employed. Finally, error analysis was employed to determine the deviation of solutions chosen by decision makers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pandey, Manoj
2010-02-01
A group theoretic method is used to obtain an exact particular solution to the system of partial differential equations, describing one-dimensional unsteady planar, cylindrically and spherically symmetric motions in an ideal gas, involving shock waves. It is interesting to remark that the exact solution obtained here is precisely the blast wave solution obtained earlier using a different method of approach. Further, the evolution of a discontinuity wave and its interaction with the strong shock are studied within the state characterized by the exact particular solution. The properties of reflected and transmitted waves and the jump in the shock acceleration are completely characterized, and certain observations are noted in respect to their contrasting behavior.
A quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moses, Steven A.
Ultracold polar molecules, because of their long-range, spatially anisotropic interactions, are a new quantum system in which to study novel many-body phenomena. In our lab, we have produced the first quantum gas of 40K 87Rb polar molecules. These molecules were found to undergo exothermic chemical reactions, and this led to interesting studies of chemistry near absolute zero. By creating the molecules at individual sites of a 3D optical lattice, we completely suppress these chemical reactions, and the polar molecule gas becomes stable and lives for tens of seconds. This thesis documents our efforts to explore coherent, many-body phenomena resulting from long-range dipolar interactions in the lattice. By encoding a spin-1/2 system in the rotational states of the molecules, we were able to realize spin-exchange interactions based on a spin Hamiltonian, which is one of the first steps in studying quantum magnetism with polar molecules. While this study was the first realization of such coherent dipolar interactions with polar molecules in a lattice, its full potential was limited by the low lattice filling fractions. Using our ability to exquisitely control the initial atomic gas mixture, we loaded a Mott insulator of Rb and a band insulator of K into the lattice. This quantum synthesis approach led to significantly higher molecular filling fractions and represents the first fully connected system of polar molecules in an optical lattice. This low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules opens the door to interesting quantum simulations, which should be attainable in the next generation of the experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Sobirov, Zarifboy A.; Matrasulov, Davron U.; Avazbaev, Sanat K.
2012-12-01
We study a nonequilibrium equation of states of an ideal quantum gas confined in the cavity under a moving piston with a small but finite velocity in the case in which the cavity wall suddenly begins to move at the time origin. Confining ourselves to the thermally isolated process, the quantum nonadiabatic (QNA) contribution to Poisson's adiabatic equations and to Bernoulli's formula which bridges the pressure and internal energy is elucidated. We carry out a statistical mean of the nonadiabatic (time-reversal-symmetric) force operator found in our preceding paper [Nakamura , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.83.041133 83, 041133 (2011)] in both the low-temperature quantum-mechanical and high-temperature quasiclassical regimes. The QNA contribution, which is proportional to the square of the piston's velocity and to the inverse of the longitudinal size of the cavity, has a coefficient that is dependent on the temperature, gas density, and dimensionality of the cavity. The investigation is done for a unidirectionally expanding three-dimensional (3D) rectangular parallelepiped cavity as well as its 1D version. Its relevance in a realistic nanoscale heat engine is discussed.
A Non-destructive Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Yogesh; Chakram, Srivatsan; Vengalattore, Mukund
2014-05-01
We have demonstrated a two photon fluorescence imaging technique which allows in situ imaging of a lattice gas of Rb atoms. We report progress on extending this technique to fermionic species, in our case, 6 Li . In contrast to demonstrated means of quantum gas microscopy using molasses cooling, our scheme is not restricted to atomic species amenable to polarization gradient cooling. Furthermore, our imaging scheme is nondestructive in the limit of zero duty cycle of using the Raman transition for imaging and cooling. This presents new opportunities for non-equilibrium many-body studies involving the continuous measurement of system dynamics, measurement based many-body control of the lattice gas and quantum zeno physics. We also describe progress towards augmenting our current system with single site resolution imaging. This work was supported by the NSF and DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO.
Hozumi, T.; Sato, H.; Watanabe, K.
1996-09-01
The speed of sound in gaseous 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a, CF{sub 3}CH{sub 2}F) and difluoromethane (R-32, CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}) has been measured by using a spherical resonator. The measurements for R-134a have been carried out along two isotherms at 323 K and 343 K and at pressures up to 400 kPa for a total of 26 values. For R-32 the measurements were made at 308 K, 323 K, 333 K, and 343 K and at pressures up to 500 kPa for a total of 44 measurements. The experimental uncertainties for R-134a in temperature, pressure, and speed of sound are estimated to be not greater than {+-}6 mK, {+-}0.2 kPa, and {+-}0.0061%, respectively. The experimental uncertainties for R-32 in temperature, pressure, and speed of sound are estimated to be not greater than {+-}8 mK, {+-}0.2 kPa, and {+-}0.0061%, respectively. The purities of the R-134a and R-32 samples were better than 99.95% and 99.99% of area percent of the gas chromatography, respectively. The authors have determined the ideal-gas heat capacities and the second acoustic virial coefficients from the speed-of-sound measurements.
Nonequilibrium quantum magnetism in a dipolar lattice gas.
de Paz, A; Sharma, A; Chotia, A; Maréchal, E; Huckans, J H; Pedri, P; Santos, L; Gorceix, O; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B
2013-11-01
We report on the realization of quantum magnetism using a degenerate dipolar gas in an optical lattice. Our system implements a lattice model resembling the celebrated t-J model. It is characterized by a nonequilibrium spinor dynamics resulting from intersite Heisenberg-like spin-spin interactions provided by nonlocal dipole-dipole interactions. Moreover, due to its large spin, our chromium lattice gases constitute an excellent environment for the study of quantum magnetism of high-spin systems, as illustrated by the complex spin dynamics observed for doubly occupied sites. PMID:24237534
Nonequilibrium Quantum Magnetism in a Dipolar Lattice Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Paz, A.; Sharma, A.; Chotia, A.; Maréchal, E.; Huckans, J. H.; Pedri, P.; Santos, L.; Gorceix, O.; Vernac, L.; Laburthe-Tolra, B.
2013-11-01
We report on the realization of quantum magnetism using a degenerate dipolar gas in an optical lattice. Our system implements a lattice model resembling the celebrated t-J model. It is characterized by a nonequilibrium spinor dynamics resulting from intersite Heisenberg-like spin-spin interactions provided by nonlocal dipole-dipole interactions. Moreover, due to its large spin, our chromium lattice gases constitute an excellent environment for the study of quantum magnetism of high-spin systems, as illustrated by the complex spin dynamics observed for doubly occupied sites.
Beau, Mathieu; Savoie, Baptiste
2014-05-15
In this paper, we rigorously investigate the reduced density matrix (RDM) associated to the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps. We present a method based on a sum-decomposition of the RDM allowing to treat not only the isotropic trap, but also general anisotropic traps. When focusing on the isotropic trap, the method is analogous to the loop-gas approach developed by Mullin [“The loop-gas approach to Bose-Einstein condensation for trapped particles,” Am. J. Phys. 68(2), 120 (2000)]. Turning to the case of anisotropic traps, we examine the RDM for some anisotropic trap models corresponding to some quasi-1D and quasi-2D regimes. For such models, we bring out an additional contribution in the local density of particles which arises from the mesoscopic loops. The close connection with the occurrence of generalized-Bose-Einstein condensation is discussed. Our loop-gas-like approach provides relevant information which can help guide numerical investigations on highly anisotropic systems based on the Path Integral Monte Carlo method.
Quantum critical transport in the unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enss, Tilman
2012-07-01
The thermodynamic and transport properties of the unitary Fermi gas at finite temperature T are governed by a quantum critical point at T=0 and zero density. We compute the universal shear viscosity to entropy ratio η/s in the high-temperature quantum critical regime T≫|μ| and find that this strongly coupled quantum fluid comes close to perfect fluidity η/s=ℏ/(4πkB). Using a controlled large-N expansion, we show that already at the first nontrivial order the equation of state and the Tan contact density C agree well with the most recent experimental measurements and theoretical Luttinger-Ward and bold diagrammatic Monte Carlo calculations.
Imaginary time integration method using a quantum lattice gas approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oganesov, Armen; Flint, Christopher; Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Yepez, Jeffrey; Soe, Min
2016-02-01
By modifying the collision operator in the quantum lattice gas (QLG) algorithm one can develop an imaginary time (IT) integration to determine the ground state solutions of the Schrödinger equation and its variants. These solutions are compared to those found by other methods (in particular the backward-Euler finite-difference scheme and the quantum lattice Boltzmann). In particular, the ground state of the quantum harmonic oscillator is considered as well as bright solitons in the one-dimensional (1D) non-linear Schrödinger equation. The dark solitons in an external potential are then determined. An advantage of the QLG IT algorithm is the avoidance of any real/complex matrix inversion and that its extension to arbitrary dimensions is straightforward.
Shortcut to Adiabaticity for an Anisotropic Gas Containing Quantum Defects.
Papoular, D J; Stringari, S
2015-07-10
We present a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) protocol applicable to 3D unitary Fermi gases and 2D weakly interacting Bose gases containing defects such as vortices or solitons. Our protocol relies on a new class of exact scaling solutions in the presence of anisotropic time-dependent harmonic traps. It connects stationary states in initial and final traps having the same frequency ratios. The resulting scaling laws exhibit a universal form and also apply to the classical Boltzmann gas. The duration of the STA can be made very short so as to realize a quantum quench from one stationary state to another. When applied to an anisotropically trapped superfluid gas, the STA conserves the shape of the quantum defects hosted by the cloud, thereby acting like a perfect microscope, which sharply contrasts with their strong distortion occurring during the free expansion of the cloud. PMID:26207476
Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy
Jágerská, J.; Tuzson, B.; Mangold, M.; Emmenegger, L.; Jouy, P.; Hugi, A.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.; Looser, H.
2014-10-20
We demonstrate a sequentially operating dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser with electrically separated laser sections, emitting single-mode at 5.25 and 6.25 μm. Based on a single waveguide ridge, this laser represents a considerable asset to optical sensing and trace gas spectroscopy, as it allows probing multiple gas species with spectrally distant absorption features using conventional optical setups without any beam combining optics. The laser capability was demonstrated in simultaneous NO and NO{sub 2} detection, reaching sub-ppb detection limits and selectivity comparable to conventional high-end spectroscopic systems.
When is a quantum cellular automaton (QCA) a quantum lattice gas automaton (QLGA)?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakeel, Asif; Love, Peter J.
2013-09-01
Quantum cellular automata (QCA) are models of quantum computation of particular interest from the point of view of quantum simulation. Quantum lattice gas automata (QLGA - equivalently partitioned quantum cellular automata) represent an interesting subclass of QCA. QLGA have been more deeply analyzed than QCA, whereas general QCA are likely to capture a wider range of quantum behavior. Discriminating between QLGA and QCA is therefore an important question. In spite of much prior work, classifying which QCA are QLGA has remained an open problem. In the present paper we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for unbounded, finite QCA (finitely many active cells in a quiescent background) to be QLGA. We define a local condition that classifies those QCA that are QLGA, and we show that there are QCA that are not QLGA. We use a number of tools from functional analysis of separable Hilbert spaces and representation theory of associative algebras that enable us to treat QCA on finite but unbounded configurations in full detail.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yu, Anne
2010-01-01
The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…
Control of hot-carrier relaxation for realizing ideal quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells
Tex, David M.; Kamiya, Itaru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2014-01-01
For intermediate-band solar cells, the broad absorption spectrum of quantum dots (QDs) offers a favorable conversion efficiency, and photocurrent generation via efficient two-step two-photon-absorption (TS-TPA) in QDs is essential for realizing high-performance solar cells. In the last decade, many works were dedicated to improve the TS-TPA efficiency by modifying the QD itself, however, the obtained results are far from the requirements for practical applications. To reveal the mechanisms behind the low TS-TPA efficiency in QDs, we report here on two- and three-beam photocurrent measurements of InAs quantum structures embedded in AlGaAs. Comparison of two- and three-beam photocurrent spectra obtained by subbandgap excitation reveals that the QD TS-TPA efficiency is improved significantly by suppressing the relaxation of hot TS-TPA carriers to unoccupied shallow InAs quantum structure states. PMID:24535195
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Gorakh
2016-07-01
Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional adiabatic flow behind a magnetogasdynamics cylindrical shock wave propagating in a rotational axisymmetric non ideal gas with increasing energy and conductive and radiative heat fluxes in presence of an azimuthal magnetic field. The fluid velocities and the azimuthal magnetic field in the ambient medium are assume to be varying and obeying power laws. In order to find the similarity solutions the angular velocity of the ambient medium is taken to be decreasing as the distance from the axis increases. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The effects of the presence of radiation and conduction, the non-idealness of the gas and the magnetic field on the shock propagation and the flow behind the shock are investigated.
Dipolar Physics in an Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebert, Anne; Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team
2016-05-01
Erbium offers exciting possibilities for extending the single-site imaging work of current quantum gas microscopes. With a magnetic dipole moment of 7μB, the dipole-dipole interaction of erbium is 50 times that of alkali atoms. The long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole interaction adds richness to the short-range interactions that dominate the physics of the ground-state alkali atoms commonly used in ultracold experiments today. Erbium has several abundant isotopes, giving the added flexibility of studying both bosonic and fermionic systems. We present proposed avenues of research for the dipolar microscope being developed, including studies of magnetism, the Einstein-de Haas effect, and quantum phase transitions with fractional filling factors.
Ultrastable, Zerodur-based optical benches for quantum gas experiments.
Duncker, Hannes; Hellmig, Ortwin; Wenzlawski, André; Grote, Alexander; Rafipoor, Amir Jones; Rafipoor, Mona; Sengstock, Klaus; Windpassinger, Patrick
2014-07-10
Operating ultracold quantum gas experiments outside of a laboratory environment has so far been a challenging goal, largely due to the lack of sufficiently stable optical systems. In order to increase the thermal stability of free-space laser systems, the application of nonstandard materials such as glass ceramics is required. Here, we report on Zerodur-based optical systems which include single-mode fiber couplers consisting of multiple components jointed by light-curing adhesives. The thermal stability is thoroughly investigated, revealing excellent fiber-coupling efficiencies between 0.85 and 0.92 in the temperature range from 17°C to 36°C. In conjunction with successfully performed vibration tests, these findings qualify our highly compact systems for atom interferometry experiments aboard a sounding rocket as well as various other quantum information and sensing applications. PMID:25090066
Chen, Xiaohong; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Fuchun; Chen, Hangyang; Kang, Junyong E-mail: jykang@xmu.edu.cn; Lin, Na; Cai, Duanjun E-mail: jykang@xmu.edu.cn
2015-03-16
A technique for achieving square-shape quantum wells (QWs) against the intrinsic polar discontinuity and interfacial diffusion through self-compensated pair interlayers is reported. Ultrathin low-and-high % pair interlayers that have diffusion-blocking and self-compensation capacities is proposed to resist the elemental diffusion at nanointerfaces and to grow the theoretically described abrupt rectangular AlGaN/GaN superlattices by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Light emission efficiency in such nanostructures is effectively enhanced and the quantum-confined Stark effect could be partially suppressed. This concept could effectively improve the quality of ultrathin QWs in functional nanostructures with other semiconductors or through other growth methods.
Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology
Lamon, Raphael; Woehr, Andreas J.
2010-01-15
The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.
Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamon, Raphael; Wöhr, Andreas J.
2010-01-01
The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.
The Instability of Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Gated and Ungated Quantum Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liping
2016-04-01
The instability of terahertz (THz) plasma waves in two-dimensional (2D) quantum electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with asymmetrical boundary conditions has been investigated. We analyze THz plasma waves of two parts of the 2D quantum electron gas: gated and ungated regions. The results show that the radiation frequency and the increment (radiation power) in 2D ungated quantum electron gas are much higher than that in 2D gated quantum electron gas. The quantum effects always enhance the radiation power and enlarge the region of instability in both cases. This allows us to conclude that 2D quantum electron gas in the transistor channel is important for the emission and detection process and both gated and ungated parts take part in that process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10975114)
A quantum gas of ground state molecules in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danzl, Johann; Mark, Manfred; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Hart, Russell; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2009-05-01
Ultracold samples of molecules are ideally suited for fundamental studies in physics and chemistry. For many of the proposed experiments full molecular state control and high phase space densities are needed. We create a dense quantum gas of ground state Cs2 molecules trapped at the wells of a 3D optical lattice, i.e. a molecular Mott-insulator-like state with ground state molecules with vibrational quantum number v = 0. We first efficiently produce weakly bound molecules with v 155 on a Feshbach resonance out of an atomic Mott-insulator state that is obtained from a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of Cs atoms. These molecules are then (coherently) transferred to the ground state by two sequential two-photon STIRAP processes via the intermediate vibrational level v 73 ^1. The molecule production efficiency and the single-step STIRAP transfer efficiency reach 50% and 80%, respectively. We discuss the stability of the system and our progress towards the creation of a BEC of ground state molecules, which is expected to form when the molecular Mott-like state is ``melted'' upon lowering the lattice depth and releasing the molecules from the wells into a large volume trap. ^1J. G. Danzl, E. Haller, M. Gustavsson, M. Mark, R. Hart, N. Bouloufa, O. Dulieu, H. Ritsch, H.-C. Nägerl, Science 321, 1062 (2008).
Quantum gas microscopy of the interacting Harper-Hofstadter system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alex; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Greiner, Markus
2016-05-01
At the heart of many topological states is the underlying gauge field. One example of a gauge field is the magnetic field which causes the deflection of a moving charged particle. This behavior can be understood through the Aharonov-Bohm phase that a particle acquires upon traversing a closed path. Gauge fields give rise to novel states of matter that cannot be described with symmetry breaking. Instead, these states, e.g. fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, are characterized by topological invariants, such as the Chern number. In this talk, we report on experimental results upon introducing a gauge field in a system of strongly-interacting ultracold Rb87 atoms confined to a 2D optical lattice. With single-site resolution afforded by a quantum gas microscope, we can prepare a fixed atom number and project hard walls. With an artificial gauge field, this quantum simulator realizes the Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian. We can independently control the two tunneling strengths as well as dynamically change the flux. This flexibility enables studies of topological phenomena from many perspectives, e.g. site-resolved images of edge currents. With the strong on-site interactions possible in our system, these experiments will pave the way to observing FQH-like states in a lattice.
Hurly, J.J.; Schmidt, J.W.; Gillis, K.A.
1997-05-01
The authors present the gas-phase equation of state and ideal-gas heat capacity of a ternary mixture of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (35%), pentafluoroethane (30%), and difluoromethane (35%) for temperatures between 260 and 453 K and pressures between 0.05 and 7.7 MPa. These results were based on two very different measurement techniques. The first technique measured the gas density of the mixture in a Burnett apparatus from 313 to 453 K and from 0.2 to 7.7 MPa. The second technique deduced the gas density and ideal-gas heat capacity from high-accuracy speed-of-sound measurements in the mixture at temperatures between 260 and 400 K and at pressures between 0.05 and 1.0 MPa. The data from the two techniques were analyzed together to obtain an equation of state that reproduced the densities from the Burnett technique with a fractional RMS deviation of 0.038%, and it also reproduced the sound speeds with a fractional RMS deviation of 0.003%. Finally, the results are compared to a predictive model based on the properties of the pure fluids.
Suppression of the quantum-mechanical collapse by repulsive interactions in a quantum gas
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2011-01-15
The quantum-mechanical collapse (alias fall onto the center of particles attracted by potential -r{sup -2}) is a well-known issue in quantum theory. It is closely related to the quantum anomaly, i.e., breaking of the scaling invariance of the respective Hamiltonian by quantization. We demonstrate that the mean-field repulsive nonlinearity prevents the collapse and thus puts forward a solution to the quantum-anomaly problem that differs from that previously developed in the framework of the linear quantum-field theory. This solution may be realized in the 3D or 2D gas of dipolar bosons attracted by a central charge and in the 2D gas of magnetic dipoles attracted by a current filament. In the 3D setting, the dipole-dipole interactions are also taken into regard, in the mean-field approximation, resulting in a redefinition of the scattering length which accounts for the contact repulsion between the bosons. In lieu of the collapse, the cubic nonlinearity creates a 3D ground state (GS), which does not exist in the respective linear Schroedinger equation. The addition of the harmonic trap gives rise to a tristability, in the case when the Schroedinger equation still does not lead to the collapse. In the 2D setting, the cubic nonlinearity is not strong enough to prevent the collapse; however, the quintic term does it, creating the GS, as well as its counterparts carrying the angular momentum (vorticity). Counterintuitively, such self-trapped 2D modes exist even in the case of a weakly repulsive potential r{sup -2}. The 2D vortical modes avoid the phase singularity at the pivot (r=0) by having the amplitude diverging at r{yields}0 instead of the usual situation with the amplitude of the vortical mode vanishing at r{yields}0 (the norm of the mode converges despite of the singularity of the amplitude at r{yields}0). In the presence of the harmonic trap, the 2D quintic model with a weakly repulsive central potential r{sup -2} gives rise to three confined modes, the middle
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
An Erbium Quantum Gas Microscope with a Reflective Objective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krahn, Aaron; Phelps, Gregory; Hebert, Anne; Dickerson, Susannah; Greiner, Markus; Erbium Lab Team
2016-05-01
Dipolar atoms present an exciting opportunity to extend previous quantum gas microscope (QGM) experiments to more complex systems influenced by long range, anisotropic interactions. We present on current progress toward the construction of a QGM for ultracold Erbium atoms in an optical lattice, including the development of a novel imaging system for single-site resolution. While most QGMs until now have typically utilized a high numerical aperture microscope objective, we discuss a reflective mirror alternative that offers an equally high NA (.9-.95), a comparable field of view (34 micrometers radial), and a larger working distance (25 millimeters) that keeps the atoms far from any surfaces. By operating in a Schmidt telescope configuration, this imaging system is well-suited both for collecting 401 nm imaging fluorescence and for the creation of an expandable lattice with a variety of associated lattice geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freidberg, Jeffrey P.
2014-06-01
1. Introduction; 2. The ideal MHD model; 3. General properties of ideal MHD; 5. Equilibrium: one-dimensional configurations; 6. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations; 7. Equilibrium: three-dimensional configurations; 8. Stability: general considerations; 9. Alternate MHD models; 10. MHD stability comparison theorems; 11. Stability: one-dimensional configurations; 12. Stability: multi-dimensional configurations; Appendix A. Heuristic derivation of the kinetic equation; Appendix B. The Braginskii transport coefficients; Appendix C. Time derivatives in moving plasmas; Appendix D. The curvature vector; Appendix E. Overlap limit of the high b and Greene-Johnson stellarator models; Appendix F. General form for q(y); Appendix G. Natural boundary conditions; Appendix H. Upper and lower bounds on dQKIN.
Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions.
Micci, Michael M; Yepez, Jeffrey
2015-09-01
Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16K×8K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity. PMID:26465581
Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Micci, Michael M.; Yepez, Jeffrey
2015-09-01
Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16 K ×8 K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity.
Implementation of a Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Rhys; Venu, Vijin; Xu, Peihang; Edge, Graham; Jervis, Dylan; McKay, Dave; Day, Ryan; Trotzky, Stefan; Thywissen, Joseph
2016-05-01
We discuss the technical development of a quantum gas microscope for 40 K. We load a degenerate Fermi gas into a cubic optical lattice of period 527 nm, which is capable of simulating the Fermi-Hubbard model. The sample is prepared in UHV below a 200 μm-thick sapphire window, at the focus of a 5 mm focal length objective located outside the chamber. To isolate a single plane for imaging, we perform spectroscopic selection in a 210 G/cm gradient, which separates the hyperfine transition frequencies of adjacent vertical planes by 28 kHz. We actively suppress variations in the transition frequency due to fluctuations in the ambient magnetic field to less than 3 kHz via a feed-forward stabilization system. EIT cooling on the 770.1 nm D1 transition facilitates fluorescence imaging of our atoms with long exposures. Atoms remain pinned in a 200 μK-deep lattice, with a 1 / e lifetime of 67(9) s , while scattering ~103 photons per second. Collection of fluorescence photons onto an EMCCD via a 0.8 NA objective results in a PSF of FHWM 600 nm, and 94(2)% of atoms identified in the first frame remain pinned in successive frames, enabling reconstruction of the lattice-site occupancy. We present ongoing progress in obtaining lower entropy samples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.
1992-01-01
A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.
Quantum mechanics of lattice gas automata: One-particle plane waves and potentials
Meyer, D.A.
1997-05-01
Classical lattice gas automata effectively simulate physical processes, such as diffusion and fluid flow (in certain parameter regimes), despite their simplicity at the microscale. Motivated by current interest in quantum computation we recently defined {ital quantum} lattice gas automata; in this paper we initiate a project to analyze which physical processes these models can effectively simulate. Studying the single particle sector of a one-dimensional quantum lattice gas we find discrete analogs of plane waves and wave packets, and then investigate their behavior in the presence of inhomogeneous potentials. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Optimizing quantum gas production by an evolutionary algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lausch, T.; Hohmann, M.; Kindermann, F.; Mayer, D.; Schmidt, F.; Widera, A.
2016-05-01
We report on the application of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) to enhance performance of an ultra-cold quantum gas experiment. The production of a ^{87}rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can be divided into fundamental cooling steps, specifically magneto-optical trapping of cold atoms, loading of atoms to a far-detuned crossed dipole trap, and finally the process of evaporative cooling. The EA is applied separately for each of these steps with a particular definition for the feedback, the so-called fitness. We discuss the principles of an EA and implement an enhancement called differential evolution. Analyzing the reasons for the EA to improve, e.g., the atomic loading rates and increase the BEC phase-space density, yields an optimal parameter set for the BEC production and enables us to reduce the BEC production time significantly. Furthermore, we focus on how additional information about the experiment and optimization possibilities can be extracted and how the correlations revealed allow for further improvement. Our results illustrate that EAs are powerful optimization tools for complex experiments and exemplify that the application yields useful information on the dependence of these experiments on the optimized parameters.
Collective oscillations of a trapped quantum gas in low dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Rosi, Giulia; Stringari, Sandro
2015-11-01
We present a comprehensive study of the discretized modes of an atomic gas in different conditions of confinement. Starting from the equations of hydrodynamics we derive a closed equation for the velocity field, depending on the adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities and applicable to different dimensions and quantum statistics. At zero temperature the equation reproduces the irrotational behavior of superfluid hydrodynamics. It is also applicable above the critical temperature in the collisional regime, where the appearance of rotational components in the velocity field is caused by the external potential. In the presence of harmonic trapping, a general class of analytic solutions is obtained for systems exhibiting a polytropic equation of state, characterized by a power law isoentropic dependence of the pressure on the density. Explicit results for the compressional modes are derived for both Bose and Fermi gases in the pancake and cigar as well as in the deep two- and one-dimensional regimes. Our results agree with the analytical predictions available in the literature in some limiting cases. They are particularly relevant in one-dimensional configurations, where the study of the collective frequencies could provide a unique test of the achievement of the collisional regime at finite temperature.
Knapp, Julia L A; Osenbrück, Karsten; Cirpka, Olaf A
2015-10-15
Estimating respiration and photosynthesis rates in streams usually requires good knowledge of reaeration at the given locations. For this purpose, gas-tracer tests can be conducted, and reaeration rate coefficients are determined from the decrease in gas concentration along the river stretch. The typical procedure for analysis of such tests is based on simplifying assumptions, as it neglects dispersion altogether and does not consider possible fluctuations and trends in the input signal. We mathematically derive the influence of these non-idealities on estimated reaeration rates and how they are propagated onto the evaluation of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis rates from oxygen monitoring. We apply the approach to field data obtained from a gas-tracer test using propane in a second-order stream in Southwest Germany. We calculate the reaeration rate coefficients accounting for dispersion as well as trends and uncertainty in the input signals and compare them to the standard approach. We show that neglecting dispersion significantly underestimates reaeration, and results between sections cannot be compared if trends in the input signal of the gas tracer are disregarded. Using time series of dissolved oxygen and the various estimates of reaeration, we infer respiration and photosynthesis rates for the same stream section, demonstrating that the bias and uncertainty of reaeration using the different approaches significantly affects the calculation of metabolic rates. PMID:26150069
Olivares-Quiroz, L
2016-07-01
A coarse-grained statistical mechanics-based model for ideal heteropolymer proteinogenic chains of non-interacting residues is presented in terms of the size K of the chain and the set of helical propensities [Formula: see text] associated with each residue j along the chain. For this model, we provide an algorithm to compute the degeneracy tensor [Formula: see text] associated with energy level [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the number of residues with a native contact in a given conformation. From these results, we calculate the equilibrium partition function [Formula: see text] and characteristic temperature [Formula: see text] at which a transition from a low to a high entropy states is observed. The formalism is applied to analyze the effect on characteristic temperatures [Formula: see text] of single-point mutations and deletions of specific amino acids [Formula: see text] along the chain. Two probe systems are considered. First, we address the case of a random heteropolymer of size K and given helical propensities [Formula: see text] on a conformational phase space. Second, we focus our attention to a particular set of neuropentapeptides, [Met-5] and [Leu-5] enkephalins whose thermodynamic stability is a key feature on their coupling to [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] receptors and the triggering of biochemical responses. PMID:26818963
Carlisle, TK; Wiesenauer, EF; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD
2013-01-23
Six vinyl-based, imidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) monomers were synthesized and photopolymerized to form dense poly(RTIL) membranes. The effect of polymer backbone (i.e., poly(ethylene), poly(styrene), and poly(acrylate)) and functional cationic substituent (e.g., alkyl, fluoroalkyl, oligo(ethylene glycol), and disiloxane) on ideal CO2/N-2 and CO2/CH4 membrane separation performance was investigated. The vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be generally less CO2-selective compared to analogous styrene- and acrylate-based poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 permeability of n-hexyl-(69 barrers) and disiloxane- (130 barrers) substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be exceptionally larger than that of previously studied styrene and acrylate poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 selectivity of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s was enhanced, and the CO2 permeability was reduced when compared to the n-hexyl-substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL). Nominal improvement in CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed upon fluorination of the n-hexyl vinyl-based poly(RTIL), with no observed change in CO2 permeability. However, rather dramatic improvements in both CO2 permeability and selectivity were observed upon blending 20 mol % RTIL (emim Tf2N) into the n-hexyl- and disiloxane-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s to form solid liquid composite films.
Universal Quantum Viscosity in a Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chenglin
Unitary Fermi gases, first observed in 2002, have been widely studied as they provide model systems for tabletop research on a variety of strongly coupled systems, including the high temperature superconductors, quark-gluon plasmas and neutron stars. A two component 6Li unitary Fermi gas is created through a collisional Feshbach resonance centered around 834G, using all-optical trapping and cooling methods. In the vicinity of the Feshbach resonance, the atoms are strongly interacting and exhibit universal behaviors, where the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are universal functions of the density n and temperature T. Thus, unitary Fermi gases provide a paradigm to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and field-crossing interests. This dissertation reports the measurement of the quantum shear viscosity in a 6Li unitary Fermi gas, which is the first measurement of transport coefficients for unitary Fermi gases. Two hydrodynamic experiments are employed to measure the shear viscosity eta in different temperature regimes: the anisotropic expansion for the high temperature regime and the radial breathing mode for the low temperature regime. In order to consistently and quantitatively extract the shear viscosity from these two experiments, the hydrodynamic theory is utilized to derive the universal hydrodynamic equations, which include both friction force and heating arising from frictions. These equations are simplified and solved, considering the universal properties of unitary Fermi gases as well as the specific conditions for each experiment. Using these universal hydrodynamic equations, shear viscosity is extracted from the anisotropic expansion conducted at high temperatures and the predicted eta ∝ T3/2 scaling is demonstrated. The demonstration of the high temperature scaling sets a benchmark for measuring viscosity at low temperatures. For the low temperature breathing mode experiment, the
Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas
Hornberger, Klaus
2006-08-11
The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of S-matrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diba, Abdou Salam
Since the advent of semiconductor lasers, the development of tunable laser sources has been subject of many efforts in industry and academia arenas. This interest towards broadly tunable lasers is mainly due to the great promise they have in many applications ranging from telecommunication, to environmental science and homeland security, just to name a few. After the first demonstration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the early nineties, QCL has experienced a rapid development, so much so that QCLs are now the most reliable and efficient laser source in the Mid-IR range covering between 3 microm to 30 microm region of the electromagnetic spectrum. QCLs have almost all the desirable characteristics of a laser for spectroscopy applications such as narrow spectral linewidth ideal for high selectivity measurement, high power enabling high sensitivity sensing and more importantly they emit in the finger-print region of most of the trace gases and large molecules. The need for widely tunable QCLs is now more pressing than ever before. A single mode quantum cascade laser (QCL) such as a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL, is an ideal light source for gas sensing in the MIR wavelength range. Despite their performance and reliability, DFB QCLs are limited by their relatively narrow wavelength tuning range determined by the thermal rollover of the laser. An external cavity (EC) QCL, on the other hand, is a widely tunable laser source, and so far is the choice mid-infrared single frequency light sources for detecting multiple species/large molecules. However, EC QCLs can be complex, bulky and expensive. In the quest for finding alternative broadly wavelength tunable sources in the mid-infrared, many monolithic tunable QCLs are recently proposed and fabricated, including SG-DBR, DFB-Arrays, Slot-hole etc. and they are all of potentially of interest as a candidate for multi-gas sensing and monitoring applications, due to their large tuning range (>50 cm-1), and potentially low
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Ruyter, Doret J.; Spiecker, Ben
2008-01-01
This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the strict sense are rightfully called sexual…
Ravi Samtaney
2009-02-10
We present a numerical method to solve the linear stability of impulsively accelerated density interfaces in two dimensions such as those arising in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The method uses an Eulerian approach, and is based on an unwind method to compute the temporally evolving base state and a flux vector splitting method for the perturbations. The method is applicable to either gas dynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. Numerical examples are presented for cases in which a hydrodynamic shock interacts with a single or double density interface, and a doubly shocked single density interface. Convergence tests show that the method is spatially second order accurate for smooth flows, and between first and second order accurate for flows with shocks.
Physically flexible, rapid-response gas sensor based on colloidal quantum dot solids.
Liu, Huan; Li, Min; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Hu, Long; Fu, Qiuyun; Zhou, Dongxiang; Xia, Zhe; Sargent, Edward H; Tang, Jiang
2014-05-01
A gas sensor based on PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is constructed on a paper substrate, yielding flexible, rapid-response NO₂ gas sensors, fabricated from the solution phase. The devices are highly sensitive and fully recoverable at room temperature, which is attributed to the excellent access of gas molecules to the CQD surface, realized by surface ligand removal, combined with the desirable binding energy of NO₂ with the PbS CQDs. PMID:24452852
Mugruza Vassallo, Carlos
2004-01-01
The general aim is to develop a Venturi flow sensor for the inspiration line to be used in mechanical ventilation. This work is an advance for the development and construction of this sensor and to explain some of its characteristics in mechanical ventilation. The Mach number in this sensor grows with the pipe diameter, but it is less than 0.3 to diameters higher than 3mm, and according to the traditional bibliography it can be used as incompressible fluid for the design. For this reason the simulations were done between 2:1 and 6:1 to simulation pressures from 15 to 16.5 Psi (mechanical ventilation range). The results of these simulations are: it needs to consider the gas compressibility levels for Mach numbers smaller than 0.3 because the error of flow measure can be between 5 and 15% for the pattern of ideal gas and enter 7.5 to 20% for the Van Der Waals model above the incompressibility pattern, and these results were used for the construction of the small reduction the Venturi's pipe from 3 to 78 Lpm, taken from absolute pressure to complete the norm ISO9360. PMID:17272118
Quantum fluctuations of a 1D bosonic gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruostekoski, Janne
2005-05-01
We numerically study the quantum dynamics of a 1D bosonic gas in a shallow optical lattice for both static and time-dependent lattices. In particular, we model the strongly damped dipole oscillations which have recently been observed experimentally at NIST by Fertig et al. cond-mat/0410491. We find a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed damping rates which can be explained as being due to zero temperature quantum fluctuations.
Simulating the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation with a quantum lattice-gas algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prezkuta, Zachary; Coffey, Mark
2007-03-01
Quantum computing algorithms promise remarkable improvements in speed or memory for certain applications. Currently, the Type II (or hybrid) quantum computer is the most feasible to build. This consists of a large number of small Type I (pure) quantum computers that compute with quantum logic, but communicate with nearest neighbors in a classical way. The arrangement thus formed is suitable for computations that execute a quantum lattice gas algorithm (QLGA). We report QLGA simulations for both the linear and nonlinear time-dependent Schr"odinger equation. These evidence the stable, efficient, and at least second order convergent properties of the algorithm. The simulation capability provides a computational tool for applications in nonlinear optics, superconducting and superfluid materials, Bose-Einstein condensates, and elsewhere.
Carbon quantum dot-functionalized aerogels for NO2 gas sensing.
Wang, Ruixue; Li, Geli; Dong, Yongqiang; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan
2013-09-01
Silica aerogels functionalized with strongly fluorescent carbon quantum dots were first prepared and used for simple, sensitive, and selective sensing of NO2 gas. In the presence of ethanol, homemade silica aerogels with a large specific surface area of 801.17 m(2)/g were functionalized with branched polyethylenimine-capped quantum dots (BPEI-CQDs) with fluorescence quantum yield higher than 40%. The prepared porous CQD-aerogel hybrid material could maintain its excellent fluorescence (FL) activity in its solid state. The FL of CQD-aerogel hybrid material could be selectively and sensitively quenched by NO2 gas, suggesting a promising application of the new FL-functionalized aerogels in gas sensing. PMID:23905622
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Muktadir, Rahman; Dwaipayan, Debnath; Md. Sakhawat Hossain, Himel
2016-04-01
Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.
Quantum Control by Imaging: The Zeno Effect in an Ultracold Lattice Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Chakram, Srivatsan; Vengalattore, Mukund
2015-05-01
We demonstrate the control of quantum tunneling in an ultracold lattice gas by the measurement backaction imposed by an imaging process. A in situ imaging technique is used to acquire repeated images of an ultracold gas confined in a shallow optical lattice. The backaction induced by these position measurements modifies the coherent quantum tunneling of atoms within the lattice. By varying the rate at which atoms are imaged, we observe the crossover from the weak measurement regime, where the measurement has a negligible effect on coherent dynamics, to the strong measurement regime, where measurement-induced localization leads to a dramatic suppression of tunneling. The latter effect is a manifestation of the Quantum Zeno effect. We thereby demonstrate the paradigmatic Heisenberg microscope in a lattice gas, and shed light on the implications of quantum measurement on the coherent evolution of a mesoscopic quantum system. Our technique demonstrates a powerful tool for the control of an interacting many-body quantum system via spatially resolved measurement backaction. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics.
Dynamics of a driven quantum gas: Non-hermiticity, pseudo-spectra and phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makris, Konstantinos; Kulkarni, Manas; Tureci, Hakan
2015-03-01
System of an optically driven quantum gas coupled to a single mode of a leaky cavity offers a unique platform to study open quantum systems. This system displays two exceptional points and a quantum critical point when the drive strength (equivalently, the light-matter coupling) is tuned. Here, we study the non-normal properties of this system especially near these special points. Adapting the rich mathematics behind the theory of pseudo-spectra, we characterize the open quantum phase transitions in this system by studying the fluctuations. Our method offers a novel way to understand physics near criticality beyond the traditional approach of arriving at a phase diagram using the semi-classical solutions arising from a mean field approach. We further show that the quench dynamics of a driven dissipative quantum gas displays a non-Markovian dynamics featuring substantial transient amplification of the photon flux near the critical point. We also investigate the non-Hermitian physics behind two-operator products thereby shining light on higher order quantum correlations in an open quantum system.
A quantum gas microscope for detecting single atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice.
Bakr, Waseem S; Gillen, Jonathon I; Peng, Amy; Fölling, Simon; Greiner, Markus
2009-11-01
Recent years have seen tremendous progress in creating complex atomic many-body quantum systems. One approach is to use macroscopic, effectively thermodynamic ensembles of ultracold atoms to create quantum gases and strongly correlated states of matter, and to analyse the bulk properties of the ensemble. For example, bosonic and fermionic atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice can be used for quantum simulations of solid-state models. The opposite approach is to build up microscopic quantum systems atom-by-atom, with complete control over all degrees of freedom. The atoms or ions act as qubits and allow the realization of quantum gates, with the goal of creating highly controllable quantum information systems. Until now, the macroscopic and microscopic strategies have been fairly disconnected. Here we present a quantum gas 'microscope' that bridges the two approaches, realizing a system in which atoms of a macroscopic ensemble are detected individually and a complete set of degrees of freedom for each of them is determined through preparation and measurement. By implementing a high-resolution optical imaging system, single atoms are detected with near-unity fidelity on individual sites of a Hubbard-regime optical lattice. The lattice itself is generated by projecting a holographic mask through the imaging system. It has an arbitrary geometry, chosen to support both strong tunnel coupling between lattice sites and strong on-site confinement. Our approach can be used to directly detect strongly correlated states of matter; in the context of condensed matter simulation, this corresponds to the detection of individual electrons in the simulated crystal. Also, the quantum gas microscope may enable addressing and read-out of large-scale quantum information systems based on ultracold atoms. PMID:19890326
Impurity transport through a strongly interacting bosonic quantum gas
Johnson, T. H.; Clark, S. R.; Bruderer, M.; Jaksch, D.
2011-08-15
Using near-exact numerical simulations, we study the propagation of an impurity through a one-dimensional Bose lattice gas for varying bosonic interaction strengths and filling factors at zero temperature. The impurity is coupled to the Bose gas and confined to a separate tilted lattice. The precise nature of the transport of the impurity is specific to the excitation spectrum of the Bose gas, which allows one to measure properties of the Bose gas nondestructively, in principle, by observing the impurity; here we focus on the spatial and momentum distributions of the impurity as well as its reduced density matrix. For instance, we show it is possible to determine whether the Bose gas is commensurately filled as well as the bandwidth and gap in its excitation spectrum. Moreover, we show that the impurity acts as a witness to the crossover of its environment from the weakly to the strongly interacting regime, i.e., from a superfluid to a Mott insulator or Tonks-Girardeau lattice gas, and the effects on the impurity in both of these strongly interacting regimes are clearly distinguishable. Finally, we find that the spatial coherence of the impurity is related to its propagation through the Bose gas.
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-07-01
We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits.
Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas.
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H R; Demler, E
2016-03-11
Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra. PMID:27015490
Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Demler, E.
2016-03-01
Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra.
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas.
Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-07-31
We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits. PMID:26274404
Quantum limits of stochastic cooling of a bosonic gas
Ivanov, D.; Wallentowitz, S.; Walmsley, I.A.
2003-06-01
The quantum limits of stochastic cooling of trapped atoms are studied. The energy subtraction due to the applied feedback is shown to contain an additional noise term due to atom-number fluctuations in the feedback region. This effect is shown to dominate the cooling efficiency near the condensation point. Furthermore, we show results that indicate that Bose-Einstein condensation could be reached via stochastic cooling.
High-harmonic generation in a quantum electron gas trapped in a nonparabolic and anisotropic well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurst, Jérôme; Lévêque-Simon, Kévin; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni; Haas, Fernando
2016-05-01
An effective self-consistent model is derived and used to study the dynamics of an electron gas confined in a nonparabolic and anisotropic quantum well. This approach is based on the equations of quantum hydrodynamics, which incorporate quantum and nonlinear effects in an approximate fashion. The effective model consists of a set of six coupled differential equations (dynamical system) for the electric dipole and the size of the electron gas. Using this model we show that: (i) high harmonic generation is related to the appearance of chaos in the phase space, as attested to by related Poincaré sections; (ii) higher order harmonics can be excited efficiently and with relatively weak driving fields by making use of chirped electromagnetic waves.
Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.
2015-11-01
Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions.
Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.
Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S
2015-11-01
Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dosiere, M.
1985-01-01
Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which gas chromatography is used to prove the application of quantum symmetry restrictions in homonuclear diatomic molecules. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical computed values show good agreement, within one to two…
The Hidden Symmetries of Spin-1 Ising Lattice Gas for Usual Quantum Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payandeh, Farrin
2016-02-01
In this letter, the most common quantum Hamiltonian is exploited in order to compare the definite equivalences, corresponding to possible spin values in a lattice gas model, to those in a spin-1 Ising model. Our approach also requires interpolating both results in a p-state clock model, in order to find the hidden symmetries of both under consideration models.
Creating a quantum degenerate gas of stable molecules via weak photoassociation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mackie, Matt; Phou, Pierre
2010-07-01
Quantum degenerate molecules represent a new paradigm for fundamental studies and practical applications. Association of already quantum degenerate atoms into molecules provides a crucial shortcut around the difficulty of cooling molecules to ultracold temperatures. Whereas association can be induced with either laser or magnetic fields, photoassociation requires impractical laser intensity to overcome poor overlap between the atom pair and molecular wave functions, and experiments are currently restricted to magnetoassociation. Here we model realistic production of a quantum degenerate gas of stable molecules via two-photon photoassociation of Bose-condensed atoms. An adiabatic change of the laser frequency converts the initial atomic condensate almost entirely into stable molecular condensate, even for low-intensity lasers. Results for dipolar LiNa provide an upper bound on the necessary photoassociation laser intensity for alkali-metal atoms ~30 W/cm2, indicating a feasible path to quantum degenerate molecules beyond magnetoassociation.
Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films
Liu, Huan Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Song, Huaibing; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang
2014-10-20
We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H{sub 2}S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H{sub 2}S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.
Quantum states of dark solitons in the 1D Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Jun; Kanamoto, Rina; Kaminishi, Eriko; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2016-07-01
We present a series of quantum states that are characterized by dark solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (i.e. the Gross–Pitaevskii equation) for the one-dimensional Bose gas interacting through the repulsive delta-function potentials. The classical solutions satisfy the periodic boundary conditions and we simply call them classical dark solitons. Through exact solutions we show corresponding aspects between the states and the solitons in the weak coupling case: the quantum and classical density profiles completely overlap with each other not only at an initial time but also at later times over a long period of time, and they move together with the same speed in time; the matrix element of the bosonic field operator between the quantum states has exactly the same profiles of the square amplitude and the phase as the classical complex scalar field of a classical dark soliton not only at the initial time but also at later times, and the corresponding profiles move together for a long period of time. We suggest that the corresponding properties hold rigorously in the weak coupling limit. Furthermore, we argue that the lifetime of the dark soliton-like density profile in the quantum state becomes infinitely long as the coupling constant approaches zero, by comparing it with the quantum speed limit time. Thus, we call the quantum states quantum dark soliton states.
Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers
Claire Gmachl
2010-09-01
Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.
Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santra, Bodhaditya; Labouvie, Ralf; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig
2015-05-01
Negative differential conductivity (NDC) is a widely exploited mechanism in many areas of research dealing with particle and energy transport. We experimentally realize such a many body quantum transport system based on ultracold atoms in a periodic potential. We prepare our system by loading Bose condensed rubidium atoms in a 1D optical lattice with high atom occupancy per lattice site. Subsequently, we remove all the atoms from a central lattice site. While the atoms from neighboring sites tunnel into the empty site, we observe NDC in the resulting current voltage characteristics and investigate the microscopic mechanism behind it.
Progress towards quantum-gas experiments in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pertot, Daniel; Greif, Daniel; Schiller, Rebekah; Schneble, Dominik
2008-05-01
We present our progress towards quantum simulation experiments with ultracold bosonic atoms in an optical lattice. We have achieved Bose-Einstein condensation of rubidium-87 in a transporter apparatus featuring a moving-coil TOP trap (McTOP). Quasi-pure condensates containing up to one million atoms are routinely produced with high stability. As atomic micro-motion in TOP traps precludes the direct loading of condensates into a single quasimomentum state of an optical lattice, we are in the process of implementing a loading scheme involving evaporation of nearly-condensed thermal clouds in a crossed optical dipole trap. We will discuss our recent experimental results.
Bragg Spectroscopy of Excitations of a Quantum Bose Gas in a Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xu
2005-03-01
We have measured the excitation spectrum of a quantum degenerate Bose gas in an optical lattice with Bragg spectroscopy. We begin each cycle of the experiment by producing a magnetically trapped ^87Rb Bose condensate. We then superimpose a three-dimensional optical lattice of cubic symmetry onto the condensate. We turn the lattice potential on adiabatically, so that the gas temperature remains very close to zero. This provides an experimental realization of the Bose-Hubbard model, which exhibits a quantum phase transition between a superfluid and an insulating state. We find that in the superfluid state, the resonant excitation energy in the phonon-like regime decreases with increasing lattice strength. In the insulating regime, we observe the appearance of a sharp increase in the excitation rate at non-zero frequencies, which we interpret as a measurement of the gap in the insulating state of the gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.
1996-01-01
A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is
A mesoscopic Rydberg impurity in an atomic quantum gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Demler, Eugene
2016-05-01
Impurity problems have been at the forefront of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. In this talk, we show that Rydberg impurity excitations in ultracold quantum gases present a new frontier in impurity research. Here vastly different energy scales compete, signified in deeply bound Rydberg molecules of mesoscopic size. This situation poses a new challenge for theoretical physics and necessitates the confluence of methods ranging from mesoscopic to atomic physics. In our work, we develop a novel many-body theory for the non-equilibrium dynamics of giant impurity excitations Bose gases. Such single Rydberg impurity excitations have recently been observed, and we demonstrate that the observations can be understood from our theoretical approach which incorporates atomic and many-body theory. The crossover from few-body dynamics to quantum many-body collective behavior - manifest in the appearance of a novel superpolaronic state - is elucidated in our unified functional determinant approach, valid at zero and finite temperature. The time-dependent formalism is not restricted to Rydberg systems but can be generally applied to impurities in bosonic and fermionic environments and opens new possibilities to study impurity dynamics in mesoscopic systems.
Production of a Quantum Gas of Rovibronic Ground-State Molecules in AN Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danzl, Johann G.; Mark, Manfred J.; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Hart, Russell; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph
2010-02-01
Recent years have seen tremendous progress in the field of cold and ultracold molecules. A central goal in the field is currently the realization of stable rovibronic ground-state molecular samples in the regime of quantum degeneracy, e.g. in the form of molecular Bose-Einstein condensates, molecular degenerate Fermi gases, or, when an optical lattice is present, molecular Mott-insulator phases. However, molecular samples are not readily cooled to the extremely low temperatures at which quantum degeneracy occurs. In particular, laser cooling, the 'workhorse' for the field of atomic quantum gases, is generally not applicable to molecular samples. Here we take an important step beyond previous work1 and provide details on the realization of an ultracold quantum gas of ground-state dimer molecules trapped in an optical lattice as recently reported in Ref. 2. We demonstrate full control over all internal and external quantum degrees of freedom for the ground-state molecules by deterministically preparing the molecules in a single quantum state, i.e. in a specific hyperfine sublevel of the rovibronic ground state, while the molecules are trapped in the motional ground state of the individual lattice wells. We circumvent the problem of cooling by associating weakly-bound molecules out of a zero-temperature atomic Mott-insulator state and by transferring these to the absolute ground state in a four-photon STIRAP process. Our preparation procedure directly leads to a long-lived, lattice-trapped molecular many-body state, which we expect to form the platform for many of the envisioned future experiments with molecular quantum gases, e.g. on precision molecular spectroscopy, quantum information science, and dipolar quantum systems.
Satyendranath Bose: Co-Founder of Quantum Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanpied, William A.
1972-01-01
Satyendranath Bose was first to prove Planck's Law by using ideal quantum gas. Einstein credited Bose for this first step in the development of quantum statistical mechanics. Bose did not realize the importance of his work, perhaps because of peculiar academic settings in India under British rule. (PS)
Numerical Analysis of Quantum Transport Equation for Bose Gas in One Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuwahara, Yukiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiya
The quantum transport equation and the correction of the quasiparticle energy are derived by imposing the renormalization conditions on the improved time-dependent on-shell self-energy in nonequilibrium Thermo Field Dynamics. They are numerically analyzed for the one dimensional system of cold neutral atomic Bose gas confined by a combined harmonic and optical lattice potentials. The analysis indicates that the correction of the quaisparticle energy plays a crucial role in the thermal relaxation processes described by the quantum transport equation.
Spontaneous Pattern Formation in an Antiferromagnetic Quantum Gas
Kronjaeger, Jochen; Bongs, Kai; Becker, Christoph; Soltan-Panahi, Parvis; Sengstock, Klaus
2010-08-27
In this Letter we report on the spontaneous formation of surprisingly regular periodic magnetic patterns in an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The structures evolve within a quasi-one-dimensional BEC of {sup 87}Rb atoms on length scales of a millimeter with typical periodicities of 20...30 {mu}m, given by the spin healing length. We observe two sets of characteristic patterns which can be controlled by an external magnetic field. We identify these patterns as linearly unstable modes within a mean-field approach and calculate their mode structure as well as time and energy scales, which we find to be in good agreement with observations. These investigations open new prospects for controlled studies of symmetry breaking and complex quantum magnetism in bulk BEC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirza, Babur M.
2016-05-01
A microscopic theory of integer and fractional quantum Hall effects is presented here. In quantum density wave representation of charged particles, it is shown that, in a two-dimensional electron gas coherent structures form under the low temperature and high density conditions. With a sufficiently high applied magnetic field, the combined N particle quantum density wave exhibits collective periodic oscillations. As a result the corresponding quantum Hall voltage function shows a step-wise change in multiples of the ratio h/e2. At lower temperatures further subdivisions emerge in the Hall resistance, exhibiting the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.
Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong
2016-01-01
Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb_{1-x}Sn_{x}Te thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.
Quantum gas microscopy with spin, atom-number, and multilayer readout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M. Eric; Simon, Jonathan; Greiner, Markus
2015-04-01
Atom- and site-resolved experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a powerful platform for the simulation of strongly correlated materials. In this Rapid Communication, we present a toolbox for the preparation, control, and site-resolved detection of a tunnel-coupled bilayer degenerate quantum gas. Using a collisional blockade, we engineer occupation-dependent interplane transport which enables us to circumvent light-assisted pair loss during imaging and count n =0 to n =3 atoms per site. We obtain the first number- and site-resolved images of the Mott insulator "wedding cake" structure and observe the emergence of antiferromagnetic ordering across a magnetic quantum phase transition. We are further able to employ the bilayer system for spin-resolved readout of a mixture of two hyperfine states. This work opens the door to direct detection of entanglement and Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phase dynamics, as well as studies of coupled planar quantum materials.
Observation of Scaling in the Dynamics of a Strongly Quenched Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicklas, E.; Karl, M.; Höfer, M.; Johnson, A.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Tomkovič, J.; Gasenzer, T.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2015-12-01
We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments.
Observation of Scaling in the Dynamics of a Strongly Quenched Quantum Gas.
Nicklas, E; Karl, M; Höfer, M; Johnson, A; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Tomkovič, J; Gasenzer, T; Oberthaler, M K
2015-12-11
We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments. PMID:26705638
Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well
Larionov, A. V.
2015-01-15
The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum Monte Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, Sebastiano; Zintchenko, Ilia; Troyer, Matthias
2015-05-01
We investigate the ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of a periodic potential that describes the effect of a 3D optical lattice, using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We find that a shallow optical lattice below half-filling strongly favors the ferromagnetic instability compared to the homogeneous Fermi gas. Instead, in the regime of deep optical lattices and weak interactions, where the conventional description in terms of single-band tight-binding models is reliable, our results indicate that the paramagnetic state is stable, in agreement with previous quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model. Our findings shed light on the important role played by multi-band effects and by interaction-induced hopping in the physics of atomic gases trapped in optical lattices.
Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.
2016-07-01
Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.
Quantum state resolved gas-surface reaction dynamics experiments: a tutorial review.
Chadwick, Helen; Beck, Rainer D
2016-07-01
We present a tutorial review of our quantum state resolved experiments designed to study gas-surface reaction dynamics. The combination of a molecular beam, state specific reactant preparation by infrared laser pumping, and ultrahigh vacuum surface analysis techniques make it possible to study chemical reactivity at the gas-surface interface in unprecedented detail. We describe the experimental techniques used for state specific reactant preparation and for detection of surface bound reaction products developed in our laboratory. Using the example of the reaction of methane on Ni and Pt surfaces, we show how state resolved experiments uncovered clear evidence for vibrational mode specificity and bond selectivity, as well as steric effects in chemisorption reactions. The state resolved experimental data provides valuable benchmarks for comparison with theoretical models for gas-surface reactivity aiding in the development of a detailed microscopic understanding of chemical reactivity at the gas-surface interface. PMID:26235656
Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensing Application of GRAPHENE/Y2O3 Quantum Dots Composite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemade, K. R.; Waghuley, S. A.
Graphene/Y2O3 quantum dots (QDs) composite was investigated towards the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas at room temperature. Graphene synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite. The composite prepared by mixing 20-wt% graphene into the 1 g Y2O3 in organic medium (acetone). The chemiresistor of composite prepared by screen-printing on glass substrate. The optimum value of sensing response (1.08) was showed by 20-wt% graphene/Y2O3 QDs composite. The excellent stability with optimum sensing response evidenced for the composite. The gas sensing mechanism discussed on the basis of electron transfer reaction.
Raman-dressed spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Zhihao; Öhberg, Patrik
2014-02-01
The recently realized spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases [Lin et al., Nature (London) 471, 83 (2011), 10.1038/nature09887; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095301; Cheuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 095302 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.095302] mark a breakthrough in the cold atom community. In these experiments, two hyperfine states are selected from a hyperfine manifold to mimic a pseudospin-1/2 spin-orbit-coupled system by the method of Raman dressing, which is applicable to both bosonic and fermionic gases. In this paper, we show that the method used in these experiments can be generalized to create any large pseudospin spin-orbit-coupled gas if more hyperfine states are coupled equally by the Raman lasers. As an example, we study, in detail, a quantum gas with three hyperfine states coupled by the Raman lasers and show, when the state-dependent energy shifts of the three states are comparable, triple-degenerate minima will appear at the bottom of the band dispersions, thus, realizing a spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled quantum gas. A novel feature of this three-minima regime is that there can be two different kinds of stripe phases with different wavelengths, which has an interesting connection to the ferromagnetic and polar phases of spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensates without spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, V. A.
2010-12-01
The possibility of ensuring equivalence in operation and efficiency of real cycles with intermediate cooling (heating) and isothermal-adiabatic compressions (expansion) in ideal simple cycles formed on the T- S diagrams in the second stage of real cycles. The possibility of using the equivalence of cycles for determining the maximum efficiency of operation of real cycles is demonstrated.
Sha, Haoyan; Faller, Roland
2016-07-20
Quantum chemistry calculations were performed to investigate the effect of the surface curvature of a Boron Nitride (BN) nanotube/nanosheet on gas adsorption. Curved boron nitride layers with different curvatures interacting with a number of different gases including noble gases, oxygen, and water on both their convex and concave sides of the surface were studied using density functional theory (DFT) with a high level dispersion corrected functional. Potential energy surfaces of the gas molecules interacting with the selected BN surfaces were investigated. In addition, the charge distribution and electrostatic potential contour of the selected BN surfaces are discussed. The results reveal how the curvature of the BN surfaces affects gas adsorption. In particular, small curvatures lead to a slight difference in the physisorption energy, while large curvatures present distinct potential energy surfaces, especially for the short-range repulsion. PMID:27399852
Influence of Ambient Gas on the Performance of Quantum-Dot Light-Emitting Diodes.
Lin, Qingli; Chen, Fei; Wang, Hongzhe; Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Aqiang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fengjuan; Guo, Fang; Li, Lin Song
2016-05-11
Here, we report the influence of the ambient gas on the performance of quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). The blue QD-LED devices with the maximum external quantum efficiency of 8.1% and the turn-on voltage of 2.7 V could be obtained in air. The efficiency decreases by 12% and turn-on voltage increases by 0.3 V relative to the control devices fabricated in a N2-filled glovebox. The histogram of maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) shows average peak EQE of 8.08% and a low standard deviation of 3.63%, suggesting high reproducibility. Correspondingly, the operational lifetime of 376 h is obtained, which is on par with 408 h of devices fabricated in N2. For the devices fabricated in air, relatively high efficiency could be maintained only at low voltages, because of the near balanced injection of carriers under low bias. The measurements of contact potential difference, chemical composition, and surface roughness are used to verify the variation of energy level and surface morphology of films influenced by different ambient gas. These results would offer reasonable guidance for the application of QD-LEDs in actual large-scale production. PMID:27086660
Evidence for Efimov quantum states in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraemer, T.; Mark, M.; Waldburger, P.; Danzl, J. G.; Chin, C.; Engeser, B.; Lange, A. D.; Pilch, K.; Jaakkola, A.; Nägerl, H.-C.; Grimm, R.
2006-03-01
Systems of three interacting particles are notorious for their complex physical behaviour. A landmark theoretical result in few-body quantum physics is Efimov's prediction of a universal set of bound trimer states appearing for three identical bosons with a resonant two-body interaction. Counterintuitively, these states even exist in the absence of a corresponding two-body bound state. Since the formulation of Efimov's problem in the context of nuclear physics 35 years ago, it has attracted great interest in many areas of physics. However, the observation of Efimov quantum states has remained an elusive goal. Here we report the observation of an Efimov resonance in an ultracold gas of caesium atoms. The resonance occurs in the range of large negative two-body scattering lengths, arising from the coupling of three free atoms to an Efimov trimer. Experimentally, we observe its signature as a giant three-body recombination loss when the strength of the two-body interaction is varied. We also detect a minimum in the recombination loss for positive scattering lengths, indicating destructive interference of decay pathways. Our results confirm central theoretical predictions of Efimov physics and represent a starting point with which to explore the universal properties of resonantly interacting few-body systems. While Feshbach resonances have provided the key to control quantum-mechanical interactions on the two-body level, Efimov resonances connect ultracold matter to the world of few-body quantum phenomena.
Quantum Mechanical Limitations to Spin Diffusion in the Unitary Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enss, Tilman; Haussmann, Rudolf
2012-11-01
We compute spin transport in the unitary Fermi gas using the strong-coupling Luttinger-Ward theory. In the quantum degenerate regime the spin diffusivity attains a minimum value of Ds≃1.3ℏ/m approaching the quantum limit of diffusion for a particle of mass m. Conversely, the spin drag rate reaches a maximum value of Γsd≃1.2kBTF/ℏ in terms of the Fermi temperature TF. The frequency-dependent spin conductivity σs(ω) exhibits a broad Drude peak, with spectral weight transferred to a universal high-frequency tail σs(ω→∞)=ℏ1/2C/3π(mω)3/2 proportional to the Tan contact density C. For the spin susceptibility χs(T) we find no downturn in the normal phase.
Quantum fluctuations of the vortex-lattice state in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas
Li Qiong; Feng Bo; Li Dingping
2011-04-15
Quantum fluctuations in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas at zero temperature are investigated. We calculate the condensate density perturbatively to show that no condensate is present in the thermodynamic limit. The excitation from Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field solution causes infrared divergences in loop diagrams, nevertheless, in calculating the atom number density, the correlation functions and the free energy, we find that the sum of the divergences in the same loop order vanishes and we obtain finite physical quantities. The long-range correlation is explored and the algebraic decay exponent for the single-particle correlation function is obtained. The atom number density distribution is obtained at the one-loop level, which illustrates the quantum fluctuation effects to melt the mean-field vortex lattice. By the nonperturbative Gaussian variational method, we locate the spinodal point of the vortex-lattice state.
Quantum fluctuations of the vortex-lattice state in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qiong; Feng, Bo; Li, Dingping
2011-04-01
Quantum fluctuations in an ultrafast rotating Bose gas at zero temperature are investigated. We calculate the condensate density perturbatively to show that no condensate is present in the thermodynamic limit. The excitation from Gaussian fluctuations around the mean-field solution causes infrared divergences in loop diagrams, nevertheless, in calculating the atom number density, the correlation functions and the free energy, we find that the sum of the divergences in the same loop order vanishes and we obtain finite physical quantities. The long-range correlation is explored and the algebraic decay exponent for the single-particle correlation function is obtained. The atom number density distribution is obtained at the one-loop level, which illustrates the quantum fluctuation effects to melt the mean-field vortex lattice. By the nonperturbative Gaussian variational method, we locate the spinodal point of the vortex-lattice state.
NMR dynamics of quantum discord for spin-carrying gas molecules in a closed nanopore
Yurishchev, M. A.
2014-11-15
A local orthogonal transformation that transforms any centrosymmetric density matrix of a two-qubit system to the X form has been found. A piecewise-analytic-numerical formula Q = min(Q{sub π/2}, Q{sub θ}, Q{sub 0}), where Q{sub π/2} and Q{sub 0} are analytical expressions and the branch Q{sub 0θ} can be obtained only by numerically searching for the optimal measurement angle θ ∈ (0, π/2), is proposed to calculate the quantum discord Q of a general X state. The developed approaches have been applied for a quantitative description of the recently predicted flickering (periodic disappearance and reappearance) of the quantum-information pair correlation between nuclear 1/2 spins of atoms or molecules of a gas (for example, {sup 129}Xe) in a bounded volume in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, Deblina; Gossner, Harald; Hansch, Walter; Banerjee, Kaustav
2013-01-01
A gas-sensor based on tunnel-field-effect-transistor (TFET) is proposed that leverages the unique current injection mechanism in the form of quantum-mechanical band-to-band tunneling to achieve substantially improved performance compared to conventional metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs) for detection of gas species under ambient conditions. While nonlocal phonon-assisted tunneling model is used for detailed device simulations, in order to provide better physical insights, analytical formula for sensitivity is derived for both metal as well as organic conducting polymer based sensing elements. Analytical derivations are also presented for capturing the effects of temperature on sensor performance. Combining the developed analytical and numerical models, intricate properties of the sensor such as gate bias dependence of sensitivity, relationship between the required work-function modulation and subthreshold swing, counter-intuitive increase in threshold voltage for MOSFETs and reduction in tunneling probability for TFETs with temperature are explained. It is shown that TFET gas-sensors can not only lead to more than 10 000× increase in sensitivity but also provide design flexibility and immunity against screening of work-function modulation through non-specific gases as well as ensure stable operation under temperature variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Amy D.; Shaffer, Peter S.
2013-04-01
This article reports on a long-term investigation of student and teacher reasoning about the basic tenets of kinetic-molecular theory as they relate to the concept of volume. This research grew out of the finding that university-level students and practicing K-12 teachers often treat the volume of a gas as different from that of its enclosing container. We examined the extent to which this tendency might be associated with incorrect reasoning about the motions of the particles in the gas. The results suggest that teachers and students often justify incorrect answers about the volume of a gas with incorrect statements about the motion of gas particles.
Trace-gas sensing using the compliance voltage of an external cavity quantum cascade laser
Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.
2013-06-04
Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are increasingly being used to detect, identify, and measure levels of trace gases in the air. External cavity QCLs (ECQCLs) provide a broadly-tunable infrared source to measure absorption spectra of chemicals and provide high detection sensitivity and identification confidence. Applications include detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, monitoring building air quality, measuring greenhouse gases for atmospheric research, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, analyzing chemicals in exhaled breath for medical diagnostics, and many more. Compact, portable trace gas sensors enable in-field operation in a wide range of platforms, including handheld units for use by first responders, fixed installations for monitoring air quality, and lightweight sensors for deployment in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We present experimental demonstration of a new chemical sensing technique based on intracavity absorption in an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL). This new technique eliminates the need for an infrared photodetector and gas cell by detecting the intracavity absorption spectrum in the compliance voltage of the laser device itself. To demonstrate and characterize the technique, we measure infrared absorption spectra of chemicals including water vapor and Freon-134a. Sub-ppm detection limits in one second are achieved, with the potential for increased sensitivity after further optimization. The technique enables development of handheld, high-sensitivity, and high-accuracy trace gas sensors for in-field use.
Chemical dynamics in the gas phase : quantum mechanics of chemical reactions.
Gray, S. K.
2006-01-01
This research program focuses on both the development and application of accurate quantum mechanical methods to describe gas phase chemical reactions and highly excited molecules. Emphasis is often placed on time-dependent or integrative approaches that, in addition to computational simplifications, yield useful mechanistic insights. Applications to systems of current experimental and theoretical interest are emphasized. The results of these calculations also allow one to gauge the quality of the underlying potential energy surfaces and the reliability of more approximate theoretical approaches such as classical trajectories and transition state theories.
Yurtsever, E; Gianturco, F A; Wester, R
2016-07-14
The existence of NCO(-) anions in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been suggested and searched for over the years but without any formal definitive sighting of that molecule. We discuss in this work the possible formation of either NCO(-) directly or of NCO neutral as a precursor to NCO(-) formation by electron attachment. We follow simple, gas-phase chemical reactions for which the general features are obtained from accurate quantum calculations. The results are shedding some additional light on the likely presence of this anion in the ISM environment, drawing further information from the specific features of the considered reactions on the additional chemical options that exist for its formation. PMID:26696323
Forming NCO– in Dense Molecular Clouds: Possible Gas-Phase Chemical Paths From Quantum Calculations
2015-01-01
The existence of NCO– anions in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been suggested and searched for over the years but without any formal definitive sighting of that molecule. We discuss in this work the possible formation of either NCO– directly or of NCO neutral as a precursor to NCO– formation by electron attachment. We follow simple, gas-phase chemical reactions for which the general features are obtained from accurate quantum calculations. The results are shedding some additional light on the likely presence of this anion in the ISM environment, drawing further information from the specific features of the considered reactions on the additional chemical options that exist for its formation. PMID:26696323
Chemical dynamics in the gas phase : quantum mechanics of chemical reactions.
Gray, S. K.
1999-07-02
This research program focuses on both the development and application of accurate quantum mechanical methods to describe gas phase chemical reactions and highly excited molecules. Emphasis is often placed on time-dependent or integrative approaches that, in addition to computational simplifications, yield useful mechanistic insights. Applications to systems of current experimental and theoretical interest are emphasized. The results of these calculations also allow one to gauge the quality of the underlying potential energy surfaces and the reliability of more approximate theoretical approaches such as classical trajectories and transition state theories.
Quantum and Thermal Effects of Dark Solitons in a One-Dimensional Bose Gas
Martin, A. D.; Ruostekoski, J.
2010-05-14
We numerically study the imprinting and dynamics of dark solitons in a bosonic atomic gas in a tightly confined one-dimensional harmonic trap both with and without an optical lattice. Quantum and thermal fluctuations are synthesized within the truncated Wigner approximation in the quasicondensate description. We track the soliton coordinates and calculate position and velocity uncertainties. We find that the phase fluctuations lower the classically predicted soliton speed and seed instabilities. Individual runs show interactions of solitons with sound waves, splitting, and disappearing solitons.
Gurka, D F; Titus, R; Robins, K; Wong, A; Wurrey, C J; Durig, J R; Shen, Z; Burkhard, L P
1996-12-01
Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrared spectra was performed with the Gaussian quantum chemistry software. The Hartree-Fock/6-31G* level of theory was employed, with IR frequencies scaled by a standard factor of 0.89. This approach shows great promise as a means of characterizing or confirming environmental analyte identifications when standard spectra, or pure standards required to measure standard spectra, are unavailable. PMID:21619333
Ideals and Category Typicality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.
2011-01-01
Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often…
Optically multiplexed multi-gas detection using quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy.
Mukherjee, Anadi; Prasanna, Manu; Lane, Michael; Go, Rowel; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Tsekoun, Alexei; Patel, C Kumar N
2008-09-20
We report high-throughput, nondispersive optical multiplexing of laser beams using a scanning galvanometer. We have utilized this technique for multispecies trace-gas detection using multiple quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. We demonstrate switching from one laser to another in less than 1 s, a performance level needed for a comprehensive multispecies sensor, and a high signal-to-noise ratio detection of five gaseous components, NH(3), NO(2), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP, a simulant for nerve agents), acetone, and ethylene glycol, in a room air gas mixture containing approximately 3 ppb of NH(3), approximately 8 ppb of NO(2), approximately 20 ppb of DMMP, approximately 30 ppb of acetone, and approximately 40 ppb of ethylene glycol. PMID:18806847
Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.
Hofmann, Johannes
2012-05-01
In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects. PMID:22681087
An ytterbium quantum gas microscope with narrow-line laser cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Ryuta; Kobayashi, Jun; Kuno, Takuma; Kato, Kohei; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-02-01
We demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic {}174{Yb} atoms in a Hubbard-regime two-dimensional optical lattice with a short lattice constant of 266 nm. To suppress the heating by probe light with the 1S0-1P1 transition of the wavelength λ = 399 nm for high-resolution imaging and preserve atoms at the same lattice sites during the fluorescence imaging, we simultaneously cool atoms by additionally applying narrow-line optical molasses with the 1S0-3P1 transition of the wavelength λ = 556 nm. We achieve a low temperature of T=7.4(13) μ {{K}}, corresponding to a mean oscillation quantum number along the horizontal axes of 0.22(4) during the imaging process. We detect, on average, 200 fluorescence photons from a single atom within a 400 ms exposure time, and estimate a detection fidelity of 87(2)%. The realization of a quantum gas microscope with enough fidelity for Yb atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice opens up the possibilities for studying various kinds of quantum many-body systems such as Bose and Fermi gases, and their mixtures, and also long-range-interacting systems such as Rydberg states.
Microscopy of a Quantum Gas in a 2D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakr, Waseem; Peng, Amy; Tai, Ming; Ma, Ruichao; Jotzu, Gregor; Gillen, Jonathon; Foelling, Simon; Greiner, Markus
2010-03-01
Ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices provide a rich experimental toolbox for simulating the physics of condensed matter systems. With atoms in the lattice playing the role of electrons or Cooper pairs in real materials, it is possible to experimentally realize condensed matter Hamiltonians in a controlled way. To realize the full potential of such quantum simulations, we have created a quantum gas microscope (NA = 0.8) which can spatially resolve the atoms in the optical lattice at the single site level, and project arbitrary potential landscapes onto the atoms by combining the high resolution optics with static holographic masks or a spatial light modulator. The high resolution microscope operates with the atoms trapped in a two dimensional optical lattice at a distance of 10 microns from a glass surface that is part of the microscope. We have experimentally verified a resolution of ˜ 600 nm, providing the capability to study the phase diagram of the Bose Hubbard model by measuring occupation number at individual sites.
Bouten, Luc; Stockton, John; Sarma, Gopal; Mabuchi, Hideo
2007-05-15
We propose a model, based on a quantum stochastic differential equation (QSDE), to describe the scattering of polarized laser light by an atomic gas. The gauge terms in the QSDE account for the direct scattering of the laser light into different field channels. Once the model has been set, we can rigorously derive quantum filtering equations for balanced polarimetry and homodyne detection experiments, study the statistics of output processes, and investigate a strong driving, weak coupling limit.
Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing
Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried
2016-01-01
We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0–70% for propane and 0–90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5 μm utilizing a 10 cm gas cell in double pass configuration. PMID:26887891
Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Macfarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried
2016-02-01
We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0-70% for propane and 0-90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5 μm utilizing a 10 cm gas cell in double pass configuration.
Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing.
Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried
2016-01-01
We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0-70% for propane and 0-90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5 μm utilizing a 10 cm gas cell in double pass configuration. PMID:26887891
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, James J.; Booth, George H.; Alavi, Ali
2012-06-01
Using the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) as a model, we investigate the sources of error in the "initiator" adaptation to full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (i-FCIQMC), with a view to accelerating convergence. In particular, we find that the fixed-shift phase, where the walker number is allowed to grow slowly, can be used to effectively assess stochastic and initiator error. Using this approach we provide simple explanations for the internal parameters of an i-FCIQMC simulation. We exploit the consistent basis sets and adjustable correlation strength of the HEG to analyze properties of the algorithm, and present finite basis benchmark energies for N = 14 over a range of densities 0.5 ⩽ rs ⩽ 5.0 a.u. A single-point extrapolation scheme is introduced to produce complete basis energies for 14, 38, and 54 electrons. It is empirically found that, in the weakly correlated regime, the computational cost scales linearly with the plane wave basis set size, which is justifiable on physical grounds. We expect the fixed-shift strategy to reduce the computational cost of many i-FCIQMC calculations of weakly correlated systems. In addition, we provide benchmarks for the electron gas, to be used by other quantum chemical methods in exploring periodic solid state systems.
Schiemangk, Max; Lampmann, Kai; Dinkelaker, Aline; Kohfeldt, Anja; Krutzik, Markus; Kürbis, Christian; Sahm, Alexander; Spießberger, Stefan; Wicht, Andreas; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther; Peters, Achim
2015-06-10
We present micro-integrated diode laser modules operating at wavelengths of 767 and 780 nm for cold quantum gas experiments on potassium and rubidium. The master-oscillator-power-amplifier concept provides both narrow linewidth emission and high optical output power. With a linewidth (10 μs) below 1 MHz and an output power of up to 3 W, these modules are specifically suited for quantum optics experiments and feature the robustness required for operation at a drop tower or on-board a sounding rocket. This technology development hence paves the way toward precision quantum optics experiments in space. PMID:26192832
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Nianpei
The two dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic field has been a model system in contemporary condensed matter physics which generated many beautiful experiments as well as novel fundamental concepts. These novel concepts are of broad interests and have benefited other fields of research. For example, the observations of conventional odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall states have enriched many-body physics with important concepts such as fractional statistics and composite fermions. The subsequent discovery of the enigmatic even-denominator nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state has led to more interesting concepts such as non-Abelian statistics and pairing of composite fermions which can be intimately connected to the electron pairing in superconductivity. Moreover, the observations of stripe phases and reentrant integer quantum Hall states have stimulated research on exotic electron solids which have more intricate structures than the Wigner Crystal. In contrast to fractional quantum Hall states and stripes phases, the reentrant integer quantum Hall states are very little studied and their ground states are the least understood. There is a lack of basic information such as exact filling factors, temperature dependence and energy scales for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. A critical experimental condition in acquiring this information is a stable ultra-low temperature environment. In the first part of this dissertation, I will discuss our unique setup of 3He immersion cell in a state-of-art dilution refrigerator which achieves the required stability of ultra-low temperature. With this experimental setup, we are able to observe for the first time very sharp magnetotransport features of reentrant integer quantum Hall states across many Landau levels for the first time. I will firstly present our results in the second Landau level. The temperature dependence measurements reveal a surprisingly sharp peak signature that is unique to the reentrant
Quantum Control of Femtochemistry in the Gas Phase, Liquid Phase and on Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerber, Gustav
2008-03-01
By using coherent control techniques we control the behavior of quantum systems on their natural fs-time scale by applying ultrashort coherent light fields in the wavelength range from the IR to the UV. These laser pulses can be variably shaped in space and time using a laser pulse shaper consisting of a liquid-crystal display [1]. Laser-optimized femtochemistry in the gas phase and liquid phase is one field in which this new technique is successfully employed. Automated optimization of branching ratios and total product yields of gas phase photodissociation reactions as well as chemically selective molecular excitation in the liquid phase is performed [2][3]. Structural changes of a molecule in the liquid phase have been controlled by laser-optimized photoisomerization of a cyanine dye molecule [4] and of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin [5]. So far, optimal control techniques have been restricted to gas phase and condensed phase optimization experiments. Recently we have demonstrated femtosecond laser-assisted catalytic reactions on a Pd(100) single crystal surface. By applying a closed-loop optimal control scheme, we manipulate these reactions and selectively optimize the ratio of different bond-forming reaction channels, in contrast to previous quantum control experiments aiming at bond-cleavage. The results represent a first step towards selective photocatalysis of molecules. [1] T. Baumert et al, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997) [2] A. Assion et al, Science 282, 919(1998); T. Brixner et al, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 539 (2003) [3] T. Brixner et al, Nature, Vol. 414, 57 (2001) and J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3692 (2003) [4] G. Krampert et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 068305 (2005) [5] G. Vogt et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 211 (2006) P. Nuernberger et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2470 (2007)
Bagaev, V. S.; Davletov, E. T.; Krivobok, V. S. Nikolaev, S. N.; Novikov, A. V.; Onishchenko, E. E.; Pruchkina, A. A.; Skorikov, M. L.
2015-12-15
The measured stationary and time-resolved photoluminescence is used to study the properties of the exciton gas in a second-order 5-nm-thick Si{sub 0.905}Ge{sub 0.095}/Si quantum well. It is shown that, despite the presence of an electron barrier in the Si{sub 0.905}Ge{sub 0.095} layer, a spatially indirect biexciton is the most favorable energy state of the electron–hole system at low temperatures. This biexciton is characterized by a lifetime of 1100 ns and a binding energy of 2.0–2.5 meV and consists of two holes localized in the SiGe layer and two electrons mainly localized in silicon. The formation of biexcitons is shown to cause low-temperature (5 K) luminescence spectra over a wide excitation density range and to suppress the formation of an exciton gas, in which quantum statistics effects are significant. The Bose statistics can only be experimentally observed for a biexciton gas at a temperature of 1 K or below because of the high degree of degeneracy of biexciton states (28) and a comparatively large effective mass (about 1.3m{sub e}). The heat energy at such temperatures is much lower than the measured energy of localization at potential fluctuations (about 1 meV). This feature leads to biexciton localization and fundamentally limits the possibility of observation of quantum coherence in the biexciton gas.
Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason M.
2015-02-08
We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 µm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate.
One-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas in a trap: quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matveeva, N.; Astrakharchik, G. E.
2016-06-01
A one-dimensional world is very unusual as there is an interplay between quantum statistics and geometry, and a strong short-range repulsion between atoms mimics Fermi exclusion principle, fermionizing the system. Instead, a system with a large number of components with a single atom in each, on the opposite acquires many bosonic properties. We study the ground-state properties of a multicomponent repulsive Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic trap by a fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction between all components is considered to be the same. We investigate how the energetic properties (energy, contact) and correlation functions (density profile and momentum distribution) evolve as the number of components is changed. It is shown that the system fermionizes in the limit of strong interactions. Analytical expressions are derived in the limit of weak interactions within the local density approximation for an arbitrary number of components and for one plus one particle using an exact solution.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-01
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup.
Emergence of a Metallic Quantum Solid Phase in a Rydberg-Dressed Fermi Gas.
Li, Wei-Han; Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Mou, Chung-Yu; Wang, Daw-Wei
2016-07-15
We examine possible low-temperature phases of a repulsively Rydberg-dressed Fermi gas in a three-dimensional free space. It is shown that the collective density excitations develop a roton minimum, which is softened at a wave vector smaller than the Fermi wave vector when the particle density is above a critical value. The mean field calculation shows that, unlike the insulating density wave states often observed in conventional condensed matters, a self-assembled metallic density wave state emerges at low temperatures. In particular, the density wave state supports a Fermi surface and a body-centered-cubic crystal order at the same time with the estimated critical temperature being about one tenth of the noninteracting Fermi energy. Our results suggest the emergence of a fermionic quantum solid that should be observable in the current experimental setup. PMID:27472121
Quantum criticality of a Bose gas in an optical lattice near the Mott transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rançon, A.; Dupuis, N.
2012-01-01
We derive the equation of state of bosons in an optical lattice in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. Near the density-driven Mott transition, the expression of the pressure P(μ,T) versus chemical potential and temperature is similar to that of a dilute Bose gas but with renormalized mass m* and scattering length a*. Here m* is the mass of the elementary excitations at the quantum critical point governing the transition from the superfluid phase to the Mott-insulating phase, while a* is related to their effective interaction at low energy. We use a nonperturbative renormalization-group approach to compute these parameters as a function of the ratio t/U between hopping amplitude and on-site repulsion.
Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.
Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M
2014-01-10
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906
Transport through an electrostatically defined quantum dot lattice in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, M. A.; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Ghosh, Arindam
2012-02-01
Quantum dot lattices (QDLs) have the potential to allow for the tailoring of optical, magnetic, and electronic properties of a user-defined artificial solid. We use a dual gated device structure to controllably tune the potential landscape in a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas, thereby enabling the formation of a periodic QDL. The current-voltage characteristics, I(V), follow a power law, as expected for a QDL. In addition, a systematic study of the scaling behavior of I(V) allows us to probe the effects of background disorder on transport through the QDL. Our results are particularly important for semiconductor-based QDL architectures which aim to probe collective phenomena.
The Quantum Dynamics of a Dilute Gas in a 3D BCC Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichl, Linda; Boretz, Yingyue
2015-03-01
The classical and quantum dynamics of a dilute gas of rubidium atoms, in a 3D body-centered cubic optical lattice, is studied for a range of polarizations of the laser beams forming the lattice. The relative polarization of the lasers determines the the structure of the potential energy seen by the rubidium atoms. If three pairs of in-phase mutually perpendicular laser beams, with the same wavelength, form the lattice, only a limited range of possible couplings can be realized in the lab. We have determined the band structure of the BCC optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and find that the band structure for lattices realizable in the lab, differs significantly from that expected for a BCC crystal. As coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has qualitative similarity to a BCC. Welch Foundation
Spin-orbit coupling in the strongly interacting Fermi gas: an exact quantum Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Peter; Shi, Hao; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) plays an essential role in a variety of intriguing condensed matter phenomena, including the quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators and superconductors. The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of SOC in a tunable, disorder-free system. Motivated by this experimental progress, we present here the first exact numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, study the spin behavior and momentum distribution, and examine the interplay of SOC and pairing in real and momentum space. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide important guidance to future experimental efforts. Supported by DOE SciDAC and NSF.
Excitations of the quantum phases of a two-component Bose gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luxat, David L.
2004-03-01
We consider the dynamics of a two-component Bose gas in an optical lattice at T=0. As shown recently, the phase diagram has several quantum phase transitions, which arise because of intra-component correlations. We focus on the two-component Mott insulating (2MI) and the xy-ferromagnetic or super-counter-fluid (SCF) phases. Starting from the two-component Bose-Hubbard model, an effective Hamiltonian is used to study the excitations and collective modes of these two quantum phases. The two-particle excitations associated with the intra-component or spin dynamics are markedly different in these two phases, exhibiting a Goldstone mode in the SCF phase. These collective modes are the poles of the intra-component two-particle correlation function or transverse spin susceptibility. We show how this intra-component two-particle correlation function, and thus the two-particle excitation spectrum, may be measured using a two-photon Raman probe that couples the two components. We also show how a Raman probe may be used to study the single-particle excitations when it couples one of the components to another hyperfine state. This could provide a direct measure of the Mott insulating gap.
Entanglement Properties of a Quantum Lattice-Gas Model on Square and Triangular Ladders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Shu; Tamura, Ryo; Katsura, Hosho
2014-03-01
In this paper, we review the entanglement properties of a quantum lattice-gas model according to our previous paper [S. Tanaka, R. Tamura, and H. Katsura, Phys. Rev. A 86, 032326 (2012)]. The ground state of the model under consideration can be exactly obtained and expressed by the Rokhsar-Kivelson type quantum superposition. The reduced density matrices of the model on square and triangular ladders are related to the transfer matrices of the classical hard-square and hard-hexagon models, respectively. In our previous paper, we investigated the entanglement properties including the entanglement entropy, the entanglement spectrum, and the nested entanglement entropy. We found that the entanglement spectra are critical when parameters are chosen so that the corresponding classical model is critical. In order to further investigate the entanglement properties, we also considered the nested entanglement entropy. As a result, the entanglement properties of the model on square and triangular ladders are described by the critical phenomena of the Ising model and the three-state ferromagnetic Potts model in two dimension, respectively.
Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons.
Solano-Carrillo, E
2015-10-01
It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006)] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed. PMID:26565225
Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solano-Carrillo, E.
2015-10-01
It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006), 10.1038/nature04693] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed.
Multi-species trace gas analysis with dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jágerská, Jana; Tuzson, Béla; Looser, Herbert; Jouy, Pierre; Hugi, Andreas; Mangold, Markus; Soltic, Patrik; Faist, Jérôme; Emmenegger, Lukas
2015-04-01
Simultaneous detection of multiple gas species using mid-IR laser spectroscopy is highly appealing for a large variety of applications ranging from air quality monitoring, medical breath analysis to industrial process control. However, state-of-the-art distributed-feedback (DFB) mid-IR lasers are usually tunable only within a narrow spectral range, which generally leads to one-laser-one-compound measurement strategy. Thus, multi-species detection involves several lasers and elaborate beam combining solutions [1]. This makes them bulky, costly, and highly sensitive to optical alignment, which limits their field deployment. In this paper, we explore an alternative measurement concept based on a dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser (DW-QCL) [2]. Such a laser can emit at two spectrally distinct wavelengths using a succession of two DFB gratings with different periodicities and a common waveguide to produce one output beam. The laser design was optimized for NOx measurements and correspondingly emits single-mode at 5.26 and 6.25 μm. Electrical separation of the respective laser sections makes it possible to address each wavelength independently. Thereby, it is possible to detect NO and NO2 species with one laser using the same optical path, without any beam combining optics, i.e. in a compact and cost-efficient single-path optical setup. Operated in a time-division multiplexed mode, the spectrometer reaches detection limits at 100 s averaging of 0.5 and 1.5 ppb for NO2 and NO, respectively. The performance of the system was validated against the well-established chemiluminescence detection while measuring the NOx emissions on an automotive test-bench, as well as monitoring the pollution at a suburban site. [1] B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, 'Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,' Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 927-936 (2013
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avilés Moreno, Juan Ramón; Partal Ureña, Francisco; López González, Juan Jesús; Huet, Thérèse R.
2009-04-01
S-(-)-perillaldehyde (C 10H 14O) has been characterized in the gas phase using a Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy experiment in a supersonic molecular beam. Two conformers - with the isopropenyl group in the equatorial position - have been detected and described by a set of molecular parameters including the principal rotational constants and the quartic centrifugal distortion parameters. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that a third conformer might not be observed due to relaxation processes in the jet. The gas phase results are compared with the liquid phase IR-Raman-VCD spectra. Our study shows that gas phase spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing monoterpenes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eshraghi, H.; Gibbon, J. D.
2008-08-01
After a review of some of the recent works by Holm and Gibbon on quaternions and their application to Lagrangian flows, particularly the incompressible Euler equations and the equations of ideal MHD, this paper investigates the compressible and relativistic Euler equations using these methods.
Quantum state-resolved, bulk gas energetics: Comparison of theory and experiment.
McCaffery, Anthony J
2016-05-21
Until very recently, the computational model of state-to-state energy transfer in large gas mixtures, introduced by the author and co-workers, has had little experimental data with which to assess the accuracy of its predictions. In a novel experiment, Alghazi et al. [Chem. Phys. 448, 76 (2015)] followed the equilibration of highly vibrationally excited CsH(D) in baths of H2(D2) with simultaneous time- and quantum state-resolution. Modal temperatures of vibration, rotation, and translation for CsH(D) were obtained and presented as a function of pump-probe delay time. Here the data from this study are used as a test of the accuracy of the computational method, and in addition, the consequent changes in bath gas modal temperatures, not obtainable in the experiment, are predicted. Despite large discrepancies between initial CsH(D) vibrational states in the experiment and those available using the computational model, the quality of agreement is sufficient to conclude that the model's predictions constitute at least a very good representation of the overall equilibration that, for some measurements, is very accurate. PMID:27208946
Quantum state-resolved, bulk gas energetics: Comparison of theory and experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2016-05-01
Until very recently, the computational model of state-to-state energy transfer in large gas mixtures, introduced by the author and co-workers, has had little experimental data with which to assess the accuracy of its predictions. In a novel experiment, Alghazi et al. [Chem. Phys. 448, 76 (2015)] followed the equilibration of highly vibrationally excited CsH(D) in baths of H2(D2) with simultaneous time- and quantum state-resolution. Modal temperatures of vibration, rotation, and translation for CsH(D) were obtained and presented as a function of pump-probe delay time. Here the data from this study are used as a test of the accuracy of the computational method, and in addition, the consequent changes in bath gas modal temperatures, not obtainable in the experiment, are predicted. Despite large discrepancies between initial CsH(D) vibrational states in the experiment and those available using the computational model, the quality of agreement is sufficient to conclude that the model's predictions constitute at least a very good representation of the overall equilibration that, for some measurements, is very accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, G.
2016-01-01
Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under the influence of a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are uniformly distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under the influence of a gravitational field due to central mass ( bar{m} ) at the origin (Roche Model). It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the central mass. The initial density of the ambient medium is taken to be always constant. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and nonidealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is shown that due to an increase in the gravitational parameter the compressibility of the medium at any point in the flow-field behind the shock decreases and all other flow variables and the shock strength are increased. Further, it is found that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under the influence of a
"Waveguidability" of idealized jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manola, Iris; Selten, Frank; Vries, Hylke; Hazeleger, Wilco
2013-09-01
It is known that strong zonal jets can act as waveguides for Rossby waves. In this study we use the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data to analyze the connection between jets and zonal waves at timescales beyond 10 days. Moreover, a barotropic model is used to systematically study the ability of idealized jets to trap Rossby wave energy ("waveguidability") as a function of jet strength, jet width, and jet location. In general, strongest waveguidability is found for narrow, fast jets. In addition, when the stationary wave number is integer, a resonant response is found through constructive interference. In Austral summer, the Southern Hemispheric jet is closest to the idealized jets considered and it is for this season that similar jet-zonal wave relationships are identified in the ECMWF reanalysis data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kogut, A.; DiPirro, M.; Moseley, S. H.
2004-01-01
We describe a new "ideal integrator" bolometer as a prototype for a new generation of sensitive, flexible far-IR detectors suitable for use in large arrays. The combination of a non-dissipative sensor coupled with a fast heat switch provides breakthrough capabilities in both sensitivity and operation. The bolometer temperature varies linearly with the integrated infrared power incident on the detector, and may be sampled intermittently without loss of information between samples. The sample speed and consequent dynamic range depend only on the heat switch reset cycle and can be selected in software. Between samples, the device acts as an ideal integrator with noise significantly lower than resistive bolometers. Since there is no loss of information between samples, the device is well-suited for large arrays. A single SQUID readout could process an entire column of detectors, greatly reducing the complexity, power requirements, and cost of readout electronics for large pixel arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarasov, Yu. I.; Kochikov, I. V.; Kovtun, D. M.; Ivanov, A. A.
2009-03-01
In this paper, the equilibrium structural parameters of the 2-nitropropane molecule and the barrier of internal rotation of the nitrogroup are determined from the gas electron diffraction data, with the use of quantum chemistry calculations and experimental vibrational frequencies, in the framework of the large-amplitude motion model for internal rotation. Quantum chemistry calculations at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with various Pople and Dunning basis sets unambiguously predict the same minimum energy molecular conformation, with relatively close values of internal rotation barrier (375-525 cm -1). The results of present analysis show that the minimum of the potential function of the nitrogroup internal rotation is located in syn-H position when one of the oxygen atoms eclipses hydrogen atom that does not belong to any of CH 3 groups (dihedral angle H-C-N-O is zero). It has also been found that internal rotation is hindered, with the barrier height in the range of 220-560 cm -1 (0.6-1.6 kcal/mol) with the most probable value near 380 cm -1 (1.1 kcal/mol). The main equilibrium structure parameters in syn-H configuration are as follows (values in parentheses correspond to 3 times standard deviations): re(C-C) = 1.516(5) Å, re(C-N) = 1.501(5) Å, re (N dbnd O) = 1.225(4) Å, ∠C-C-N=108.7(1.0)°,∠O dbnd N dbnd O =124.8(0.4)°. We also provide thermally averaged parameters for comparison with the results of previous studies.
FK-DLR properties of a quantum multi-type Bose-gas with a repulsive interaction
Suhov, Y.; Stuhl, I.
2014-08-01
The paper extends earlier results from Suhov and Kelbert [“FK-DLR states of a quantum Bose-gas with a hardcore interaction,” http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1304.0782 ] and Suhov et al. [“Shift-invariance for FK-DLR states of a 2D quantum Bose-gas,” http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1304.4177 ] about infinite-volume quantum bosonic states (FK-DLR states) to the case of multi-type particles with non-negative interactions. (An example is a quantum Widom–Rowlinson model.) Following the strategy from Suhov and Kelbert and Suhov et al., we establish that, for the values of fugacity zϵ(0, 1) and inverse temperature β > 0, finite-volume Gibbs states form a compact family in the thermodynamic limit. Next, in dimension two we show that any limit-point state (an FK-DLR state in the terminology adopted in Suhov and Kelbert and Suhov et al.) is translation-invariant.
Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.
2013-11-03
We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.
All-optical production of a lithium quantum gas using narrow-line laser cooling
Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R. A.; Hitchcock, J. M.; Corcovilos, T. A.; Yang, T.-L.; Reed, A.; Hulet, R. G.
2011-12-15
We have used the narrow 2S{sub 1/2}{yields}3P{sub 3/2} transition in the ultraviolet (uv) to laser cool and magneto-optically trap (MOT) {sup 6}Li atoms. Laser cooling of lithium is usually performed on the 2S{sub 1/2}{yields}2P{sub 3/2} (D2) transition, and temperatures of {approx}300 {mu}K are typically achieved. The linewidth of the uv transition is seven times narrower than the D2 line, resulting in lower laser cooling temperatures. We demonstrate that a MOT operating on the uv transition reaches temperatures as low as 59 {mu}K. Furthermore, we find that the light shift of the uv transition in an optical dipole trap at 1070 nm is small and blueshifted, facilitating efficient loading from the uv MOT. Evaporative cooling of a two spin-state mixture of {sup 6}Li in the optical trap produces a quantum degenerate Fermi gas with 3x10{sup 6} atoms in a total cycle time of only 11 s.
Gas-Phase Reactivity of Cesium-Containing Species by Quantum Chemistry.
Šulková, Katarína; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent
2015-09-01
Thermodynamics and kinetics of cesium species reactions have been studied by using high-level quantum chemical tools. A systematic theoretical study has been done to find suitable methodology for calculation of reliable thermodynamic properties, allowing us to determine bimolecular rate constants with appropriate kinetic theories of gas-phase reactions. Four different reactions have been studied in this work: CsO + H2 = CsOH + H (R1), Cs + HI = CsI + H (R2), CsI + H2O = CsOH + HI (R3), and CsI + OH = CsOH + I (R4). All reactions involve steam, hydrogen, and iodine in addition of cesium. Most of the reactions are fast and (R3) and (R4) proceed even without energetic barrier. In terms of chemical reactivity in the reactor coolant system (RCS) in the case of severe accident, it can be expected that there will be no kinetic limitations for main cesium species (CsOH and CsI) transported along the RCS. Cs chemical speciation inside the RCS should be governed by the thermodynamics. PMID:26237575
Local Probing of Phase Coherence in a Strongly Interacting 2D Quantum Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luick, Niclas; Siegl, Jonas; Hueck, Klaus; Morgener, Kai; Lompe, Thomas; Weimer, Wolf; Moritz, Henning
2016-05-01
The dimensionality of a quantum system has a profound impact on its coherence and superfluid properties. In 3D superfluids, bosonic atoms or Cooper pairs condense into a macroscopic wave function exhibiting long-range phase coherence. Meanwhile, 2D superfluids show a strikingly different behavior: True long-range coherence is precluded by thermal fluctuations, nevertheless Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory predicts that 2D systems can still become superfluid. The superfluid state is characterized by an algebraic decay of phase correlations g1(r) ~r - τ / 4 , where the decay exponent τ is directly related to the superfluid density ns according to τ = 4 /(nsλdB2) . I will present local coherence measurements in a strongly interacting 2D gas of diatomic 6 Li molecules. A self-interference technique allows us to locally extract the algebraic decay exponent and to reconstruct the superfluid density. We determine the scaling of the decay exponent with phase space density to provide a benchmark for studies of 2D superfluids in the strongly interacting regime.
Molecular geometry of 2-nitrotoluene from gas phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shishkov, Igor F.; Vilkov, Lev V.; Kovács, Attila; Hargittai, István
1998-04-01
The molecular geometry of 2-nitrotoluene has been determined by gas phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical computations at the MP2/6-31G∗ and Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3-LYP)/6-31G∗ levels of theory. Computed differences in CC bond lengths were utilized as constraints in the electron diffraction structure analysis. The scaled B3-LYP/6-31G∗ force field was used to generate the initial set of vibrational amplitudes. The electron diffraction study yielded the following bond lengths ( rg) and bond angles: C 1C 2, 1.405(8) Å; NO, 1.231(3) Å; C 1C 7, 1.508(8) Å; CN, 1.490(9) Å; C 7C 1C 2, 127.3(7)°; NC 2C 3, 113.8(6)°; C 1C 2C 3, 124.2(9)°; C 6C 1C 2, 114.8(6)°; C 5C 6C 1, 123.1(10)°; O-N-O, 124.9(3)°; ϕ(CN), 38(1)°. The structural features of the molecule point to steric interactions prevailing between the methyl and nitro groups.
Density-induced processes in quantum gas mixtures in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2012-10-01
We show that off-site processes and multiorbital physics have a crucial impact on the phase diagram of quantum gas mixtures in optical lattices. In particular, we discuss Bose-Fermi mixtures where the intra- and interspecies interactions induce competing density-induced hopping processes, the so-called bond-charge interactions. Furthermore, higher bands strongly influence tunneling and on-site interactions. We apply a multiorbital interaction-induced dressing of the lowest band, which leads to renormalized hopping processes. These corrections give rise to an extended Hubbard model with intrinsically occupation-dependent parameters. The resulting decrease of the tunneling competes with a decrease of the total on-site interaction energy, both affecting the critical lattice depth of the superfluid to Mott-insulator transition. In contrast to the standard Bose-Fermi Hubbard model, we predict a large shift of the transition to shallower lattice depths with increasing Bose-Fermi attraction. The applied theoretical model allows an accurate prediction of the modified tunneling amplitudes and the critical lattice depth, both being recently observed experimentally.
Quantum lattice-gas model for the many-particle Schr{umlt o}dinger equation in d dimensions
Boghosian, B.M.; Taylor, W. IV
1998-01-01
We consider a general class of discrete unitary dynamical models on the lattice. We show that generically such models give rise to a wave function satisfying a Schr{umlt o}dinger equation in the continuum limit, in any number of dimensions. There is a simple mathematical relationship between the mass of the Schr{umlt o}dinger particle and the eigenvalues of a unitary matrix describing the local evolution of the model. Second quantized versions of these unitary models can be defined, describing in the continuum limit the evolution of a nonrelativistic quantum many-body theory. An arbitrary potential is easily incorporated into these systems. The models we describe fall in the class of quantum lattice-gas automata and can be implemented on a quantum computer with a speedup exponential in the number of particles in the system. This gives an efficient algorithm for simulating general nonrelativistic interacting quantum many-body systems on a quantum computer. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Capturing Medical Students’ Idealism
Smith, Janice K.; Weaver, Donna B.
2006-01-01
PURPOSE Students’ idealism and desire to work with underserved populations decline as they progress from preclinical training through clerkships and residency. With an increasingly diverse population and increasing health disparities, academic health centers need to incorporate changes in their curricula to train socially responsible and idealistic physicians. International electives can provide valuable learning experiences to help achieve these goals. METHODS Sixty-six preclinical medical students at the University of Texas Medical Branch participated in an international elective from 1997 to 2005. After 1 week of didactics, they spent 3 weeks as part of a multidisciplinary medical team in rural Nicaragua. Postelective questionnaires were administered. From students’ responses, we identified common learning themes and grouped them under the categories of attitudes, awareness, and skills. Limitations included a self-selection bias, lack of a control group, and limited follow-up. RESULTS After the elective, students had an increased interest in volunteerism, humanitarian efforts, and working with underserved populations both in the United States and abroad, as well as more compassion toward the underserved. Students also reported a heightened awareness of social determinants of health and public health, and a broadened global perspective, as well as increased self-awareness. CONCLUSIONS Our findings illustrate that a well-structured, mentored experience in international health can have a positive impact on preclinical students’ attitudes, including their compassion, volunteerism, and interest in serving under-served populations, all measures of idealism. PMID:17003160
Steele, W.V.
2002-07-01
Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qinyu; Johnson, J. Karl
1999-01-01
The adsorption of hydrogen gas into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and idealized carbon slit pores is studied by computer simulation. Hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are modeled with the Silvera-Goldman potential. The Crowell-Brown potential is used to model the hydrogen-carbon interactions. Calculations include adsorption inside the tubes, in the interstitial regions of tube arrays, and on the outside surface of isolated tubes. Quantum effects are included through implementation of the path integral formalism. Comparison with classical simulations gives an indication of the importance of quantum effects for hydrogen adsorption. Quantum effects are important even at 298 K for adsorption in tube interstices. We compare our simulations with experimental data for SWNTs, graphitic nanofibers, and activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms from simulations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data for activated carbon, but do not confirm the large uptake reported for SWNTs and nanofibers. Although the adsorption potential for hydrogen in SWNTs is enhanced relative to slit pores of the same size, our calculations show that the storage capacity of an array of tubes is less than that for idealized slit pore geometries, except at very low pressures. Ambient temperature isotherms indicate that an array of nanotubes is not a suitable sorbent material for achieving DOE targets for vehicular hydrogen storage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikheev, S. A.; Tsvetkov, V. P.
2016-07-01
A system of equations and inequalities that allows one to determine the constraints on central density ρ c and the chemical composition, which is governed by parameter μ e , of the white dwarf RX J0648.0- 4418 with a record short period of rotation T = 13.18s and mass m = (1.28 ± 0.05) m⊙, has been derived. The analysis of numerical solutions of this system reveal a complex dependence of μ e on ρ c . The intervals of variation of μ e and ρ c are as follows: 1.09 ≤ μ e ≤ 1.21 and 9.04 ≤ μ e /ρ0 ≤ 103 (ρ0 = 0.98 × 106 g/cm3). This range of μ e values suggests that the white dwarf RX J0648.0-4418 is not made of pure hydrogen and should contain 9-21% of heavy elements. Calculations have been performed with the equation of state of an ideal degenerate electron gas. Approximate analytic expressions (with an accuracy of 10-3) for the minimum period T min and mass m of the white dwarf are obtained. It is demonstrated that the white-dwarf mass is almost doubled (compared to the case of no rotation at a fixed central density) as period T approaches T min.
Quantum phase transition of a Bose gas in a lattice with a controlled number of atoms per site
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xu
2005-05-01
We have studied the superfluid-Mott insulator quantum phase transition [1] of a gas of ^87Rb atoms in an optical lattice. We are able to prepare the gas with a controllable number of one, two, or three atoms per lattice site, as verified with photoassociation spectroscopy. We measure momentum distributions using standard time-of-flight imaging techniques. These are similar to those of ref. [1], and exhibit narrow peaks at moderate lattice strengths. We find that the width of these peaks increases for lattice heights greater than about 13 times the recoil energy [2], and we observe interesting differences in this behavior, depending on the number of atoms per site. The data suggest that the quantum phase transition occurs at higher lattice strength with larger site occupation. We acknowledge the support of this work by the R. A. Welch Foundation, The N. S. F., and the D.O.E. Quantum Optics Initiative. [1] Markus Greiner et al., Nature 415, 39 (2002). [2] Thilo St"oferle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004).
Sun, Junwei; Shen, Yi
2015-07-01
The definition for ideal memory system is so strict that some physical elements cannot exist in the real world. In this paper, an ideal memory system can be extended to generate 15 different kinds of quasi-ideal memory systems, which are included in memory systems as its special cases and are different from ideal memory system. For a system to be a quasi-ideal memory system, it should show three unique fingerprints: 1) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be odd symmetrical in the plane; 2) the pinched hysteretic loop of a quasi-ideal memory system must be "self-crossing"; and 3) the slope of tangent line for the pinched hysteresis loop must be strictly monotone in a given period. PMID:25204007
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Mehmani, Bahar; Špička, Václav; Aghdami, Maryam J.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu
2007-09-01
pt. A. Introductions. The mathematical basis for deterministic quantum mechanics / G.'t Hooft. What did we learn from quantum gravity? / A. Ashtekar. Bose-Einstein condensates and EPR quantum non-locality / F. Laloe. The quantum measurement process: lessons from an exactly solvable model / A.E. Allahverdyan, R. Balian and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen -- pt. B. Quantum mechanics and quantum information. POVMs: a small but important step beyond standard quantum mechanics / W. M. de Muynck. State reduction by measurements with a null result / G. Nienhuis. Solving open questions in the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas via a hybrid mixture of laser and statistical physics / M. Kim, A. Svidzinsky and M.O. Scully. Twin-Photon light scattering and causality / G. Puentes, A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman. Simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables / G. Aquino and B. Mehmani. Quantum decoherence and gravitational waves / M.T. Jaekel ... [et al.]. Role of various entropies in the black hole information loss problem / Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and I.V. Volovich. Quantum and super-quantum correlations / G.S. Jaeger -- pt. C. Long distance correlations and bell inequalities. Understanding long-distance quantum correlations / L. Marchildon. Connection of probability models to EPR experiments: probability spaces and Bell's theorem / K. Hess and W. Philipp. Fair sampling vs no-signalling principle in EPR experiments / G. Adenier and A. Yu. Khrennikov -- pt. D. Mathematical foundations. Where the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics comes from / G.M. D'Ariano. Phase space description of quantum mechanics and non-commutative geometry: Wigner-Moyal and Bohm in a wider context / B.J. Hiley. Quantum mechanics as simple algorithm for approximation of classical integrals / A. Yu. Khrennikov. Noncommutative quantum mechanics viewed from Feynman Formalism / J. Lages ... [et al.]. Beyond the quantum in Snyder space / J.F.S. van Huele and M. K. Transtrum -- pt. E. Stochastic
Continuum damping of ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes
Zhang, X.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1993-08-01
A perturbation theory based on the two dimensional (2D) ballooning transform is systematically developed for ideal toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). A formula, similar to the Fermi golden rule for decaying systems in quantum mechanics, is derived for the continuum damping rate of the TAE; the decay (damping) rate is expressed explicitly in terms of the coupling of the TAE to the continuum spectrum. Numerical results are compared with previous calculations. It is found that in some narrow intervals of the parameter m{cflx {epsilon}} the damping rate varies very rapidly. These regions correspond precisely to the root missing intervals of the numerical solution by Rosenbluth et al.
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael
2013-12-04
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
Davies, Frederick S.; Flore, James A.
1986-01-01
Roots of 1.5-year-old `Woodard' rabbiteye blueberry plants (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were flooded in containers or maintained at container capacity over a 5-day period. Carbon assimilation, and stomatal and residual conductances were monitored on one fully expanded shoot/plant using an open flow gas analysis system. Quantum yield was calculated from light response curves. Carbon assimilation and quantum yield of flooded plants decreased to 64 and 41% of control values, respectively, after 1 day of flooding and continued decreasing to 38 and 27% after 4 days. Stomatal and residual conductances to CO2 also decreased after 1 day of flooding compared with those of unflooded plants with residual conductance severely limiting carbon assimilation after 4 days of flooding. Stomatal opening occurred in 75 to 90 minutes and rate of opening was unaffected by flooding. PMID:16664791
Zeng, Shengwei; Lü, Weiming; Huang, Zhen; Liu, Zhiqi; Han, Kun; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Li, Changjian; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Wenxiong; Ma, Haijiao Harsan; Jian, Linke; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ariando
2016-04-26
Electric field effect in electronic double layer transistor (EDLT) configuration with ionic liquids as the dielectric materials is a powerful means of exploring various properties in different materials. Here, we demonstrate the modulation of electrical transport properties and extremely high mobility of two-dimensional electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface through ionic liquid-assisted electric field effect. With a change of the gate voltages, the depletion of charge carrier and the resultant enhancement of electron mobility up to 19 380 cm(2)/(V s) are realized, leading to quantum oscillations of the conductivity at the LAO/STO interface. The present results suggest that high-mobility oxide interfaces, which exhibit quantum phenomena, could be obtained by ionic liquid-assisted field effect. PMID:26974812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammad Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Ghosh, Arindam
2012-02-01
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tunable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape in the 2DEG, thereby inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. On the other hand, a quantum dot lattice provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We use a variety of electrical measurements such as magneto-resistance, thermo-voltage and current-voltage characteristics to probe these two contrasting regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Siegert, Christoph; Pepper, Michael; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Ghosh, Arindam
2013-12-01
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, M.
Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they
Jain, P.; Bradley, A. S.; Gardiner, C. W.
2007-08-15
We study an experimentally realizable system containing stable black hole-white hole acoustic horizons in toroidally trapped Bose-Einstein condensates--the quantum de Laval nozzle. We numerically obtain stationary flow configurations and assess their stability using Bogoliubov theory, finding both in hydrodynamic and nonhydrodynamic regimes there exist dynamically unstable regions associated with the creation of positive and negative energy quasiparticle pairs in analogy with the gravitational Hawking effect. The dynamical instability takes the form of a two mode squeezing interaction between resonant pairs of Bogoliubov modes. We study the evolution of dynamically unstable flows using the truncated Wigner method, which confirms the two mode squeezed state picture of the analogue Hawking effect for low winding number.
Uncountably Generated Ideals of Functions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sury, B.
2011-01-01
Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1] are not finitely generated. This is well-known. What is not as well-known, but perhaps should be, is the fact that these ideals are not countably generated although the proof is not harder! We prove this here and use the result to produce some non-prime ideals in the…
Ultra-high mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum well
Melnikov, M. Yu. Shashkin, A. A.; Dolgopolov, V. T.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.; Kravchenko, S. V.
2015-03-02
We report the observation of an electron gas in a SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum well with maximum mobility up to 240 m{sup 2}/Vs, which is noticeably higher than previously reported results in silicon-based structures. Using SiO, rather than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as an insulator, we obtain strongly reduced threshold voltages close to zero. In addition to the predominantly small-angle scattering well known in the high-mobility heterostructures, the observed linear temperature dependence of the conductivity reveals the presence of a short-range random potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleinert, H.; Schmidt, S.; Pelster, A.
2004-10-01
We calculate the location of the quantum phase transitions of a Bose gas trapped in an optical lattice as a function of effective scattering length aeff and temperature T. Knowledge of recent high-loop results on the shift of the critical temperature at weak couplings is used to locate a nose in the phase diagram above the free Bose-Einstein critical temperature T(0)c, thus predicting the existence of a reentrant transition above T(0)c, where a condensate should form when increasing aeff. At zero temperature, the transition to the normal phase produces the experimentally observed Mott insulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Plotnikov, A. E.
2009-03-01
Commensurate peaks of magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas and Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a lattice of antidots with hard potential walls have been experimentally studied. The behavior of both classical magnetoresistance peaks and quantum oscillations has been shown to fundamentally depend on the lattice period and the antidot size, as well as on the smoothness of the potential at the 2DEG-antidot interface. This result indicates the necessity of revising the interpretation of all numerous experiments with antidot lattices, since this effect has been explicitly or implicitly neglected in them.
Extracting work from quantum states of radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolář, M.; Ryabov, A.; Filip, R.
2016-06-01
Quantum optomechanics opens a possibility to mediate a physical connection between quantum optics and classical thermodynamics. We propose and theoretically analyze a one-way chain starting from various quantum states of radiation. In the chain, the radiation state is first ideally swapped to a sufficiently large mechanical oscillator (membrane). Then the membrane mechanically pushes a classical almost massless piston, which is pressing a gas in a small container. As a result, we observe strongly nonlinear and nonmonotonic transfer of the energy stored in classical and quantum uncertainty of radiation to mechanical work. The amount of work and even its sign depend strongly on the uncertainty of the radiation state. Our theoretical prediction would stimulate an experimental proposal for such optomechanical connection to thermodynamics.
Observation of a Rosensweig Instability and Stable Quantum Droplets in a Dipolar Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfau, Tilman; Ferrier Barbut, Igor; Kadau, Holger; Schmitt, Matthias; Wenzel, Matthias
2016-05-01
Ferrofluids show unusual hydrodynamic effects due to the magnetic nature of their constituents. For increasing magnetization a classical ferrofluid undergoes a Rosensweig instability and creates self-organized ordered surface structures or droplet crystals. We observe a related instability in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipolar interactions resulting in surprisingly stable droplet crystals. We find that quantum fluctuations which are the origin of genuine quantum many-body effects cannot be neglected and provide a stabilizing mechanism. We study experimentally individual stable quantum droplets containing about 800 atoms which are expected to collapse at the mean-field level due to the essentially attractive interaction. By systematic measurements on individual droplets we demonstrate quantitatively that quantum fluctuations stabilize them against the mean-field collapse. We observe in addition interference of several droplets indicating that this stable many-body state is phase coherent.
Analysis of Trace Gas Mixtures Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor
Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Kriesel, Jason M.
2015-07-01
We measure and analyze mixtures of trace gases at ppb-ppm levels using an external cavity quantum cascade laser sensor with a 1-second response time. Accurate spectral fits are obtained in the presence of overlapping spectra.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, W. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} (or 1.25 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Probing dipole-dipole interaction in a rubidium gas via double-quantum 2D spectroscopy.
Gao, Feng; Cundiff, Steven T; Li, Hebin
2016-07-01
We have implemented double-quantum 2D spectroscopy on a rubidium vapor and shown that this technique provides sensitive and background-free detection of the dipole-dipole interaction. The 2D spectra include signals from both individual atoms and interatomic interactions, allowing quantitative studies of the interaction. A theoretical model based on the optical Bloch equations is used to reproduce the experimental spectrum and confirm the origin of double-quantum signals. PMID:27367074
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ercang
2012-06-01
This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason
2015-01-01
We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 μm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The sensor was designed for operation in multiple modes, including gas sensing within a multi-pass Heriott cell and intracavity absorption sensing using the ECQCL compliance voltage. In addition, the ECQCL compliance voltage was used to reduce effects of long-term drifts in the ECQCL output power. The sensor was characterized for noise, drift, and detection of chemicals including ammonia, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, Freon- 134a, Freon-152a, and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). We also present use of the sensor for mobile detection of ammonia downwind of cattle facilities, in which concentrations were recorded at 1-s intervals.
Atomic Quantum Gases in Kagomé Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, L.; Baranov, M. A.; Cirac, J. I.; Everts, H.-U.; Fehrmann, H.; Lewenstein, M.
2004-07-01
We demonstrate the possibility of creating and controlling an ideal and trimerized optical Kagomé lattice, and study the low temperature physics of various atomic gases in such lattices. In the trimerized Kagomé lattice, a Bose gas exhibits a Mott transition with fractional filling factors, whereas a spinless interacting Fermi gas at 2/3 filling behaves as a quantum magnet on a triangular lattice. Finally, a Fermi-Fermi mixture at half-filling for both components represents a frustrated quantum antiferromagnet with a resonating-valence-bond ground state and quantum spin liquid behavior dominated by a continuous spectrum of singlet and triplet excitations. We discuss the method of preparing and observing such a quantum spin liquid employing molecular Bose condensates.
Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions
Gray, S.K.
1993-12-01
A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Quantum-relativistic hydrodynamic model for a spin-polarized electron gas interacting with light.
Morandi, Omar; Zamanian, Jens; Manfredi, Giovanni; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine
2014-07-01
We develop a semirelativistic quantum fluid theory based on the expansion of the Dirac Hamiltonian to second order in 1/c. By making use of the Madelung representation of the wave function, we derive a set of hydrodynamic equations that comprises a continuity equation, an Euler equation for the mean velocity, and an evolution equation for the electron spin density. This hydrodynamic model is then applied to study the dynamics of a dense and weakly relativistic electron plasma. In particular, we investigate the impact of the quantum-relativistic spin effects on the Faraday rotation in a one-dimensional plasma slab irradiated by an x-ray laser source. PMID:25122397
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×10^{15} cm^{-2} and 420 cm^{2 }/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Quantum lattice-gas models for the many-body schroedinger equation
Boghosian, B.M.; Taylor, W. IV
1997-08-01
A general class of discrete unitary models are described whose behavior in the continuum limit corresponds to a many-body Schroedinger equation. On a quantum computer, these models could be used to simulate quantum many-body systems with an exponential speedup over analogous simulations on classical computers. On a classical computer, these models give an explicitly unitary and local prescription for discretizing the Schroedinger equation. It is shown that models of this type can be constructed for an arbitrary number of particles moving in an arbitrary number of dimensions with an arbitrary interparticle interaction.
Vortex Quantum Creation and Winding Number Scaling in a Quenched Spinor Bose Gas
Uhlmann, Michael; Schuetzhold, Ralf; Fischer, Uwe R.
2007-09-21
Motivated by a recent experiment, we study nonequilibrium quantum phenomena taking place in the quench of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate through the zero-temperature phase transition separating the polar paramagnetic and planar ferromagnetic phases. We derive the typical spin domain structure (correlations of the effective magnetization) created by the quench arising due to spin-mode quantum fluctuations, and we establish a sample-size scaling law for the creation of spin vortices, which are topological defects in the transverse magnetization.
Be Ye Perfect? Religious Ideals in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Ruyter, Doret J.
2006-01-01
This article explores the meaning of "religious ideals" and their possible role in education. "Religious ideals" are defined as ideals that acquire meaning due to a belief in transcendence or a divine being. Two kinds of religious ideals are being distinguished, namely ideals that are constituted by a belief in a transcendent being and ideals that…
Ideal near-field thermophotovoltaic cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molesky, Sean; Jacob, Zubin
2015-05-01
We ask the question, what are the ideal characteristics of a near-field thermophotovoltaic cell? Our search leads us to a reformulation of near-field radiative heat transfer in terms of the joint density of electronic states of the emitter-absorber pair in the thermophotovoltaic system. This form reveals that semiconducting materials with narrowband absorption spectra are critical to the energy-conversion efficiency. This essential feature is unavailable in conventional bulk semiconductor cells but can be obtained using low-dimensional materials. Our results show that the presence of matched van Hove singularities resulting from quantum confinement in the emitter and absorber of a thermophotovoltaic cell boosts both the magnitude and spectral selectivity of radiative heat transfer, dramatically improving energy-conversion efficiency. We provide a model near-field thermophotovoltaic system design making use of this idea by employing the van Hove singularities present in carbon nanotubes. Shockley-Queisser analysis shows that the predicted heat transfer characteristics of this model device are fundamentally better than existing thermophotovoltaic designs. Our work paves the way for the use of quantum dots, quantum wells, two-dimensional semiconductors, semiconductor nanowires, and carbon nanotubes as future materials for thermophotovoltaic cells.
Statistically interacting quantum gases in D dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potter, Geoffrey G.
Chapter 1. Exact and explicit results are derived for the thermodynamic properties (isochores, isotherms, isobars, response functions, speed of sound) of a quantum gas in dimensions D ≥ 1 and with fractional exclusion statistics 0 ≤ g ≤ 1 connecting bosons (g = 0) and fermions (g = 1). In D = 1 the results are equivalent to those of the Calogero-Sutherland model, a gas with long-range two-body interaction. Emphasis is given to the crossover between boson-like and fermion-like features, caused by aspects of the statistical interaction that mimic long-range attraction and short-range repulsion. A phase transition along the isobar occurs at a nonzero temperature in all dimensions. The T-dependence of the speed of sound is in simple relation to isochores and isobars. The effects of soft container walls are accounted for rigorously for the case of a pure power-law potential. Chapter 2. The exact thermodynamics (isochores, isotherms, isobars, response functions, speed of sound) is worked out for a statistically interacting quantum gas in D dimensions. The results in D = 1 are those of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for the Nonlinear Schrodinger model, a gas with repulsive two-body contact potential. In all dimensions the ideal boson and fermion gases are recovered in the weak-coupling and strong-coupling limits, respectively. For all nonzero couplings ideal fermion gas behavior emerges for D >> 1 and, in the limit D → infinity, a phase transition occurs at T > 0. Significant deviations from ideal quantum gas behavior are found for intermediate coupling and finite D . Chapter 3. Methodology previously developed in the framework of the coordinate Bethe ansatz applied to integrable quantum gas models is employed to calculate some ground-state properties and elementary excitations for quantum gas models in D = 1 dimensions with statistical interactions that are not equivalent to dynamical interactions. The focus in this comparative study is on modifications of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Gouët, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey
2012-06-01
Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three main—while still overlapping—classes. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theis, Riley A.; Fortenberry, Ryan C.
2016-03-01
The discovery of ArH+ in the interstellar medium has shown that noble gas chemistry may be of more chemical significance than previously believed. The present work extends the known chemistry of small noble gas molecules to NeOH+ and ArOH+. Besides their respective neonium and argonium diatomic cation cousins, these hydroxyl cation molecules are the most stable small noble gas molecules analyzed of late. ArOH+ is once again more stable than the neon cation, but both are well-behaved enough for a complete quartic force field analysis of their rovibrational properties. The Ar-O bond in ArOH+ , for instance, is roughly three-quarters of the strength of the Ar-H bond in ArH+ highlighting the rigidity of this system. The rotational constants, geometries, and vibrational frequencies for both molecules and their various isotopologues are computed from ab initio quantum chemical theory at high-level, and it is shown that these cations may form in regions where peroxy or weakly-bound alcohols may be present. The resulting data should be of significant assistance for the laboratory or observational analysis of these potential interstellar molecules.
Non-linear superflow of a unitary Fermi gas through a quantum point contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebrat, Martin; Husmann, Dominik; Uchino, Shun; Krinner, Sebastian; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-05-01
Point contacts provide simple connections between macroscopic particle reservoirs. In electric circuits, strong links between metals, semiconductors, or superconductors have applications for fundamental condensed-matter physics as well as quantum information processing. However, for complex, strongly correlated materials, links have been largely restricted to weak tunnel junctions. We studied resonantly interacting Fermi gases of 6 Li atoms connected by a tunable, ballistic quantum point contact, finding a nonlinear current-bias relation. At low temperature, our observations agree quantitatively with a theoretical model in which the current originates from multiple Andreev reflections. In a wide contact geometry, the competition between superfluidity and thermally activated transport leads to a conductance minimum. Our system offers a controllable platform for the study of mesoscopic devices based on strongly interacting matter.
Magnetoresistance quantum oscillations in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunc, J.; Piot, B. A.; Maude, D. K.; Potemski, M.; Grill, R.; Betthausen, C.; Weiss, D.; Kolkovsky, V.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.
2015-08-01
Magnetotransport measurements of Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations have been performed on two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined in CdTe and CdMnTe quantum wells. The quantum oscillations in CdMnTe, where the 2DEG interacts with magnetic Mn ions, can be described by incorporating the electron-Mn exchange interaction into the traditional Lifshitz-Kosevich formalism. The modified spin splitting leads to characteristic beating pattern in the SdH oscillations, the study of which indicates the formation of Mn clusters resulting in direct anti-ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interaction. The Landau-level broadening in this system shows a peculiar decrease with increasing temperature, which could be related to statistical fluctuations of the Mn concentration.
Huard; Cox; Saminadayar; Arnoult; Tatarenko
2000-01-01
The dependence of the optical absorption spectrum of a semiconductor quantum well on two-dimensional electron concentration n(e) is studied using CdTe samples. The trion peak (X-) seen at low n(e) evolves smoothly into the Fermi edge singularity at high n(e). The exciton peak (X) moves off to high energy, weakens, and disappears. The X,X- splitting is linear in n(e) and closely equal to the Fermi energy plus the trion binding energy. For Cd0.998Mn0.002Te quantum wells in a magnetic field, the X,X- splitting reflects unequal Fermi energies for M = +/-1/2 electrons. The data are explained by Hawrylak's theory of the many-body optical response including spin effects. PMID:11015866
Combining Yb and Li: Rapid Quantum Degenerate Gas Production and Interacting Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Alaina; Roy, Richard; Bowler, Ryan; Gupta, Subhadeep
2016-05-01
We detail a readily adaptable method for optimizing evaporative cooling efficiency in optical dipole traps (ODTs), reducing the production time of quantum degenerate gases. Utilizing the time-averaged 'painting' potential of a rapidly moving laser beam, we dynamically shape the trap over the course of evaporation to produce 174 Yb Bose-Einstein condensates of (0.5-1.0) × 105 atoms in (1.6-1.8) seconds. We also report on interaction studies in the quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi 174 Yb-6 Li mixture in the BEC-BCS crossover. Additionally, we present work on photoassociation spectroscopy on 6 Li-Yb mixtures and the production of YbLi* molecules in a dual magneto-optical trap, a first step toward coherent production of ultracold 2 Σ molecules.
Quantum kinetic theory of a Bose-Einstein gas confined in a lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Ana Maria; Hu, B. L.; Calzetta, Esteban; Clark, Charles W.
2005-08-01
We extend our earlier work on the nonequilibrium dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate initially loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice. From the two-particle-irreducible (2PI) closed-time-path (CTP) effective action for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we derive causal equations of motion that treat mean-field effects and quantum fluctuations on an equal footing. We demonstrate that these equations reproduce well-known limits when simplifying approximations are introduced. For example, when the system dynamics admits two-time separation, we obtain the Kadanoff-Baym equations of quantum kinetic theory, and in the weakly interacting limit, we show that the local equilibrium solutions of our equations reproduce the second-order corrections to the self-energy of the type originally derived by Beliaev. The derivation of quantum kinetic equations from the 2PI-CTP effective action not only checks the viability of the formalism but also shows it to be a tractable framework for going beyond standard Boltzmann equations of motion.
Quantum kinetic theory of a Bose-Einstein gas confined in a lattice
Rey, Ana Maria; Hu, B.L.; Calzetta, Esteban; Clark, Charles W.
2005-08-15
We extend our earlier work on the nonequilibrium dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate initially loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice. From the two-particle-irreducible (2PI) closed-time-path (CTP) effective action for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we derive causal equations of motion that treat mean-field effects and quantum fluctuations on an equal footing. We demonstrate that these equations reproduce well-known limits when simplifying approximations are introduced. For example, when the system dynamics admits two-time separation, we obtain the Kadanoff-Baym equations of quantum kinetic theory, and in the weakly interacting limit, we show that the local equilibrium solutions of our equations reproduce the second-order corrections to the self-energy of the type originally derived by Beliaev. The derivation of quantum kinetic equations from the 2PI-CTP effective action not only checks the viability of the formalism but also shows it to be a tractable framework for going beyond standard Boltzmann equations of motion.
Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrare...
Quantum transport of non-interacting Fermi gas in an optical lattice combined with harmonic trapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruuska, V.; Törmä, P.
2004-06-01
We have considered non-interacting Fermi gas in a combined harmonic and periodic potential. We calculate the energy spectrum and simulate the motion of the gas after sudden replacement of the trap centre. For different parameter regimes, the system presents dipole oscillations, damped oscillations around the replaced centre as well as localization. The behaviour can be explained by a change in the energy spectrum from linear to quadratic.
Quantum-tunneling dynamics of a spin-polarized Fermi gas in a double-well potential
Salasnich, L.; Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salerno, M.
2010-02-15
We study the exact dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-polarized gas of fermions in a double-well potential at zero and finite temperature. Despite the system being made of noninteracting fermions, its dynamics can be quite complex, showing strongly aperiodic spatio-temporal patterns during the tunneling. The extension of these results to the case of mixtures of spin-polarized fermions interacting with self-trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at zero temperature is considered as well. In this case we show that the fermionic dynamics remains qualitatively similar to that observed in the absence of BEC but with the Rabi frequencies of fermionic excited states explicitly depending on the number of bosons and on the boson-fermion interaction strength. From this, the possibility of controlling quantum fermionic dynamics by means of Feshbach resonances is suggested.
Hashimoto, K; Kanki, K; Tanaka, S; Petrosky, T
2016-02-01
Irreversible processes of weakly coupled one-dimensional quantum perfect Lorentz gas are studied on the basis of the fundamental laws of physics in terms of the complex spectral analysis associated with the resonance state of the Liouville-von Neumann operator. Without any phenomenological operations, such as a coarse-graining of space-time, or a truncation of the higher order correlation, we obtained irreversible processes in a purely dynamical basis in all space and time scale including the microscopic atomic interaction range that is much smaller than the mean-free length. Based on this solution, a limitation of the usual phenomenological Boltzmann equation, as well as an extension of the Boltzmann equation to entire space-time scale, is discussed. PMID:26986313
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, K.; Kanki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Petrosky, T.
2016-02-01
Irreversible processes of weakly coupled one-dimensional quantum perfect Lorentz gas are studied on the basis of the fundamental laws of physics in terms of the complex spectral analysis associated with the resonance state of the Liouville-von Neumann operator. Without any phenomenological operations, such as a coarse-graining of space-time, or a truncation of the higher order correlation, we obtained irreversible processes in a purely dynamical basis in all space and time scale including the microscopic atomic interaction range that is much smaller than the mean-free length. Based on this solution, a limitation of the usual phenomenological Boltzmann equation, as well as an extension of the Boltzmann equation to entire space-time scale, is discussed.
Ferromagnetism of a Repulsive Atomic Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice: A Quantum MonteÂ Carlo Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pilati, S.; Zintchenko, I.; Troyer, M.
2014-01-01
Using continuous-space quantum Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models.
Quantum-chemical study and FTIR jet spectroscopy of CHCl(3)-NH(3) association in the gas phase.
Hippler, Michael; Hesse, Susanne; Suhm, Martin A
2010-11-01
High level ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been performed on the association of chloroform with ammonia in the gas phase (counterpoise corrected MP2 and coupled-cluster CCSD(T) calculations with 6-311++G(d,p) basis functions). Minimum energy equilibrium structures have been found for CHCl(3)-NH(3) dimer, CHCl(3)-(NH(3))(2) trimer and CHCl(3)-(NH(3))(3) tetramer. Association is characterised by a CHN hydrogen bond between a chloroform and an ammonia molecule, with further ammonia units attached by hydrogen bonds to ammonia and by an electrostatic NHCl interaction to chloroform. Cooperative effects provide additional stabilisation. The complexes exhibit characteristic shifts of vibrational bands and change of IR intensity; in particular there is a pronounced progressive shift of the CH-stretching vibration towards lower wavenumber with each unit of ammonia attached in the complex. The shift is accompanied by an up to 600 fold increase in IR intensity. The experimental FTIR jet spectra have provided firm evidence of CHCl(3)-NH(3) association, with the clearest effects seen in the region of the CH-stretching vibration. First tentative assignments have been made based on the dependence of relative intensities of cluster features on the concentration of monomers, and assignments have been corroborated by the quantum chemical calculations. The present combined ab initio and FTIR spectroscopy study reveals the structure and energetics of cluster formation and intermolecular bonding in CHCl(3)-NH(3) association. PMID:20694238
Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.
2006-01-15
Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process.
Detonation Failure in Ideal and Non-Ideal Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haskins, Peter J.; Cook, Malcolm D.
2007-12-01
In this paper we revisit and extend the classic treatment of detonation failure developed by Eyring et al. [1]. We recently published a development of this theory [2] in which a pressure dependant rate law was substituted for the Arrhenius temperature dependant law originally considered. Here we show that by assuming a 2-component rate law based upon a temperature dependant ignition phase and a pressure dependant growth phase we are able to rationalise the very different failure characteristics (critical diameter and velocity decrement at failure) of ideal and non-ideal explosives.
Rokhsar-Kivelson model of quantum dimers as a gas of free fermionic strings
Orland, P. The City University of New York, Baruch College, 17 Lexington Ave., New York, New York 10010 )
1994-02-01
The (2+1)-dimensional quantum dimer model on a square lattice, proposed by Rokhsar and Kivelson as a theory of layered superconductivity, is shown to be equivalent to a many-body theory of free, transversely oscillating strings obeying Fermi statistics. A Jordan-Wigner construction for string field operators is presented. Topological defects are shown to be linearly confined in pairs by dynamical strings. Exact upper and lower bounds are placed on the ground-state energy and the string tension. It is argued that the system is in a spin-fluid phase and that there is no gap in the excitation spectrum.
Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics
Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.
2014-03-15
The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Monitoring derivation of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation
Hornberger, Klaus; Vacchini, Bassano
2008-02-15
We show how the effective equation of motion for a distinguished quantum particle in an ideal gas environment can be obtained by means of the monitoring approach introduced by Hornberger [EPL 77, 50007 (2007)]. The resulting Lindblad master equation accounts for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics in a nonperturbative fashion and it describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. It incorporates various established equations as limiting cases and reduces to the classical linear Boltzmann equation once the state is diagonal in momentum.
Anomalous Behavior in Ideal Fermion Gases Below 2D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grether, M.; de Llano, M.; Solís, M. A.
2003-03-01
``Normal" thermodynamic properties of a ideal Fermi gas in d>2 dimensions, integer or not, is manifested by monotonically increasing or decreasing of its specific heat, chemical potential or isothermal sound velocity. However, for 0
Idealism and materialism in perception.
Rose, David; Brown, Dora
2015-01-01
Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive. PMID:26492727
Ionic conductivity in a quantum lattice gas model with three-particle interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, J. H.; Muttalib, K. A.; Tanaka, T.
2012-12-01
A system of mesoscopic ions with dominant three-particle interactions is modeled by a quantum lattice liquid on the planar kagomé lattice. The two-parameter Hamiltonian contains localized attractive triplet interactions as potential energy and nearest neighbor hopping-type terms as kinetic energy. The dynamic ionic conductivity σ(ω) is theoretically investigated for ‘weak hopping’ via a quantum many-body perturbation expansion of the thermal (Matsubara) Green function (current-current correlation). A simple analytic continuation and mapping of the thermal Green function provide the temporal Fourier transform of the physical retarded Green function in the Kubo formula. Substituting pertinent exact solutions for static multi-particle correlations known from previous work, Arrhenius relations are revealed in zeroth-order approximation for the dc ionic conductivity σdc along special trajectories in density-temperature space. The Arrhenius plots directly yield static activation energies along the latter loci. Experimental possibilities relating to σdc are discussed in the presence of equilibrium aggregation. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.
Quantum field theory for the three-body constrained lattice Bose gas. I. Formal developments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diehl, S.; Baranov, M.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.
2010-08-01
We develop a quantum field theoretical framework to analytically study the three-body constrained Bose-Hubbard model beyond mean field and noninteracting spin wave approximations. It is based on an exact mapping of the constrained model to a theory with two coupled bosonic degrees of freedom with polynomial interactions, which have a natural interpretation as single particles and two-particle states. The procedure can be seen as a proper quantization of the Gutzwiller mean field theory. The theory is conveniently evaluated in the framework of the quantum effective action, for which the usual symmetry principles are now supplemented with a “constraint principle” operative on short distances. We test the theory via investigation of scattering properties of few particles in the limit of vanishing density, and we address the complementary problem in the limit of maximum filling, where the low-lying excitations are holes and diholes on top of the constraint-induced insulator. This is the first of a sequence of two papers. The application of the formalism to the many-body problem, which can be realized with atoms in optical lattices with strong three-body loss, is performed in a related work [S. Diehl, M. Baranov, A. Daley, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. B 82, 064510 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevB.82.064510].
Quantum field theory for the three-body constrained lattice Bose gas. I. Formal developments
Diehl, S.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.; Baranov, M.
2010-08-01
We develop a quantum field theoretical framework to analytically study the three-body constrained Bose-Hubbard model beyond mean field and noninteracting spin wave approximations. It is based on an exact mapping of the constrained model to a theory with two coupled bosonic degrees of freedom with polynomial interactions, which have a natural interpretation as single particles and two-particle states. The procedure can be seen as a proper quantization of the Gutzwiller mean field theory. The theory is conveniently evaluated in the framework of the quantum effective action, for which the usual symmetry principles are now supplemented with a ''constraint principle'' operative on short distances. We test the theory via investigation of scattering properties of few particles in the limit of vanishing density, and we address the complementary problem in the limit of maximum filling, where the low-lying excitations are holes and diholes on top of the constraint-induced insulator. This is the first of a sequence of two papers. The application of the formalism to the many-body problem, which can be realized with atoms in optical lattices with strong three-body loss, is performed in a related work [S. Diehl, M. Baranov, A. Daley, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. B 82, 064510 (2010)].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yepez, J.; Vahala, G.; Vahala, L.
2009-04-01
Presented is a type-II quantum algorithm for superfluid dynamics, used to numerically predict solutions of the GP equation for a complex scalar field (spinless bosons) in φ4 theory. The GP equation is a long wavelength effective field theory of a microscopic quantum lattice gas with nonlinear state reduction. The quantum lattice gas algorithm for modeling the dynamics of the one-body BEC state in 3+1 dimensions is presented. To demonstrate the method's strength as a computational physics tool, a difficult situation of filamentary singularities is simulated, the dynamics of solitary vortex-antivortex pairs, which are a basic building block of morphologies of quantum turbulence.
Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tobin, Emma
2013-01-01
This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…
Convex analysis and ideal tensegrities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maceri, Franco; Marino, Michele; Vairo, Giuseppe
2011-11-01
A theoretical framework based on convex analysis is formulated and developed to study tensegrity structures under steady-state loads. Many classical results for ideal tensegrities are rationally deduced from subdifferentiable models in a novel mechanical perspective. Novel energy-based criteria for rigidity and pre-stressability are provided, allowing to formulate numerical algorithms for computations.
Scharfetter, C
1996-03-01
The concept of the whole as an ideal of gestalt and value is sketched. In the concrete situation of healer and patient a multiperspective approach rather than a realization of wholeness has to be enough, taking into account somatic, physiological, intraindividual-psychological, interpersonal-social and transpersonal aspects of personalities in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8900879
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lischner, Johannes; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.
2014-03-01
We present theoretical calculations for the spectral functions and single-particle densities of states of the two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductor quantum wells at different electron densities using the GW plus cumulant method. We compare our results to GW only calculations and find significant differences in the description of the satellites between the two theories: While GW theory predicts the existence of a plasmaron excitation, no such excitation is found in GW plus cumulant theory. We compare our results to experimental tunneling spectra from semiconductor quantum wells and find good agreement for the satellite properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Gang
2008-02-01
We investigate the properties of symmetrical triangular quantum wells composed of InGaAs/InAs chirped superlattice, which is grown by gas source molecular beam epitaxy via digital alloy method. In the quantum well structure tensile AlInGaAs are used as barriers to partially compensate for the significant compressive strain in the wells, the strain compensation effects are confirmed by x-ray measurement. The photoluminescence spectra of the sample are dominated by the excitonic recombination peak in the whole temperature range. The thermal quenching, peak energy shift and line-width broadening of the PL spectra are analysed in detail, the mechanisms are discussed.
Visualizing edge states with an atomic Bose gas in the quantum Hall regime.
Stuhl, B K; Lu, H-I; Aycock, L M; Genkina, D; Spielman, I B
2015-09-25
Bringing ultracold atomic gases into the quantum Hall regime is challenging. We engineered an effective magnetic field in a two-dimensional lattice with an elongated-strip geometry, consisting of the sites of an optical lattice in the long direction and of three internal atomic spin states in the short direction. We imaged the localized states of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in this strip; via excitation dynamics, we further observed both the skipping orbits of excited atoms traveling down the system's edges, analogous to edge magnetoplasmons in two-dimensional electron systems, and a dynamical Hall effect for bulk excitations. Our technique involves minimal heating, which will be important for spectroscopic measurements of the Hofstadter butterfly and realizations of Laughlin's charge pump. PMID:26404830
Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Photoacoustic Sensor for Trace Detection of Formaldehyde Gas
Elia, Angela; Di Franco, Cinzia; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Scamarcio, Gaetano
2009-01-01
We report on the development of a photoacoustic sensor for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using a thermoelectrically cooled distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating in pulsed mode at 5.6 μm. A resonant photoacoustic cell, equipped with four electret microphones, is excited in its first longitudinal mode at 1,380 Hz. The absorption line at 1,778.9 cm−1 is selected for CH2O detection. A detection limit of 150 parts per billion in volume in nitrogen is achieved using a 10 seconds time constant and 4 mW laser power. Measurements in ambient air will require water vapour filters. PMID:22574040
Equation of state for a trapped quantum gas: remnant of zero-point energy effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castilho, P. C. M.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Roati, G.; Muniz, S. R.; Magalhães, D. V.; Bagnato, V. S.
2016-02-01
The study of the thermodynamic properties of trapped gases has attracted great attention during the last few years and can be used as a tool to characterize such clouds in the presence of other phenomena. Here, we obtain an equation of state for a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate taking the limit of T\\to 0 by means of global themodynamic variables. These variables allow us to explore limits in which the standard thermodynamics are not defined. Our results are taken in the high density limit, and the extrapolation for N\\to 1 is done later. Even in this situation, we qualitatively observe the well known existence of a zero-point energy for harmonic potentials in which the determination of conjugated variables is limited by the quantum nature of the system.
Half-quantum vortex molecules in a binary dipolar Bose gas.
Shirley, Wilbur E; Anderson, Brandon M; Clark, Charles W; Wilson, Ryan M
2014-10-17
We study the ground state phases of a rotating two-component, or binary, Bose-Einstein condensate, wherein one component possesses a large permanent magnetic dipole moment. A variety of nontrivial phases emerge in this system, including a half-quantum vortex (HQV) chain phase and a HQV molecule phase, where HQVs bind at short distances. We attribute these phases to the development of a minimum in the HQV interaction potential, which emerges without coherent coupling or attractive interactions between the components. Thus, we show that the presence of dipolar interactions in this system provides a unique mechanism for the formation of HQV molecules and results in a rich ground state phase diagram. PMID:25361261
Plasmon response of a quantum-confined electron gas probed by core-level photoemission
Ozer, Mustafa M; Moon, Eun Ju; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Weitering, Harm H
2011-01-01
We demonstrate the existence of quantized 'bulk' plasmons in ultrathin magnesium films on Si(111) by analyzing plasmon-loss satellites in core-level photoemission spectra, recorded as a function of the film thickness d. Remarkably, the plasmon energy is shown to vary as 1/d{sup 2} all the way down to three atomic layers. The loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. With decreasing film thickness, spectral weight is gradually transferred from the plasmon modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations. These results represent striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures.
Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A.
2014-07-21
A variational mixed quantum-semiclassical theory for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium is developed, tested, and used to simulate the temporal evolution of nonstationary states of the internal molecular and surrounding medium degrees of freedom. In this theory, termed the Fixed Vibrational Basis/Gaussian Bath (FVB/GB) method, the system is treated fully quantum mechanically while Gaussian wave packets are used for the bath degrees of freedom. An approximate time-dependent wave function of the entire model is obtained instead of just a reduced system density matrix, so the theory enables the analysis of the entangled system and bath dynamics that ensues following initial displacement of the internal-molecular (system) coordinate from its equilibrium position. The norm- and energy-conserving properties of the propagation of our trial wave function are natural consequences of the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The variational approach also stabilizes the time evolution in comparison to the same ansatz propagated under a previously employed locally quadratic approximation to the bath potential and system-bath interaction terms in the bath-parameter equations of motion. Dynamics calculations are carried out for molecular iodine in a 2D krypton lattice that reveal both the time-course of vibrational decoherence and the details of host-atom motion accompanying energy dissipation and dephasing. This work sets the stage for the comprehensive simulation of ultrafast time-resolved optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature solids.
Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A
2014-07-21
A variational mixed quantum-semiclassical theory for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium is developed, tested, and used to simulate the temporal evolution of nonstationary states of the internal molecular and surrounding medium degrees of freedom. In this theory, termed the Fixed Vibrational Basis/Gaussian Bath (FVB/GB) method, the system is treated fully quantum mechanically while Gaussian wave packets are used for the bath degrees of freedom. An approximate time-dependent wave function of the entire model is obtained instead of just a reduced system density matrix, so the theory enables the analysis of the entangled system and bath dynamics that ensues following initial displacement of the internal-molecular (system) coordinate from its equilibrium position. The norm- and energy-conserving properties of the propagation of our trial wave function are natural consequences of the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The variational approach also stabilizes the time evolution in comparison to the same ansatz propagated under a previously employed locally quadratic approximation to the bath potential and system-bath interaction terms in the bath-parameter equations of motion. Dynamics calculations are carried out for molecular iodine in a 2D krypton lattice that reveal both the time-course of vibrational decoherence and the details of host-atom motion accompanying energy dissipation and dephasing. This work sets the stage for the comprehensive simulation of ultrafast time-resolved optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature solids. PMID:25053307
Quantum-chemical modeling of boron and noble gas dopants in silicon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aronowitz, S.
1983-01-01
The electron effects of the presence of boron and noble gas dopants in a model silicon lattice were investigated using a self-consistent charge extended Hueckel program. The extent of electronic interaction of the noble gas with the lattice is given by: Kr greater than Ar greater than Ne. Theoretically, boron diffusion in the presence of neon, argon or krypton was examined using a self-consistent charge extended Hueckel program. The net energy of interaction between boron and neon is strongly repulsive while argon-boron exhibits a region of relative stability; krypton exhibits behavior similar to argon though no region of stability was found for the range of separations used in the calculations. Finally, it is noted, from the relative energy of the topmost filled molecular orbital associated with boron (in an interstitial position), that activation of the boron does not require boron movement but can be accomplished by indirect transitions.
The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown
Li, Yingjie; Go, David B.
2014-09-14
The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electrons—a process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10 μm). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devreese, Jeroen P. A.; Tempere, Jacques; Sá de Melo, Carlos A. R.
2015-10-01
We study the effect of spin-orbit coupling on both the zero-temperature and nonzero-temperature behavior of a two-dimensional Fermi gas. We include a generic combination of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms into the system Hamiltonian, which allows us to study both the experimentally relevant equal-Rashba-Dresselhaus (ERD) limit and the Rashba-only (RO) limit. At zero temperature, we derive the phase diagram as a function of the two-body binding energy and Zeeman field. In the ERD case, this phase diagram reveals several topologically distinct uniform superfluid phases, classified according to the nodal structure of the quasiparticle excitation energies. Furthermore, we use a momentum-dependent SU(2) rotation to transform the system into a generalized helicity basis, revealing that spin-orbit coupling induces a triplet pairing component of the order parameter. At nonzero temperature, we study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition by including phase fluctuations of the order parameter up to second order. We show that the superfluid density becomes anisotropic due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling (except in the RO case). This leads both to elliptic vortices and antivortices, and to anisotropic sound velocities. The latter prove to be sensitive to quantum phase transitions between topologically distinct phases. We show further that at a fixed nonzero Zeeman field, the BKT critical temperature is increased by the presence of ERD spin-orbit coupling. Subsequently, we demonstrate that the Clogston limit becomes infinite: TBKT remains nonzero at all finite values of the Zeeman field. We conclude by extending the quantum phase transition lines to nonzero temperature, using the nodal structure of the quasiparticle spectrum, thus connecting the BKT critical temperature with the zero-temperature results.
Quantum Phase Transition Between a Luttinger Liquid and a Gas of Cold Molecules
Law, K. T.; Feldman, D. E.
2008-08-29
We consider cold polar molecules confined in a helical optical lattice similar to those used in holographic microfabrication. An external electric field polarizes molecules along the axis of the helix. The large-distance intermolecular dipolar interaction is attractive but the short-scale interaction is repulsive due to geometric constraints and thus prevents collapse. The interaction strength depends on the electric field. We show that a zero-temperature second-order liquid-gas transition occurs at a critical field. It can be observed under experimentally accessible conditions.
Representation of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes
Roscoe B. White
2013-01-15
One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ Β = ∇ X (xi X B) ensures that δ B • ∇ ψ = 0 at a resonance, with ψ labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation δ Β = ∇ X αB. These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of δ B • ∇ψ at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in xi to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed
Cylindrical magnets and ideal solenoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw
2010-03-01
Both wire-wound solenoids and cylindrical magnets can be approximated as ideal azimuthally symmetric solenoids. We present an exact solution for the magnetic field of an ideal solenoid in an easy to use form. The field is expressed in terms of a single function that can be rapidly computed by means of a compact efficient algorithm, which can be coded as an add-in function to a spreadsheet, making field calculations accessible to introductory students. These expressions are not only accurate but are also as fast as most approximate expressions. We demonstrate their utility by simulating the dropping of a cylindrical magnet through a nonmagnetic conducting tube and comparing the calculation with data obtained from experiments suitable for an undergraduate laboratory.
Three-body recombination in a quasi-two-dimensional quantum gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Bo; Zenesini, Alessandro; Grimm, Rudolf
2016-05-01
Quantum three-body recombination in three-dimensional systems is influenced by a series of weakly bound trimers known as Efimov states, which are induced by short-range interactions and exhibit a discrete scaling symmetry. On the other hand, two-dimensional systems with contact interactions are characterized by continuous scale invariance and support no Efimov physics. This raises questions about the behaviour of three-body recombination in the transition from three to two dimensions. We use ultracold caesium atoms trapped in anisotropic potentials formed by a pair of counter-propagating laser beams to experimentally investigate three-body recombination in quasi-two-dimensional systems with tunable confinement and tunable interactions. In our recent experiments, we observed a smooth transition of the three-body recombination rate coefficient from a three-dimensional to a deeply quasi-two-dimensional system. A comparison between the results obtained near two Feshbach resonances indicates a universal behaviour of three-body recombination in the quasi-two-dimensional regime. Austrian Science Fund FWF within project P23106.
A quantum gas of polar KRb molecules in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Covey, Jacob; Miecnikowski, Matthew; Moses, Steven; Fu, Zhengkun; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun
2016-05-01
Ultracold polar molecules provide new opportunities for investigation of strongly correlated many-body spin systems such as many-body localization and quantum magnetism. In an effort to access such phenomena, we load polar KRb molecules into a three-dimensional optical lattice. In this system, we observed many-body spin dynamics between molecules pinned in a deep lattice, even though the filling fraction of the molecules was only 5%. We have recently performed a thorough investigation of the molecule creation process in an optical lattice, and consequently improved our filling fraction to 30% by preparing and overlapping Mott and band insulators of the initial atomic gases. More recently, we switched to a second generation KRb apparatus that will allow application of large, stable electric fields as well as high-resolution addressing and detection of polar molecules in optical lattices. We plan to use these capabilities to study non-equilibrium spin dynamics in an optical lattice with nearly single site resolution. I will present the status and direction of the second generation apparatus.
Ideal and incompressible fluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oneill, M. E.; Chorlton, F.
An introductory treatment of fluid mechanics theory, emphasizing mathematical methods and techniques, is given. Basic mathematical techniques of flow analysis are outlined in connection with viscous and inviscid flows, compressible and incompressible flows, and ideal flows. Among the specific flow problems addressed are: the kinematics of fluids in motion; equations of motion in boundary layer flows; and the stream functions for two-dimensional flows. Methods for analyzing wave motion in rectangular and cylindrical tanks are also described.
Piecewise lexsegment ideals in exterior algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakin, D. A.
2005-02-01
The problem of describing the Hilbert functions of homogeneous ideals of an exterior algebra over a field containing a fixed monomial ideal I is considered. For this purpose the notion of a piecewise lexsegment ideal in an exterior algebra is introduced generalizing the notion of a lexsegment ideal. It is proved that if I is a piecewise lexsegment ideal, then it is possible to describe the Hilbert functions of the homogeneous ideals containing I in a way similar to that suggested by Kruskal and Katona for the situation I=0. Moreover, a generalization of the extremal properties of lexsegment ideals is obtained (the inequality for the Betti numbers).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anghel, Sergiu; Singh, Akshay; Passmann, Felix; Iwata, Hikaru; Moore, John N.; Yusa, Go; Li, Xiaoqin; Betz, Markus
2016-07-01
Exciton, trion, and electron spin dynamics in a 20-nm-wide modulation-doped GaAs single quantum well are investigated using resonant ultrafast two-color Kerr rotation spectroscopy. Excitons and trions are selectively detected by resonant probe pulses while their relative spectral weight is controlled by adjusting the gate voltage which tunes the carrier density. Tuning the carrier density markedly influences the spin decay time of the two-dimensional electron gas. The spin decay time can be enhanced by a factor of 3 at an intermediate carrier concentration in the quantum well where excitons and trions coexist in the system. In addition, we explore the capability to tune the g factor of the electron gas via the carrier density.
Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment
Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.
2015-01-01
The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002
Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment.
Robson, R E; Brunger, M J; Buckman, S J; Garcia, G; Petrović, Z Lj; White, R D
2015-01-01
The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the 'gas-phase' assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002
Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.
2015-08-01
The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.
Some exact results for a trapped quantum gas at finite temperature
Zyl, Brandon P. van; Bhaduri, Rajat K.; Suzuki, Akira; Brack, Matthias
2003-02-01
We present closed analytical expressions for the particle and kinetic-energy spatial densities at finite temperatures for a system of noninteracting fermions (bosons) trapped in a d-dimensional harmonic-oscillator potential. For d=2 and 3, exact expressions for the N-particle densities are used to calculate perturbatively the temperature dependence of the splittings of the energy levels in a given shell due to a very weak interparticle interaction in a dilute Fermi gas. In two dimensions, we obtain analytically the surprising result that the l degeneracy in a harmonic-oscillator shell is not lifted in the lowest order even when the exact, rather than the Thomas-Fermi expression for the particle density is used. We also demonstrate rigorously (in two dimensions) the reduction of the exact zero-temperature fermionic expressions to the Thomas-Fermi form in the large-N limit.
Rare-gas precipitates in metals as quantum dots for polaritons
Goliney, I. Yu.; Sugakov, V. I.
2000-10-15
A study of the optical spectra of metals containing inclusions of rare-gas precipitates of spherical shape is presented. A unique feature of this system is that rare-gas atoms inside the precipitates form a crystal lattice even at temperatures much higher than room temperature. Energy spectra of the size quantization of excitons in Xe, Kr, Ar, and Ne precipitates in Al and their manifestation in reflection spectra are calculated, taking into account polariton effects (dipole-dipole exciton interactions), spatial dispersion, and mixing of the electronic excitations of the inclusion with collective excitations of the surrounding metal (plasmons). It was shown that (i) the proximity of energies of the exciton levels and the plasmons localized on the inclusion (surface plasmons) results in a gigantic shift (up to 1 eV) of the levels of coupled excitations, (ii) the transfer of the oscillator strength from the plasmon level to the exciton levels leads to the amplification of optical transitions in bubbles by several orders of magnitude. If the energy of the surface plasmon is smaller than the energy of the surface polariton (Ar, Ne), the latter is situated inside the discrete exciton spectrum and is coupled to the discrete exciton levels. In this case the surface polariton line in the reflection spectra is broadened by a set of dips representing quantized exciton levels. In the case of Xe and Kr in Al, the energy of the surface plasmon level is larger than the energy of the surface polariton. As a result, the surface polariton is pushed out of the exciton band and manifests itself in the reflection spectrum by a very narrow dip.
Pacheco, Alexander B; Reyes, Andrés; Micha, David A
2006-10-21
The absorption of light during atomic collisions is treated by coupling electronic excitations, treated quantum mechanically, to the motion of the nuclei described within a short de Broglie wavelength approximation, using a density matrix approach. The time-dependent electric dipole of the system provides the intensity of light absorption in a treatment valid for transient phenomena, and the Fourier transform of time-dependent intensities gives absorption spectra that are very sensitive to details of the interaction potentials of excited diatomic states. We consider several sets of atomic expansion functions and atomic pseudopotentials, and introduce new parametrizations to provide light absorption spectra in good agreement with experimentally measured and ab initio calculated spectra. To this end, we describe the electronic excitation of the valence electron of excited alkali atoms in collisions with noble gas atoms with a procedure that combines l-dependent atomic pseudopotentials, including two- and three-body polarization terms, and a treatment of the dynamics based on the eikonal approximation of atomic motions and time-dependent molecular orbitals. We present results for the collision induced absorption spectra in the Li-He system at 720 K, which display both atomic and molecular transition intensities. PMID:17059261
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baren, Randall E.; Parrish, Milton E.; Shafer, Kenneth H.; Harward, Charles N.; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D.; McManus, J. Barry; Zahniser, Mark S.
2004-12-01
A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1 s for the MS smoke system and 0.4 s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20 Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2 s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO 2 from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied.
Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.
2006-12-31
A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dornheim, T.; Groth, S.; Schoof, T.; Hann, C.; Bonitz, M.
2016-05-01
In a recent publication [S. Groth et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 085102 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085102], we have shown that the combination of two complementary quantum Monte Carlo approaches, namely configuration path integral Monte Carlo [T. Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.130402] and permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo [T. Dornheim et al., New J. Phys. 17, 073017 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/7/073017], allows for the accurate computation of thermodynamic properties of the spin-polarized uniform electron gas over a wide range of temperatures and densities without the fixed-node approximation. In the present work, we extend this concept to the unpolarized case, which requires nontrivial enhancements that we describe in detail. We compare our simulation results with recent restricted path integral Monte Carlo data [E. W. Brown et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.146405] for different energy contributions and pair distribution functions and find, for the exchange correlation energy, overall better agreement than for the spin-polarized case, while the separate kinetic and potential contributions substantially deviate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogt, Natalja; Atavin, Evgenii G.; Rykov, Anatolii N.; Popov, Evgenii V.; Vilkov, Lev V.
2009-11-01
For the first time, the five dimensional (5-D) analysis of potential energy surface (PES) from quantum-chemical calculations was carried out to predict reliably the various glyceraldehyde (GLA) conformers. 36 conformers with relative stabilities up to 38 kJ/mol were found in the B3LYP approximation. According to results of MP2/cc-pVQZ calculations, the molecule exists at the experimental temperature of 388 K as a mixture of five conformers in the ratio I:II:III:IV:V = 63:18:4:10:5. Contrary to the theoretical conclusion of Lovas et al., the conformer IV is predicted to be more stable than the conformer III. Our result can explain why the conformer IV could be detected in the microwave (MW) spectroscopic experiment by Lovas et al., whereas the conformer III could not. For the first time, thermal-average and equilibrium structural parameters of GLA (main conformer) have been determined from gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data. Vibrational corrections to the experimental bond lengths were determined using quadratic and cubic force constants from high-level ab initio calculations (MP2/cc-pVTZ). It was shown that the experimental intensities are sensitive to the contribution of the second conformer (27(15)%). Rotational constants calculated from MP2/cc-pVQZ geometries were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental rotational constants corrected for anharmonic effects.
Chen, Chen; Wang, Biao; Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Jian; Wang, Yi-Ding
2014-03-01
Presented in the present paper is a compact instrument developed for rapid, sensitive and continuous monitoring of trace gases in air, with results shown for carbon monoxide concentration. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 4.8 microm and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) mid-infrared (MIR) detector, combing MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 50 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4 s acquisition time. Meanwhile, in order to eliminate the instability induced by electrically modulated light source and effectively improve detection limit of the instrument, an optical structure with dual channel path was designed which is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. The experimental results show that the instrument integrated with gas concentration inversion algorithm can be applied to in-situ measurements of trace gases without calibration. Additionally, operator could substitute a QCL operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases. PMID:25208424
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shi; Zhu, Minyi; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos
2013-03-01
Very recently, a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method was proposed for Rashba spin-orbit operators which expands the applicability of QMC to systems with variable spins. It is based on incorporating the spin-orbit into the Green's function and thus samples (ie, rotates) the spinors in the antisymmetric part of the trial function [1]. Here we propose a new alternative for both variational and diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for calculations of systems with variable spins. Specifically, we introduce a new spin representation which allows us to sample the spin configurations efficiently and without introducing additional fluctuations. We develop the corresponding Green's function which treats the electron spin as a dynamical variable and we use the fixed-phase approximation to eliminate the negative probabilities. The trial wave function is a Slater determinant of spinors and spin-indepedent Jastrow correlations. The method also has the zero variance property. We benchmark the method on the 2D electron gas with the Rashba interaction and we find very good overall agreement with previously obtained results. Research supported by NSF and ARO.
All-optical production and transport of a large 6Li quantum gas in a crossed optical dipole trap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, Ch.; Gan, H. C. J.; Dieckmann, K.
2016-05-01
We report on an efficient production scheme for a large quantum degenerate sample of fermionic lithium. The approach is based on our previous work on narrow-line 2 S1 /2→3 P3 /2 laser cooling resulting in a high phase-space density of up to 3 ×10-4 . This allows utilizing a large-volume crossed optical dipole trap with a total power of 45 W , leading to high loading efficiency and 8 ×106 trapped atoms. The same optical trapping configuration is used for rapid adiabatic transport over a distance of 25 cm in 0.9 s , and subsequent evaporative cooling. With optimized evaporation we achieve a degenerate Fermi gas with 1.7 ×106 atoms at a temperature of 60 nK , corresponding to T /TF=0.16 (2 ) . Furthermore, the performance is demonstrated by evaporation near a broad Feshbach resonance creating a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate of 3 ×105 lithium dimers.
Patimisco, Pietro; Borri, Simone; Sampaolo, Angelo; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Vitiello, Miriam S; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo
2014-05-01
An innovative quartz enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensing system operating in the THz spectral range and employing a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) is described. The QTF dimensions are 3.3 cm × 0.4 cm × 0.8 cm, with the two prongs spaced by ∼800 μm. To test our sensor we used a quantum cascade laser as the light source and selected a methanol rotational absorption line at 131.054 cm(-1) (∼3.93 THz), with line-strength S = 4.28 × 10(-21) cm mol(-1). The sensor was operated at 10 Torr pressure on the first flexion QTF resonance frequency of 4245 Hz. The corresponding Q-factor was 74 760. Stepwise concentration measurements were performed to verify the linearity of the QEPAS signal as a function of the methanol concentration. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 7 parts per million in 4 seconds, corresponding to a QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2 × 10(-10) W cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), comparable with the best result of mid-IR QEPAS systems. PMID:24167816
Baren, Randall E; Parrish, Milton E; Shafer, Kenneth H; Harward, Charles N; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D; McManus, J Barry; Zahniser, Mark S
2004-12-01
A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1s for the MS smoke system and 0.4s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO(2) from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied. PMID:15561630
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred
2016-06-01
Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.
On fuzzy ideals of BL-algebras.
Meng, Biao Long; Xin, Xiao Long
2014-01-01
In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085
Detonation Failure in Ideal and Non-Ideal Explosives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haskins, P. J.; Cook, M. D.
2007-06-01
In this paper we revisit and extend the classic treatment of detonation failure developed by Eyring et. al. [1]. We recently published a development of this theory [2] in which a pressure dependant rate law was substituted for the Arrhenius temperature dependant law originally considered. Here we show that by assuming a 2-component rate law based upon a temperature dependant ignition phase and a pressure dependant growth phase we are able to rationalise the very different failure characteristics (critical diameter and velocity decrement at failure) of ideal and non-ideal explosives. [1] Eyring, H., Powell, R.E., Duffy, G.H., and Parlin, R.B., ``The stability of detonation,'' Chem. Rev. 45, 69-181 (1949). [2] Haskins, P.J., Cook, M.D., and Wood, A.D., ``On the dependence of critical diameter and velocity decrement at failure on the burn law,'' in proceedings of the 33rd International Pyrotechnics Seminar, Fort Collins, Co, USA, 385-391 (2006).
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Cowell, A.B.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.
1997-11-01
The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of acetic acid, (Z)-5-ethylidene-2-norbornene, mesityl oxide (4-methyl-3-penten-2-one), 4-methylpent-1-ene, glycidyl phenyl ether (1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxypropane), and 2,2{prime}-bis(phenylthio)propane are reported. An enthalpy of formation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid (2-methylalanine) in the crystalline phase was determined. Using a literature value for the enthalpy of sublimation of 2-aminoisobutyric acid, a value for the ideal-gas enthalpy of formation was derived. An enthalpy of fusion was determined for 2,2{prime}-bis(phenylthio)propane. Two-phase (solid + vapor) or (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined from 300 K to the critical region or earlier decomposition temperature for all the compounds except acetic acid. For mesityl oxide and 4-methylpent-1-ene, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Group-additivity parameters and ring strain energies useful in the application of group-contribution correlations were derived.
Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobin, Emma
2013-07-01
This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.
Numerical Simulations for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Wenlong
An approximate Riemann solver needed in a high -order Godunov-type scheme for ideal MHD is developed in this thesis. The Riemann solver consists of the initial guess, the calculation of the two fast shock speeds and post-shock states, the performance of two possible rotations, the calculation of the two slow shock speeds and post-shock states, and the improvement of the initial guess. The Riemann solver includes all the discontinuities in ideal MHD. The extension of the Piecewise Parabolic Method in ideal MHD is presented based on the Riemann solver. The code starts from a set of normal physical variables. A cubic polynomial is used to interpolate each of Riemann invariants. The values of those physical variables at edges of computational zones are obtained through the interpolated Riemann invariants. The monotonicity constraint is applied to those point values of physical variables. A parabola is used for the internal structure of a zone. The set of time-averaged fluxes is calculated by the Riemann solver. The conserved quantities are updated by adding the net flux advected into each zone. After the dynamical step in a Lagrangian grid, the conserved quantities are mapped onto a fixed Eulerian grid. The two-dimensional scheme is built upon the technique of dimension splitting. The scheme is applied to wave steepening, propagation of shocks, various shock tube problems, the penetration of a solar wind filament, and MHD shock interactions with a cloud. The results of these applications show that the scheme has the principal advantages of a Godunov-type scheme, i.e., the robust operation in the presence of very strong discontinuities, thin shock fronts with little attendant noise generation, and thin contact and tangential discontinuities.
Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong
2015-03-21
We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO{sub 3}/ATiO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO{sub 3}, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO{sub 3} as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.
Kinetics and mechanism of the beta-alanine + OH gas phase reaction: a quantum mechanical approach.
Cruz-Torres, Armando; Galano, Annia; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl
2006-01-14
The OH hydrogen abstraction reaction from beta-alanine has been studied using the BHandHLYP hybrid HF-density functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The energies have been improved by single point calculations at the CCSD(T)/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The structures of the different stationary points are discussed. Reaction profiles are modeled including the formation of pre-reactive and product complexes. Negative net activation energy is obtained for the overall reaction. A complex mechanism is proposed, and the rate coefficients are calculated using transition state theory over the temperature range of 250-400 K. The rate coefficients are proposed for the first time and it was found that in the gas phase the hydrogen abstraction occurs mainly from the CH(2) group next to the amino end. The following expressions, in cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1), are obtained for the overall rate constants, at 250-400 and 290-310 K, respectively: k(250-400)= 2.36 x 10(-12) exp(340/T), and k(290-310)= 1.296 x 10(-12) exp(743/T). The three parameter expression that best describes the studied reaction is k(250-400)= 1.01 x 10(-21)T(3.09) exp(1374/T). The beta-alanine + OH reaction was found to be 1.5 times faster than the alpha-alanine + OH reaction. PMID:16482271
Obese people's perceptions of the thin ideal.
Couch, Danielle; Thomas, Samantha L; Lewis, Sophie; Blood, R Warwick; Holland, Kate; Komesaroff, Paul
2016-01-01
The media play a key role in promoting the thin ideal. A qualitative study, in which we used in depth interviews and thematic analysis, was undertaken to explore the attitudes of 142 obese individuals toward media portrayals of the thin ideal. Participants discussed the thin ideal as a social norm that is also supported through the exclusion of positive media portrayals of obese people. They perceived the thin ideal as an 'unhealthy' mode of social control, reflecting on their personal experiences and their concerns for others. Participants' perceptions highlighted the intersections between the thin ideal and gender, grooming and consumerism. Participants' personal responses to the thin ideal were nuanced--some were in support of the thin ideal and some were able to critically reflect and reject the thin ideal. We consider how the thin ideal may act as a form of synoptical social control, working in tandem with wider public health panoptical surveillance of body weight. PMID:26685706
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas.
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-01-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-04-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level.
Calorimetry of a Bose–Einstein-condensed photon gas
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-01-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978
Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the uniform electron gas without fixed nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groth, S.; Schoof, T.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.
2016-02-01
The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in the warm dense matter regime, e.g., dense plasmas and laser excited solids. Also, the quality of density functional theory calculations crucially relies on the availability of accurate data for the exchange-correlation energy. Recently, results for N =33 spin-polarized electrons at high density, rs=r ¯/aB≲4 , and low temperature have been obtained with the configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) method [T. Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.130402]. To achieve these results, the original CPIMC algorithm [T. Schoof et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 687 (2011), 10.1002/ctpp.201100012] had to be further optimized to cope with the fermion sign problem (FSP). It is the purpose of this paper to give detailed information on the manifestation of the FSP in CPIMC simulations of the UEG and to demonstrate how it can be turned into a controllable convergence problem. In addition, we present new thermodynamic results for higher temperatures. Finally, to overcome the limitations of CPIMC towards strong coupling, we invoke an independent method—the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo approach [T. Dornheim et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 204101 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936145]. The combination of both approaches is able to yield ab initio data for the UEG over the entire density range, above a temperature of about one half of the Fermi temperature. Comparison with restricted path integral Monte Carlo data [E. W. Brown et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.146405] allows us to quantify the systematic error arising from the free particle nodes.
Measuring explosive non-ideality
Souers, P C
1999-02-17
The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length,
Imagining the ideal dairy farm.
Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G
2016-02-01
Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190
Representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes
White, R. B.
2013-02-15
One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}(vector sign) Multiplication-Sign B(vector sign)) ensures that {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi}=0 at a resonance, with {psi} labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign {alpha}B(vector sign). These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi} at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in {xi}(vector sign) to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schüürmann, Gerrit
1998-12-01
Proton transfer energies of phenol and 14 chlorophenols with H2O as a base are analyzed in the gas phase and in solution using quantum chemical methods at the semiempirical and ab initio level of computation. The effect of aqueous solution was accounted for by applying the density functional theory (DFT) implementation of the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) as well as semiempirical continuum-solvation models. The results reveal substantial and systematic overestimations of the free energies of proton transfer as derived from experimental solution-phase pKa data. This can be traced back to both deficiencies in the current model parameterization as well as to limitations of the underlying gas-phase quantum chemical models, which is further illustrated by additional complete-basis-set (CBS) calculations for the proton transfer reaction with phenol. In contrast, the relative pKa trend is reflected well by COSMO-DFT calculations with correlation coefficients (adjusted for degrees of freedom) of 0.96. Decomposition of the dissociation energy in aqueous solution into a gas-phase term and a term summarizing the solvation contributions provides new insights into the effect of solvation on proton transfer energies, and yields mechanistic explanations for the observed differences in the gas-phase and solution-phase acidity orders of various subgroups of the compounds.
Computational Methods for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kercher, Andrew D.
Numerical schemes for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are widely used for modeling space weather and astrophysical flows. They are designed to resolve the different waves that propagate through a magnetohydro fluid, namely, the fast, Alfven, slow, and entropy waves. Numerical schemes for ideal magnetohydrodynamics that are based on the standard finite volume (FV) discretization exhibit pseudo-convergence in which non-regular waves no longer exist only after heavy grid refinement. A method is described for obtaining solutions for coplanar and near coplanar cases that consist of only regular waves, independent of grid refinement. The method, referred to as Compound Wave Modification (CWM), involves removing the flux associated with non-regular structures and can be used for simulations in two- and three-dimensions because it does not require explicitly tracking an Alfven wave. For a near coplanar case, and for grids with 213 points or less, we find root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) that are as much as 6 times smaller. For the coplanar case, in which non-regular structures will exist at all levels of grid refinement for standard FV schemes, the RMSE is as much as 25 times smaller. A multidimensional ideal MHD code has been implemented for simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs). Performance measurements were conducted for both the NVIDIA GeForce GTX Titan and Intel Xeon E5645 processor. The GPU is shown to perform one to two orders of magnitude greater than the CPU when using a single core, and two to three times greater than when run in parallel with OpenMP. Performance comparisons are made for two methods of storing data on the GPU. The first approach stores data as an Array of Structures (AoS), e.g., a point coordinate array of size 3 x n is iterated over. The second approach stores data as a Structure of Arrays (SoA), e.g. three separate arrays of size n are iterated over simultaneously. For an AoS, coalescing does not occur, reducing memory efficiency
Walendziak, Andrzej
2015-01-01
The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050
Pulsatile flow through idealized trabeculae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Battista, Nicholas; Miller, Laura
2013-11-01
Trabeculae begin to form in the human developing heart for Reynolds numbers on the order of 10. Other hearts, such as the squid heart, have trabeculae for Re on the order of 10 and larger. The effect of trabeculae on the flow in this range of Re is not well understood. In this study, computational fluid dynamics is used to quantify the effects of Reynolds number and idealized trabeculae height on the resulting flows. An adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR) is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. We see the formation of vortices depends upon Re and trabeculae height. We then explore how the periodicity of the flow effects vortex formation and shear patterns. This is important because it is thought that these dynamic processes are important to the generation of shear at the endothelial surface layer and strains at the epithelial layer, which will aid in proper development and functionality.
Irreversibility in an ideal fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Alejandro
2014-11-01
When a real fluid is expelled quickly from a tube, it forms a jet separated from the surrounding fluid by a thin, turbulent layer. On the other hand, when the same fluid is sucked into the tube, it enters from all directions, forming a sink-like flow. We show that, even for the ideal flow described by the time-reversible Euler equation, an experimenter who only controls the pressure in a pump attached to the tube would see jets form in one direction exclusively. The asymmetry between outflow and inflow therefore does not depend on viscous dissipation, but rather on the experimenter's limited control of initial and boundary conditions. This illustrates, in a rather different context from the usual one of thermal physics, how irreversibility may arise in systems whose microscopic dynamics are fully reversible.
[The ideal body: media pedagogy].
Ribeiro, Rubia Guimarães; da Silva, Karen Schein; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce
2009-03-01
We present enunciations that circulate in the media regarding the body, discussing the ways in which the speeches related with the maintenance of health and aesthetics invest in its improvement. Therefore, we used the Caderno Vida, a weekly insert of Zero Hora, for we understand it as owner of a proper speech that has the power of subjectivate people The analysis is part of Cultural Studies and it is based on the ideas of Michel Foucault. The methodological strategy used was the speech analysis of subjects about body care. The periodical questions its readers using speeches that point to beauty health and success The constructed categories were: how is the ideal body, what to do to have such body and why we must have this body Balanced feeding, practice of regular physical activities and the accomplishment of plastic surgeries are recommendations recurrently found in weekly inserts. PMID:19653558
Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.
2011-01-01
In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…
Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A
2009-08-01
A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771
Bouchelaghem, F; Bouledroua, M
2014-02-01
This work deals with the quantum-mechanical calculation of the temperature-dependent mobility of ionic lithium atoms diffusing in their parent gas. The computation of the quantal phase shifts in connection with the gerade and ungerade potential-energy curves, through which Li(+) approaches Li(2s), leads to the computation of the charge-transfer and diffusion cross sections. The behavior of the coefficients of diffusion and mobility with temperature is also examined. Throughout this work, the isotopic effects in the (6)Li(+)-(6)Li and (7)Li(+)-(6)Li collisions are emphasized. PMID:24326775
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stancil, Phillip
We propose to compute accurate collisional excitation rate coefficients for rovibrational transitions of CS, SiO, SO, NO, H_2O, and HCN due to H_2, He, or H impact. This extends our previous grant which focused on 3- and 4-atom systems to 4- and 5-atom collision complexes, with dynamics to be performed on 6-9 dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs). This work, which uses fully quantum mechanical methods for inelastic scattering and incorporates full-dimensional PESs, pushes beyond the state-of-the-art for such calculations, as recently established by our group for rovibrational transitions in CO-H_2 in 6D. Many of the required PESs will be computed as part of this project using ab initio theory and basis sets of the highest level feasible and particular attention will be given to the long range form of the PESs. The completion of the project will result in 6 new global PESs and state-to-state rate coefficients for a large range of initial rovibrational levels for temperatures between 1 and 3000 K. The chosen collision systems correspond to cases where data are limited or lacking, are important coolants or diagnostics, and result in observable emission features in the infrared (IR). The final project results will be important for the analysis of a variety of interstellar and extragalactic environments in which the local conditions of gas density, radiation field, and/or shocks drive the level populations out of equilibrium. In such cases, collisional excitation data are critical to the accurate prediction and interpretation of observed molecular IR emission lines in protoplanetary disks, star-forming regions, planetary nebulae, embedded protostars, photodissociation regions, etc. The use of the proposed collisional excitation data will lead to deeper examination and understanding of the properties of many astrophysical environments, hence elevating the scientific return from the upcoming JWST, as well as from current (SOFIA, Herschel, HST) and past IR missions
Barone, Vincenzo; Improta, Roberto; Rega, Nadia
2008-05-01
Interpretation of structural properties and dynamic behavior of molecules in solution is of fundamental importance to understand their stability, chemical reactivity, and catalytic action. While information can be gained, in principle, by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, the interpretation of the rich indirect information that can be inferred from the analysis of experimental spectra is seldom straightforward because of the subtle interplay of several different effects, whose specific role is not easy to separate and evaluate. In such a complex scenario, theoretical studies can be very helpful at two different levels: (i) supporting and complementing experimental results to determine the structure of the target molecule starting from its spectral properties; (ii) dissecting and evaluating the role of different effects in determining the observed spectroscopic properties. This is the reason why computational spectroscopy is rapidly evolving from a highly specialized research field into a versatile and widespread tool for the assignment of experimental spectra and their interpretation in terms of chemical physical effects. In such a situation, it becomes important that both computationally and experimentally oriented chemists are aware that new methodological advances and integrated computational strategies are available, providing reliable estimates of fundamental spectral parameters not only for relatively small molecules in the gas phase but also for large and flexible molecules in condensed phases. In this Account, we review the most significant methodological contributions from our research group in this field, and by exploiting some recent results of their application to the computation of IR, UV-vis, NMR, and EPR spectral parameters, we discuss the microscopic mechanisms underlying solvent and vibrational effects on the spectral parameters. After reporting some recent achievements for the study of excited states by first principle quantum mechanical
Stochastic Quantum Gas Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proukakis, Nick P.; Cockburn, Stuart P.
2010-03-01
We study the dynamics of weakly-interacting finite temperature Bose gases via the Stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SGPE). As a first step, we demonstrate [jointly with A. Negretti (Ulm, Germany) and C. Henkel (Potsdam, Germany)] that the SGPE provides a significantly better method for generating an equilibrium state than the number-conserving Bogoliubov method (except for low temperatures and small atom numbers). We then study [jointly with H. Nistazakis and D.J. Frantzeskakis (University of Athens, Greece), P.G.Kevrekidis (University of Massachusetts) and T.P. Horikis (University of Ioannina, Greece)] the dynamics of dark solitons in elongated finite temperature condensates. We demonstrate numerical shot-to-shot variations in soliton trajectories (S.P. Cockburn et al., arXiv:0909.1660.), finding individual long-lived trajectories as in experiments. In our simulations, these variations arise from fluctuations in the phase and density of the underlying medium. We provide a detailed statistical analysis, proposing regimes for the controlled experimental demonstration of this effect; we also discuss the extent to which simpler models can be used to mimic the features of ensemble-averaged stochastic trajectories.
In Pursuit of a More Ideal Hohlraum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Kevin; Thomas, Cliff; Baumann, Ted; Berger, Richard; Biener, Monika; Callahan, Debbie; Celliers, Peter; Elsner, Fred; Felker, Sean; Hamza, Alex; Hinkel, Denise; Huang, Haibo; Jones, Oggie; Landen, Nino; Milovich, Jose; Moody, John; Nikroo, Abbas; Olson, Rick; Strozzi, David
2015-11-01
Current hohlraum designs have a number of issues which are detrimental to achieving ignition; including LPI, CBET, hot electrons, non-ideal spectral emission(gold M-Band) and wall motion leading to implosions with large symmetry swings. We are undertaking a campaign on the NIF to address many of these issues through the use of thin wall liners. We will present a comparison between three experiments, a gold hohlraum, a copper-lined hohlraum and a zinc oxide foam-lined hohlraum and discuss our future experimental plans which will utilize very low density foam liners, ~ 10 mg/cc, and low gas fill densities, <0.6 mg/cc. This combination is predicted in simulations to greatly reduce the expansion of the gold wall leading to reduced symmetry swings, result in large reductions in LPI(SBS, SRS and 2Wpe) and eliminate gold m-band emission. The removal of the gold m-band spectra reduces the ablator-fuel instability growth and allows the use of undoped or less doped capsules which in turn reduces the ablation front growth factors leading to a more stable implosion. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L.
2016-06-01
The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles.
Ideal bulk pressure of active Brownian particles.
Speck, Thomas; Jack, Robert L
2016-06-01
The extent to which active matter might be described by effective equilibrium concepts like temperature and pressure is currently being discussed intensely. Here, we study the simplest model, an ideal gas of noninteracting active Brownian particles. While the mechanical pressure exerted onto confining walls has been linked to correlations between particles' positions and their orientations, we show that these correlations are entirely controlled by boundary effects. We also consider a definition of local pressure, which describes interparticle forces in terms of momentum exchange between different regions of the system. We present three pieces of analytical evidence which indicate that such a local pressure exists, and we show that its bulk value differs from the mechanical pressure exerted on the walls of the system. We attribute this difference to the fact that the local pressure in the bulk does not depend on boundary effects, contrary to the mechanical pressure. We carefully examine these boundary effects using a channel geometry, and we show a virial formula for the pressure correctly predicts the mechanical pressure even in finite channels. However, this result no longer holds in more complex geometries, as exemplified for a channel that includes circular obstacles. PMID:27415318
Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.
This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chaînes opératoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.
Uniform electron gas at warm, dense matter conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Sandipan; Dufty, James
2013-06-01
A simple, practical model for computing the equilibrium thermodynamics and structure of the uniform electron gas (jellium) by classical strong-coupling methods is proposed. Conditions addressed are those of interest for recent studies of warm dense matter: solid densities and temperatures from zero to plasma states. An effective pair potential and coupling constant are introduced, incorporating the ideal gas, low density, and weak-coupling quantum limits. The resulting parameter-free, analytic model is illustrated by the calculation of the pair correlation function via strong-coupling classical liquid state theory. The results compare favorably with the first finite-temperature restricted path integral Monte Carlo simulations reported recently.
Inherent contradictions in the ego ideal.
Dendy, Errol B
2010-10-01
The author puts forth a concept of the ego ideal as the fantasied self that the child believes will bring it gratification and happiness. He then shows how the ego ideal's content evolves through the various stages of psychosexual development in accordance with its mission. A picture emerges of an ego ideal in inherent conflict because it is shaped by contradictory wishes, as well as contradictory fantasies of how to make those wishes come true. A section on romantic love points to a second contradiction within the ego ideal, beyond its contradictory content: a contradiction of aim. PMID:21141785
Informational derivation of quantum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo
2011-07-01
We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms—causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning—define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate—purification—singles out quantum theory within this class.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Bo; Yang, Tao; Benedict, Keith A.
2013-07-01
We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature using the truncated Wigner approximation with a variety of basis sets for the initial fluctuation modes. The initial spatial distributions of the quantum fluctuations are very different when using a limited number of plane-wave (PW), simple-harmonic-oscillator (SHO) and self-consistently determined Bogoliubov (SCB) modes. The short-time transport properties of the Bose gas, characterized by the phase coherence in the PW basis, are distinct from those gained using the SHO and SCB basis. The calculations using the SCB modes predict greater phase decoherence and stronger number fluctuations than the other choices. Furthermore, we observe that the use of PW modes overestimates the extent to which atoms are expelled from the core of the cloud, while the use of the other modes only breaks the cloud structure slightly, which is in agreement with the experimental observations by Fertig et al (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 120403).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rispoli, Matthew; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, M. Eric; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2015-05-01
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a versatile tool box for observing the emergence of strongly correlated physics in quantum systems. Dynamic control of optical potentials on the single-site level allows us to prepare and probe many-body quantum states through local Hamiltonian engineering. We achieve these high precision levels of optical control through spatial light modulation with a DMD (digital micro-mirror device). This allows for both arbitrary beam shaping and aberration compensation in our imaging system to produce high fidelity optical potentials. We use these techniques to control state initialization, Hamiltonian dynamics, and measurement in experiments investigating low-dimensional many-body physics - from one-dimensional correlated quantum walks to characterizing entanglement.
Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences
Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny
2016-01-01
Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031
Ideal and Nonideal Reasoning in Educational Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaggar, Alison M.
2015-01-01
The terms "ideal theory" and "nonideal theory" are used in contemporary Anglophone political philosophy to identify alternative methodological approaches for justifying normative claims. Each term is used in multiple ways. In this article Alison M. Jaggar disentangles several versions of ideal and nonideal theory with a view to…
Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions
Brammer, S.H.
1980-10-09
The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tishchenko, V. N.; Grachev, G. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Smirnov, A. L.; Pavlov, A. A.; Golubev, M. P.
2008-01-01
The effect of energy removal from the combustion zone of a motionless optical pulsating discharge in the horizontal direction along the axis of a repetitively pulsed laser beam producing the discharge is discovered. The directivity diagram of a hot gas flow is formed during the action of hundreds of pulses. The effect is observed for short pulse durations, when the discharge efficiently generates shock waves. For long pulse durations, the heated gas propagates upward, as in a thermal source.
Kirkwood-Buff integrals for ideal solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ploetz, Elizabeth A.; Bentenitis, Nikolaos; Smith, Paul E.
2010-04-01
The Kirkwood-Buff (KB) theory of solutions is a rigorous theory of solution mixtures which relates the molecular distributions between the solution components to the thermodynamic properties of the mixture. Ideal solutions represent a useful reference for understanding the properties of real solutions. Here, we derive expressions for the KB integrals, the central components of KB theory, in ideal solutions of any number of components corresponding to the three main concentration scales. The results are illustrated by use of molecular dynamics simulations for two binary solutions mixtures, benzene with toluene, and methanethiol with dimethylsulfide, which closely approach ideal behavior, and a binary mixture of benzene and methanol which is nonideal. Simulations of a quaternary mixture containing benzene, toluene, methanethiol, and dimethylsulfide suggest this system displays ideal behavior and that ideal behavior is not limited to mixtures containing a small number of components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakai, Hiromi
2016-04-01
Gibbs free energy of hydration of a proton and standard hydrogen electrode potential were evaluated using high-level quantum chemical calculations. The solvent effect was included using the cluster-continuum model, which treated short-range effects by quantum chemical calculations of proton-water complexes, and the long-range effects by a conductor-like polarizable continuum model. The harmonic solvation model (HSM) was employed to estimate enthalpy and entropy contributions due to nuclear motions of the clusters by including the cavity-cluster interactions. Compared to the commonly used ideal gas model, HSM treatment significantly improved the contribution of entropy, showing a systematic convergence toward the experimental data.
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.
2014-09-15
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The
Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.
2014-09-01
We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=sqrt{μ _0/p_0} I/(2 π ) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field
Quantum Computation and Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Michael A.; Chuang, Isaac L.
2010-12-01
Part I. Fundamental Concepts: 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Introduction to quantum mechanics; 3. Introduction to computer science; Part II. Quantum Computation: 4. Quantum circuits; 5. The quantum Fourier transform and its application; 6. Quantum search algorithms; 7. Quantum computers: physical realization; Part III. Quantum Information: 8. Quantum noise and quantum operations; 9. Distance measures for quantum information; 10. Quantum error-correction; 11. Entropy and information; 12. Quantum information theory; Appendices; References; Index.
Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.
Olney, Andrew McGregor
2012-01-01
We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823
Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals
Olney, Andrew McGregor
2013-01-01
We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCormack, E. A.; Lowth, H. S.; Bell, M. T.; Weidmann, D.; Ritchie, G. A. D.
2012-07-01
A continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating at 10 μm has been used to record absorption spectra of low pressure samples of OCS in an astigmatic Herriott cell. As a result of the frequency chirp of the laser, the spectra show clearly the effects of rapid passage on the absorption line shape. At the low chirp rates that can be obtained with the cw-QCL, population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is predicted to be much more efficient than in typical pulsed QCL experiments. This optical pumping is investigated by solving the Maxwell Bloch equations to simulate the propagation of the laser radiation through an inhomogeneously broadened two-level system. The calculated absorption profiles show good quantitative agreement with those measured experimentally over a range of chirp rates and optical thicknesses. It is predicted that at a low chirp rate of 0.13 MHz ns-1, the population transfer between rovibrational quantum states is 12%, considerably more than that obtained at the higher chirp rates utilised in pulsed QCL experiments.
Ideals and Realities of the Olympic Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hibler, Richard W.
1976-01-01
With the growth of professionalism and the emphasis on money in sports, modern society is losing sight of the ideals of style and grace that were of primary importance in the early Olympic games. nJD)
Centeno, R.; Marchenko, D.; Mandon, J.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.; Wulterkens, G.
2014-12-29
We present a high power, widely tunable, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser designed for infrared vibrational spectroscopy of molecules exhibiting broadband and single line absorption features. The laser source exhibits single mode operation with a tunability up to 303 cm{sup −1} (∼24% of the center wavelength) at 8 μm, with a maximum optical output power of 200 mW. In combination with off-axis integrated output spectroscopy, trace-gas detection of broadband absorption gases such as acetone was performed and a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.7 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1 }Hz{sup −1/2} was obtained.
Kurzmann, A. Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.
2015-02-07
We have investigated the influence of a layer of charged self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on the mobility of a nearby two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Time-resolved transconductance spectroscopy was used to separate the two contributions of the change in mobility, which are: (i) The electrons in the QDs act as Coulomb scatterers for the electrons in the 2DEG. (ii) The screening ability and, hence, the mobility of the 2DEG decreases when the charge carrier density is reduced by the charged QDs, i.e., the mobility itself depends on the charge carrier concentration. Surprisingly, we find a negligible influence of the Coulomb scattering on the mobility for a 2DEG, separated by a 30 nm tunneling barrier to the layer of QDs. This means that the mobility change is completely caused by depletion, i.e., reduction of the charge carrier density in the 2DEG, which indirectly influences the mobility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyo, S. K.; Huang, D.; Pan, W.
2008-03-01
We present rigorous theoretical results for the time-dependent and steady-state nonlinear DC current of an electron gas in a periodically modulated one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wire in a high electric field. The theoretical model considers electron-phonon and impurity scattering microscopically in the degenerate and the nondegenerate regime in a tight-binding model. The time-dependent oscillatory and saturation (i.e., steady-state) currents are studied as a function of the field, the radius of the wire, the elastic scattering rate, the lattice period, and the temperature. The radius controls the inelastic scattering rate. The distinctive roles of elastic and inelastic scattering for the current are contrasted and examined. Finally, we compare the results with those from an exact analytic formalism based on a relaxation-time model.
Gurtubay, I G; Gaudoin, R; Pitarke, J M
2010-02-17
We report variational and diffusion quantum Monte Carlo ground-state energies of the three-dimensional electron gas using a model periodic Coulomb interaction and backflow corrections for N = 54, 102, 178, and 226 electrons. We remove finite-size effects by extrapolation and we find lower energies than previously reported. Using the Hellman-Feynman operator sampling method introduced in Gaudoin and Pitarke (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 126406), we compute accurately, within the fixed-node approximation, the separate kinetic and interaction contributions to the total ground-state energy. The difference between the interaction energies obtained from the original Slater-determinant nodes and the backflow-displaced nodes is found to be considerably larger than the difference between the corresponding kinetic energies. PMID:21389370
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.
1996-11-01
Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of butyl vinyl ether, 1,2-dimethoxyethane, methyl glycolate, bicyclo-[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, di-tert-butyl ether, and hexane-1,6-diol are reported. Enthalpies of fusion were determined for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene and trans-azobenzene. Two-phase (solid + vapor) or (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined from 300 K to the critical region or earlier decomposition temperature for each compound studied. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene. For butyl vinyl ether and 1,2-dimethoxyethane, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the dsc results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, 5-vinylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-ene, trans-azobenzene, butyl acrylate, and di-tert-butyl ether. Group-additivity parameters or ring-correction terms useful in the application of the Benson group-contribution correlations were derived.
Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gamble, John King
In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques
Zhu, Rui Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong
2015-04-28
Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained with transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, T.; Krishnamurthy, D.; Fujiwara, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Asahi, H.
2006-10-01
TlInGaAsN/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) structures were grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrates by gas source molecular-beam epitaxy. It has been found that high Tl flux is needed for the incorporation of Tl into the films. Reduction in the temperature variation of electroluminescence (EL) peak energy has been observed by the addition of Tl into quantum well (QW) layers; -0.62 meV/K for the InGaAsN/GaAs DQW light emitting diodes (LEDs) and -0.53 meV/K for the TlInGaAsN/GaAs DQW LEDs. By replacing GaAs barrier layers with TlGaAs barrier layers, further reduction could be obtained; -0.35 meV/K for TlInGaAsN/TlGaAs DQW LEDs. SIMS measurements indicated that this improvement is caused by the increased incorporation of Tl into the QW layers.
Sahaja: an Indian ideal of mental health.
Neki, J S
1975-02-01
Sahaja is an Indian ideal of mental and spiritual health that has received special emphasis in the Sikh scriptures--especially, the Adi Granth. Since the concept of sahaja has long been associated with mystical thought and practice, its description has become shrouded in peculiar esoteric terminologies. It is the purpose of this communication to divest sahaja of its esoteric, mystic connotations and to redefine it as a mental health ideal in the context of contemporary conditions. PMID:1114187
Guiding center equations for ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes
White, R. B.
2013-04-15
Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B-vector={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}-vector Multiplication-Sign B-vector), however, perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories, the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement {xi}-vector are derived which preserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.
Guiding Center Equations for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes
Roscoe B. White
2013-02-21
Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ~B = ∇ X (ξ X B) however perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement ξ are derived which perserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
Quantum degeneracy effect on the work output from a Stirling cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saygin, Hasan; Şişman, Altuǧ
2001-09-01
The effect of quantum degeneracy on the work output from a Stirling cycle working at quantum degeneracy conditions (QDCs) is analyzed. Expressions for net work outputs of Stirling power cycles working with monatomic ideal Bose and Fermi gases are derived by using the quantum ideal gas equation of state. Ratios of net work outputs of Stirling cycles working with Bose and Fermi gases to the net work output of a classical Stirling cycle (RWB and RWF, respectively) are obtained. Variations of RWB and RWF with TH are examined for a given temperature ratio (τ=TL/TH) and a specific volume ratio (rν=νH/νL). At QDC, it is seen that RWB has a maximum value, which is greater than unity. On the other hand, there is no maximum or minimum point for RWF and RWF⩽1 for any values of TH. Consequently, the use of Bose gas as a working fluid in a Stirling cycle provides an advantage since it causes the net work output per cycle to increase by consuming more heat energy. This fact is seen to be in the opposite direction for a Stirling cycle working with Fermi gas.
Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.
2015-08-01
Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.
Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine
Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.
2015-01-01
Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797
Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.
Hardal, Ali Ü C; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E
2015-01-01
Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797
Can non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics solve the magnetic braking catastrophe?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wurster, James; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.
2016-03-01
We investigate whether or not the low ionization fractions in molecular cloud cores can solve the `magnetic braking catastrophe', where magnetic fields prevent the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We perform three-dimensional smoothed particle non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse of one solar mass molecular cloud cores, incorporating the effects of ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity and the Hall effect alongside a self-consistent calculation of the ionization chemistry assuming 0.1 μm grains. When including only ambipolar diffusion or Ohmic resistivity, discs do not form in the presence of strong magnetic fields, similar to the cases using ideal MHD. With the Hall effect included, disc formation depends on the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the rotation vector of the gas cloud. When the vectors are aligned, strong magnetic braking occurs and no disc is formed. When the vectors are anti-aligned, a disc with radius of 13 au can form even in strong magnetic when all three non-ideal terms are present, and a disc of 38 au can form when only the Hall effect is present; in both cases, a counter-rotating envelope forms around the first hydrostatic core. For weaker, anti-aligned fields, the Hall effect produces massive discs comparable to those produced in the absence of magnetic fields, suggesting that planet formation via gravitational instability may depend on the sign of the magnetic field in the precursor molecular cloud core.
Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Stahl, Robert D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.
2014-05-04
We present results demonstrating real-time sensing of four different fluorocarbons at low-ppb concentrations using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) operating in a swept-wavelength configuration. The ECQCL was repeatedly swept over its full tuning range at a 20 Hz rate with a scan rate of 3535 cm-1/s, and a detailed characterization of the ECQCL scan stability and repeatability is presented. The sensor was deployed on a mobile automotive platform to provide spatially resolved detection of fluorocarbons in outdoor experiments. Noise-equivalent detection limits of 800-1000 parts-per-trillion (ppt) are demonstrated for 1 s integration times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petukhov, V. O.; Gorobets, V. A.; Andreev, Yu M.; Lanskii, G. V.
2010-02-01
A differential absorption lidar based on a tunable TEA CO2 laser emitting at 42 lines of the 'hot' 0111 — 1110 band in the range from 10.9 to 11.4 μm is developed for detecting natural gas leakages from oil pipelines by measuring the ethane content in the atmosphere. The ethane detection sensitivity is 0.9 ppm km. The presence of methane does not distort the measurement results. The developed lidar can detect the natural gas leakage from kilometre heights at the flying velocities up to 200 km h-1 and a probe pulse repetition rate of 5 Hz.
Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential
Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof
2011-09-15
A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.
pyIAST: Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) Python package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Cory M.; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej
2016-03-01
Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) is a widely-used thermodynamic framework to readily predict mixed-gas adsorption isotherms from a set of pure-component adsorption isotherms. We present an open-source, user-friendly Python package, pyIAST, to perform IAST calculations for an arbitrary number of components. pyIAST supports several common analytical models to characterize the pure-component isotherms from experimental or simulated data. Alternatively, pyIAST can use numerical quadrature to compute the spreading pressure for IAST calculations by interpolating the pure-component isotherm data. pyIAST can also perform reverse IAST calculations, where one seeks the required gas phase composition to yield a desired adsorbed phase composition.
The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light - Book 1: Foundations of Quantum Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardiner, Crispin; Zoller, Peter
2014-03-01
Abstract The Table of Contents is as follows: * I - THE PHYSICAL BACKGROUND * 1. Controlling the Quantum World * 1.1 Quantum Optics * 1.2 Quantum Information * 2. Describing the Quantum World * 2.1 Classical Stochastic Processes * 2.2. Theoretical Quantum Optics * 2.3. Quantum Stochastic Methods * 2.4. Ultra-Cold Atoms * II - CLASSICAL STOCHASTIC METHODS * 3. Physics in a Noisy World * 3.1. Brownian Motion and the Thermal Origin of Noise * 3.2. Brownian Motion, Friction, Noise and Temperature * 3.3. Measurement in a Fluctuating System * 4. Stochastic Differential Equations * 4.1. Ito Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.2. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 4.3. The Stratonovich Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.4. Systems with Many Variables * 4.5. Numerical Simulation of Stochastic Differential Equations * 5. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.1. Fokker-Planck Equation in One Dimension * 5.2. Eigenfunctions of the Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.3. Many-Variable Fokker-Planck Equations * 6. Master Equations and Jump Processes * 6.1. The Master Equation * 7. Applications of Random Processes * 7.1. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process * 7.2. Johnson Noise * 7.3. Complex Variable Oscillator Processes * 8. The Markov Limit * 8.1. The White Noise Limit * 8.2. Interpretation and Generalizations of the White Noise Limit * 8.3. Linear Non-Markovian Stochastic Differential Equations * 9. Adiabatic Elimination of Fast Variables * 9.1 Slow and Fast Variables * 9.2. Other Applications of the Adiabatic Elimination Method * III - FIELDS, QUANTA AND ATOMS * 10. Ideal Bose and Fermi Systems * 10.1. The Quantum Gas * 10.2. Thermal States * 10.3. Fluctuations in the Ideal Bose Gas * 10.4. Bosonic Quantum Gaussian Systems * 10.5. Coherent States * 10.6. Fluctuations in Systems of Fermions * 10.7. Two-Level Systems and Pauli Matrices * 11. Quantum Fields * 11.1 Kinds of Quantum Field * 11.2 Coherence and Correlation Functions * 12. Atoms, Light and their Interaction * 12.1. Interaction with the
On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Gyeong Won; Shim, Jong-In; Shin, Dong-Soo
2016-07-01
While there have been many discussions on the standard Si pn-diodes, little attention has been paid and confusion still arises on the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this letter, we theoretically demonstrate and experimentally confirm by using blue and infrared semiconductor LEDs that the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current is unity especially for low-current-density ranges. We utilize the data of internal quantum efficiency measured by the temperature-dependent electroluminescence to separate the radiative current component from the total current.
Reality television and the muscular male ideal.
Dallesasse, Starla L; Kluck, Annette S
2013-06-01
Although researchers have examined the negative effects of viewing reality television (RTV) on women's body image, this research has not been extended to men. Exploring the extent to which RTV depicts men who embody the muscular ideal may enhance our understanding of the potential influence of this media genre. We explored the extent to which RTV depicted men who embodied the muscular ideal using a quantitative content analysis. Based on binomial tests, the primary male cast members of programs airing on networks popular among young adult men during the Fall 2009 broadcast season were more muscular, with lower levels of body fat, than average U.S. men. The chest-to-waist and shoulder-to-waist ratios of these cast members did not differ as a function of program type (i.e., reality drama, endurance, and romance). Young men who view RTV programs included in the present study would be exposed to an unrepresentative muscular ideal. PMID:23523084
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arapov, Yu. G.; Yakunin, M. V.; Gudina, S. V.; Harus, G. I.; Neverov, V. N.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Podgornyh, S. M.; Uskova, E. A.; Zvonkov, B. N.
2007-04-01
The resistivity ρ of low mobility dilute 2D-elecron gas in a InGaAs/GaAs double quantum well (DQW) exhibits the monotonic "insulating-like" temperature dependence (dρ/dT < 0) at T = 1.8-70K in zero magnetic field. This temperature interval corresponds to a ballistic regime (kBTτ/ℏ > 0.1) for our samples. We observed the coexistence of both the quantum Hall (QH) effect for the filling factors v = 2, 4 and the low magnetic field insulator — QH liquid (with v = 10) transition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holko, David A.
1982-01-01
Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…
Topological photonic crystal with ideal Weyl points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Luyang; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
Weyl points in three-dimensional photonic crystals behave as monopoles of Berry flux in momentum space. Here, based on symmetry analysis, we show that a minimal number of symmetry-related Weyl points can be realized in time-reversal invariant photonic crystals. We propose to realize these ``ideal'' Weyl points in modified double-gyroid photonic crystals, which is confirmed by our first-principle photonic band-structure calculations. Photonic crystals with ideal Weyl points are qualitatively advantageous in applications such as angular and frequency selectivity, broadband invisibility cloaking, and broadband 3D-imaging.
Analysis of an idealized Stirling thermocompressor
Kornhauser, A.A.
1996-12-31
A thermocompressor uses thermal energy to increase the pressure of a fluid without the intermediate production of mechanical work. The thermocompressor described here is essentially a cold-connected Gamma Stirling engine with the power cylinder replaced by inlet and discharge check valves. It is analyzed based on assumptions similar to those made in the analysis of an ideal Stirling engine. The analysis gives closed form predictions for thermocompressor thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and non-dimensional heat input as functions of pressure and temperature ratio. It is also used to compare thermocompressor performance to that of an ideal Otto engine-driven mechanical compressor.
Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.
1997-11-01
The results of the study are aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of hexachloroprop-1-ene, N,N{prime}-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, dimethyl carbonate, di-n-octyl sulfide, dicyclohexyl sulfide, diethylenetriamine, tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene, piperazine, and 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine are reported. Enthalpies of fusion were determined for N,N{prime}-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, piperazine and 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine. Two-phase (solid + vapor) or (liquid + vapor) heat capacities were determined from 300 K to the critical region or earlier decomposition temperature for each compound studied. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for N,N{prime}-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine, dimethyl carbonate, and dicyclohexyl sulfide. For dimethyl carbonate and piperazine, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for hexachloroprop-1-ene, di-n-octyl sulfide, dicyclohexyl sulfide, and diethylenetriamine. Group-additivity parameters and 1,4-interaction terms useful in the application of group-contribution correlations were derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L.; Rankin, David W. H.; Robertson, Heather E.; Guillemin, Jean-Claude
2010-08-01
The molecular structures of vinylarsine (CH 2dbnd CHAsH 2), vinyldichloroarsine (CH 2dbnd CHAsCl 2) and arsine (AsH 3) have been determined from gas-phase electron diffraction data and, in the case of vinylarsine, rotation constants, employing the SARACEN method. The structure of vinylarsine represents the first complete gas-phase structure of a primary arsine. The experimental geometric parameters generally show good agreement with those obtained using ab initio calculations. Key structural parameters ( rh1) for vinylarsine are rAs-H = 150.5(4) pm, rAs-C = 195.1(1) pm and ∠C-C-As = 119.4(2)°. The bonding and conformational trends in both vinylarsine and vinyldichloroarsine are compared to those found in the analogous amines and phosphines.
Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grosse, Susan J.
2008-01-01
Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…
Ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kittel, P.
1992-01-01
The recent development of orifice pulse tube refrigerators has raised questions as to what limits their ultimate performance. Using an analogy to the Stirling cycle refrigerator, the efficiency (cooling power per unit input power) of an ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator is shown to be T1/T0, the ratio of the cold temperature to the hot temperature.
Idleness and the Ideal of the Gentlemen.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Ann
1985-01-01
The conceptual and cultural background for Puritan opposition to idleness are examined. Also included is a review of the educational ideals portrayed in the sixteenth-century "courtesy literature" (intended for instruction of the aristocracy). A likely source for Puritan views is England rather than New England. (RM)
Street Children Draw the Ideal Person.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiCarlo, Margaret A.; And Others
Forty-three adolescents (11-16 years of age) attending a health care program, Project Alternatives, for "street children" in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, drew randomly assigned pictures of either the ideal man or woman, engaged in some activity. These drawings were compared to samples from adolescents in various parts of the world to assess the global…
Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kosak, Karen
Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…
Developing Ideal Student and Residency Programs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selvin, Gerald J.
1993-01-01
The Veterans Administration (VA) is a primary educator of optometry students, with each college of optometry being affiliated with at least one VA hospital. Ideally, fourth-year optometry students rotate through a specific VA facility for about 12 weeks. Guidelines are designed to provide optimum care in a rich learning environment. (MSE)
The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE
1993-01-01
The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.
Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps
Winston, Roland
1980-01-01
A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.
Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.
1978-01-01
The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.
The World Grant Ideal and Engagement Scholarship
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Simon, Lou Anna K.
2012-01-01
Michigan State University President Lou Anna Simon's concept of the world grant ideal is grounded in three core values: quality, inclusiveness, and connectivity. These core values fuel the 21st-century imperative to build sustainable global prosperity. They represent an affirmation of the Morrill Act of 1862 in the context of a global society and…
Home Management Textbooks and the "Ideal" Family.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Sue W.; Nickols, Sharon Y.
1981-01-01
Content analysis of systematically selected paragraphs of the three major textbooks used in teaching college-level home management courses was used to examine the hypothesis that they portray, and implicitly endorse, an ideal family type. Implications of the findings for home economists and family practitioners are discussed. (Author/CT)
Quantum light in coupled interferometers for quantum gravity tests.
Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Genovese, M
2013-05-24
In recent years quantum correlations have received a lot of attention as a key ingredient in advanced quantum metrology protocols. In this Letter we show that they provide even larger advantages when considering multiple-interferometer setups. In particular, we demonstrate that the use of quantum correlated light beams in coupled interferometers leads to substantial advantages with respect to classical light, up to a noise-free scenario for the ideal lossless case. On the one hand, our results prompt the possibility of testing quantum gravity in experimental configurations affordable in current quantum optics laboratories and strongly improve the precision in "larger size experiments" such as the Fermilab holometer; on the other hand, they pave the way for future applications to high precision measurements and quantum metrology. PMID:23745871
Diehl, S.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.; Baranov, M.
2010-08-01
We analyze the ground-state phase diagram of attractive lattice bosons, which are stabilized by a three-body onsite hardcore constraint. A salient feature of this model is an Ising-type transition from a conventional atomic superfluid to a dimer superfluid with vanishing atomic condensate. The study builds on an exact mapping of the constrained model to a theory of coupled bosons with polynomial interactions, proposed in a related paper [S. Diehl, M. Baranov, A. Daley, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. B 82, 064509 (2010).]. In this framework, we focus by analytical means on aspects of the phase diagram which are intimately connected to interactions, and are thus not accessible in a mean-field plus spin-wave approach. First, we determine shifts in the mean-field phase border, which are most pronounced in the low-density regime. Second, the investigation of the strong coupling limit reveals the existence of a 'continuous supersolid', which emerges as a consequence of enhanced symmetries in this regime. We discuss its experimental signatures. Third, we show that the Ising-type phase transition, driven first order via the competition of long-wavelength modes at generic fillings, terminates into a true Ising quantum critical point in the vicinity of half filling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diehl, S.; Baranov, M.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.
2010-08-01
We analyze the ground-state phase diagram of attractive lattice bosons, which are stabilized by a three-body onsite hardcore constraint. A salient feature of this model is an Ising-type transition from a conventional atomic superfluid to a dimer superfluid with vanishing atomic condensate. The study builds on an exact mapping of the constrained model to a theory of coupled bosons with polynomial interactions, proposed in a related paper [S. Diehl, M. Baranov, A. Daley, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. B 82, 064509 (2010).10.1103/PhysRevB.82.064509]. In this framework, we focus by analytical means on aspects of the phase diagram which are intimately connected to interactions, and are thus not accessible in a mean-field plus spin-wave approach. First, we determine shifts in the mean-field phase border, which are most pronounced in the low-density regime. Second, the investigation of the strong coupling limit reveals the existence of a “continuous supersolid,” which emerges as a consequence of enhanced symmetries in this regime. We discuss its experimental signatures. Third, we show that the Ising-type phase transition, driven first order via the competition of long-wavelength modes at generic fillings, terminates into a true Ising quantum critical point in the vicinity of half filling.
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jankó, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-04-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos.
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors.
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M V; Covaci, L; Jankó, B; Peeters, F M
2014-01-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241
Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors
Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jankó, B.; Peeters, F. M.
2014-01-01
Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakmehr, M.; Bruene, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Stier, A. V.; McCombe, B. D.
2014-12-01
We report a detailed low-temperature study of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a 6.1-nm-wide HgTe quantum well with H g0.3C d0.7Te barriers by terahertz magnetophotoconductivity and magnetotransmission combined with magnetotransport measurements (Rx x and Rx y) in magnetic fields up to 10 T. This well width, close to that at the topological phase transition, corresponds to conventional band ordering, and we probe the "bulk" quasi-2D Landau-level (LL) spectrum of the conduction band at high energies (≈135 -160 meV ) above the Dirac point. The calculated separations between adjacent LLs of the same spin based on published parameters for this structure are in fair agreement with the measured cyclotron resonance energies. However, the very large spin splittings observed (Espin>Ecyclotron) require a significantly larger g -parameter ge for electrons. Tilted field coincidence experiments are consistent with the large spin splitting showing coincidences at 3/2 and twice the cyclotron energy. This large value of ge also leads to interesting crossings of the calculated LLs, and we find direct evidence of these crossings in the Rx x measurements at lower electron densities (Fermi energies) produced by negative gate bias.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paesani, F.; Gianturco, F. A.
2002-06-01
The coupling between the intermolecular motion and the internal vibrational coordinate in the He-CO system is computed at the post-Hartree-Fock level using the DFT+DISP model already employed by us for similar systems and reviewed here in the main text. The quality of the computation of such weak effects is compared with other, earlier model calculations and then used for the evaluation of the vibrational relaxation cross sections of the CO molecule diluted in 4He gas. A further assessment of the vibrational coupling is carried out by computing, with a stochastic approach that employs the Diffusion Monte Carlo method, the effects on the vibrational frequency of the CO impurity from its immersion in 4He droplets of variable size. Both sets of results are analyzed and discussed to gauge the reliability of the computed coupling vis-a-vis one of those suggested by earlier calculations. This study provides further evidence on the difficulty of quantitatively obtaining from calculations the extremely small effects connected with molecular vibrational features in this system and caused by the weak interaction between the title molecule and a quantum solvent like 4He.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCaffery, Anthony J.; Marsh, Richard J.
2010-02-01
The method of Marsh and McCaffery [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 503 (2002)] is used to quantify how rovibrational populations and mode temperatures change as an ensemble of CO molecules, initially excited to (v;j)=(8;12), evolves to thermal equilibrium in a bath gas. The bath gases considered are Ar, N2, O2, and CO all at 300 K with the diatomics in their (0;8) rovibrational states. Ensembles generally contain 1000 molecules, 10% of which are excited CO (CO∗) molecules. State (v;j) populations and mode temperatures of CO∗ and bath molecules are calculated for successive collisions to 1000 or more. We find that relaxation to local thermodynamic equilibrium occurs in distinct phases that vary widely in rate of cooling. There is especially fast vibration-vibration (VV) exchange in CO∗-CO mixtures that is largely decoupled from rotation and translation. Several aspects of ensemble behavior may be rationalized using concepts established in quantum state resolved single collision studies. We demonstrate the existence of a simultaneous energy quasiresonant, angular momentum conserving, low Δj VV process that can cause either ultrafast relaxation or up pumping of the kind seen in a number of experiments.
Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dariano, G. M.
1992-01-01
The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.
Non-ideal solution thermodynamics of cytoplasm.
Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Elliott, Janet A W; McGann, Locksley E
2012-10-01
Quantitative description of the non-ideal solution thermodynamics of the cytoplasm of a living mammalian cell is critically necessary in mathematical modeling of cryobiology and desiccation and other fields where the passive osmotic response of a cell plays a role. In the solution thermodynamics osmotic virial equation, the quadratic correction to the linear ideal, dilute solution theory is described by the second osmotic virial coefficient. Herein we report, for the first time, intracellular solution second osmotic virial coefficients for four cell types [TF-1 hematopoietic stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), porcine hepatocytes, and porcine chondrocytes] and further report second osmotic virial coefficients indistinguishable from zero (for the concentration range studied) for human hepatocytes and mouse oocytes. PMID:23840923
Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delmont, P.; Keppens, R.
2010-03-01
We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.
Ideal transparent conductors for full spectrum photovoltaics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kin Man; Mayer, Marie A.; Speaks, Derrick T.; He, Hongcai; Zhao, Ruying; Hsu, L.; Mao, Samuel S.; Haller, E. E.; Walukiewicz, Wladek
2012-06-01
In current technologies, state-of-the-art transparent conducting oxides exhibit good conductivity (˜5 × 103 S/cm) and transparency up to only λ ˜ 1000 nm, restricting the use of such thin films to photovoltaics that are not utilizing the infrared part of the solar spectrum. We have found that among metal oxides, high electron mobility CdO satisfies the essential requirements for a low resistance and high infrared transmission transparent contact. With appropriate intentional doping, we have achieved ideal uncompensated CdO with extremely high conductivity (>104 S/cm) and an excellent transmission window in the range from 400 to >1500 nm, making this material an ideal TCO for photovoltaics with low band gap absorbers.
Defining the ideal femtosecond laser capsulotomy
Packer, Mark; Teuma, E Valas; Glasser, Adrian; Bott, Steven
2015-01-01
Purpose We define the ideal anterior capsulotomy through consideration of capsular histology and biomechanics. Desirable qualities include preventing posterior capsular opacification (PCO), maintaining effective lens position (ELP) and optimising capsular strength. Methods Laboratory study of capsular biomechanics and literature review of histology and published clinical results. Results Parameters of ideal capsulotomy construction include complete overlap of the intraocular lens to prevent PCO, centration on the clinical approximation of the optical axis of the lens to ensure concentricity with the capsule equator, and maximal capsular thickness at the capsulotomy edge to maintain integrity. Conclusions Constructing the capsulotomy centred on the clinical approximation of the optical axis of the lens with diameter 5.25 mm optimises prevention of PCO, consistency of ELP and capsular strength. PMID:25829488
Preserving idealism in global health promotion.
Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I
2010-12-01
If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history. PMID:21513081
VH-1: Multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawley, John; Blondin, John; Lindahl, Greg; Lufkin, Eric
2012-04-01
VH-1 is a multidimensional ideal compressible hydrodynamics code written in FORTRAN for use on any computing platform, from desktop workstations to supercomputers. It uses a Lagrangian remap version of the Piecewise Parabolic Method developed by Paul Woodward and Phil Colella in their 1984 paper. VH-1 comes in a variety of versions, from a simple one-dimensional serial variant to a multi-dimensional version scalable to thousands of processors.
Computational methods for ideal compressible flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanleer, B.
1983-01-01
Conservative dissipative difference schemes for computing one dimensional flow are introduced, and the recognition and representation of flow discontinuities are discussed. Multidimensional methods are outlined. Second order finite volume schemes are introduced. Conversion of difference schemes for a single linear convection equation into schemes for the hyperbolic system of the nonlinear conservation laws of ideal compressible flow is explained. Approximate Riemann solvers are presented. Monotone initial value interpolation; and limiters, switches, and artificial dissipation are considered.
Numerical computation for teaching quantum statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Price, Tyson; Swendsen, Robert H.
2013-11-01
The study of ideal quantum gases reveals surprising quantum effects that can be observed in macroscopic systems. The properties of bosons are particularly unusual because a macroscopic number of particles can occupy a single quantum state. We describe a computational approach that supplements the usual analytic derivations applicable in the thermodynamic limit. The approach involves directly summing over the quantum states for finite systems and avoids the need for doing difficult integrals. The results display the unusual behavior of quantum gases even for relatively small systems.
The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.
2009-01-01
The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…
Fractal hard drives for quantum information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wootton, James R.
2016-02-01
A quantum hard drive, capable of storing qubits for unlimited timescales, would be very useful for quantum computation. Unfortunately, the most ideal solutions currently known can only be built in a universe of four spatial dimensions. In a recent publication (Brell 2016 New J. Phys. 18 013050), Brell introduces a new family of models based on these ideal solutions. These use fractal lattices, and result in models whose Hausdorff dimension is less than 3. This opens a new avenue of research towards a quantum hard drive that can be build in our own 3D universe.
Elastin: a representative ideal protein elastomer.
Urry, D W; Hugel, T; Seitz, M; Gaub, H E; Sheiba, L; Dea, J; Xu, J; Parker, T
2002-01-01
During the last half century, identification of an ideal (predominantly entropic) protein elastomer was generally thought to require that the ideal protein elastomer be a random chain network. Here, we report two new sets of data and review previous data. The first set of new data utilizes atomic force microscopy to report single-chain force-extension curves for (GVGVP)(251) and (GVGIP)(260), and provides evidence for single-chain ideal elasticity. The second class of new data provides a direct contrast between low-frequency sound absorption (0.1-10 kHz) exhibited by random-chain network elastomers and by elastin protein-based polymers. Earlier composition, dielectric relaxation (1-1000 MHz), thermoelasticity, molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations and thermodynamic and statistical mechanical analyses are presented, that combine with the new data to contrast with random-chain network rubbers and to detail the presence of regular non-random structural elements of the elastin-based systems that lose entropic elastomeric force upon thermal denaturation. The data and analyses affirm an earlier contrary argument that components of elastin, the elastic protein of the mammalian elastic fibre, and purified elastin fibre itself contain dynamic, non-random, regularly repeating structures that exhibit dominantly entropic elasticity by means of a damping of internal chain dynamics on extension. PMID:11911774
Dimensional Analysis Using Toric Ideals: Primitive Invariants
Atherton, Mark A.; Bates, Ronald A.; Wynn, Henry P.
2014-01-01
Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer matrix from the initial integer matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by . One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of , is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found. PMID:25436774
Word recognition using ideal word patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.
1994-03-01
The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.
Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction
Peter Zalupski
2011-09-01
This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.
Principles for designing ideal protein structures
Koga, Nobuyasu; Tatsumi-Koga, Rie; Liu, Gaohua; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David
2013-01-01
Unlike random heteropolymers, natural proteins fold into unique ordered structures. Understanding how these are encoded in amino-acid sequences is complicated by energetically unfavourable non-ideal features—for example kinked α-helices, bulged β-strands, strained loops and buried polar groups—that arise in proteins from evolutionary selection for biological function or from neutral drift. Here we describe an approach to designing ideal protein structures stabilized by completely consistent local and non-local interactions. The approach is based on a set of rules relating secondary structure patterns to protein tertiary motifs, which make possible the design of funnel-shaped protein folding energy landscapes leading into the target folded state. Guided by these rules, we designed sequences predicted to fold into ideal protein structures consisting of α-helices, β-strands and minimal loops. Designs for five different topologies were found to be monomeric and very stable and to adopt structures in solution nearly identical to the computational models. These results illuminate how the folding funnels of natural proteins arise and provide the foundation for engineering a new generation of functional proteins free from natural evolution. PMID:23135467
Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well
Belfaqih, Idrus Husin Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto
2015-09-30
Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.
Role of quantum fluctuations in the dissipative dynamics of a 1D Bose gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rey, Ana Maria; Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Pupillo, Guido; Williams, Carl J.; Clark, Charles W.
2005-03-01
We will present a theoretical treatment[1] of the surprisingly large damping observed recently in a experiment done at NIST [2] where the transport properties of a harmonically trapped 1D Bose gas in a periodic (optical lattice) potential were studied by observing small amplitude dipole oscillations. In the absence of the lattice these oscillations are expected to be undamped (generalized Kohn's theorem), however, large damping of the dipole mode was observed in the experiment for very weak optical lattices and very small cloud displacements. We will show that the observed damping can be derived from a model whose main ingredients are (a) a large noncondensate fraction that arises as a direct consequence of the enhanced effective on-site interaction due to the tight transverse confinement, (b) the fact that a non-negligible part of it occupies high-momentum states and is therefore affected by dynamical instabilities, and (c) the interaction of the condensate atoms with the random field created by these noncondensate atoms when their equilibrium state is perturbed. We find good agreement between the model and the experimental results. [1] Julio Gea-Banacloche et al. cond-mat/0410677. [2] C. D. Fertig, K. et al.cond-mat/0410491.
Relativistic quantum private database queries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou
2015-04-01
Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.
Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, I: Density and current correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.
2010-02-01
A unified approach valid for any wavenumber q, frequency ω, and temperature T is presented for uniform ideal quantum gases allowing for a comprehensive study of number density and particle-current density response functions. Exact analytical expressions are obtained for spectral functions in terms of polylogarithms. Also, particle-number and particle-current static susceptibilities are presented which, for fugacity less than unity, additionally involve Kummer functions. The q- and T-dependent transverse-current static susceptibility is used to show explicitly that current correlations are of long range in a Bose-condensed uniform ideal gas but for bosons at T>Tc and for Fermi and Boltzmann gases at all temperatures these correlations are of short range. Contact repulsive interactions for systems of neutral quantum particles are considered within the random phase approximation. The expressions for particle-number and transverse-current susceptibilities are utilized to discuss the existence or nonexistence of superfluidity in the systems under consideration.
Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, J. V.
2012-01-01
A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the
Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.
Atherton, Mark A; Bates, Ronald A; Wynn, Henry P
2014-01-01
Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found. PMID:25436774
Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid
Morrison, P.J.
1994-01-01
Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.
New approach to nonrelativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Kumar, Kuldeep
2016-07-01
We provide a novel action principle for nonrelativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics in the Eulerian scheme exploiting a Clebsch-type parametrisation. Both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations have been considered. Within the Hamiltonian framework, two complementary approaches have been discussed using Dirac's constraint analysis. In one case the Hamiltonian is canonical involving only physical variables but the brackets have a noncanonical structure, while the other retains the canonical structure of brackets by enlarging the phase space. The special case of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics is also considered where, again, both the approaches are discussed in the Hamiltonian framework. The conservation of the stress tensor reveals interesting aspects of the theory.
Broken symmetry in ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1993-01-01
A numerical study of the long-time evolution of a number of cases of inviscid, isotropic, incompressible, three-dimensional fluid, and magneto-fluid turbulence has been completed. The results confirm that ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is non-ergodic if there is no external magnetic field present. This is due essentially to a canonical symmetry being broken in an arbitrary dynamical representation. The broken symmetry manifests itself as a coherent structure, i.e., a non-zero time-averaged part of the turbulent magnetic field. The coherent structure is observed, in one case, to contain about eighteen percent of the total energy.
"The Scientific Method" as Myth and Ideal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodcock, Brian A.
2014-10-01
"The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is wrong with "The Scientific Method"? This essay provides a fairly comprehensive survey of shortcomings of "The Scientific Method". Included are corrections to several misconceptions that often accompany such presentations. Rather than treating "The Scientific Method" as a useful approximation or an ideal, the myth should be discarded. Lessons can be learned for introductory pedagogical contexts from considering the shortcomings of the myth.
Logic of infinite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mundici, Daniele
1993-10-01
Limits of sequences of finite-dimensional (AF) C *-algebras, such as the CAR algebra for the ideal Fermi gas, are a standard mathematical tool to describe quantum statistical systems arising as thermodynamic limits of finite spin systems. Only in the infinite-volume limit one can, for instance, describe phase transitions as singularities in the thermodynamic potentials, and handle the proliferation of physically inequivalent Hilbert space representations of a system with infinitely many degrees of freedom. As is well known, commutative AF C *-algebras correspond to countable Boolean algebras, i.e., algebras of propositions in the classical two-valued calculus. We investigate the noncommutative logic properties of general AF C *-algebras, and their corresponding systems. We stress the interplay between Gödel incompleteness and quotient structures in the light of the “nature does not have ideals” program, stating that there are no quotient structures in physics. We interpret AF C *-algebras as algebras of the infinite-valued calculus of Lukasiewicz, i.e., algebras of propositions in Ulam's “ twenty questions” game with lies.
Becerra, Rosa; Cannady, J Pat; Pfrang, Christian; Walsh, Robin
2015-11-19
Time-resolved kinetics studies of silylene, SiH2, generated by laser flash photolysis of phenylsilane, were performed to obtain rate coefficients for its bimolecular reaction with 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5-DHF). The reaction was studied in the gas phase over the pressure range of 1-100 Torr in SF6 bath gas, at five temperatures in the range of 296-598 K. The reaction showed pressure dependences characteristic of a third body assisted association. The second-order rate coefficients obtained by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM)-assisted extrapolation to the high-pressure limit at each temperature fitted the following Arrhenius equation where the error limits are single standard deviations: log(k/cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) = (-9.96 ± 0.08) + (3.38 ± 0.62 kJ mol(-1))/RT ln 10. End-product analysis revealed no GC-identifiable product. Quantum chemical (ab initio) calculations indicate that reaction of SiH2 with 2,5-DHF can occur at both the double bond (to form a silirane) and the O atom (to form a donor-acceptor, zwitterionic complex) via barrierless processes. Further possible reaction steps were explored, of which the only viable one appears to be decomposition of the O-complex to give 1,3-butadiene + silanone, although isomerization of the silirane cannot be completely ruled out. The potential energy surface for SiH2 + 2,5-DHF is consistent with that of SiH2 with Me2O, and with that of SiH2 with cis-but-2-ene, the simplest reference reactions. RRKM calculations incorporating reaction at both π- and O atom sites, can be made to fit the experimental rate coefficient pressure dependence curves at 296-476 K, giving values for k(∞)(π) and k(∞)(O) that indicate the latter is larger in magnitude at all temperatures, in contrast to values from individual model reactions. This unexpected result suggests that, in 2,5-DHF with its two different reaction sites, the O atom exerts the more pronounced electrophilic attraction on the approaching silylene. Arrhenius parameters
Quantum correlation via quantum coherence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Chang-shui; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Haiqing
2014-06-01
Quantum correlation includes quantum entanglement and quantum discord. Both entanglement and discord have a common necessary condition—quantum coherence or quantum superposition. In this paper, we attempt to give an alternative understanding of how quantum correlation is related to quantum coherence. We divide the coherence of a quantum state into several classes and find the complete coincidence between geometric (symmetric and asymmetric) quantum discords and some particular classes of quantum coherence. We propose a revised measure for total coherence and find that this measure can lead to a symmetric version of geometric quantum correlation, which is analytic for two qubits. In particular, this measure can also arrive at a monogamy equality on the distribution of quantum coherence. Finally, we also quantify a remaining type of quantum coherence and find that for two qubits, it is directly connected with quantum nonlocality.
Epifanovsky, Evgeny; Polyakov, Igor; Grigorenko, Bella; Nemukhin, Alexander; Krylov, Anna I
2009-07-14
We present the results of quantum chemical calculations of the electronic properties of the anionic form of the green fluorescent protein chromophore in the gas phase. The vertical detachment energy of the chromophore is found to be 2.4-2.5 eV, which is below the strongly absorbing ππ* state at 2.6 eV. The vertical excitation of the lowest triplet state is around 1.9 eV, which is below the photodetachment continuum. Thus, the lowest bright singlet state is a resonance state embedded in the photodetachment continuum, whereas the lowest triplet state is a regular bound state. Based on our estimation of the vertical detachment energy, we attribute a minor feature in the action spectrum as due to the photodetachment transition. The benchmark results for the bright ππ* state demonstrated that the scaled opposite-spin method yields vertical excitation within 0.1 eV (20 nm) from the experimental maximum at 2.59 eV (479 nm). We also report estimations of the vertical excitation energy obtained with the equation-of-motion coupled cluster with the singles and doubles method, a multireference perturbation theory corrected approach MRMP2 as well as the time-dependent density functional theory with range-separated functionals. Expanding the basis set with diffuse functions lowers the ππ* vertical excitation energy by 0.1 eV at the same time revealing a continuum of "ionized" states, which embeds the bright ππ* transition. PMID:26610014
Performance of quantum annealing in solving optimization problems: A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, S.
2015-02-01
Quantum annealing is one of the optimization method for generic optimization problems. It uses quantum mechanics and is implemented by a quantum computer ideally. At the earlier stage, several numerical experiments using conventional computers have provided results showing that quantum annealing produces an answer faster than simulated annealing, a classical counterpart of quantum annealing. Later, theoretical and numerical studies have shown that there are drawbacks in quantum annealing. The power of quantum annealing is still an open problem. What makes quantum annealing a hot topic now is that a quantum computer based on quantum annealing is manufactured and commercialized by a Canadian company named D-Wave Systems. In the present article, we review the study of quantum annealing, focusing mainly on its power.
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Homogeneous Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
2002-01-01
Plasmas, such as those found in the space environment or in plasma confinement devices, are often modeled as electrically conducting fluids. When fluids and plasmas are energetically stirred, regions of highly nonlinear, chaotic behavior known as turbulence arise. Understanding the fundamental nature of turbulence is a long-standing theoretical challenge. The present work describes a statistical theory concerning a certain class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, dynamical models of turbulence. These models arise when the partial differential equations describing incompressible, ideal (i.e., nondissipative) homogeneous fluid and magnetofluid (i.e., plasma) turbulence are Fourier transformed into a very large set of ordinary differential equations. These equations define a divergenceless flow in a high-dimensional phase space, which allows for the existence of a Liouville theorem, guaranteeing a distribution function based on constants of the motion (integral invariants). The novelty of these particular dynamical systems is that there are integral invariants other than the energy, and that some of these invariants behave like pseudoscalars under two of the discrete symmetry transformations of physics, parity, and charge conjugation. In this work the 'rugged invariants' of ideal homogeneous turbulence are shown to be the only significant scalar and pseudoscalar invariants. The discovery that pseudoscalar invariants cause symmetries of the original equations to be dynamically broken and induce a nonergodic structure on the associated phase space is the primary result presented here. Applicability of this result to dissipative turbulence is also discussed.
Ideal fermion delocalization in Higgsless models
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; He, Hong-Jian; Kurachi, Masafumi; Tanabashi, Masaharu
2005-07-01
In this note we examine the properties of deconstructed Higgsless models for the case of a fermion whose SU(2) properties arise from delocalization over many sites of the deconstructed lattice. We derive expressions for the correlation functions and use these to establish a generalized consistency relation among correlation functions. We discuss the form of the W boson wavefunction and show that if the probability distribution of the delocalized fermions is appropriately related to the W wavefunction, then deviations in precision electroweak parameters are minimized. In particular, we show that this ''ideal fermion delocalization'' results in the vanishing of three of the four leading zero-momentum electroweak parameters defined by Barbieri et al. We then discuss ideal fermion delocalization in the context of two continuum Higgsless models, one in Anti-deSitter space and one in flat space. Our results may be applied to any Higgsless linear moose model with multiple SU(2) groups, including those with only a few extra vector bosons.
Nonlinear electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figliuzzi, Bruno; Chan, Wai Hong Ronald; Buie, Cullen R.
2013-11-01
We focus in this presentation on the nonlinear electrophoresis of ideally polarizable particles. At high applied voltages, significant ionic exchanges occur between the EDL which surrounders the particle and the bulk solution. In this situation, the velocity field, the electric potential and the ionic concentration at the immediate vicinity of the particle are described by a complicated set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. These equations are classically considered in the limit of a weak applied field, which enables further analytical progress (Khair and Squires, Phys. Fluids, 2010). However, in the general case, the equation governing the electrophoretic motion of the particle must be solved numerically. In this study, we rely on a numerical approach to determine the electric potential, ionic concentration and velocity field in the bulk solution surrounding the particle. The numerical simulations use a pseudo-spectral which was used successfully by Chu and Bazant to determine the electric potential and the ionic concentration around an ideally polarizable metallic sphere (Physical Review E, 2006). Our numerical model also incorporates the steric model developed by Kilic et al. in 2007 to account for crowding effects in the electric double layer.
Ideal fermion delocalization in Higgsless models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; He, Hong-Jian; Kurachi, Masafumi; Tanabashi, Masaharu
2005-07-01
In this note we examine the properties of deconstructed Higgsless models for the case of a fermion whose SU(2) properties arise from delocalization over many sites of the deconstructed lattice. We derive expressions for the correlation functions and use these to establish a generalized consistency relation among correlation functions. We discuss the form of the W boson wavefunction and show that if the probability distribution of the delocalized fermions is appropriately related to the W wavefunction, then deviations in precision electroweak parameters are minimized. In particular, we show that this “ideal fermion delocalization” results in the vanishing of three of the four leading zero-momentum electroweak parameters defined by Barbieri et al. We then discuss ideal fermion delocalization in the context of two continuum Higgsless models, one in Anti-deSitter space and one in flat space. Our results may be applied to any Higgsless linear moose model with multiple SU(2) groups, including those with only a few extra vector bosons.