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Sample records for ideal quantum gas

  1. High-order kinetic flux vector splitting schemes in general coordinates for ideal quantum gas dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.-Y. Hsieh, T.-Y.; Shi, Y.-H.; Xu Kun

    2007-12-10

    A class of high-order kinetic flux vector splitting schemes are presented for solving ideal quantum gas dynamics based on quantum statistical mechanics. The collisionless quantum Boltzmann equation approach is adopted and both Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases are considered. The formulas for the split flux vectors are derived based on the general three-dimensional distribution function in velocity space and formulas for lower dimensions can be directly deduced. General curvilinear coordinates are introduced to treat practical problems with general geometry. High-order accurate schemes using weighted essentially non-oscillatory methods are implemented. The resulting high resolution kinetic flux splitting schemes are tested for 1D shock tube flows and shock wave diffraction by a 2D wedge and by a circular cylinder in ideal quantum gases. Excellent results have been obtained for all examples computed.

  2. Optimum criteria of an irreversible quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle with an ideal Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Sanqiu; He, Jizhou

    2008-11-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle is established, in which finite-time processes and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Bose gas, by using the optimal control-theory, the mathematical expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, power input and cooling load, are derived and some important performance parameters, e.g., the temperatures of the working substance at several important state-points, are optimized. By means of numerical predictions, the optimal performance characteristic curves of a Bose-Brayton refrigeration cycle are obtained and analyzed. Furthermore, some optimal operating regions including those for the cooling load, coefficient of performance and the temperatures of the cyclic working substance at the two important state-points are determined and evaluated. Finally, several special cases are discussed in detail.

  3. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799-1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919

  4. Numerical solutions of ideal quantum gas dynamical flows governed by semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical distribution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jaw-Yen; Yan, Chih-Yuan; Diaz, Manuel; Huang, Juan-Chen; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    The ideal quantum gas dynamics as manifested by the semiclassical ellipsoidal-statistical (ES) equilibrium distribution derived in Wu et al. (Wu et al. 2012 Proc. R. Soc. A 468, 1799–1823 (doi:10.1098/rspa.2011.0673)) is numerically studied for particles of three statistics. This anisotropic ES equilibrium distribution was derived using the maximum entropy principle and conserves the mass, momentum and energy, but differs from the standard Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein distribution. The present numerical method combines the discrete velocity (or momentum) ordinate method in momentum space and the high-resolution shock-capturing method in physical space. A decoding procedure to obtain the necessary parameters for determining the ES distribution is also devised. Computations of two-dimensional Riemann problems are presented, and various contours of the quantities unique to this ES model are illustrated. The main flow features, such as shock waves, expansion waves and slip lines and their complex nonlinear interactions, are depicted and found to be consistent with existing calculations for a classical gas. PMID:24399919

  5. Non ideal gas behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Wakefield, C.B.

    1996-12-31

    For a closed Thermodynamic System in equilibrium, the internal energy of the system (U) is a function of two variables. The equilibrium states of a closed system, for example, described by means of 3 thermodynamic coordinates P, V, and T are completely determined by only two, since the third is fixed by the equation of state. For this reason the internal energy (U) may be considered as a function of only two (any two) of the other thermodynamic coordinates. If we use the two variable chain rule with U = f(T,V), we get the following: dU = ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}T) {sub v} dT + ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}V){sub T} dV. The first partial derivative is the heat capacity at constant volume. The second partial derivative is zero for an ideal gas, since interactions between the gas molecules is neglected the internal energy does not change with a change in volume at constant T. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this second partial derivative for several non ideal equations of state, using mathematics and a software package {open_quotes}Mathematica.{close_quotes} The results (graphics and tables) illustrate the conditions where forces of attraction become significant. Next we see where the forces of repulsion becomes important.

  6. Thermodynamics of ideal quantum gas with fractional statistics in D dimensions.

    PubMed

    Potter, Geoffrey G; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael

    2007-06-01

    We present exact and explicit results for the thermodynamic properties (isochores, isotherms, isobars, response functions, velocity of sound) of a quantum gas in dimensions D > or = 1 and with fractional exclusion statistics 0 < or = g < or =1 connecting bosons (g=0) and fermions (g=1) . In D=1 the results are equivalent to those of the Calogero-Sutherland model. Emphasis is given to the crossover between bosonlike and fermionlike features, caused by aspects of the statistical interaction that mimic long-range attraction and short-range repulsion. A phase transition along the isobar occurs at a nonzero temperature in all dimensions. The T dependence of the velocity of sound is in simple relation to isochores and isobars. The effects of soft container walls are accounted for rigorously for the case of a pure power-law potential. PMID:17677233

  7. Optimization criteria for an irreversible quantum Brayton engine with an ideal Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih; Guo, Fangzhong

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the optimal performance for an irreversible quantum Brayton engine consisting of two constant-frequency branches connected by two irreversible adiabatic branches. The solution of the generalized quantum master equation of a thermal system is obtained in the Heisenberg picture. The optimization region (or criteria) for an irreversible quantum Brayton engine is obtained. The relationship between the dimensionless power output P* versus efficiency ? for the irreversible quantum Brayton engine with heat leakage and other irreversible losses are derived.

  8. Quantum-mechanical engines working with an ideal gas with a finite number of particles confined in a power-law trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianhui; Ma, Yongli; He, Jizhou

    2015-07-01

    Based on quantum thermodynamic processes, we make a quantum-mechanical (QM) extension of the typical heat engine cycles, such as the Carnot, Brayton, Otto, Diesel cycles, etc., with no introduction of the concept of temperature. When these QM engine cycles are implemented by an ideal gas confined in an arbitrary power-law trap, a relation between the quantum adiabatic exponent and trap exponent is found. The differences and similarities between the efficiency of a given QM engine cycle and its classical counterpart are revealed and discussed.

  9. Temperature and the Ideal Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisley, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)

  10. Chemical Potential for the Interacting Classical Gas and the Ideal Quantum Gas Obeying a Generalized Exclusion Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla, F. J.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential [mu] in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state [mu] = [mu](n, T) where n is the particle density and "T" the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are

  11. Chemical Potential for the Interacting Classical Gas and the Ideal Quantum Gas Obeying a Generalized Exclusion Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla, F. J.; Olivares-Quiroz, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential [mu] in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state [mu] = [mu](n, T) where n is the particle density and "T" the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are…

  12. Quantum cryptography with an ideal local relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spedalieri, Gaetana; Ottaviani, Carlo; Braunstein, Samuel L.; Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    We consider two remote parties connected to a relay by two quantum channels. To generate a secret key, they transmit coherent states to the relay, where the states are subject to a continuous-variable (CV) Bell detection. We study the ideal case where Alice's channel is lossless, i.e., the relay is locally in her lab and the Bell detection is perfomed with unit efficiency. This configuration allows us to explore the optimal performances achievable by CV measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution. This corresponds to the limit of a trusted local relay, where the detection loss can be re-scaled. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by an experimental simulation where 10-4 secret bits per use can potentially be distributed at 170km assuming ideal reconciliation.

  13. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  14. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct

  15. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  16. How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…

  17. How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight

  18. Ideal gas matching for thermal Galilean holography

    SciTech Connect

    Barbon, Jose L. F.; Fuertes, Carlos A.

    2009-07-15

    We exhibit a nonrelativistic ideal gas with a Kaluza-Klein tower of species, featuring a singular behavior of thermodynamic functions at zero chemical potential. In this way, we provide a qualitative match to the thermodynamics of recently found black holes in backgrounds with asymptotic nonrelativistic conformal symmetry.

  19. Thermodynamics of an ideal generalized gas: I. Thermodynamic laws.

    PubMed

    Lavenda, B H

    2005-11-01

    The equations of state for an ideal relativistic, or generalized, gas, like an ideal quantum gas, are expressed in terms of power laws of the temperature. In contrast to an ideal classical gas, the internal energy is a function of volume at constant temperature, implying that the ideal generalized gas will show either attractive or repulsive interactions. This is a necessary condition in order that the third law be obeyed and for matter to have an electromagnetic origin. The transition from an ideal generalized to a classical gas occurs when the two independent solutions of the subsidiary equation to Lagrange's equation coalesce. The equation of state relating the pressure to the internal energy encompasses the full range of cosmological scenarios, from the radiation to the matter dominated universes and finally to the vacuum energy, enabling the coefficient of proportionality, analogous to the Grüeisen ratio, to be interpreted in terms of the degrees of freedom related to the temperature exponents of the internal energy and the absolute temperature expressed in terms of a power of the empirical temperature. The limit where these exponents merge is shown to be the ideal classical gas limit. A corollary to Carnot's theorem is proved, asserting that the ratio of the work done over a cycle to the heat absorbed to increase the temperature at constant volume is the same for all bodies at the same volume. As power means, the energy and entropy are incomparable, and a new adiabatic potential is introduced by showing that the volume raised to a characteristic exponent is also the integrating factor for the quantity of heat so that the second law can be based on the property that power means are monotonically increasing functions of their order. The vanishing of the chemical potential in extensive systems implies that energy cannot be transported without matter and is equivalent to the condition that Clapeyron's equation be satisfied. PMID:16231132

  20. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  1. Generalized Ideal Gas Equations for Structureful Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afridi, Shahid N.; Khan, Khalid

    2006-09-01

    We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consistingof all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters arethen made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We havederived an expression for the entropy of such a universe. Our model is rather independent of thegeometry of the intermediate clusters. Our calculations are valid for a non-interacting universewithin non-relativistic limits. We suggest that structure formation can reduce the expansion rateof the universe.

  2. Cutoff Energy Behavior for an Ideal Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, M.

    2003-08-01

    The energy distribution for an ideal gas is important to dynamical astronomy because it is used as the statistical basis for modeling relaxed dynamical systems. This presentation deals with some fundamental aspects of this distribution. The microcanonical distribution for a monatomic ideal gas gives the probability that a particle's energy is in a specified range simply as $ d? =c1( 1-x) 3N-5) /2}? {x}dx,quad c1= 2/ ? ? ? (3N/2)/? (3[ N-1 ] 2),quad x=\\varepsilon /E, where N and E are the total population and total energy of the gas while \\varepsilon and x are the kinetic energy of the particle in usual and dimensionless forms. The cutoff energy for this distribution occurs when \\varepsilon =E. An alternative distribution for this gas may be obtained through most probable methods but it is more complex and given by d? =c2? ? y dy,quad c2=( ? 0yc? ? y dy) -1,quad y=yavgN\\varepsilon /E where yc\\ is the cutoff value of the dimensionless energy y and \\rho \\ is the velocity space density of the phase points of the gas, which can be shown to be given by D( ? ) =ln N!) / N-y,quad D( z& ) =dln ( z!) / dz,quad yc=ln ( N!) / N+? , where \\gamma is Euler's constant. For the large N case, the energy cutoffs for the microcanonical distribution, \\varepsilon 1c, and that for the most probable distribution, \\varepsilon 2c, are very different and approximately obey \\varepsilon2c Eln N / N=\\varepsilon 1cln N / N. This apparent difficulty is resolved by numerical studies showing that the number of particles in the mirocanonical distribution with energies above \\varepsilon2c is negligibly small in comparison to N$.

  3. Quantum afterburner: improving the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion. PMID:11863710

  4. Quantum Afterburner: Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a ``quantum afterburner'' involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the ``ideal'' Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion.

  5. Ideal gas behavior of a strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma.

    PubMed

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Griffith, Elias J; Durniak, Céline; Ralph, Jason F; Samsonov, Dmitry

    2013-07-01

    In a laboratory, a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma consists of a low-density ionized gas containing a confined suspension of Yukawa-coupled plastic microspheres. For an initial crystal-like form, we report ideal gas behavior in this strongly coupled system during shock-wave experiments. This evidence supports the use of the ideal gas law as the equation of state for soft crystals such as those formed by dusty plasmas. PMID:23863006

  6. Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, M.; Schley, P.

    1995-11-01

    Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of the c {p/0} correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were adjusted to selected c {p/0} data calculated from spectroscopic data for temperatures ranging from 10 to 1000 K. The data sources used are discussed and compared with literature data deduced from theoretic models and caloric measurements. The parameters presented will be applied in a current GERG project for evaluating equations of state (e.g., the AGA 8 equation) for their suitability for calculating caloric properties.

  7. Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesk, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)

  8. High-order gas-kinetic methods for ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huazhong

    1999-06-01

    This article is to study extension of gas-kinetic theory based flux splitting methods to ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. Uniform high-order gas kinetic methods are presented, based on TVD type Runge-Kutta time discretization and technique of the initial reconstruction. The numerical results have been given to show robustness of our schemes.

  9. Effective Dynamics of a Tracer Particle Interacting with an Ideal Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, Dirk-Andr; Frhlich, Jrg; Pickl, Peter; Pizzo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    We study a system consisting of a heavy quantum particle, called the tracer particle, coupled to an ideal gas of light Bose particles, the ratio of masses of the tracer particle and a gas particle being proportional to the gas density. All particles have non-relativistic kinematics. The tracer particle is driven by an external potential and couples to the gas particles through a pair potential. We compare the quantum dynamics of this system to an effective dynamics given by a Newtonian equation of motion for the tracer particle coupled to a classical wave equation for the Bose gas. We quantify the closeness of these two dynamics as the mean-field limit is approached (gas density ). Our estimates allow us to interchange the thermodynamic with the mean-field limit.

  10. Dissipation and decoherence by a homogeneous ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonyi, Janos

    2015-10-01

    The effective Lagrangian of a test particle, interacting within an ideal gas, is calculated within the closed-time-path formalism in the one-loop approximation and in the leading order of the particle trajectory. The expansion in the time derivative, available for slow enough motion, uncovers diffusive forces and decoherence in the particle coordinate basis. The master equation, generated by the effective Lagrangian, is derived and its consistency is verified for a finite-temperature gas.

  11. Experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov Ivanov, Dragia

    2007-03-01

    We offer two new experiments concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments we use glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their accessibility and the considerable precision of results.

  12. A Demonstration of Ideal Gas Principles Using a Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bare, William D.; Andrews, Lester

    1999-01-01

    Uses a true-to-life story of accusations made against a college football team to illustrate ideal gas laws. Students are asked to decide whether helium-filled footballs would increase punt distances and how to determine whether a football contained air or helium. (WRM)

  13. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  14. From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.

  15. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their

  16. From Free Expansion to Abrupt Compression of an Ideal Gas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anacleto, Joaquim; Pereira, Mario G.

    2009-01-01

    Using macroscopic thermodynamics, the general law for adiabatic processes carried out by an ideal gas was studied. It was shown that the process reversibility is characterized by the adiabatic reversibility coefficient r, in the range 0 [less than or equal] r [less than or equal] 1 for expansions and r [greater than or equal] 1 for compressions.…

  17. Shock wave structure in an ideal dissociating gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    Composition changes within the shock layer due to chemical reactions are considered. The Lighthill ideal dissociating gas model was used in an effort to describe the oxygen type molecule. First, the two limiting cases, when the chemical reaction rates are very slow and very fast in comparison to local convective rates, are investigated. Then, the problem is solved for arbitrary chemical reaction rates.

  18. Molecular structure, conformation, potential to internal rotation, and ideal gas thermodynamic properties of 3-fluoroanisole and 3,5-difluoroanisole as studied by gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeeva, Olga V.; Vishnevskiy, Yuriy V.; Rykov, Anatolii N.; Karasev, Nikolai M.; Moiseeva, Natalia F.; Vilkov, Lev V.; Oberhammer, Heinz

    2006-05-01

    3-Fluoroanisole (3-FA) and 3,5-difluoroanisole (3,5-DFA) have been studied by gas-phase electron diffraction, ab initio (HF and MP2), and density functional theory (B3LYP) calculations. Both molecules have a planar heavy atom skeleton. 3,5-DFA exists as a single conformer of Cs symmetry, whereas 3-FA exists as a mixture of two planar conformers of Cs symmetry with the syn form (the O-CH 3 bond is oriented toward the fluorine atom) being 0.1-0.2 kcal/mol lower in energy than the anti form (the O-CH 3 bond is oriented away from the fluorine atom). From the experimental scattering intensities the following geometric parameters ( ra distances and ∠ α angles with 3σ uncertainties) were derived for 3,5-DFA: r(C-C) av=1.391(2) Å, r(C Ph-O)=1.359(13) Å, r(C Me-O)=1.427(19) Å, r(C-F) av=1.350(6) Å, ∠C-C-C=116.0-123.6°, ∠C-O-C=118.7(12)°, ∠C2-C1-O=114.9(10)°, ∠C6-C1-O=124.9(10)°, ∠(C-C-F) av=118.4(17)°, and for 3-FA, syn conformer: r(C-C) av=1.393(3) Å, r(C Ph-O)=1.364(13) Å, r(C Me-O)=1.423(14) Å, r(C-F)=1.348(9) Å, ∠C-C-C=117.7-123.1°, ∠C-O-C=118.4(11)°, ∠C2-C1-O=124.7(17)°, ∠C6-C1-O=115.1(17)°, ∠C2-C3-F=118.0(24)°. The mole fractions of the syn and anti conformers were found to be 0.55(17) and 0.45, respectively, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. Ideal gas thermodynamic functions, S°( T), Cp°(T), H°( T)- H°(0), for anisole, 3-FA, and 3,5-DFA were obtained on the basis of B3LYP calculations. Enthalpies of formations, Δ fH298°, were calculated using a Gaussian-3X (G3X) method and the method of isodesmic reactions. Calculated values of Cp°(T) and Δ fH298° for anisole are in good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Effect of the Minimal Length on BoseEinstein Condensation in the Relativistic Ideal Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Tian, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Based on the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy of BoseEinstein condensation (BEC) in the relativistic ideal Bose gas are investigated. At the non-relativistic limit and the ultra-relativistic limit, we calculate the analytical form of the shifts of the critical temperature and the Helmholtz free energy caused by weak quantum gravitational effects. The exact numerical results of these shifts are obtained. Quantum gravity effects lift the critical temperature of BEC. By measuring the shift of the critical temperature, we can constrain the deformation parameter ?0. Furthermore, at lower densities, omitting quantum gravitational effects may lead to a metastable state while at sufficiently high densities, quantum gravitational effects tend to make BEC unstable. Using the numerical methods, the stable-unstable transition temperature is found.

  20. Quantum arrival and dwell times via idealized clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Yearsley, J. M.; Downs, D. A.; Halliwell, J. J.; Hashagen, A. K.

    2011-08-15

    A number of approaches to the problem of defining arrival- and dwell-time probabilities in quantum theory makes use of idealized models of clocks. An interesting question is the extent to which the probabilities obtained in this way are related to standard semiclassical results. In this paper, we explore this question using a reasonably general clock model, solved using path-integral methods. We find that, in the weak-coupling regime, where the energy of the clock is much less than the energy of the particle it is measuring, the probability for the clock pointer can be expressed in terms of the probability current in the case of arrival times, and the dwell-time operator in the case of dwell times, the expected semiclassical results. In the regime of strong system-clock coupling, we find that the arrival-time probability is proportional to the kinetic-energy density, consistent with an earlier model involving a complex potential. We argue that, properly normalized, this may be the generically expected result in this regime. We show that these conclusions are largely independent of the form of the clock Hamiltonian.

  1. Measurement of optical Feshbach resonances in an ideal gas.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S; Nicholson, T L; Bloom, B J; Williams, J R; Thomsen, J W; Julienne, P S; Ye, J

    2011-08-12

    Using a narrow intercombination line in alkaline earth atoms to mitigate large inelastic losses, we explore the optical Feshbach resonance effect in an ultracold gas of bosonic (88)Sr. A systematic measurement of three resonances allows precise determinations of the optical Feshbach resonance strength and scaling law, in agreement with coupled-channel theory. Resonant enhancement of the complex scattering length leads to thermalization mediated by elastic and inelastic collisions in an otherwise ideal gas. Optical Feshbach resonance could be used to control atomic interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:21902391

  2. Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1988-01-01

    In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.

  3. Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-03-01

    The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose–Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.

  4. Correlation of the ideal gas properties of five aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Laesecke, A. )

    1993-04-01

    The ideal gas thermodynamic properties of isobaric heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy have been correlated for benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene by a uniform, semiempirical function of temperature. The correlation is based on literature values calculated from statistical mechanics for temperature up to 1,500K for benzene and up to 3,000K for the other molecules. The temperature function chosen is more accurate than that used for previous correlations, and can be used in a wider temperature range.

  5. Microeconomics of the ideal gas like market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2009-10-01

    We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.

  6. Boltzmann equations for a binary one-dimensional ideal gas.

    PubMed

    Boozer, A D

    2011-09-01

    We consider a time-reversal invariant dynamical model of a binary ideal gas of N molecules in one spatial dimension. By making time-asymmetric assumptions about the behavior of the gas, we derive Boltzmann and anti-Boltzmann equations that describe the evolution of the single-molecule velocity distribution functions for an ensemble of such systems. We show that for a special class of initial states of the ensemble one can obtain an exact expression for the N-molecule velocity distribution function, and we use this expression to rigorously prove that the time-asymmetric assumptions needed to derive the Boltzmann and anti-Boltzmann equations hold in the limit of large N. Our results clarify some subtle issues regarding the origin of the time asymmetry of Boltzmann's H theorem. PMID:22060348

  7. Exact solutions of Einstein's equations with ideal gas sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, R. A.; Triginer, J.

    1999-01-01

    We derive a new class of exact solutions characterized by the Szekeres-Szafron metrics (of class I), admitting in general no isometries. The source is a fluid with viscosity but zero heat flux (adiabatic but irreversible evolution) whose equilibrium state variables satisfy the equations of state of: (a) an ultra-relativistic ideal gas; (b) a non-relativistic ideal gas; (c) a mixture of (a) and (b). Einstein's field equations reduce to a quadrature that is integrable in terms of elementary functions (cases (a) and (c)) and elliptic integrals (case (b)). Necessary and sufficient conditions are provided for the viscous dissipative stress and equilibrium variables to be consistent with the theoretical framework of extended irreversible thermodynamics and kinetic theory of the Maxwell-Boltzmann and radiative gases. Energy and regularity conditions are discussed. We prove that a smooth matching can be performed along a spherical boundary with a Friedmann-Lematre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology or with a Vaidya exterior solution. Possible applications are briefly outlined.

  8. Suppression of Density Fluctuations in a Quantum Degenerate Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sanner, Christian; Su, Edward J.; Keshet, Aviv; Gommers, Ralf; Shin, Yong-il; Huang Wujie; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2010-07-23

    We study density profiles of an ideal Fermi gas and observe Pauli suppression of density fluctuations (atom shot noise) for cold clouds deep in the quantum degenerate regime. Strong suppression is observed for probe volumes containing more than 10 000 atoms. Measuring the level of suppression provides sensitive thermometry at low temperatures. After this method of sensitive noise measurements has been validated with an ideal Fermi gas, it can now be applied to characterize phase transitions in strongly correlated many-body systems.

  9. Finite size effect on classical ideal gas revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S.; Mitra, J.; Bera, N.

    2015-09-01

    Finite size effects on classical ideal gas are revisited. The micro-canonical partition function for a collection of ideal particles confined in a box is evaluated using Euler-Maclaurins as well as Poisson's summation formula. In Poisson's summation formula there are some exponential terms which are absent in Euler-Maclaurins formula. In the thermodynamic limit the exponential correction is negligibly small but in the macro/nano dimensions and at low temperatures they may have a great significance. The consequences of finite size effects have been illustrated by redoing the calculations in one and three dimensions keeping the exponential corrections. Global and local thermodynamic properties, diffusion driven by the finite size effect, and effect on speed of sound have been discussed. Thermo-size effects, similar to thermoelectric effects, have been described in detail and may be a theoretical basis with which to design nano-scaled devices. This paper can also be very helpful for undergraduate and graduate students in physics and chemistry as an instructive exercise for a good course in statistical mechanics.

  10. An ideal gas approach to classify countries using financial indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mattos Neto, Paulo S. G.; Cavalcanti, George D. C.; Madeiro, Francisco; Ferreira, Tiago A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, countries’ development is classified based on several features that can be related to economic and social factors. However, this classification task is costly due to the difficulty of obtaining those features. We propose a method to classify countries based on financial indices using an ideal gas model. The probability density function (pdf) of the return series of the financial indices is used to characterize the fluctuation of a market. Based on the pdf, the volatility and the B coefficient, which describe the behavior of world markets, are estimated. The evaluation procedure uses 34 indices from developed and developing countries. The results show that the proposed method is an accurate, fast and low-cost computational alternative to the classifications provided by traditional organizations.

  11. Optimal performance of an irreversible quantum Brayton refrigerator with ideal Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Chih; Guo, Fangzhong

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents a model of an irreversible quantum Brayton refrigerator (IQBR) using ideal Bose gases as working fluid. The optimal relationship between the dimensionless cooling rate and the coefficient of performance, and the optimization region (or criteria) for an IQBR is obtained. The effects of heat leakage, irreversibility in two adiabatic processes and the quantum characteristic of the working fluid are discussed.

  12. Relativistic quantum thermodynamics of ideal gases in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Blas, H; Pimentel, B M; Tomazelli, J L

    1999-11-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature. PMID:11970524

  13. A cryogenic quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disciacca, Jack; Naides, Matthew; Turner, Richard; Lai, Ruby; Lev, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Improved measurements of strongly correlated and topologically non-trivial systems open the path to a better fundamental understanding of these materials as well as the possibility for predictive design of new materials. We are working to demonstrate atom chip trapping of quantum gases to enable single-shot, large area imaging of electronic transport through these materials via detection of magnetic flux at the 10-7 flux quantum level and below. Using the exquisite sensitivity of ultracold atoms in the form of either an atomic clock or Bose-Einstein condensate, the cryogenic atom chip technology we have recently demonstrated will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques while allowing sample temperatures spanning <10 K to room temperature. We will report on experimental progress toward developing this novel quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope and describe our recent proposal to image topologically protected transport through a non-ideal topological insulator in a relatively model-independent fashion.

  14. A cryogenic quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Richard; Naides, Matthew; Lai, Ruby; Disciacca, Jack; Lev, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Improved measurements of strongly correlated and topologically non-trivial systems open the path to a better fundamental understanding of these materials as well as the possibility for predictive design of new materials. We are working to demonstrate atom chip trapping of quantum gases to enable single-shot, large area imaging of electronic transport through these materials via detection of magnetic flux at the 10- 7 flux quantum level and below. Using the exquisite sensitivity of ultracold atoms in the form of either an atomic clock or Bose-Einstein condensate, the cryogenic atom chip technology we have recently demonstrated will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques while allowing sample temperatures spanning < 10 K to room temperature. We will report on experimental progress toward developing this novel quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope and describe our recent proposal to image topologically protected transport through a non-ideal topological insulator in a relatively model-independent fashion.

  15. A cryogenic quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Richard; Naides, Matthew; Lai, Ruby; Disciacca, Jack; Lev, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Improved measurements of strongly correlated and topologically non-trivial systems open the path to a better fundamental understanding of these materials as well as the possibility for predictive design of new materials. We are working to demonstrate atom chip trapping of quantum gases to enable single-shot, large area imaging of electronic transport through these materials via detection of magnetic flux at the 10-7 flux quantum level and below. Using the exquisite sensitivity of ultracold atoms in the form of either an atomic clock or Bose-Einstein condensate, the cryogenic atom chip technology we have recently demonstrated will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques while allowing sample temperatures spanning < 10 K to room temperature. We will report on experimental progress toward developing this novel quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope and describe our recent proposal to image topologically protected transport through a non-ideal topological insulator in a relatively model-independent fashion.

  16. A cryogenic quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naides, Matthew; Turner, Richard; Lai, Ruby; Disciacca, Jack; Lev, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Atom chip trapping of quantum gases will enable single-shot, large area imaging of transport through strongly correlated and topologically non-trivial materials via detection of magnetic flux at the 10-7 flux quantum level and below. By harnessing the extreme sensitivity of atomic clocks and Bose-Einstein condensates to external perturbations, the cryogenic atom chip technology we have recently demonstrated [1] will provide a magnetic flux detection capability that surpasses other techniques, while allowing sample temperatures spanning <10 K to room temperature. We report on experimental progress toward developing this novel quantum gas scanning magnetic microscope [1] and describe our recent proposal [2] to image topologically protected transport through a non-ideal topological insulator in a relatively model-independent fashion. U.S. DOE, BES, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award #DE-SC0001823.

  17. Performance of a multilevel quantum heat engine of an ideal N-particle Fermi system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2012-08-01

    We generalize the quantum heat engine (QHE) model which was first proposed by Bender et al. [J. Phys. A 33, 4427 (2000)] to the case in which an ideal Fermi gas with an arbitrary number N of particles in a box trap is used as the working substance. Besides two quantum adiabatic processes, the engine model contains two isoenergetic processes, during which the particles are coupled to energy baths at a high constant energy E(h) and a low constant energy E(c), respectively. Directly employing the finite-time thermodynamics, we find that the power output is enhanced by increasing particle number N (or decreasing minimum trap size L(A)) for given L(A) (or N), without reduction in the efficiency. By use of global optimization, the efficiency at possible maximum power output (EPMP) is found to be universal and independent of any parameter contained in the engine model. For an engine model with any particle-number N, the efficiency at maximum power output (EMP) can be determined under the condition that it should be closest to the EPMP. Moreover, we extend the heat engine to a more general multilevel engine model with an arbitrary 1D power-law potential. Comparison between our engine model and the Carnot cycle shows that, under the same conditions, the efficiency η = 1 - E(c)/E(h) of the engine cycle is bounded from above the Carnot value η(c) =1 - T(c)/T(h). PMID:23005748

  18. Ideal quantum glass transitions: Many-body localization without quenched disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Schiulaz, M.; Müller, M.

    2014-08-20

    We explore the possibility for translationally invariant quantum many-body systems to undergo a dynamical glass transition, at which ergodicity and translational invariance break down spontaneously, driven entirely by quantum effects. In contrast to analogous classical systems, where the existence of such an ideal glass transition remains a controversial issue, a genuine phase transition is predicted in the quantum regime. This ideal quantum glass transition can be regarded as a many-body localization transition due to self-generated disorder. Despite their lack of thermalization, these disorder-free quantum glasses do not possess an extensive set of local conserved operators, unlike what is conjectured for many-body localized systems with strong quenched disorder.

  19. Ideal Gas Thermodynamic Properties of Sulphur Heterocyclic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeeva, O. V.; Gurvich, L. V.

    1995-05-01

    The available structural parameters, fundamental frequencies and enthalpies of formation for thiirane, thiirene, thietane, 2H-thiete, 1,2-dithiete, tetrahydrothiophene, 2,3-dihydrothiophene, 2,5-dihydrothiophene, thiophene, 1,2-dithiolane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,2.4-trithiolane, tetrahydro-2H-thiopyran, 5,6-dihydro-2H-thiopyran, 1,3-dithiane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-dithiin, 1,3,5-trithiane, thiepane and 1,3,5,7-tetrathiocane were critically evaluated and recommended values were selected. Molecular constants and enthalpies of formation for some of the molecules were estimated, as experimental values for these compounds are not available. Using the rigid-rotor harmonic-oscillator approximation, this information was used to calculate the chemical thermodynamic functions, Cp?, S, -(G-H0?)/T, H-H0?, and the properties of formation, ?f H, ?f G, log Kf?, to 1500 K in the ideal gas state at a pressure of 1 bar. The contributions to the thermodynamic properties of compounds having inversion motion (thietane, 2,3- and 2,5-dihydrothiophene) or pseudo-rotation (tetrahydrothiophene) have been computed by employing a partition function formed by the summation of the inversional or pseudo-rotational energy levels. These energy levels have been calculated by solving the wave equation using appropriate potential functions. The calculated values of the thermodynamic functions are compared with those reported in other works. Comparison with experimental data, where such are available, is also presented. The thermodynamic properties for twelve of the compounds are reported for the first time.

  20. High School Forum. The Solution: "Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, J. Dudley, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents responses to an earlier report concerning a procedure for the derivation of the Ideal Gas Law from Charles', Boyle's, and other gas laws. Logic errors and solutions that work are discussed. (CS)

  1. A Quantum Gas Microscope for Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Okan, Melih; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices are ideal systems to study model quantum many-body physics in a clean and well-controlled environment. Experiments at Harvard and MPQ Munich using bosonic 87Rb atoms in optical lattices have demonstrated the ability to detect and address atoms at the single-site level, revealing microscopic density distributions and correlations difficult to extract from bulk measurements. The goal of our experiment is to achieve such single-site control for a quantum gas of fermions. This allows for exploring physics that arise in strongly-correlated fermionic systems. In this talk, we present results of site-resolved fluorescent imaging of fermionic 40K with high fidelity.

  2. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties for the phenyl, phenoxy, and o-biphenyl radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcat, A.; Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of the phenyl and o-biphenyl radicals, their deuterated analogs and the phenoxy radical were calculated to 5000 K using estimated vibrational frequencies and structures. The ideal gas thermodynamic properties of benzene, biphenyl, their deuterated analogs and phenyl were also calculated.

  3. Anomalous heat conduction in a one-dimensional ideal gas.

    PubMed

    Casati, Giulio; Prosen, Tomaz

    2003-01-01

    We provide firm convincing evidence that the energy transport in a one-dimensional gas of elastically colliding free particles of unequal masses is anomalous, i.e., the Fourier law does not hold. Our conclusions are confirmed by a theoretical and numerical analysis based on a Green-Kubo-type approach specialized to momentum-conserving lattices. PMID:12636549

  4. Redundant imprinting of information in non-ideal environments: Quantum Darwinism via a noisy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, Haitao; Zurek, Wojciech

    2011-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. While causing a system to decohere, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information about the system, yet can still acquire redundant information about the system [1,2]. Our results show that Quantum Darwinism is robust with respect to non-ideal initial states of the environment. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program.

  5. Ultracold strongly coupled gas: A near-ideal liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, Boris A.; Shuryak, Edward V.; Zahed, Ismail

    2005-10-15

    Feshbach resonances of trapped ultracold alkali-metal atoms allow to vary the atomic scattering length a. At very large values of a the system enters an universal strongly coupled regime in which its properties--the ground-state energy, pressure, etc.--become independent of a. We discuss the transport properties of such systems. In particular, the universality arguments imply that the shear viscosity of ultracold Fermi atoms at the Feschbach resonance is proportional to the particle number density n and the Plank constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}): {eta}=({Dirac_h}/2{pi})n{alpha}{sub {eta}}, where {alpha}{sub {eta}} is a universal constant. Using Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Einstein's relation between diffusion and viscosity we argue that the viscosity has the lower bound given by {alpha}{sub {eta}}{<=}(6{pi}){sup -1}. We relate the damping of low-frequency density oscillations of ultracold optically trapped {sup 6}Li atoms to viscosity and find that the value of the coefficient {alpha}{sub {eta}} is about 0.3. We also show that such a small viscosity cannot be explained by kinetic theory based on binary scattering. We conclude that the system of ultracold atoms near the Feshbach resonance is a near-ideal liquid.

  6. A Systematic Experimental Test of the Ideal Gas Equation for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Luis H.; Romero, Carmen M.

    1995-10-01

    A set of experiments that examines each one of the terms of the ideal gas equation is described. Boyle's Law, Charles-Gay Lussac's Law, Amonton's Law, the number of moles or Molecular Weight, and the Gas Constant are studied. The experiments use very simple, easy to obtain equipment and common gases, mainly air. The results gathered by General Chemistry College students are satisfactory.

  7. Real-gas effects 1: Simulation of ideal gas flow by cryogenic nitrogen and other selected gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of nitrogen gas do not thermodynamically approximate an ideal, diatomic gas at cryogenic temperatures. Choice of a suitable equation of state to model its behavior is discussed and the equation of Beattie and Bridgeman is selected as best meeting the needs for cryogenic wind tunnel use. The real gas behavior of nitrogen gas is compared to an ideal, diatomic gas for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion; normal shocks; boundary layers; and shock wave boundary layer interactions. The only differences in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas that may limit the minimum operating temperatures of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels seem to occur at total pressures approaching 9atmospheres and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature, where the differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Several alternative cryogenic test gases - air, helium, and hydrogen - are also analyzed. Differences in air from an ideal, diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those of nitrogen. Differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. Helium and hydrogen do not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal, diatomic gas.

  8. A Unified Theory of Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, Li-Shi

    1998-01-01

    A non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an a priori fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here.

  9. A Quantum Gas Microscope for Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Matthew; Cheuk, Lawrence; Okan, Melih; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade ultracold atoms in optical lattices have been established as an ideal model system to study quantum many body physics in a clean and well-controlled environment. Recently, experiments at Harvard and MPQ Munich using bosonic 87Rb atoms have made these systems even more powerful by demonstrating the ability to observe and address atoms in optical lattices with single-site resolution. The goal of our experiment is to achieve such single-site resolution for a quantum gas of fermionic atoms. Such local probing would reveal microscopic density or spin correlations which are difficult to extract from bulk measurements. This technique could for example be used to directly observe antiferromagnetic ordering in a fermionic Mott insulator. As the starting point for our experiments we cool fermionic potassium atoms with bosonic sodium as a sympathetic coolant. The atoms are then loaded into an optical lattice located seven microns below a solid immersion microscope for high-resolution imaging. In this poster we describe how we perform single-site resolved fluorescence imaging of 40K atoms in an optical lattice with high detection fidelity.

  10. Unitary equivalence of temperature dynamics for ideal and locally perturbed Fermi-gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botvich, D. D.; Malyshev, V. A.

    1983-09-01

    We consider the local perturbation 220_2005_Article_BF01208778_TeX2GIFE1.gif V = \\varepsilon sumlimits_{x,y in mathbb{Z}^v } {V(x,y)? _? (x)? _? (y)a * (x)a * (y)a(y)a(x)} of the ideal Fermi-gas on the lattice ? v , where ? is a finite subset of ? v and ?? is its indicator. The invertibility of Mller morphisms for small ? is proven. It follows that in the cyclic GNS representation with respect to KMS states the dynamics of ideal and locally perturbed Fermi-gas are unitary equivalent.

  11. Two Approaches to Fractional Statistics in the Quantum Hall Effect: Idealizations and the Curious Case of the Anyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shech, Elay

    2015-09-01

    This paper looks at the nature of idealizations and representational structures appealed to in the context of the fractional quantum Hall effect, specifically, with respect to the emergence of anyons and fractional statistics. Drawing on an analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect, it is suggested that the standard approach to the effects—(what we may call) the topological approach to fractional statistics—relies essentially on problematic idealizations that need to be revised in order for the theory to be explanatory. An alternative geometric approach is outlined and endorsed. Roles for idealizations in science, as well as consequences for the debate revolving around so-called essential idealizations, are discussed.

  12. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy…

  13. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.

    PubMed

    Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-02-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified. PMID:18352067

  14. Kinetic Models for Adiabatic Reversible Expansion of a Monatomic Ideal Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, On-Kok

    1983-01-01

    A fixed amount of an ideal gas is confined in an adiabatic cylinder and piston device. The relation between temperature and volume in initial/final phases can be derived from the first law of thermodynamics. However, the relation can also be derived based on kinetic models. Several of these models are discussed. (JN)

  15. Cooking under Pressure: Applying the Ideal Gas Law in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ling; Anderson, Jennifer Y.; Wang, Diane R.

    2010-01-01

    This case study uses a daily cooking scenario to demonstrate how the boiling point of water is directly related to the external pressures in order to reinforce the concepts of boiling and boiling point, apply ideal gas law, and relate chemical reaction rates with temperatures. It also extends its teaching to autoclaves used to destroy

  16. 40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.645 - Amount of water in an ideal gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of water in an ideal gas. 1065.645 Section 1065.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.645 Amount of...

  18. How Incorrect Is the Classical Partition Function for the Ideal Gas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroemer, Herbert

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the classical partition function for the ideal gas and how it differs from the exact value for bosons or fermions in the classical regime. The differences in the two values are negligible hence the classical treatment leads in the end to correct answers for all observables. (Author/DS)

  19. Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of a Three-Dimensional Ideal Anyon Gas with Fractional Exclusion Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Fang; Wen, Wen; Chen, Ji-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    The thermal and electrical transport properties of an ideal anyon gas within fractional exclusion statistics are studied. By solving the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation-time approximation, the analytical expressions for the thermal and electrical conductivities of a three-dimensional ideal anyon gas are given. The low-temperature expressions for the two conductivities are obtained by using the Sommerfeld expansion. It is found that the Wiedemann—Franz law should be modified by the higher-order temperature terms, which depend on the statistical parameter g for a charged anyon gas. Neglecting the higher-order terms of temperature, the Wiedemann—Franz law is respected, which gives the Lorenz number. The Lorenz number is a function of the statistical parameter g.

  20. Using Rubber-Elastic Material-Ideal Gas Analogies To Teach Introductory Thermodynamics. Part I: Equations of State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Describes equations of state as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of an ideal gas and explains the molar basis of REM. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (Contains 22 references.)…

  1. Using Rubber-Elastic Material-Ideal Gas Analogies To Teach Introductory Thermodynamics. Part II: The Laws of Thermodynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Describes the laws of thermodynamics as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of ideal gas. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (YDS)

  2. Using Rubber-Elastic Material-Ideal Gas Analogies To Teach Introductory Thermodynamics. Part I: Equations of State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2002-01-01

    Describes equations of state as a supplement to an introductory thermodynamics undergraduate course. Uses rubber-elastic materials (REM) which have strong analogies to the concept of an ideal gas and explains the molar basis of REM. Provides examples of the analogies between ideal gas and REM and mathematical analogies. (Contains 22 references.)

  3. Critical behavior of the ideal-gas Bose-Einstein condensation in the Apollonian network.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, I N; dos Santos, T B; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L; Serva, M

    2013-08-01

    We show that the ideal Boson gas displays a finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation transition in the complex Apollonian network exhibiting scale-free, small-world, and hierarchical properties. The single-particle tight-binding Hamiltonian with properly rescaled hopping amplitudes has a fractal-like energy spectrum. The energy spectrum is analytically demonstrated to be generated by a nonlinear mapping transformation. A finite-size scaling analysis over several orders of magnitudes of network sizes is shown to provide precise estimates for the exponents characterizing the condensed fraction, correlation size, and specific heat. The critical exponents, as well as the power-law behavior of the density of states at the bottom of the band, are similar to those of the ideal Boson gas in lattices with spectral dimension d(s)=2ln(3)/ln(9/5)~/=3.74. PMID:24032807

  4. Advantages and challenges in coupling an ideal gas to atomistic models in adaptive resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, K.; Fogarty, A. C.; Kremer, K.; Potestio, R.

    2015-09-01

    In adaptive resolution simulations, molecular fluids are modeled employing different levels of resolution in different subregions of the system. When traveling from one region to the other, particles change their resolution on the fly. One of the main advantages of such approaches is the computational efficiency gained in the coarse-grained region. In this respect the best coarse-grained system to employ in the low resolution region would be the ideal gas, making intermolecular force calculations in the coarse-grained subdomain redundant. In this case, however, a smooth coupling is challenging due to the high energetic imbalance between typical liquids and a system of non-interacting particles. In the present work, we investigate this approach, using as a test case the most biologically relevant fluid, water. We demonstrate that a successful coupling of water to the ideal gas can be achieved with current adaptive resolution methods, and discuss the issues that remain to be addressed.

  5. Wall Free Energy Based Polynomial Boundary Conditions for Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Lee, Taehun

    In the non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE), the intermolecular forces between solid and fluid can be represented by the inclusion of the wall free energy in the expression of the total free energy. We derived and investigated three types of polynomial (linear, quadratic, and cubic) wall free energy based boundary conditions for the non-ideal gas LBE method. Static cases with a liquid drop sitting on solid surfaces are examined. All the proposed boundary conditions are able to predict the equilibrium states very well in the range of moderate contact angles by incorporating the potential form of the intermolecular forces and the bounce-back rule that guarantees mass conservation. Simulations with different boundary conditions are carried out and the results are compared concerning the accuracy as well as the applicability of different polynomial boundary conditions.

  6. Ideal-viscoplastic extrusion model with application to deforming pistons in light-gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, C. P. T.; Gottlieb, J. J.; Bourget, C.

    1987-11-01

    An approximate, one-dimensional, ideal viscoplastic model of the axisymmetric extrusion process through rigid circular-cross section channels is presented. The ideal viscoplastic model incorporates the fundamental effects associated with the physical phenomenon of inertia, plastic deformation, strain-rate behavior, and surface friction. By using the Bingham body constitutive relations, employing quasi-steady kinematically-admissible approximations to actual flow fields, and making various relevant simple first-order approximations for small area gradients, this semi-analytic, one-dimensional, extrusion model can be used to quite quickly solve the flows of extruding, incompressible, solid materials without resorting to often complex two and three dimensional numerical solution procedures. The ideal viscoplastic model is applied to a number of different extrusion problems and the model's predictions of the various components of the velocity and stress fields, as well as the combined forces acting on the extruding material, compare very favorably with other experimental and finite element method results. Although the ideal viscoplastic extrusion model is shown to have certain limitations, this analysis appears to be a powerful and economical tool for the solution of many different problems related to extrusion processes such as wire drawing, rod extrusion, and piston deformation in light-gas guns.

  7. Quantum learning for a quantum lattice gas computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James

    2015-03-01

    Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. In low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.

  8. Quantum learning in a quantum lattice gas computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James

    2015-04-01

    Quantum lattice gas is the logical generalization of quantum cellular automata. At low energy the dynamics are well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the mean field limit, which is an effective nonlinear interaction model of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In previous work, we have shown in simulation that both spatial and temporal models of quantum learning computers can be used to ``design'' non-trivial quantum algorithms. The advantages of quantum learning over the usual practice of using quantum gate building blocks are, first, the rapidity with which the problem can be solved, without having to decompose the problem; second, the fact that our technique can be used readily even when the problem, or the operator, is not well understood; and, third, that because the interactions are a natural part of the physical system, connectivity is automatic. The advantage to quantum learning obviously grows with the size and the complexity of the problem. We develop and present our learning algorithm as applied to the mean field lattice gas equation, and present a few preliminary results.

  9. Dynamics of the electric current in an ideal electron gas: A sound mode inside the quasiparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozdanov, Sašo; Polonyi, Janos

    2015-09-01

    We study the equation of motion for the Noether current in an electron gas within the framework of the Schwinger-Keldysh closed-time-path formalism. The equation is shown to be highly nonlinear and irreversible even for a noninteracting, ideal gas of electrons at nonzero density. We truncate the linearized equation of motion, written as the Laurent series in Fourier space, so that the resulting expressions are local in time, both at zero and at small finite temperatures. Furthermore, we show that the one-loop Coulomb interactions only alter the physical picture quantitatively, while preserving the characteristics of the dynamics that the electric current exhibits in the absence of interactions. As a result of the composite nature of the Noether current, composite sound waves are found to be the dominant IR collective excitations at length scales between the inverse Fermi momentum and the mean free path that would exist in an interacting electron gas. We also discuss the difference and the transition between the hydrodynamical regime of an ideal gas, defined in this work, and the hydrodynamical regime in phenomenological hydrodynamics, which is normally used for the description of interacting gases.

  10. A complete theory for the magnetism of an ideal gas of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan; Sen, Swati

    2013-05-15

    We have explored Pauli paramagnetism, Landau diamagnetism, and de Haas-van Alphen effect in a single framework, and unified these three effects for all temperatures as well as for all strengths of magnetic field. Our result goes beyond Pauli-Landau result on the magnetism of the 3-D ideal gas of electrons, and is able to describe crossover of the de Haas-van Alphen oscillation to the saturation of magnetization. We also have obtained a novel asymptotic series expansion for the low temperature properties of the system.

  11. Probability theory for 3-layer remote sensing in ideal gas law environment.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E

    2013-08-26

    We extend the probability model for 3-layer radiative transfer [Opt. Express 20, 10004 (2012)] to ideal gas conditions where a correlation exists between transmission and temperature of each of the 3 layers. The effect on the probability density function for the at-sensor radiances is surprisingly small, and thus the added complexity of addressing the correlation can be avoided. The small overall effect is due to (a) small perturbations by the correlation on variance population parameters and (b) cancellation of perturbation terms that appear with opposite signs in the model moment expressions. PMID:24105525

  12. Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kun

    1998-01-01

    A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.

  13. Collision of BEC dark matter structures and comparison with the collision of ideal gas structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, F. S.; Gonzalez, J. A.

    2010-12-07

    In this work we present an important feature of the Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter model, that is, the head-on collision of BEC dark matter virialized structures. This model of dark matter is assumed to be ruled by the Schroedinger-Poisson system of equations, which is interpreted as the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a gravitational potential sourced by the density of probability. It has been shown recently that during the collision of two structures a pattern formation in the density of probability appears. We explore the pattern formation for various initial dynamical conditions during the collision. In order to know whether or not the pattern formation is a particular property of the BEC dark matter, we compare with the collision of two structures of virialized ideal gas under similar dynamical initial conditions, which is a model more consistent with usual models of dark matter. In order to do so, we also solve Euler's equations using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics approach. We found that the collision of the ideal gas structures does not show interference patterns, which in turn implies that the pattern formation is a property of the BEC dark matter.

  14. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, Asif; Meyer, David A.; Love, Peter J.

    2014-12-01

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  15. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu

    2014-12-15

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  16. Universal Behavior of the BEC Critical Temperature for a Multi-slab Ideal Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    For an ideal Bose gas within a multi-slab periodic structure, we discuss the effect of the spatial distribution of the gas on its Bose-Einstein condensation critical temperature T_c , as well as on the origin of its dimensional crossover observed in the specific heat. The multi-slabs structure is generated by applying a Kronig-Penney potential to the gas in the perpendicular direction to the slabs of width b and separated by a distance a, and allowing the particles to move freely in the other two directions. We found that T_c decreases continuously as the potential barrier height increases, becoming inversely proportional to the square root of the barrier height when it is large enough. This behavior is universal as it is independent of the width and spacing of the barriers. The specific heat at constant volume shows a crossover from 3D to 2D when the height of the potential or the barrier width increases, in addition to the well-known peak related to the Bose-Einstein condensation. These features are due to the trapping of the bosons by the potential barriers and can be characterized by the energy difference between the energy bands below the potential height.

  17. Isobars of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Imtak; Kim, Sang-Woo; Park, Jeong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulas for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures that reveal an N-1/3 or N-1/4 power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation, and further show that the isobar zigzags on the temperature-volume plane if N?14393. In particular, for the Avogadros number of particles, the volume expands discretely about 105 times. Our results quantitatively agree with a previous study on the canonical ensemble within 0.1% error.

  18. Isobars of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2011-08-15

    We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulas for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures that reveal an N{sup -1/3} or N{sup -1/4} power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation, and further show that the isobar zigzags on the temperature-volume plane if N{>=}14 393. In particular, for the Avogadro's number of particles, the volume expands discretely about 10{sup 5} times. Our results quantitatively agree with a previous study on the canonical ensemble within 0.1% error.

  19. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.

    PubMed

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions. PMID:20866940

  20. Generic features of the wealth distribution in ideal-gas-like markets.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, P K

    2006-07-01

    We provide an exact solution to the ideal-gas-like models studied in econophysics to understand the microscopic origin of Pareto law. In these classes of models the key ingredient necessary for having a self-organized scale-free steady-state distribution is the trading or collision rule where agents or particles save a definite fraction of their wealth or energy and invest the rest for trading. Using a Gibbs ensemble approach we could obtain the exact distribution of wealth in this model. Moreover we show that in this model (a) good savers are always rich and (b) every agent poor or rich invests the same amount for trading. Nonlinear trading rules could alter the generic scenario observed here. PMID:16907070

  1. Fluctuating ideal-gas lattice Boltzmann method with fluctuation dissipation theorem for nonvanishing velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaehler, G.; Wagner, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    Current implementations of fluctuating ideal-gas descriptions with the lattice Boltzmann methods are based on a fluctuation dissipation theorem, which, while greatly simplifying the implementation, strictly holds only for zero mean velocity and small fluctuations. We show how to derive the fluctuation dissipation theorem for all k, which was done only for k=0 in previous derivations. The consistent derivation requires, in principle, locally velocity-dependent multirelaxation time transforms. Such an implementation is computationally prohibitively expensive but, with a small computational trick, it is feasible to reproduce the correct FDT without overhead in computation time. It is then shown that the previous standard implementations perform poorly for non vanishing mean velocity as indicated by violations of Galilean invariance of measured structure factors. Results obtained with the method introduced here show a significant reduction of the Galilean invariance violations.

  2. On ideals and idealization.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Andrew P

    2009-04-01

    This chapter repositions ideals away from their role as defensive structures restraining aggressive and lustful drives (as traditionally viewed) toward their place in shaping creativity and love. We select and mold our particular ideals in providing meaning and in this manner help to create those selfobjects needed to resolve or soothe our needs. This creative process may include "reshaping" of the available object to represent the "idealized other." From this perspective, Kohut's view of idealization and the idealized parental imago will be considered, including my own notion of a one-and-a-half person psychology. Our ideals inevitably conflict and clash, leading to internal self-conflicts that generate what I call the dialectic of narcissism. Narcissism is here considered broadly, reflecting all attributes of self-experience. Shame plays an important role in this dialectic, relating to failure with regard to ideals and to falling short of cherished goals. Ultimately, it is the shaping of, and approximation to, flexible and meaningful ideals that comprise that lofty, ineffable, human ideal--wisdom. Clinical vignettes will be offered to illustrate these themes. PMID:19379233

  3. Physical model for the generation of ideal resources in multipartite quantum networking

    SciTech Connect

    Ciccarello, F.; Zarcone, M.; Paternostro, M.; Bose, S.; Browne, D. E.; Palma, G. M.

    2010-09-15

    We propose a physical model for generating multipartite entangled states of spin-s particles that have important applications in distributed quantum information processing. Our protocol is based on a process where mobile spins induce the interaction among remote scattering centers. As such, a major advantage lies in the management of stationary and well-separated spins. Among the generable states, there is a class of N-qubit singlets allowing for optimal quantum telecloning in a scalable and controllable way. We also show how to prepare Aharonov, W, and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  4. Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Quantum noise of non-ideal Sagnac speed meter interferometer with asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilishin, S. L.; Grf, C.; Leavey, S. S.; Hennig, J.; Houston, E. A.; Pascucci, D.; Steinlechner, S.; Wright, J.; Hild, S.

    2015-04-01

    The speed meter concept has been identified as a technique that can potentially provide laser-interferometric measurements at a sensitivity level which surpasses the standard quantum limit (SQL) over a broad frequency range. As with other sub-SQL measurement techniques, losses play a central role in speed meter interferometers and they ultimately determine the quantum noise limited sensitivity that can be achieved. So far in the literature, the quantum noise limited sensitivity has only been derived for lossless or lossy cases using certain approximations (for instance that the arm cavity round trip loss is small compared to the arm cavity mirror transmission). In this article we present a generalized, analytical treatment of losses in speed meters that allows accurate calculation of the quantum noise limited sensitivity of Sagnac speed meters with arm cavities. In addition, our analysis allows us to take into account potential imperfections in the interferometer such as an asymmetric beam splitter or differences of the reflectivities of the two arm cavity input mirrors. Finally, we use the examples of the proof-of-concept Sagnac speed meter currently under construction in Glasgow and a potential implementation of a Sagnac speed meter in the Einstein Telescope to illustrate how our findings affect Sagnac speed meters with metre- and kilometre-long baselines.

  6. University Students Explaining Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas--A New Phenomenon in Introductory Thermal Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were…

  7. University Students Explaining Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas--A New Phenomenon in Introductory Thermal Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were

  8. Preparation of a pure molecular quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Herbig, Jens; Kraemer, Tobias; Mark, Michael; Weber, Tino; Chin, Cheng; Ngerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf

    2003-09-12

    An ultracold molecular quantum gas is created by application of a magnetic field sweep across a Feshbach resonance to a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. The ability to separate the molecules from the atoms permits direct imaging of the pure molecular sample. Magnetic levitation enables study of the dynamics of the ensemble on extended time scales. We measured ultralow expansion energies in the range of a few nanokelvin for a sample of 3000 molecules. Our observations are consistent with the presence of a macroscopic molecular matter wave. PMID:12934014

  9. Towards a Quantum Gas Microscope for Ultracold Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Matthew; Cheuk, Lawrence; Okan, Melih; Ramasesh, Vinay; Bakr, Waseem; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In the past decade ultracold atoms in optical lattices have been established as an ideal model system to study quantum many body physics in a clean and well-controlled environment. Recently, experiments at Harvard and MPQ Munich using bosonic 87Rb atoms have made these systems even more powerful by demonstrating the ability to observe and address atoms in optical lattices with single-site resolution. The goal of our experiment is to achieve such single-site resolution for a quantum gas of fermionic atoms. Such local probing would reveal microscopic density or spin correlations which are difficult to extract from bulk measurements. This technique could for example be used to directly observe antiferromagnetic ordering in a fermionic Mott insulator. As the starting point for our experiments we cool fermionic potassium atoms with bosonic sodium as a sympathetic coolant. The atoms are then magnetically transported to an optical trap located ten microns below a solid immersion microscope for high-resolution imaging. In this poster we give a description of our experimental setup and report on our progress towards performing single-site resolved fluorescence imaging of 40K atoms trapped in a deep optical lattice. Currently at University of California, Berkeley.

  10. Approaching the ideal quantum key distribution with two-intensity decoy states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chun-Hui; Luo, Sun-Long; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Qin

    2015-08-01

    We present a scheme for the practical decoy-state quantum key distribution with heralded single-photon source. In this scheme, only two-intensity decoy states are employed. However, its performance can approach the asymptotic case of using infinite decoy states. We compare it with the standard three-intensity decoy-state method, and through numerical simulations, we demonstrate its significant improvement over the three-intensity method in both the final key rate and the secure transmission distance. Furthermore, when taking statistical fluctuations into account, a very high key generation rate can still be obtained even at a long transmission distance.

  11. Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.

    2015-11-30

    We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axismore » anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.« less

  12. Quantum Phase Transition and Protected Ideal Transport in a Kondo Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axis anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localization.

  13. Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.

    2015-11-30

    We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axis anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.

  14. A new method for the measurement of meteorite bulk volume via ideal gas pycnometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shijie; Wang, Shijie; Li, Xiongyao; Li, Yang; Liu, Shen; Coulson, Ian M.

    2012-10-01

    To date, of the many techniques used to measure the bulk volume of meteorites, only three methods (Archimedean bead method, 3-D laser imaging and X-ray microtomography) can be considered as nondestructive or noncontaminating. The bead method can show large, random errors for sample sizes of smaller than 5 cm3. In contrast, 3-D laser imaging is a high-accuracy method even when measuring the bulk volumes of small meteorites. This method is both costly and time consuming, however, and meteorites of a certain shape may lead to some uncertainties in the analysis. The method of X-ray microtomography suffers from the same problems as 3-D laser imaging. This study outlines a new method of high-accuracy, nondestructive and noncontaminating measurement of the bulk volume of meteorite samples. In order to measure the bulk volume of a meteorite, one must measure the total volume of the balloon vacuum packaged meteorite and the volume of balloon that had been used to enclose the meteorite using ideal gas pycnometry. The difference between the two determined volumes is the bulk volume of the meteorite. Through the measurement of zero porosity metal spheres and tempered glass fragments, our results indicate that for a sample which has a volume of between 0.5 and 2 cm3, the relative error of the measurement is less than ±0.6%. Furthermore, this error will be even smaller (less than ±0.1%) if the determined sample size is larger than 2 cm3. The precision of this method shows some volume dependence. For samples smaller than 1 cm3, the standard deviations are less than ±0.328%, and these values will fall to less than ±0.052% for samples larger than 2 cm3. The porosities of nine fragments of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong meteorites have been measured using our vacuum packaging-pycnometry method, with determined average porosities of Jilin, GaoGuenie, Zaoyang and Zhaodong of 9.0307%, 2.9277%, 17.5437% and 5.9748%, respectively. These values agree well with the porosities of fragments of which have been measured using the Archimedean bead method and 3-D laser imaging. This method also may be applied to the study of rare samples in other fields (e.g., archeology and geology).

  15. The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves

  16. The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…

  17. Quantum-gas microscope for fermionic atoms.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V; Bakr, Waseem S; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W

    2015-05-15

    We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic ^{40}K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. PMID:26024169

  18. Quantum-Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Bakr, Waseem S.; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2015-05-01

    We realize a quantum-gas microscope for fermionic 40K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single-atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single-lattice-site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site-resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time-resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement.

  19. On the Equipartition of Kinetic Energy in an Ideal Gas Mixture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peliti, L.

    2007-01-01

    A refinement of an argument due to Maxwell for the equipartition of translational kinetic energy in a mixture of ideal gases with different masses is proposed. The argument is elementary, yet it may work as an illustration of the role of symmetry and independence postulates in kinetic theory. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. The Role of Multiple Representations in the Understanding of Ideal Gas Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Sean P.; Jones, Loretta L.; Rahm, Jrene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the representational competence of students as they solved problems dealing with the temperature-pressure relationship for ideal gases. Seven students enrolled in a first-semester general chemistry course and two advanced undergraduate science majors participated in the study. The written work and transcripts from videotaped

  1. Quantum gas microscopy of ytterbium: cool me twice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-03-01

    The site-resolved detection of ultracold atoms in optical lattice potentials is a powerful technique to study lattice models of correlated quantum matter. In their recent paper, Yamamoto et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 023016) demonstrate a quantum gas microscope for ultracold ytterbium atoms. By simultaneously cooling these atoms on two optical transitions, they show that fluorescent images of the lattice gas can be obtained while keeping the atoms pinned to their lattice sites even for a lattice spacing as small as 266 nm. This promises to be a powerful enabling tool for studies of metrology and quantum magnetism with quantum degenerate gases of ytterbium.

  2. Generalized quantum efficiency analysis for non-ideal solar cells: Case of Cu2ZnSnSe4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hages, Charles J.; Carter, Nathaniel J.; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Detailed quantum efficiency (QE) analysis of a nanoparticle-based Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cell has been conducted to understand photogenerated carrier collection in the device. Specifically, voltage-dependent analysis has been considered to characterize both diffusion limitations and recombination limitations to carrier collection. Application of a generalized QE model and corresponding experimental and analytical procedures are presented to account for non-ideal device behavior, with specific consideration of photogenerated charge trapping, finite absorber thickness, back-surface recombination, and recombination of photogenerated carriers via interface, space-charge-region limited, and/or band tail limited recombination mechanisms. Analysis of diffusion limited collection results in extraction of the minority carrier diffusion length, mobility, back surface recombination velocity, and absorption coefficient. Additionally, forward bias QE measurements afford analysis of the dominant recombination mechanism for photogenerated carriers. For the analyzed CZTSe device, diffusion limitations are not expected to play a significant role in carrier collection in forward bias. However, voltage-dependent carrier collection, previously identified to contribute to open-circuit voltage limitations, is attributed to high recombination rates via band tail states/potential fluctuations in forward bias. A consideration of the assumptions commonly applied to diffusion length, band gap, and band tail extraction is also discussed.

  3. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Sazzad, Hossain; Md. Muktadir, Rahman

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  4. Interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs constructed from real- and ideal-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method of constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, th sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.

  5. Interferograms, Schlieren, and Shadowgraphs Constructed from Real- and Ideal-Gas, Two- and Three-Dimensional Computed Flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Leslie A.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of interferograms, schlieren, and shadowgraphs from computed flowfield solutions permits one-to-one comparisons of computed and experimental results. A method for constructing these images from both ideal- and real-gas, two- and three-dimensional computed flowfields is described. The computational grids can be structured or unstructured, and multiple grids are an option. Constructed images are shown for several types of computed flows including nozzle, wake, and reacting flows; comparisons to experimental images are also shown. In addition, the sensitivity of these images to errors in the flowfield solution is demonstrated, and the constructed images can be used to identify problem areas in the computations.

  6. Condensation of ideal Bose gas confined in a box within a canonical ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Glaum, Konstantin; Kleinert, Hagen; Pelster, Axel

    2007-12-15

    We set up recursion relations for the partition function and the ground-state occupancy for a fixed number of noninteracting bosons confined in a square box potential and determine the temperature dependence of the specific heat and the particle number in the ground state. A proper semiclassical treatment is set up which yields the correct small-T behavior in contrast to an earlier theory in Feynman's textbook on statistical mechanics, in which the special role of the ground state was ignored. The results are compared with an exact quantum-mechanical treatment. Furthermore, we derive the finite-size effect of the system.

  7. Towards enhancing two-dimensional electron gas quantum confinement effects in perovskite oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kesong; Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar

    2015-03-01

    The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 perovskite-oxide heterostructure has attracted much attention because of its potential applications in nanoelectronic devices. A 2DEG has two landmark characters: strong charge confinement in the third dimension and high electron conductivity in two dimensions. In an ideal 2DEG system, electrons can move freely along the interface but are tightly confined in the c-axis that is perpendicular to the interface. Nevertheless, the actual electron gas in the SrTiO3-based perovskite heterostructures is extended a few nanometers along the c-axis into the SrTiO3 substrate, and thus they are also called as quasi-2DEG. Actually, it is a problem of both fundamental and practical interest to achieve an ideal 2DEG via enhancing the lateral quantum confinement effects. By using first-principles electronic structure calculations, herein we proposed two possible approaches to enhance the quantum charge confinement effects by confining the electron gas within one single atomic layer in the perovskite oxide heterostructure. This work is supported by start-up funds at the University of California, San Diego.

  8. Norm preserving stochastic field equation for an ideal Bose gas in a trap: numerical implementation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Sigmund; Strunz, Walter T.

    2010-12-01

    Stochastic field equations represent a powerful tool to describe the thermal state of a trapped Bose gas. Often, such approaches are confronted with the old problem of an ultraviolet catastrophe, which demands a cutoff at high energies. In Heller and Strunz (2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 081001) we introduce a quantum stochastic field equation, avoiding the cutoff problem through a fully quantum approach based on the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function. For a close link to actual experimental setups, the theory is formulated for a fixed particle number and thus based on the canonical ensemble. In this work the derivation and the non-trivial numerical implementation of the equation is explained in detail. We present applications for finite Bose gases trapped in a variety of potentials and show results for ground state occupation numbers and their equilibrium fluctuations. Moreover, we investigate spatial coherence properties by studying correlation functions of various orders.

  9. Simulation of ideal-gas flow by nitrogen and other selected gases at cryogenic temperatures. [transonic flow in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.

  10. Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-31

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient ?JT>10(9)??K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases. PMID:24580421

  11. Quantum Joule-Thomson Effect in a Saturated Homogeneous Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L.; Smith, Robert P.; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient ?JT>109 K /bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases.

  12. Ideal gas in a strong gravitational field: Area dependence of entropy

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2011-03-15

    We study the thermodynamic parameters like entropy, energy etc. of a box of gas made up of indistinguishable particles when the box is kept in various static background spacetimes having a horizon. We compute the thermodynamic variables using both statistical mechanics as well as by solving the hydrodynamical equations for the system. When the box is far away from the horizon, the entropy of the gas depends on the volume of the box except for small corrections due to background geometry. As the box is moved closer to the horizon with one (leading) edge of the box at about Planck length (L{sub p}) away from the horizon, the entropy shows an area dependence rather than a volume dependence. More precisely, it depends on a small volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 of the box, up to an order O(L{sub p}/K){sup 2} where A{sub perpendicular} is the transverse area of the box and K is the (proper) longitudinal size of the box related to the distance between leading and trailing edge in the vertical direction (i.e. in the direction of the gravitational field). Thus the contribution to the entropy comes from only a fraction O(L{sub p}/K) of the matter degrees of freedom and the rest are suppressed when the box approaches the horizon. Near the horizon all the thermodynamical quantities behave as though the box of gas has a volume A{sub perpendicular}L{sub p}/2 and is kept in a Minkowski spacetime. These effects are: (i) purely kinematic in their origin and are independent of the spacetime curvature (in the sense that the Rindler approximation of the metric near the horizon can reproduce the results) and (ii) observer dependent. When the equilibrium temperature of the gas is taken to be equal to the horizon temperature, we get the familiar A{sub perpendicular}/L{sub p}{sup 2} dependence in the expression for entropy. All these results hold in a D+1 dimensional spherically symmetric spacetime. The analysis based on methods of statistical mechanics and the one based on thermodynamics applied to the gas treated as a fluid in static geometry, lead to the same results showing the consistency. The implications are discussed.

  13. Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Alekseechkin, Nikolay V

    2015-08-01

    The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V̇≡dV/dt, ẋ, and Ṫ. The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for Ṫ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal. PMID:26254656

  14. Thermodynamics and kinetics of binary nucleation in ideal-gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.

    2015-08-01

    The nonisothermal single-component theory of droplet nucleation [N. V. Alekseechkin, Physica A 412, 186 (2014)] is extended to binary case; the droplet volume V, composition x, and temperature T are the variables of the theory. An approach based on macroscopic kinetics (in contrast to the standard microscopic model of nucleation operating with the probabilities of monomer attachment and detachment) is developed for the droplet evolution and results in the derived droplet motion equations in the space (V, x, T)—equations for V ˙ ≡ d V / d t , x ˙ , and T ˙ . The work W(V, x, T) of the droplet formation is obtained in the vicinity of the saddle point as a quadratic form with diagonal matrix. Also, the problem of generalizing the single-component Kelvin equation for the equilibrium vapor pressure to binary case is solved; it is presented here as a problem of integrability of a Pfaffian equation. The equation for T ˙ is shown to be the first law of thermodynamics for the droplet, which is a consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations and the linked-fluxes concept. As an example of ideal solution for demonstrative numerical calculations, the o-xylene-m-xylene system is employed. Both nonisothermal and enrichment effects are shown to exist; the mean steady-state overheat of droplets and their mean steady-state enrichment are calculated with the help of the 3D distribution function. Some qualitative peculiarities of the nucleation thermodynamics and kinetics in the water-sulfuric acid system are considered in the model of regular solution. It is shown that there is a small kinetic parameter in the theory due to the small amount of the acid in the vapor and, as a consequence, the nucleation process is isothermal.

  15. Monopole excitations of a harmonically trapped one-dimensional Bose gas from the ideal gas to the Tonks-Girardeau regime.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Dunjko, V; Zhang, Z D; Olshanii, M

    2015-09-11

    Using a time-dependent modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (MNLSE)-where the conventional chemical potential proportional to the density is replaced by the one inferred from Lieb-Liniger's exact solution-we study frequencies of the collective monopole excitations of a one-dimensional Bose gas. We find that our method accurately reproduces the results of a recent experimental study [E. Haller et al., Science 325, 1224 (2009)] in the full spectrum of interaction regimes from the ideal gas, through the mean-field regime, through the mean-field Thomas-Fermi regime, all the way to the Tonks-Giradeau gas. While the former two are accessible by the standard time-dependent NLSE and inaccessible by the time-dependent local density approximation, the situation reverses in the latter case. However, the MNLSE is shown to treat all these regimes within a single numerical method. PMID:26406838

  16. Ideal gas solubilities and solubility selectivities in a binary mixture of room-temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Finotello Alexia; Bara Jason E.; Narayan Suguna; Campder Dean; Noble Richard D.

    2008-07-01

    This study focuses on the solubility behaviors of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} gases in binary mixtures of imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ((C{sub 2}mim)(Tf{sub 2}N)) and l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ((C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4})) at 40{sup o}C and low pressures (about 1 atm). The mixtures tested were 0, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 100 mol % (C{sub 2}mim)(BF{sub 4}) in (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf2{sub N}). Results show that regular solution theory (RST) can be used to describe the gas solubility and selectivity behaviors in RTIL mixtures using an average mixture solubility parameter or an average measured mixture molar volume. Interestingly, the solubility selectivity, defined as the ratio of gas mole fractions in the RTIL mixture, of CO{sub 2} with N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} in pure (C{sub 2}mim)(BF4) can be enhanced by adding 5 mol% (C{sub 2}-mim)(Tf{sub 2}N).

  17. Steady Secondary Flows Generated by Periodic Compression and Expansion of an Ideal Gas in a Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.

  18. Ideal-Gas Heat Capacity for 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) Determined from Speed-of-Sound Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kano, Yuya; Kayukawa, Yohei; Fujii, Kenichi; Sato, Haruki

    2010-12-01

    The isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf, which is expected to be one of the best alternative refrigerants for HFC-134a, was determined on the basis of speed-of-sound measurements in the gaseous phase. The speed of sound was measured by means of the acoustic resonance method using a spherical cavity. The resonance frequency in the spherical cavity containing the sample gas was measured to determine the speed of sound. After correcting for some effects such as the thermal boundary layer and deformation of the cavity on the resonance frequency, the speed of sound was obtained with a relative uncertainty of 0.01 %. Using the measured speed-of-sound data, the acoustic-virial equation was formulated and the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity was determined with a relative uncertainty of 0.1 %. A temperature correlation function of the isobaric ideal-gas heat capacity for HFO-1234yf was also developed.

  19. Unified First Principles Description from Warm Dense Matter to Ideal Ionized Gas Plasma: Electron-Ion Collisions Induced Friction

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Jiayu; Hou Yong; Yuan Jianmin

    2010-06-18

    Electron-ion interactions are central to numerous phenomena in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime and at higher temperature. The electron-ion collisions induced friction at high temperature is introduced in the procedure of ab initio molecular dynamics using the Langevin equation based on density functional theory. In this framework, as a test for Fe and H up to 1000 eV, the equation of state and the transition of electronic structures of the materials with very wide density and temperature can be described, which covers a full range of WDM up to high energy density physics. A unified first principles description from condensed matter to ideal ionized gas plasma is constructed.

  20. Realization of an excited, strongly correlated quantum gas phase.

    PubMed

    Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Mark, Manfred J; Danzl, Johann G; Hart, Russell; Pupillo, Guido; Ngerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2009-09-01

    Ultracold atomic physics offers myriad possibilities to study strongly correlated many-body systems in lower dimensions. Typically, only ground-state phases are accessible. Using a tunable quantum gas of bosonic cesium atoms, we realized and controlled in one-dimensional geometry a highly excited quantum phase that is stabilized in the presence of attractive interactions by maintaining and strengthening quantum correlations across a confinement-induced resonance. We diagnosed the crossover from repulsive to attractive interactions in terms of the stiffness and energy of the system. Our results open up the experimental study of metastable, excited, many-body phases with strong correlations and their dynamical properties. PMID:19729651

  1. Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardehali, Hossein; Pedram, Pouria

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we study the Chaplygin gas Hořava-Lifshitz quantum cosmology. Using Schutz formalism and Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition, we obtain the corresponding Schrödinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain exact classical and quantum mechanical solutions and construct wave packets to study the time evolution of the expectation value of the scale factor for two cases. We show that unlike classical solutions and upon choosing appropriate initial conditions, the expectation value of the scale factor never tends to the singular point which exhibits the singularity-free behavior of the solutions in the quantum domain.

  2. Notes on the unsteady rectilinear motion of a perfect gas. 10: On the influence of gravity upon the expansion of an ideal gas with gamma = 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steketee, J. A.

    1990-08-01

    A vertical column of an ideal homentropic gas is at rest in a gravitational field, with constant acceleration of gravity g. At the upper end the column is bounded by a piston, while downwards it extends indefinitely. The gas pressure p at the piston has the value p sub 0, while above the piston there is vacuum extended to infinity. At time t = 0 the piston is suddenly removed, permitting the gas to expand and to move into the vacuum. The motion of the gas for t is greater than 0 is studied. Burgers considered this problem for gamma equals 5/3 and found that the gas starts to move upwards, but after some time, due to the action of the gravity the velocity changes direction and the gas begins to fall back. In this phase of the motion the solution shows some singularities, which indicate that physically a shock wave, moving in downwards direction, makes its appearance. The flow beyond the shock wave can only be analyzed tentatively and the analysis retains a preliminary character. Also a final state of rest is only approximately obtained for large t. Burgers' problem is considered once more for a fictitious gas with gamma = 3. This assumption simplifies the analysis and the singularities found for gamma equals 5/3 are drastically reduced. Also since the answers are simpler it is possible to a large extent to invert the solutions. Distinct from the case with gamma = 5/3 there is no overshoot, followed by a falling back, accompanied by a shock wave. For gamma = 3 the gas begins at t = 0 to move upwards but slows down and reaches a maximum height with speed zero, and density zero.

  3. Quantum Control of Molecular Gas Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedpour, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Milchberg, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate that strong impulsive gas heating or heating suppression at standard temperature and pressure can occur from coherent rotational excitation or deexcitation of molecular gases using a sequence of nonionizing laser pulses. For the case of excitation, subsequent collisional decoherence of the ensemble leads to gas heating significantly exceeding that from plasma absorption under the same laser focusing conditions. In both cases, the macroscopic hydrodynamics of the gas can be finely controlled with ˜40 fs temporal sensitivity.

  4. Quantum hydrodynamics and expansion of a strongly interacting Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. Y.; Zhou, L.; Ma, Y. L.

    2009-11-01

    We generalize the quantum hydrodynamical equations and study the dynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas trapped in an anisotropic harmonic trap. By using this simple theory to simulate the expansion of the Fermi gas observed experimentally by O'Hara et al., Science, 298 (2002) 2179, we find that the density profiles of the system are well described by the Fetter-like form in the dynamical process in all spatial directions. We also discuss the anisotropic dependence on the expansion.

  5. Bernoulli's formula and Poisson's equations for a confined quantum gas: effects due to a moving piston.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Sobirov, Zarifboy A; Matrasulov, Davron U; Avazbaev, Sanat K

    2012-12-01

    We study a nonequilibrium equation of states of an ideal quantum gas confined in the cavity under a moving piston with a small but finite velocity in the case in which the cavity wall suddenly begins to move at the time origin. Confining ourselves to the thermally isolated process, the quantum nonadiabatic (QNA) contribution to Poisson's adiabatic equations and to Bernoulli's formula which bridges the pressure and internal energy is elucidated. We carry out a statistical mean of the nonadiabatic (time-reversal-symmetric) force operator found in our preceding paper [Nakamura et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 041133 (2011)] in both the low-temperature quantum-mechanical and high-temperature quasiclassical regimes. The QNA contribution, which is proportional to the square of the piston's velocity and to the inverse of the longitudinal size of the cavity, has a coefficient that is dependent on the temperature, gas density, and dimensionality of the cavity. The investigation is done for a unidirectionally expanding three-dimensional (3D) rectangular parallelepiped cavity as well as its 1D version. Its relevance in a realistic nanoscale heat engine is discussed. PMID:23367914

  6. Quantum chemical studies of trace gas adsorption on ice nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrems, Otto; Ignatov, Stanislav K.; Gadzhiev, Oleg B.; Masunov, Artem E.

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the interaction of atmospheric trace gases with crystalline water ice particles of nanoscale size by modern quantum chemical methods. Small ice particles which can be formed in different altitudes play an important role in chemistry and physics of the Earth atmosphere. Knowledge about the uptake and incorporation of atmospheric trace gases in ice particles as well as their interactions with water molecules is very important for the understanding of processes at the air/ice interface. The interaction of the atmospheric trace gases with atmospheric ice nanoparticles is also an important issue for the development of modern physicochemical models. Usually, the interactions between trace gases and small particles considered theoretically apply small-size model complexes or the surface models representing only fragments of the ideal surface. Ice particles consisting of 48, 72, 216 and 270 water molecules with a distorted structure of hexagonal water ice Ih were studied using the new SCC-DFTBA method combining well the advantages of the DFT theory and semiempirical methods of quantum chemistry. The largest clusters correspond to the minimal nanoparticle size which are considered to be crystalline as determined experimentally. The clusters up to (H2O)72 were studied at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) levels. The larger clusters were studied using DFTBA and DFTB+ methods. Several adsorption complexes for the (H2O)270 water ice cluster were optimized at the RI-BLYP/6-31+G(d) theory level to verify the DFTB+ results. Trace gas molecules were coordinated on different sites of the nanoparticles corresponding to different ice Ih crystal planes: (0001), (10-10), (11-20). As atmospheric trace gases we have chosen CO, CO2, HCO*, HCOH*, HCHO, HCOOH and (HCO)2. which are the possible products and intermediates of the UV photolysis of organic molecules such as HCHCHO adsorbed on the ice surface. The structures of the corresponding coordination complexes, their vibrational frequencies, their adsorption energies and thermodynamic parameters (the enthalpy and the Gibbs free energy of adsorption) were evaluated using the full optimization followed by the frequency calculations. Additionally, the different modes of incorporation of trace gas molecules into the ice particles were considered and the corresponding structural and energetic parameters were evaluated. The transition states for the possible hydration were located and the influence of the water cluster surrounding on the barrier heights was studied as well. Acknowledgements: Financial support by the Russian Foundation for basic Research, project No. 11-03-00085 and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) within the Eastpartnership program is greatly acknowledged. O.B.G. and A.E.M. are grateful to DOE NERSC, I2lab, and Institute for Simulation and Training (IST) for making computer time available.

  7. Rigorous investigation of the reduced density matrix for the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps by a loop-gas-like approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beau, Mathieu; Savoie, Baptiste

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we rigorously investigate the reduced density matrix (RDM) associated to the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps. We present a method based on a sum-decomposition of the RDM allowing to treat not only the isotropic trap, but also general anisotropic traps. When focusing on the isotropic trap, the method is analogous to the loop-gas approach developed by Mullin [The loop-gas approach to Bose-Einstein condensation for trapped particles, Am. J. Phys. 68(2), 120 (2000)]. Turning to the case of anisotropic traps, we examine the RDM for some anisotropic trap models corresponding to some quasi-1D and quasi-2D regimes. For such models, we bring out an additional contribution in the local density of particles which arises from the mesoscopic loops. The close connection with the occurrence of generalized-Bose-Einstein condensation is discussed. Our loop-gas-like approach provides relevant information which can help guide numerical investigations on highly anisotropic systems based on the Path Integral Monte Carlo method.

  8. Rigorous investigation of the reduced density matrix for the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps by a loop-gas-like approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beau, Mathieu; Savoie, Baptiste

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we rigorously investigate the reduced density matrix (RDM) associated to the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps. We present a method based on a sum-decomposition of the RDM allowing to treat not only the isotropic trap, but also general anisotropic traps. When focusing on the isotropic trap, the method is analogous to the loop-gas approach developed by Mullin ["The loop-gas approach to Bose-Einstein condensation for trapped particles," Am. J. Phys. 68(2), 120 (2000)]. Turning to the case of anisotropic traps, we examine the RDM for some anisotropic trap models corresponding to some quasi-1D and quasi-2D regimes. For such models, we bring out an additional contribution in the local density of particles which arises from the mesoscopic loops. The close connection with the occurrence of generalized-Bose-Einstein condensation is discussed. Our loop-gas-like approach provides relevant information which can help guide numerical investigations on highly anisotropic systems based on the Path Integral Monte Carlo method.

  9. Steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in a pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey Marshall

    1997-11-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. A small amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number at the anelastic limit is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared to the energy needed to compress and expand the gas, such as for pulse tubes. Seven independent dimensionless numbers are used to scale the system. The reciprocal Strouhal number and Valensi number are used to linearize the mass and momentum equations. The Fourier number is used to characterize heat transfer within the tube wall. The Mach number, the Prandtl number, the velocity amplitude and the velocity phase angle at the tube ends complete the dimensionless scales. The ordered equations show that the zeroth-, first- and second-order equations, are coupled through the zeroth- order temperature. An analytic solution is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows that periodic heat transfer between the gas and tube, characterized by the complex Nusselt number, is independent of axial velocity boundary conditions and Fourier number. Steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order 1 for large Valensi number. Decreasing heat transfer between the gas and the tube decreases steady velocities for orifice pulse tubes. The opposite is true for basic pulse tubes. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared to predictions for basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory predicted the observed mass streaming and flow reversals between the centerline and diffusion layers. The results indicate that the theory is valid for pulse tubes and can be used to solve for the zeroth-order temperature, to compute enthalpy flows, and to determine losses associated with steady secondary streaming.

  10. Acoustic determination of ideal-gas heat capacity and second virial coefficients of some refrigerants between 250 and 420 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekermann, W.; Kohler, F.

    1995-03-01

    An apparatus for speed-of-sound measurements with a spherical resonator was adapted for temperatures up to 42(I K. This included new microphones with a special wiring, a pressure indicator which can be thermostatted to 420 K, and some installations to avoid temperature gradients. Calibration of the radius of the resonator with argon was extended to higher temperatures. Speed-of-sound measurements up to 420 K and 0.5 MPa were done onl,l-dilluoroethane (R152a). 1.l,l-trilluoroethane (R 143a ),l,l,l-chlorodifluoroethane (R 142b ), l,1,1,2-tetralluoroethane (R134a), and 2.2.2-trifluoroethanol. The ideal-gas heat capacities coincide with the statistical mechanical values, except for R134a, where our values as well as recent literature data are below the values calculated from spectroscopy. The reduced second virial coefficients can be interpreted in terms of the dipole moment and the angle between dipole moment and molecular axis. For the associated substance trifluoroethanol values of the third virial coefficient are given, which are appreciably negative at low temperatures.

  11. Stability of a trapped dipolar quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, D.; Bisset, R. N.; Blakie, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the stability diagram for a trapped normal Fermi or Bose gas with dipole-dipole interactions. Our study characterizes the roles of trap geometry and temperature on the stability using Hartree-Fock theory. We find that exchange appreciably reduces stability and that, for bosons, the double instability feature in oblate trapping geometries predicted previously is still predicted by the Hartree-Fock theory. Our results are relevant to current experiments with polar molecules and will be useful in developing strategies to obtain a polar molecule Bose-Einstein condensate or degenerate Fermi gas.

  12. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This…

  13. Exploring the Ideal Gas Law through a Quantitative Gasometric Analysis of Nitrogen Produced by the Reaction of Sodium Nitrite with Sulfamic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The gasometric analysis of nitrogen produced in a reaction between sodium nitrite, NaNO[superscript 2], and sulfamic acid, H(NH[superscript 2])SO[superscript 3], provides an alternative to more common general chemistry experiments used to study the ideal gas law, such as the experiment in which magnesium is reacted with hydrochloric acid. This

  14. Control of hot-carrier relaxation for realizing ideal quantum-dot intermediate-band solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tex, David M.; Kamiya, Itaru; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    For intermediate-band solar cells, the broad absorption spectrum of quantum dots (QDs) offers a favorable conversion efficiency, and photocurrent generation via efficient two-step two-photon-absorption (TS-TPA) in QDs is essential for realizing high-performance solar cells. In the last decade, many works were dedicated to improve the TS-TPA efficiency by modifying the QD itself, however, the obtained results are far from the requirements for practical applications. To reveal the mechanisms behind the low TS-TPA efficiency in QDs, we report here on two- and three-beam photocurrent measurements of InAs quantum structures embedded in AlGaAs. Comparison of two- and three-beam photocurrent spectra obtained by subbandgap excitation reveals that the QD TS-TPA efficiency is improved significantly by suppressing the relaxation of hot TS-TPA carriers to unoccupied shallow InAs quantum structure states. PMID:24535195

  15. Self-energy of an impurity in an ideal Fermi gas to second order in the interaction strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trefzger, Christian; Castin, Yvan

    2014-09-01

    We study in three dimensions the problem of a spatially homogeneous zero-temperature ideal Fermi gas of spin-polarized particles of mass m perturbed by the presence of a single distinguishable impurity of mass M. The interaction between the impurity and the fermions involves only the partial s wave through the scattering length a and has negligible range b compared to the inverse Fermi wave number 1/kF of the gas. Through the interactions with the Fermi gas the impurity gives birth to a quasiparticle, which will be here a Fermi polaron (or more precisely a monomeron). We consider the general case of an impurity moving with wave vector K ≠0: Then the quasiparticle acquires a finite lifetime in its initial momentum channel because it can radiate particle-hole pairs in the Fermi sea. A description of the system using a variational approach, based on a finite number of particle-hole excitations of the Fermi sea, then becomes inappropriate around K =0. We rely thus upon perturbation theory, where the small and negative parameter kFa→0- excludes any branches other than the monomeronic one in the ground state (as, e.g., the dimeronic one), and allows us a systematic study of the system. We calculate the impurity self-energy Σ(2)(K,ω) up to second order included in a. Remarkably, we obtain an analytical explicit expression for Σ(2)(K,ω), allowing us to study its derivatives in the plane (K,ω). These present interesting singularities, which in general appear in the third-order derivatives ∂3Σ(2)(K,ω). In the special case of equal masses, M =m, singularities appear already in the physically more accessible second-order derivatives ∂2Σ(2)(K,ω); using a self-consistent heuristic approach based on Σ(2) we then regularize the divergence of the second-order derivative ∂K2ΔE(K) of the complex energy of the quasiparticle found in Trefzger and Castin [Europhys. Lett. 104, 50005 (2013), 10.1209/0295-5075/104/50005] at K =kF, and we predict an interesting scaling law in the neighborhood of K =kF. As a by product of our theory we have access to all moments of the momentum of the particle-hole pair emitted by the impurity while damping its motion in the Fermi sea at the level of Fermi's golden rule.

  16. Shortcut to Adiabaticity for an Anisotropic Gas Containing Quantum Defects.

    PubMed

    Papoular, D J; Stringari, S

    2015-07-10

    We present a shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) protocol applicable to 3D unitary Fermi gases and 2D weakly interacting Bose gases containing defects such as vortices or solitons. Our protocol relies on a new class of exact scaling solutions in the presence of anisotropic time-dependent harmonic traps. It connects stationary states in initial and final traps having the same frequency ratios. The resulting scaling laws exhibit a universal form and also apply to the classical Boltzmann gas. The duration of the STA can be made very short so as to realize a quantum quench from one stationary state to another. When applied to an anisotropically trapped superfluid gas, the STA conserves the shape of the quantum defects hosted by the cloud, thereby acting like a perfect microscope, which sharply contrasts with their strong distortion occurring during the free expansion of the cloud. PMID:26207476

  17. Similarity solution for the flow behind a shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux in magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.; Vishwakarma, J. P.

    2014-05-01

    The propagation of a spherical (or cylindrical) shock wave in a non-ideal gas with heat conduction and radiation heat-flux, in the presence of a spacially decreasing azimuthal magnetic field, driven out by a moving piston is investigated. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The gas is assumed to have infinite electrical conductivity and to obey a simplified van der Waals equation of state. The shock wave moves with variable velocity and the total energy of the wave is non-constant. Similarity solutions are obtained for the flow-field behind the shock and the effects of variation of the heat transfer parameters, the parameter of the non-idealness of the gas, both, decreases the compressibility of the gas and hence there is a decrease in the shock strength. Further, it is investigated that with an increase in the parameters of radiative and conductive heat transfer the tendency of formation of maxima in the distributions of heat flux, density and isothermal speed of sound decreases. The pressure and density vanish at the inner surface (piston) and hence a vacuum is form at the center of symmetry. The shock waves in conducting non-ideal gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, chemical detonation, rupture of a pressurized vessels, in the analysis of data from exploding wire experiments, and cylindrically symmetric hypersonic flow problems associated with meteors or reentry vehicles, etc. The findings of the present works provided a clear picture of whether and how the non-idealness parameter, conductive and radiative heat transfer parameters and the magnetic field affect the flow behind the shock front.

  18. Ideal square quantum wells achieved in AlGaN/GaN superlattices using ultrathin blocking-compensation pair

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaohong; Xu, Hongmei; Xu, Fuchun; Chen, Hangyang; Kang, Junyong E-mail: jykang@xmu.edu.cn; Lin, Na; Cai, Duanjun E-mail: jykang@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-03-16

    A technique for achieving square-shape quantum wells (QWs) against the intrinsic polar discontinuity and interfacial diffusion through self-compensated pair interlayers is reported. Ultrathin low-and-high % pair interlayers that have diffusion-blocking and self-compensation capacities is proposed to resist the elemental diffusion at nanointerfaces and to grow the theoretically described abrupt rectangular AlGaN/GaN superlattices by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Light emission efficiency in such nanostructures is effectively enhanced and the quantum-confined Stark effect could be partially suppressed. This concept could effectively improve the quality of ultrathin QWs in functional nanostructures with other semiconductors or through other growth methods.

  19. Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jágerská, J.; Tuzson, B.; Mangold, M.; Emmenegger, L.; Jouy, P.; Hugi, A.; Beck, M.; Faist, J.; Looser, H.

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate a sequentially operating dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser with electrically separated laser sections, emitting single-mode at 5.25 and 6.25 μm. Based on a single waveguide ridge, this laser represents a considerable asset to optical sensing and trace gas spectroscopy, as it allows probing multiple gas species with spectrally distant absorption features using conventional optical setups without any beam combining optics. The laser capability was demonstrated in simultaneous NO and NO{sub 2} detection, reaching sub-ppb detection limits and selectivity comparable to conventional high-end spectroscopic systems.

  20. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Quantum Cascade Lasers for Trace Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Angela; Di Franco, Cinzia; Lugar, Pietro Mario; Scamarcio, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    Various applications, such as pollution monitoring, toxic-gas detection, non invasive medical diagnostics and industrial process control, require sensitive and selective detection of gas traces with concentrations in the parts in 109 (ppb) and sub-ppb range. The recent development of quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) has given a new aspect to infrared laser-based trace gas sensors. In particular, single mode distributed feedback QCLs are attractive spectroscopic sources because of their excellent properties in terms of narrow linewidth, average power and room temperature operation. In combination with these laser sources, photoacoustic spectroscopy offers the advantage of high sensitivity and selectivity, compact sensor platform, fast time-response and user friendly operation. This paper reports recent developments on quantum cascade laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for trace gas detection. In particular, different applications of a photoacoustic trace gas sensor employing a longitudinal resonant cell with a detection limit on the order of hundred ppb of ozone and ammonia are discussed. We also report two QC laser-based photoacoustic sensors for the detection of nitric oxide, for environmental pollution monitoring and medical diagnostics, and hexamethyldisilazane, for applications in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  1. When is a quantum cellular automaton (QCA) a quantum lattice gas automaton (QLGA)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, Asif; Love, Peter J.

    2013-09-01

    Quantum cellular automata (QCA) are models of quantum computation of particular interest from the point of view of quantum simulation. Quantum lattice gas automata (QLGA - equivalently partitioned quantum cellular automata) represent an interesting subclass of QCA. QLGA have been more deeply analyzed than QCA, whereas general QCA are likely to capture a wider range of quantum behavior. Discriminating between QLGA and QCA is therefore an important question. In spite of much prior work, classifying which QCA are QLGA has remained an open problem. In the present paper we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for unbounded, finite QCA (finitely many active cells in a quiescent background) to be QLGA. We define a local condition that classifies those QCA that are QLGA, and we show that there are QCA that are not QLGA. We use a number of tools from functional analysis of separable Hilbert spaces and representation theory of associative algebras that enable us to treat QCA on finite but unbounded configurations in full detail.

  2. Relaxation dynamics of a fermionic quantum gas with high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaeschner, Nick; Krauser, Jasper; Sengstock, Klaus; Becker, Christoph; Ebling, Ulrich; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, Andre

    2014-05-01

    The relaxation of a closed quantum system constitutes a fundamental question in many-body physics. We present a detailed study of relaxation dynamics in a fermionic quantum gas of 40 K atoms with high spin. The fermions are initially prepared far from equilibrium occupying only a few spin states. This induces a complex relaxation dynamics towards an equal spin population; meanwhile the whole spin system provides a bath for the thermalization for its individual spin subsystems. Our experimental results yield a good agreement with a kinetic Boltzmann equation, derived from a microscopic approach without free parameters. We identify several collisional processes governing the dynamics on fully different time scales and demonstrate the high experimental control by tuning the crucial parameters of the system, e.g. density and magnetic field. Our results open the path to engineering an open system with controllable dissipation into empty subsystems.

  3. A quantum-gas microscope for fermionic potassium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotta, Dylan; Hudson, James; Kelly, Andrew; Peaudecerf, Bruno; Haller, Elmar; Kuhr, Stefan; Single-atom imaging Team

    2015-05-01

    Recent experiments with single-site resolution and addressing of strongly correlated rubidium atoms in optical lattices have resulted in the direct observation of, e.g., bosonic Mott insulators, and out-of-equilibrium physics. Here we present a quantum-gas microscope for single-atom-resolved fluorescence detection of fermionic 40K. The atoms are held in a single layer of a 1064 nm optical lattice and observed by a high-resolution optical microscope with numerical aperture NA = 0.68. This setup will enable quantum simulation of the Fermi-Hubbard model with single-particle access, allowing for the direct observation and characterization of, e.g., fermionic Mott insulators, Band insulators, metallic phases or Nel antiferromagnets.

  4. Quintessence and (anti-)Chaplygin gas in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Lamon, Raphael; Woehr, Andreas J.

    2010-01-15

    The concordance model of cosmology contains several unknown components such as dark matter and dark energy. Many proposals have been made to describe them by choosing an appropriate potential for a scalar field. We study four models in the realm of loop quantum cosmology: the Chaplygin gas, an inflationary and radiationlike potential, quintessence and an anti-Chaplygin gas. For the latter we show that all trajectories start and end with a type II singularity and, depending on the initial value, may go through a bounce. On the other hand the evolution under the influence of the first three scalar fields behaves classically at times far away from the big bang singularity and bounces as the energy density approaches the critical density.

  5. Umklapp superradiance with a collisionless quantum degenerate Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Francesco; Strack, Philipp

    2014-04-11

    The quantum dynamics of the electromagnetic light mode of an optical cavity filled with a coherently driven Fermi gas of ultracold atoms strongly depends on the geometry of the Fermi surface. Superradiant light generation and self-organization of the atoms can be achieved at low pumping threshold due to resonant atom-photon umklapp processes, where the fermions are scattered from one side of the Fermi surface to the other by exchanging photon momenta. The cavity spectrum exhibits sidebands that, despite strong atom-light coupling and cavity decay, retain narrow linewidth, due to absorptionless transparency windows outside the atomic particle-hole continuum and the suppression of broadening and thermal fluctuations in the collisionless Fermi gas. PMID:24765951

  6. Quantum gas of deeply bound ground state molecules.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Johann G; Haller, Elmar; Gustavsson, Mattias; Mark, Manfred J; Hart, Russell; Bouloufa, Nadia; Dulieu, Olivier; Ritsch, Helmut; Ngerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2008-08-22

    Molecular cooling techniques face the hurdle of dissipating translational as well as internal energy in the presence of a rich electronic, vibrational, and rotational energy spectrum. In our experiment, we create a translationally ultracold, dense quantum gas of molecules bound by more than 1000 wave numbers in the electronic ground state. Specifically, we stimulate with 80% efficiency, a two-photon transfer of molecules associated on a Feshbach resonance from a Bose-Einstein condensate of cesium atoms. In the process, the initial loose, long-range electrostatic bond of the Feshbach molecule is coherently transformed into a tight chemical bond. We demonstrate coherence of the transfer in a Ramsey-type experiment and show that the molecular sample is not heated during the transfer. Our results show that the preparation of a quantum gas of molecules in specific rovibrational states is possible and that the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate of molecules in their rovibronic ground state is within reach. PMID:18719277

  7. External cavity tunable quantum cascade lasers and their applications to trace gas monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rao, Gottipaty N; Karpf, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Since the first quantum cascade laser (QCL) was demonstrated approximately 16 years ago, we have witnessed an explosion of interesting developments in QCL technology and QCL-based trace gas sensors. QCLs operate in the mid-IR region (3-24??m) and can directly access the rotational vibrational bands of most molecular species and, therefore, are ideally suited for trace gas detection with high specificity and sensitivity. These sensors have applications in a wide range of fields, including environmental monitoring, atmospheric chemistry, medical diagnostics, homeland security, detection of explosive compounds, and industrial process control, to name a few. Tunable external cavity (EC)-QCLs in particular offer narrow linewidths, wide ranges of tunability, and stable power outputs, which open up new possibilities for sensor development. These features allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple species and the study of large molecules, free radicals, ions, and reaction kinetics. In this article, we review the current status of EC-QCLs and sensor developments based on them and speculate on possible future developments. PMID:21283214

  8. Finite-Difference Solution for Laminar or Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Axisymmetric Bodies with Ideal Gas, CF4, or Equilibrium Air Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. Harris, II; Millman, Daniel R.; Greendyke, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    A computer code was developed that uses an implicit finite-difference technique to solve nonsimilar, axisymmetric boundary layer equations for both laminar and turbulent flow. The code can treat ideal gases, air in chemical equilibrium, and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), which is a useful gas for hypersonic blunt-body simulations. This is the only known boundary layer code that can treat CF4. Comparisons with experimental data have demonstrated that accurate solutions are obtained. The method should prove useful as an analysis tool for comparing calculations with wind tunnel experiments and for making calculations about flight vehicles where equilibrium air chemistry assumptions are valid.

  9. Suppression of the quantum-mechanical collapse by repulsive interactions in a quantum gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-15

    The quantum-mechanical collapse (alias fall onto the center of particles attracted by potential -r{sup -2}) is a well-known issue in quantum theory. It is closely related to the quantum anomaly, i.e., breaking of the scaling invariance of the respective Hamiltonian by quantization. We demonstrate that the mean-field repulsive nonlinearity prevents the collapse and thus puts forward a solution to the quantum-anomaly problem that differs from that previously developed in the framework of the linear quantum-field theory. This solution may be realized in the 3D or 2D gas of dipolar bosons attracted by a central charge and in the 2D gas of magnetic dipoles attracted by a current filament. In the 3D setting, the dipole-dipole interactions are also taken into regard, in the mean-field approximation, resulting in a redefinition of the scattering length which accounts for the contact repulsion between the bosons. In lieu of the collapse, the cubic nonlinearity creates a 3D ground state (GS), which does not exist in the respective linear Schroedinger equation. The addition of the harmonic trap gives rise to a tristability, in the case when the Schroedinger equation still does not lead to the collapse. In the 2D setting, the cubic nonlinearity is not strong enough to prevent the collapse; however, the quintic term does it, creating the GS, as well as its counterparts carrying the angular momentum (vorticity). Counterintuitively, such self-trapped 2D modes exist even in the case of a weakly repulsive potential r{sup -2}. The 2D vortical modes avoid the phase singularity at the pivot (r=0) by having the amplitude diverging at r{yields}0 instead of the usual situation with the amplitude of the vortical mode vanishing at r{yields}0 (the norm of the mode converges despite of the singularity of the amplitude at r{yields}0). In the presence of the harmonic trap, the 2D quintic model with a weakly repulsive central potential r{sup -2} gives rise to three confined modes, the middle one being unstable, spontaneously developing into a breather. In both the 3D and 2D cases, the GS wave functions are found in a numerical form and in the form of an analytical approximation, which is asymptotically exact in the limit of the large norm.

  10. Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-05-26

    The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.

  11. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Gorakh

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal (or perfect) gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are continuously distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is express in terms of Fourier’s law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity and the absorption coefficient are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under a gravitational field due to heavy nucleus at the origin (Roche Model). The unsteady model of Roche consists of a dusty gas distributed with spherical symmetry around a nucleus having large mass It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the heavy nucleus. The density of the ambient medium is taken to be constant. Our analysis reveals that after inclusion of gravitational field effect surprisingly the shock strength increases and remarkable difference can be found in the distribution of flow variables. The effects of the variation of the heat transfer parameters, the gravitational parameter and non-idealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is found that the shock strength is increased with an increase in the value of gravitational parameter. Further, it is investigated that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under a gravitational field can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, star formation in shocks, shocks in supernova explosions and shocks in stellar explosion, rupture of a pressurized vessels and explosion in the ionosphere etc. A comparison is made between the solutions in the cases of the gravitating and the non-gravitating medium.

  12. Quantum-electrodynamical parametric instability in the incoherent photon gas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunliang; Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2013-02-01

    We present a theory for the quantum-electrodynamical (QED) parametric scattering instability of an intense photon pulse in an incoherent radiation background. The pump electromagnetic (EM) wave can decay into a scattered daughter EM wave and an acousticlike wave due to the QED vacuum polarization nonlinearity. By a linear instability analysis we obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation for the growth rate of the scattering instability. The nonlinear QED scattering instability can give rise to the exchange of orbital angular momentum between intense Laguerre-Gaussian mode photon pulses and the two daughter waves, which may be a useful method to detect the highly energetic photon gases existing in the vicinity of rotating dense bodies in the Universe, such as pulsars and magnetars. The observation of the scattered waves may reveal information about the twisted acoustic waves in the incoherent photon gas. PMID:23496629

  13. Universal quantum viscosity in a unitary Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Elliott, E; Joseph, J; Wu, H; Petricka, J; Schfer, T; Thomas, J E

    2011-01-01

    A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale ? n, where n is the density and ? is Planck's constant h divided by 2?, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is p(T)(3)/?(2), where p(T) is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T(3/2) scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid. PMID:21148347

  14. Universal Quantum Viscosity in a Unitary Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Elliott, E.; Joseph, J.; Wu, H.; Petricka, J.; Schfer, T.; Thomas, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    A Fermi gas of atoms with resonant interactions is predicted to obey universal hydrodynamics, in which the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients are universal functions of the density and temperature. At low temperatures, the viscosity has a universal quantum scale ? n, where n is the density and ? is Plancks constant h divided by 2?, whereas at high temperatures the natural scale is pT3/?2, where pT is the thermal momentum. We used breathing mode damping to measure the shear viscosity at low temperature. At high temperature T, we used anisotropic expansion of the cloud to find the viscosity, which exhibits precise T3/2 scaling. In both experiments, universal hydrodynamic equations including friction and heating were used to extract the viscosity. We estimate the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density and compare it with that of a perfect fluid.

  15. Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions.

    PubMed

    Micci, Michael M; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16K8K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity. PMID:26465581

  16. Measurement-based quantum lattice gas model of fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micci, Michael M.; Yepez, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Presented are quantum simulation results using a measurement-based quantum lattice gas algorithm for Navier-Stokes fluid dynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Numerical prediction of the kinematic viscosity was measured by the decay rate of an initial sinusoidal flow profile. Due to local quantum entanglement in the quantum lattice gas, the minimum kinematic viscosity in the measurement-based quantum lattice gas is lower than achievable in a classical lattice gas. The numerically predicted viscosities precisely match the theoretical predictions obtained with a mean field approximation. Uniform flow profile with double shear layers, on a 16 K 8 K lattice, leads to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, breaking up the shear layer into pairs of counter-rotating vortices that eventually merge via vortex fusion and dissipate because of the nonzero shear viscosity.

  17. Impact of non-idealities in gas-tracer tests on the estimation of reaeration, respiration, and photosynthesis rates in streams.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Julia L A; Osenbrck, Karsten; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-10-15

    Estimating respiration and photosynthesis rates in streams usually requires good knowledge of reaeration at the given locations. For this purpose, gas-tracer tests can be conducted, and reaeration rate coefficients are determined from the decrease in gas concentration along the river stretch. The typical procedure for analysis of such tests is based on simplifying assumptions, as it neglects dispersion altogether and does not consider possible fluctuations and trends in the input signal. We mathematically derive the influence of these non-idealities on estimated reaeration rates and how they are propagated onto the evaluation of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis rates from oxygen monitoring. We apply the approach to field data obtained from a gas-tracer test using propane in a second-order stream in Southwest Germany. We calculate the reaeration rate coefficients accounting for dispersion as well as trends and uncertainty in the input signals and compare them to the standard approach. We show that neglecting dispersion significantly underestimates reaeration, and results between sections cannot be compared if trends in the input signal of the gas tracer are disregarded. Using time series of dissolved oxygen and the various estimates of reaeration, we infer respiration and photosynthesis rates for the same stream section, demonstrating that the bias and uncertainty of reaeration using the different approaches significantly affects the calculation of metabolic rates. PMID:26150069

  18. Ideal CO2/Light Gas Separation Performance of Poly(vinylimidazolium) Membranes and Poly(vinylimidazolium)-Ionic Liquid Composite Films

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Wiesenauer, EF; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2013-01-23

    Six vinyl-based, imidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) monomers were synthesized and photopolymerized to form dense poly(RTIL) membranes. The effect of polymer backbone (i.e., poly(ethylene), poly(styrene), and poly(acrylate)) and functional cationic substituent (e.g., alkyl, fluoroalkyl, oligo(ethylene glycol), and disiloxane) on ideal CO2/N-2 and CO2/CH4 membrane separation performance was investigated. The vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be generally less CO2-selective compared to analogous styrene- and acrylate-based poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 permeability of n-hexyl-(69 barrers) and disiloxane- (130 barrers) substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL)s were found to be exceptionally larger than that of previously studied styrene and acrylate poly(RTIL)s. The CO2 selectivity of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s was enhanced, and the CO2 permeability was reduced when compared to the n-hexyl-substituted vinyl-based poly(RTIL). Nominal improvement in CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed upon fluorination of the n-hexyl vinyl-based poly(RTIL), with no observed change in CO2 permeability. However, rather dramatic improvements in both CO2 permeability and selectivity were observed upon blending 20 mol % RTIL (emim Tf2N) into the n-hexyl- and disiloxane-functionalized vinyl poly(RTIL)s to form solid liquid composite films.

  19. A Method to Simulate Linear Stability of Impulsively Accelerated Density Interfaces in Ideal-MHD and Gas Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi Samtaney

    2009-02-10

    We present a numerical method to solve the linear stability of impulsively accelerated density interfaces in two dimensions such as those arising in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability. The method uses an Eulerian approach, and is based on an unwind method to compute the temporally evolving base state and a flux vector splitting method for the perturbations. The method is applicable to either gas dynamics or magnetohydrodynamics. Numerical examples are presented for cases in which a hydrodynamic shock interacts with a single or double density interface, and a doubly shocked single density interface. Convergence tests show that the method is spatially second order accurate for smooth flows, and between first and second order accurate for flows with shocks.

  20. Grand Canonical Versus Canonical Ensemble: Universal Structure of Statistics and Thermodynamics in a Critical Region of Bose-Einstein Condensation of an Ideal Gas in Arbitrary Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, S. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    We find a self-similar analytical solution for the grand-canonical-ensemble (GCE) statistics and thermodynamics in the critical region of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is valid for an arbitrary trap, loaded with an ideal gas, in the thermodynamic limit. We show that for the quantities, changing by a finite amount across the critical region, the exact GCE result differs from the corresponding canonical-ensemble result by a factor on the order of unity even in the thermodynamic limit. Thus, a widely used GCE approach does not describe correctly the critical phenomena at the phase transition for the actual systems with a fixed number of particles and yields only an asymptotics far outside the critical region.

  1. Collective oscillations of a trapped quantum gas in low dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosi, Giulia; Stringari, Sandro

    2015-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the discretized modes of an atomic gas in different conditions of confinement. Starting from the equations of hydrodynamics we derive a closed equation for the velocity field, depending on the adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities and applicable to different dimensions and quantum statistics. At zero temperature the equation reproduces the irrotational behavior of superfluid hydrodynamics. It is also applicable above the critical temperature in the collisional regime, where the appearance of rotational components in the velocity field is caused by the external potential. In the presence of harmonic trapping, a general class of analytic solutions is obtained for systems exhibiting a polytropic equation of state, characterized by a power law isoentropic dependence of the pressure on the density. Explicit results for the compressional modes are derived for both Bose and Fermi gases in the pancake and cigar as well as in the deep two- and one-dimensional regimes. Our results agree with the analytical predictions available in the literature in some limiting cases. They are particularly relevant in one-dimensional configurations, where the study of the collective frequencies could provide a unique test of the achievement of the collisional regime at finite temperature.

  2. Highly efficient counter-propagation-beams narrow-band ultraviolet frequency conversion in a quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L; Hagley, E W

    2013-05-15

    We show that highly efficient ultraviolet frequency up conversion can be established in a single-component quantum gas in the counter-propagating weak pump beam geometry where no frequency up conversion can occur in a normal gas. We also show that all light-wave mixing and scattering processes in quantum gases originating from elementary excitations characterized by efficient collective atomic recoil motion are stimulated Raman/hyper-Raman in nature. PMID:23938922

  3. Widely tunable Sampled Grating Distributed Bragg Reflector Quantum Cascade laser for gas spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diba, Abdou Salam

    Since the advent of semiconductor lasers, the development of tunable laser sources has been subject of many efforts in industry and academia arenas. This interest towards broadly tunable lasers is mainly due to the great promise they have in many applications ranging from telecommunication, to environmental science and homeland security, just to name a few. After the first demonstration of quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the early nineties, QCL has experienced a rapid development, so much so that QCLs are now the most reliable and efficient laser source in the Mid-IR range covering between 3 microm to 30 microm region of the electromagnetic spectrum. QCLs have almost all the desirable characteristics of a laser for spectroscopy applications such as narrow spectral linewidth ideal for high selectivity measurement, high power enabling high sensitivity sensing and more importantly they emit in the finger-print region of most of the trace gases and large molecules. The need for widely tunable QCLs is now more pressing than ever before. A single mode quantum cascade laser (QCL) such as a distributed feedback (DFB) QCL, is an ideal light source for gas sensing in the MIR wavelength range. Despite their performance and reliability, DFB QCLs are limited by their relatively narrow wavelength tuning range determined by the thermal rollover of the laser. An external cavity (EC) QCL, on the other hand, is a widely tunable laser source, and so far is the choice mid-infrared single frequency light sources for detecting multiple species/large molecules. However, EC QCLs can be complex, bulky and expensive. In the quest for finding alternative broadly wavelength tunable sources in the mid-infrared, many monolithic tunable QCLs are recently proposed and fabricated, including SG-DBR, DFB-Arrays, Slot-hole etc. and they are all of potentially of interest as a candidate for multi-gas sensing and monitoring applications, due to their large tuning range (>50 cm-1), and potentially low cost and compactness. In this dissertation we investigate the performance of the SG-DBR laser for its feasibility to monitor the atmospheric gases and possible other applications. For this purpose, we first reported continuous mode-hope free tuning and detected three consecutive N2O features by controlling all three sections of laser namely: front DBR, back DBR and the phase. Subsequently, we demonstrated a novel mechanism to tuning the laser wavelength by just controlling the current of front and back DBR sections. From this tuning methodology we achieved continuous tuning over a wide range ~ 10 cm-1. Applying the tuning method in a direct absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrated the viability of SG-DBR QCLs in multi-species gas sensing by detecting and retrieving the concentration of N2O, CO and H2O in ambient air. SG-DBR QCLs capability of high resolution spectroscopy has also been demonstrated at reduced pressure. We also performed Time Resolved Spectroscopy (TRS) to determine the tuning speed response when the DBR sections undergo current steps.

  4. A note on the Fermi energy of an ideal Fermi gas trapped under a generic power law potential in d-dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir

    2015-09-01

    The average energy per fermion in the case of a Fermi gas with any kinematic characteristic, trapped under the most general power law potential in d-dimension has been calculated at zero temperature. In a previous paper (Acharyya M 2010 Eur. J Phys. 31 L89) it was shown, in the case of a free ideal Fermi gas, as the dimension increases the average energy approaches the Fermi energy and in infinite dimension the average energy becomes equal to the Fermi energy at T = 0. In this letter it is shown that, for a trapped system at finite dimension the average energy depends on a power law exponent, but as the dimension tends to infinity the average energy coincides with the Fermi energy for any power law exponent. The result obtained in this manuscript is more general, as we can describe the free system as well as any trapped system with an appropriate choice of power law exponent, and is true for any kinematic parameter.

  5. Universal Quantum Viscosity in a Unitary Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chenglin

    Unitary Fermi gases, first observed in 2002, have been widely studied as they provide model systems for tabletop research on a variety of strongly coupled systems, including the high temperature superconductors, quark-gluon plasmas and neutron stars. A two component 6Li unitary Fermi gas is created through a collisional Feshbach resonance centered around 834G, using all-optical trapping and cooling methods. In the vicinity of the Feshbach resonance, the atoms are strongly interacting and exhibit universal behaviors, where the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are universal functions of the density n and temperature T. Thus, unitary Fermi gases provide a paradigm to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and field-crossing interests. This dissertation reports the measurement of the quantum shear viscosity in a 6Li unitary Fermi gas, which is the first measurement of transport coefficients for unitary Fermi gases. Two hydrodynamic experiments are employed to measure the shear viscosity eta in different temperature regimes: the anisotropic expansion for the high temperature regime and the radial breathing mode for the low temperature regime. In order to consistently and quantitatively extract the shear viscosity from these two experiments, the hydrodynamic theory is utilized to derive the universal hydrodynamic equations, which include both friction force and heating arising from frictions. These equations are simplified and solved, considering the universal properties of unitary Fermi gases as well as the specific conditions for each experiment. Using these universal hydrodynamic equations, shear viscosity is extracted from the anisotropic expansion conducted at high temperatures and the predicted eta ? T3/2 scaling is demonstrated. The demonstration of the high temperature scaling sets a benchmark for measuring viscosity at low temperatures. For the low temperature breathing mode experiment, the shear viscosity is directly related to the damping rate of an oscillating cloud, through the same universal hydrodynamic equations. The raw data from the previously measured radial breathing experiments are carefully analyzed to extract the shear viscosity. The low temperature data join with the high temperature data smoothly, which presents the full measurement of the quantum shear viscosity from nearly the ground state to the two-body Boltzmann regime. The possible effects of the bulk viscosity in the high temperature anisotropic expansion experiment is also studied and found to be consistent with the predicted vanishing bulk viscosity in the normal fluid phase at unitarity. Using the measured shear viscosity eta and the previously measured entropy density s, the ratio of eta/s is estimated and therefore compared to a string theory limit, which conjectures eta/ s ? h/4pikB for any fluid and defines a perfect fluid when the equality is satisfied. It is found that eta/s, for a unitary Fermi gas at the normal-superfluid transition point, is about 5 times the string limit. This shows that our unitary Fermi gas exhibit nearly perfect fluidity at low temperatures. In addition to the quantum shear viscosity measurement, consistent and accurate methods of calibrating the energy and temperature for unitary Fermi gases is also developed in this thesis. While the energy is calculated from the cloud dimensions by exploiting the virial theorem, the temperature is determined using different methods for different temperature regimes. At high temperatures, the second virial coefficient approximation is applied to the energy density, from which a variety of thermodynamic quantities, including the temperature, are derived. For the low temperatures, the previous calibration from the energy E and entropy S measurement is improved by using a better calculation on the entropy and adding more constraints at higher temperatures using the second virial approximation. A power law curve with discontinues heat capacity is then fitted to the E-S curve and the temperature is obtained using ?E/? S. The energy and temperature calibrations developed in this dissertation are universal and therefore can be applied on other thermodynamic and hydrodynamic experiments at unitarity.

  6. Master Equation for a Quantum Particle in a Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hornberger, Klaus

    2006-08-11

    The equation for the quantum motion of a Brownian particle in a gaseous environment is derived by means of S-matrix theory. This quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation accounts nonperturbatively for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics and describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. As a completely positive master equation it incorporates both the known equation for an infinitely massive Brownian particle and the classical linear Boltzmann equation as limiting cases.

  7. Comments on "Advantages and challenges in coupling an ideal gas to atomistic models in adaptive resolution simulations" by K. Kreis, A.C. Fogarty, K. Kremer and R. Potestio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.

    2015-09-01

    Kreis et al. (Eur. Phys. J. Special Topics, this issue, 2015, doi: 10.1140/epjst/e2015-02412-1) discuss the option of minimizing the complexity of the coarse-grained model in adaptive resolution molecular dynamics simulations (AdResS) by adopting a collisionless ideal gas model for this purpose. Here we discuss the technical detail of how an ideal gas model is implemented, the effective role in the simulation that is left to the coarse-grained model when it is drastically simplified as suggested, and relations between the force and potential interpolations adopted in different variants of AdResS.

  8. Quantum-cascade laser photoacoustic detection of methane emitted from natural gas powered engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, M. V.; Sthel, M. S.; Silva, M. G.; Paiva, L. B.; Pinheiro, F. W.; Miklòs, A.; Vargas, H.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we present a laser photoacoustic arrangement for the detection of the important greenhouse gas methane. A quantum-cascade laser and a differential photoacoustic cell were employed. A detection limit of 45 ppbv in nitrogen was achieved as well as a great selectivity. The same methodology was also tested in the detection of methane issued from natural gas powered vehicles (VNG) in Brazil, which demonstrates the excellent potential of this arrangement for greenhouse gas detection emitted from real sources.

  9. Effects of a finite number of particles on the thermodynamic properties of a harmonically trapped ideal charged Bose gas in a constant magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan-Liang, Xiao; Meng-Yun, Lai; Xiao-Yin, Pan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of an ideal charged Bose gas confined in an anisotropic harmonic potential and a constant magnetic field. Using an accurate density of states, we calculate analytically the thermodynamic potential and consequently various intriguing thermodynamic properties, including the BoseEinstein transition temperature, the specific heat, magnetization, and the corrections to these quantities due to the finite number of particles are also given explicitly. In contrast to the infinite number of particles scenarios, we show that those thermodynamic properties, particularly the BoseEinstein transition temperature depends upon the strength of the magnetic field due to the finiteness of the particle numbers, and the collective effects of a finite number of particles become larger when the particle number decreases. Moreover, the magnetization varies with the temperature due to the finiteness of the particle number while it keeps invariant in the thermodynamic limit N ? ?. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375090), and the K. C. Wong Magna Foundation of Ningbo University, China.

  10. Ideal clocksa convenient fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorek, Krzysztof; Louko, Jorma; Dragan, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    We show that no device built according to the rules of quantum field theory can measure proper time along its path. Highly accelerated quantum clocks experience the Unruh effect, which inevitably influences their time rate. This contradicts the concept of an ideal clock, whose rate should only depend on the instantaneous velocity.

  11. Simple Scattering Models for Quantum Mechanical Scattering in the Monte Carlo Simulation of Rarefied Gas Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2008-12-01

    Simple Scattering models, the variable hard sphere (VHS), variable soft sphere (VSS), and variable sphere (VS) molecular models for Monte Carlo simulation of rarefied gas flow were extended to quantum mechanical scattering, and then applied to the simulation of spherical expansion of 4He. The profiles of number density, flow velocity, and parallel and perpendicular kinetic temperatures obtained with the VHS, VSS, and VS models were in good agreement with those yielded by direct calculation of quantum mechanical scattering.

  12. Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer During Application of a Thermal Gradient for the Study of Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure Using and Ideal Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is positioned vertically. The ground-based experiments are sufficient preliminary tests of theory and should be of significant interest regarding vapor deposited films in microgravity.

  13. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-03-17

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  14. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-09-01

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  15. Satyendranath Bose: Co-Founder of Quantum Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1972-01-01

    Satyendranath Bose was first to prove Planck's Law by using ideal quantum gas. Einstein credited Bose for this first step in the development of quantum statistical mechanics. Bose did not realize the importance of his work, perhaps because of peculiar academic settings in India under British rule. (PS)

  16. Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig

    2015-07-01

    We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits.

  17. Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas.

    PubMed

    Labouvie, Ralf; Santra, Bodhaditya; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig

    2015-07-31

    We report on the observation of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in a quantum transport device for neutral atoms employing a multimode tunneling junction. The system is realized with a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a one-dimensional optical lattice with high site occupancy. We induce an initial difference in chemical potential at one site by local atom removal. The ensuing transport dynamics are governed by the interplay between the tunneling coupling, the interaction energy, and intrinsic collisions, which turn the coherent coupling into a hopping process. The resulting current-voltage characteristics exhibit NDC, for which we identify atom number-dependent tunneling as a new microscopic mechanism. Our study opens new ways for the future implementation and control of complex neutral atom quantum circuits. PMID:26274404

  18. Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H R; Demler, E

    2016-03-11

    Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra. PMID:27015490

  19. Mesoscopic Rydberg Impurity in an Atomic Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Richard; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Demler, E.

    2016-03-01

    Giant impurity excitations are powerful probes for exploring new regimes of far out of equilibrium dynamics in few- and many-body quantum systems, and in situ observations of correlations. Motivated by recent experimental progress in spectroscopic studies of Rydberg excitations in ultracold atoms, we develop a new theoretical approach for describing multiscale dynamics of Rydberg excitations in quantum Bose gases. We find that the crossover from few- to many-body dynamics manifests in a dramatic change in spectral profile from resolved molecular lines to broad Gaussian distributions representing a superpolaronic state in which many atoms bind to the Rydberg impurity. We discuss signatures of this crossover in the temperature and density dependence of the spectra.

  20. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions.

  1. Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566

  2. A Gas Chromatography Experiment for Proving the Application of Quantum Symmetry Restrictions in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dosiere, M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment in which gas chromatography is used to prove the application of quantum symmetry restrictions in homonuclear diatomic molecules. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical computed values show good agreement, within one to two

  3. The Hidden Symmetries of Spin-1 Ising Lattice Gas for Usual Quantum Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payandeh, Farrin

    2016-02-01

    In this letter, the most common quantum Hamiltonian is exploited in order to compare the definite equivalences, corresponding to possible spin values in a lattice gas model, to those in a spin-1 Ising model. Our approach also requires interpolating both results in a p-state clock model, in order to find the hidden symmetries of both under consideration models.

  4. Underbarrier nucleation kinetics in a metastable quantum liquid near the liquid-gas spinodal line

    SciTech Connect

    Burmistrov, S.N.; Dubovskii, L.B.; Okuda, Y.

    2005-02-01

    We develop a theory that incorporates the relaxation properties of a condensed medium into the quantum decay of a metastable liquid near the liquid-gas spinodal line at low temperatures. We find that both the regime and the rate of quantum nucleation strongly depend on the relaxation time and its temperature behavior. The quantum nucleation rate slows down with decreasing relaxation time. We also discuss the low-temperature experiments on cavitation in normal {sup 3}He and superfluid {sup 4}He at negative pressures. It is the drastic distinctions in the properties of the high-frequency sound mode and in the temperature behavior of the relaxation time that make the quantum cavitation kinetics in {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He completely different.

  5. Creating a quantum degenerate gas of stable molecules via weak photoassociation

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, Matt; Phou, Pierre

    2010-07-15

    Quantum degenerate molecules represent a new paradigm for fundamental studies and practical applications. Association of already quantum degenerate atoms into molecules provides a crucial shortcut around the difficulty of cooling molecules to ultracold temperatures. Whereas association can be induced with either laser or magnetic fields, photoassociation requires impractical laser intensity to overcome poor overlap between the atom pair and molecular wave functions, and experiments are currently restricted to magnetoassociation. Here we model realistic production of a quantum degenerate gas of stable molecules via two-photon photoassociation of Bose-condensed atoms. An adiabatic change of the laser frequency converts the initial atomic condensate almost entirely into stable molecular condensate, even for low-intensity lasers. Results for dipolar LiNa provide an upper bound on the necessary photoassociation laser intensity for alkali-metal atoms {approx}30 W/cm{sup 2}, indicating a feasible path to quantum degenerate molecules beyond magnetoassociation.

  6. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Song, Huaibing; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-01

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H2S gas exposure when operated at 70 °C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H2S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  7. Chemiresistive gas sensors employing solution-processed metal oxide quantum dot films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Shao, Gang; Zhang, Wenkai; Wei, Wendian; He, Mingze; Song, Huaibing; Gao, Liang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2014-10-20

    We report low-temperature chemiresistive gas sensors based on tin oxide colloidal quantum dots (CQDs), in which the benefits of CQDs such as extremely small crystal size, solution-processability, and tunable surface activity are exploited to enhance the gas-sensing effect. The sensor fabrication is simply employing spin-coating followed by a solid-state ligand exchange treatment at room temperature in air ambient. The optimal gas sensor exhibited rapid and significant decrease in resistance upon H{sub 2}S gas exposure when operated at 70?C, and it was fully recoverable upon gas release. We observed a power law correlation between the sensor response and H{sub 2}S gas concentration, and the sensing mechanism was discussed using the completely depletion model with a flat band diagram.

  8. Negative Differential Conductivity in an Interacting Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, Bodhaditya; Labouvie, Ralf; Heun, Simon; Wimberger, Sandro; Ott, Herwig

    2015-05-01

    Negative differential conductivity (NDC) is a widely exploited mechanism in many areas of research dealing with particle and energy transport. We experimentally realize such a many body quantum transport system based on ultracold atoms in a periodic potential. We prepare our system by loading Bose condensed rubidium atoms in a 1D optical lattice with high atom occupancy per lattice site. Subsequently, we remove all the atoms from a central lattice site. While the atoms from neighboring sites tunnel into the empty site, we observe NDC in the resulting current voltage characteristics and investigate the microscopic mechanism behind it.

  9. Creation and Detection of a Mesoscopic Gas in a Nonlocal Quantum Superposition

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christoph; Castin, Yvan

    2009-01-09

    We investigate the scattering of a quantum matter wave soliton on a barrier in a one-dimensional geometry, and we show that it can lead to mesoscopic quantum superposition states, where the atomic gas is in a coherent superposition of being in the half-space to the left of the barrier and being in the half-space to the right of the barrier. We propose an interferometric method to reveal the coherent nature of this superposition, and we discuss in detail the experimental feasibility.

  10. Quantum enhancement of spin drag in a Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, S. B.; Groot, A.; Bons, P. C.; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.; van der Straten, P.

    2015-11-01

    In spintronics the active control and manipulation of spin currents is studied in solid-state systems. Opposed to charge currents, spin currents are strongly damped due to collisions between different spin carriers in addition to relaxation due to impurities and lattice vibrations. The phenomenon of relaxation of spin currents is called spin drag. Here we study spin drag in ultra-cold bosonic atoms deep in the hydrodynamic regime and show that spin drag is the dominant damping mechanism for spin currents in this system. By increasing the phase space density we find that spin drag is enhanced in the quantum regime by more than a factor of two due to Bose stimulation, which is in agreement with recent theoretical predictions and, surprisingly, already occurs considerably above the phase transition.

  11. ``Ideal'' Engineering Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianshu; Morris, J. W., Jr.; Nagasako, N.; Kuramoto, S.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2007-03-01

    A newly discovered group of alloys, called Gum Metals, approaches ideal strength in bulk form, exhibits significant plastic deformation prior to failure, and shows no indications of conventional-dislocation activity. Two conditions must be met for a material to exhibit this ideal behavior: (1) the stress required to trigger conventional-dislocation plasticity in the material must exceed its ideal strength, and (2) the material must be intrinsically ductile when stressed to ideal strength. Gum Metals satisfy both criteria, explaining their remarkable mechanical properties.

  12. Ideals and category typicality.

    PubMed

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L

    2011-09-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often have unusual attributes. Because past studies on ideals were largely correlational and often used categories not strongly associated to goals (e.g., tree, bird, fish), we took an experimental approach, using categories with obvious goals. Our results indicated that exemplars having goal-fulfilling characteristics are generally judged as less typical than exemplars with average features. Also, although subjects had a general consensus on the ideals of neutral and positive categories, they held opposing opinions on the ideals of the negatively valenced categories. We found that this bimodality in idealness perception was due to differing perspectives taken on the categories; however, perspectives that changed idealness of category exemplars did not influence their typicality. In short, ideal exemplars that best serve category goals are not necessarily perceived as typical. We contrast the goal-fulfilling aspect of ideals with the structural notion of extreme values (e.g., very tall trees), which may influence typicality through other mechanisms. PMID:21767059

  13. Quantum gas microscopy with spin, atom-number, and multilayer readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M. Eric; Simon, Jonathan; Greiner, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Atom- and site-resolved experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a powerful platform for the simulation of strongly correlated materials. In this Rapid Communication, we present a toolbox for the preparation, control, and site-resolved detection of a tunnel-coupled bilayer degenerate quantum gas. Using a collisional blockade, we engineer occupation-dependent interplane transport which enables us to circumvent light-assisted pair loss during imaging and count n =0 to n =3 atoms per site. We obtain the first number- and site-resolved images of the Mott insulator "wedding cake" structure and observe the emergence of antiferromagnetic ordering across a magnetic quantum phase transition. We are further able to employ the bilayer system for spin-resolved readout of a mixture of two hyperfine states. This work opens the door to direct detection of entanglement and Kosterlitz-Thouless-type phase dynamics, as well as studies of coupled planar quantum materials.

  14. Observation of Scaling in the Dynamics of a Strongly Quenched Quantum Gas.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, E; Karl, M; Höfer, M; Johnson, A; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Tomkovič, J; Gasenzer, T; Oberthaler, M K

    2015-12-11

    We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments. PMID:26705638

  15. Observation of Scaling in the Dynamics of a Strongly Quenched Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, E.; Karl, M.; Hfer, M.; Johnson, A.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Tomkovi?, J.; Gasenzer, T.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments.

  16. Quantum Oscillations in an Interfacial 2D Electron Gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingop; Lu, Ping; Liu, Henan; Lin, Jiao; Ye, Zhenyu; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Yuan, Huiqiu; Wu, Huizhen; Pan, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) may exist in SnTe and Pb1-xSnxTe thin films [1]. To date, most studies on TCIs were carried out either in bulk crystals or thin films, and no research activity has been explored in heterostructures. We present here the results on electronic transport properties of the 2D electron gas (2DEG) realized at the interfaces of PbTe/ CdTe (111) heterostructures. Evidence of topological state in this interfacial 2DEG was observed.

  17. Gas Permeability and Ideal Selectivity of Poly[bis-(phenoxy)phosphazene], Poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene], and Poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; John R. Klaehn; Frederick F. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Described in this paper is the synthesis and gas permeability characterization of poly[bis-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)phosphazene], and poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene]. In general, linear chloro-containing polyphosphazenes are hydrolytically unstable. However, in this work, a novel polymer, poly[bis-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenoxy)1.2(chloro)0.8phosphazene], was observed to have an unusually high degree of hydrolytic stability and excellent membrane formation characteristics. Data derived from these polymers were compared to that of the more common poly[(bis-phenoxy)phosphazene]. These comparisons showed higher gas permeabilities and ideal separation factors for both of the alkyl-substituted phenoxy-phosphazenes, thus validating the concept that adding sterically bulky pendant groups to phosphazenes can affect membrane performance through disruption of orderly chain packing. Chemical characterization of these polymers was conducted using NMR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, helium pycnometry, elemental analysis, and multi-angle laser light scattering. Membranes were formed by solution casting and were characterized for their pure gas permeability using the following gases: H2, Ar, N2, O2, CH4, CO2, and H2S. Additionally, ideal selectivities of the significant O2/N2 and CO2/CH4 gas pairs are discussed.

  18. Ideals and Category Typicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, ShinWoo; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    Barsalou (1985) argued that exemplars that serve category goals become more typical category members. Although this claim has received support, we investigated (a) whether categories have a single ideal, as negatively valenced categories (e.g., cigarette) often have conflicting goals, and (b) whether ideal items are in fact typical, as they often

  19. Quantum gases. Observation of Fermi surface deformation in a dipolar quantum gas.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, K; Baier, S; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Ravensbergen, C; Ferlaino, F

    2014-09-19

    In the presence of isotropic interactions, the Fermi surface of an ultracold Fermi gas is spherical. Introducing anisotropic interactions can deform the Fermi surface, but the effect is subtle and challenging to observe experimentally. Here, we report on the observation of a Fermi surface deformation in a degenerate dipolar Fermi gas of erbium atoms. The deformation is caused by the interplay between strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and the Pauli exclusion principle. We demonstrate the many-body nature of the effect and its tunability with the Fermi energy. Our observation provides a basis for future studies on anisotropic many-body phenomena in normal and superfluid phases. PMID:25237096

  20. Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensing Application of GRAPHENE/Y2O3 Quantum Dots Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemade, K. R.; Waghuley, S. A.

    Graphene/Y2O3 quantum dots (QDs) composite was investigated towards the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas at room temperature. Graphene synthesized by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite. The composite prepared by mixing 20-wt% graphene into the 1 g Y2O3 in organic medium (acetone). The chemiresistor of composite prepared by screen-printing on glass substrate. The optimum value of sensing response (1.08) was showed by 20-wt% graphene/Y2O3 QDs composite. The excellent stability with optimum sensing response evidenced for the composite. The gas sensing mechanism discussed on the basis of electron transfer reaction.

  1. Solution-Processed Gas Sensors Employing SnO2 Quantum Dot/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Wenkai; Yu, Haoxiong; Gao, Liang; Song, Zhilong; Xu, Songman; Li, Min; Wang, Yang; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang

    2016-01-13

    Solution-processed SnO2 colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged as an important new class of gas-sensing materials due to their potential for low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. Here we employed the design strategy based on the synergetic effect from highly sensitive SnO2 CQDs and excellent conductive properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to overcome the transport barrier in CQD gas sensors. The attachment and coverage of SnO2 CQDs on the MWCNT surfaces were achieved by simply mixing the presynthesized SnO2 CQDs and MWCNTs at room temperature. Compared to the pristine SnO2 CQDs, the sensor based on SnO2 quantum dot/MWCNT nanocomposites exhibited a higher response upon exposure to H2S, and the response toward 50 ppm of H2S at 70 °C was 108 with the response and recovery time being 23 and 44 s. Because of the favorable energy band alignment, the MWCNTs can serve as the acceptor of the electrons that are injected from H2S into SnO2 quantum dots in addition to the charge transport highway to direct the electron flow to the electrode, thereby enhancing the sensor response. Our research results open an easy pathway for developing highly sensitive and low-cost gas sensors. PMID:26652646

  2. University student and K-12 teacher reasoning about the basic tenets of kinetic-molecular theory, Part I: Volume of an ideal gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Amy D.; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2013-04-01

    This article reports on a long-term investigation of student and teacher reasoning about the basic tenets of kinetic-molecular theory as they relate to the concept of volume. This research grew out of the finding that university-level students and practicing K-12 teachers often treat the volume of a gas as different from that of its enclosing container. We examined the extent to which this tendency might be associated with incorrect reasoning about the motions of the particles in the gas. The results suggest that teachers and students often justify incorrect answers about the volume of a gas with incorrect statements about the motion of gas particles.

  3. Quantum State-Resolved Reactive and Inelastic Scattering at Gas-Liquid and Gas-Solid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grtter, Monika; Nelson, Daniel J.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum state-resolved reactive and inelastic scattering at gas-liquid and gas-solid interfaces has become a research field of considerable interest in recent years. The collision and reaction dynamics of internally cold gas beams from liquid or solid surfaces is governed by two main processes, impulsive scattering (IS), where the incident particles scatter in a few-collisions environment from the surface, and trapping-desorption (TD), where full equilibration to the surface temperature (T{TD}? T{s}) occurs prior to the particles' return to the gas phase. Impulsive scattering events, on the other hand, result in significant rotational, and to a lesser extent vibrational, excitation of the scattered molecules, which can be well-described by a Boltzmann-distribution at a temperature (T{IS}>>T{s}). The quantum-state resolved detection used here allows the disentanglement of the rotational, vibrational, and translational degrees of freedom of the scattered molecules. The two examples discussed are (i) reactive scattering of monoatomic fluorine from room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and (ii) inelastic scattering of benzene from a heated (500 K) gold surface. In the former experiment, rovibrational states of the nascent HF beam are detected using direct infrared absorption spectroscopy, and in the latter, a resonace-enhanced multi-photon-ionization (REMPI) scheme is employed in combination with a velocity-map imaging (VMI) device, which allows the detection of different vibrational states of benzene excited during the scattering process. M. E. Saecker, S. T. Govoni, D. V. Kowalski, M. E. King and G. M. Nathanson Science 252, 1421, 1991. A. M. Zolot, W. W. Harper, B. G. Perkins, P. J. Dagdigian and D. J. Nesbitt J. Chem. Phys 125, 021101, 2006. J. R. Roscioli and D. J. Nesbitt Faraday Disc. 150, 471, 2011.

  4. NMR dynamics of quantum discord for spin-carrying gas molecules in a closed nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2014-11-15

    A local orthogonal transformation that transforms any centrosymmetric density matrix of a two-qubit system to the X form has been found. A piecewise-analytic-numerical formula Q = min(Q{sub ?/2}, Q{sub ?}, Q{sub 0}), where Q{sub ?/2} and Q{sub 0} are analytical expressions and the branch Q{sub 0?} can be obtained only by numerically searching for the optimal measurement angle ? ? (0, ?/2), is proposed to calculate the quantum discord Q of a general X state. The developed approaches have been applied for a quantitative description of the recently predicted flickering (periodic disappearance and reappearance) of the quantum-information pair correlation between nuclear 1/2 spins of atoms or molecules of a gas (for example, {sup 129}Xe) in a bounded volume in the presence of a strong magnetic field.

  5. Coherent multi-flavour spin dynamics in a fermionic quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauser, Jasper S.; Heinze, Jannes; Flschner, Nick; Gtze, Sren; Jrgensen, Ole; Lhmann, Dirk-Sren; Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    Microscopic spin-interaction processes are fundamental for global static and dynamical magnetic properties of many-body systems. Quantum gases as pure and well-isolated systems offer intriguing possibilities to study basic magnetic processes including non-equilibrium dynamics. Here, we report on the realization of a well-controlled fermionic spinor gas in an optical lattice with tunable effective spin ranging from 1/2 to 9/2. We observe long-lived intrinsic spin oscillations and investigate the transition from two-body to many-body dynamics. The latter involves a complex interplay of spin and spatial degrees of freedom and implies an instability of an initially band insulating state. Using an external magnetic field we control the dimensionality of the system and tune the spin oscillations in and out of resonance. Our results open new routes to study quantum magnetism of fermionic particles beyond conventional spin 1/2 systems.

  6. Quantum Dots for Velocity and Thermal Measurements in both Liquid and Gas Microflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Breuer, Kenneth

    2006-11-01

    Micro/nano-scale velocity and temperature measurements are demonstrated using quantum dots (QDs). The small size and well-described temperature variation of QDs make them attractive thermal-fluid probes for micro and nanoscale systems. Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) has been demonstrated previously using nanometer-sized QDs and in this talk we present results from both liquid and gas phase flows, demonstrating improved optical detection and statistical particle tracking techniques. QDs are also known to exhibit intensity variations with temperature due to changes in quantum efficiency. We present results on the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields based on these intensity variations. Using a single intensified camera as a detector, coupled to an image-splitting two-color filter system to separate images by wavelength, we show that it is possible to combine measurements of both velocity and temperature.

  7. Fractional Quantum Hall Effects in a Two-Dimensional Atomic Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianshi; Jacome, Louis; Gemelke, Nathan

    2014-03-01

    Fractional Hall effects in two-dimensional electron gases have dramatically altered the way we look at ordering in quantum many body systems. Despite heroic advances since their discovery, many predictions regarding unique behavior have yet to be observed. We describe new efforts to produce similar effects in cold atomic Bose gases. Previous experiments have observed strong correlation in large ensembles of rapidly rotating few body samples consistent with a description using bosonic analogues of fractional hall states. We describe extensions of these experiments to observe individual systems in a quantum gas micropscope, introduce strong interactions through Feshbach resonance, and extend effects to larger numbers of atoms. The use of impurity atoms to probe fractional hall droplets will also be discussed, as will the extension of these effects to higher spin samples by using multiple internal states of Rubidium-87.

  8. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Stephan; Wuester, Wolf; Haupt, Florian; Faelt, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Imamoglu, Ataç

    2014-10-17

    Light-matter interaction has played a central role in understanding as well as engineering new states of matter. Reversible coupling of excitons and photons enabled groundbreaking results in condensation and superfluidity of nonequilibrium quasiparticles with a photonic component. We investigated such cavity-polaritons in the presence of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, exhibiting strongly correlated phases. When the cavity was on resonance with the Fermi level, we observed previously unknown many-body physics associated with a dynamical hole-scattering potential. In finite magnetic fields, polaritons show distinct signatures of integer and fractional quantum Hall ground states. Our results lay the groundwork for probing nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum Hall states and exploiting the electron density dependence of polariton splitting so as to obtain ultrastrong optical nonlinearities. PMID:25278508

  9. Trace-gas sensing using the compliance voltage of an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2013-06-04

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are increasingly being used to detect, identify, and measure levels of trace gases in the air. External cavity QCLs (ECQCLs) provide a broadly-tunable infrared source to measure absorption spectra of chemicals and provide high detection sensitivity and identification confidence. Applications include detecting chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, monitoring building air quality, measuring greenhouse gases for atmospheric research, monitoring and controlling industrial processes, analyzing chemicals in exhaled breath for medical diagnostics, and many more. Compact, portable trace gas sensors enable in-field operation in a wide range of platforms, including handheld units for use by first responders, fixed installations for monitoring air quality, and lightweight sensors for deployment in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We present experimental demonstration of a new chemical sensing technique based on intracavity absorption in an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL). This new technique eliminates the need for an infrared photodetector and gas cell by detecting the intracavity absorption spectrum in the compliance voltage of the laser device itself. To demonstrate and characterize the technique, we measure infrared absorption spectra of chemicals including water vapor and Freon-134a. Sub-ppm detection limits in one second are achieved, with the potential for increased sensitivity after further optimization. The technique enables development of handheld, high-sensitivity, and high-accuracy trace gas sensors for in-field use.

  10. Quantum oscillations in the kinetic energy density: Gradient corrections from the Airy gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindmaa, A.; Mattsson, A. E.; Armiento, R.

    2014-08-01

    We derive a closed-form expression for the quantum corrections to the kinetic energy density in the Thomas-Fermi limit of a linear potential model system in three dimensions (the Airy gas). The universality of the expression is tested numerically in a number of three-dimensional model systems: (i) jellium surfaces, (ii) confinement in a hydrogenlike potential (the Bohr atom), (iii) particles confined by a harmonic potential in one and (iv) all three dimensions, and (v) a system with a cosine potential (the Mathieu gas). Our results confirm that the usual gradient expansion of extended Thomas-Fermi theory does not describe the quantum oscillations for systems that incorporate surface regions where the electron density drops off to zero. We find that the correction derived from the Airy gas is universally applicable to relevant spatial regions of systems of types (i), (ii), and (iv), but somewhat surprisingly not (iii). We discuss possible implications of our findings to the development of functionals for the kinetic energy density.

  11. Chemical dynamics in the gas phase : quantum mechanics of chemical reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    This research program focuses on both the development and application of accurate quantum mechanical methods to describe gas phase chemical reactions and highly excited molecules. Emphasis is often placed on time-dependent or integrative approaches that, in addition to computational simplifications, yield useful mechanistic insights. Applications to systems of current experimental and theoretical interest are emphasized. The results of these calculations also allow one to gauge the quality of the underlying potential energy surfaces and the reliability of more approximate theoretical approaches such as classical trajectories and transition state theories.

  12. The Ideal Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jervis, Jane L.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the faculty appointment system at Evergreen State College (Washington), which does not have tenure, academic departments, or academic ranks, in light of an ideal system that might have a core of long-term faculty supplemented by short-term faculty. It considers the need to balance institutional flexibility with faculty

  13. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  14. Carrier gas effects on the SiGe quantum dots formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-H.; Yu, C.-Y.; Lin, C. M.; Liu, C. W.; Lin, H.; Chang, W.-H.

    2008-07-01

    SiGe quantum dots (QDs) grown by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition using H 2 and He carrier gases are investigated and compared. SiGe QDs using He carrier gas have smaller dot size with a better uniformity in terms of dot height and dot base as compared to the H 2 carrier gas. There is a higher Ge composition and less compressive strain in the SiGe QDs grown in He than in H 2 as measured by Raman spectroscopy. The Ge content is higher for He growth than H 2 growth due to hydrogen induced Si segregation and the lower interdiffusivity caused by the more strain relaxation in the He-grown SiGe dots. The photoluminescence also confirms more compressive strain for H 2 growth than He growth. Hydrogen passivation and Ge-H cluster formation play an important role in the QDs growth.

  15. Optically multiplexed multi-gas detection using quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anadi; Prasanna, Manu; Lane, Michael; Go, Rowel; Dunayevskiy, Ilya; Tsekoun, Alexei; Patel, C Kumar N

    2008-09-20

    We report high-throughput, nondispersive optical multiplexing of laser beams using a scanning galvanometer. We have utilized this technique for multispecies trace-gas detection using multiple quantum cascade laser photoacoustic spectroscopy. We demonstrate switching from one laser to another in less than 1 s, a performance level needed for a comprehensive multispecies sensor, and a high signal-to-noise ratio detection of five gaseous components, NH(3), NO(2), dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP, a simulant for nerve agents), acetone, and ethylene glycol, in a room air gas mixture containing approximately 3 ppb of NH(3), approximately 8 ppb of NO(2), approximately 20 ppb of DMMP, approximately 30 ppb of acetone, and approximately 40 ppb of ethylene glycol. PMID:18806847

  16. Quantum anomaly, universal relations, and breathing mode of a two-dimensional Fermi gas.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we show that the classical SO(2,1) symmetry of a harmonically trapped Fermi gas in two dimensions is broken by quantum effects. The anomalous correction to the symmetry algebra is given by a two-body operator that is well known as the contact. Taking into account this modification, we are able to derive the virial theorem for the system and a universal relation for the pressure of a homogeneous gas. The existence of an undamped breathing mode is associated with the classical symmetry. We provide an estimate for the anomalous frequency shift of this oscillation at zero temperature and compare the result with a recent experiment by [E. Vogt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 070404 (2012)]. Discrepancies are attributed to finite temperature effects. PMID:22681087

  17. High-power and single-frequency quantum cascade lasers for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaser, Stephane; Bonetti, Yargo; Hvozdara, Lubos; Muller, Antoine; Giovannini, Marcella; Hoyler, Nicolas; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2004-01-01

    The quantum cascade laser is an unipolar semiconductor laser source emitting in the mid-infrared range between 3.5 and 25 μm. During the past ten years after their invention, this technology has reached the level of maturity required for commercialization, and QC lasers have thus become very attractive for a large number of applications, including gas sensing, pollution detection, atmospheric chemistry, detection of compounds, non-invasive medical diagnostics, free-space optical data transmission or even LIDAR. Most common requirements are single-mode operation on thermoelectric cooler, high power and/or continuous-wave. Nowadays several high-power single-mode QC lasers are available at Alpes Lasers in the range from 4.3 to 16.5 μm, with a side-mode suppression ratio larger than 30 dB. We present here a specific high-average power Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser and a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser operating near 8 μm.

  18. Measuring the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas undergoing a structural phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Landig, Renate; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic structure factor is a central quantity describing the physics of quantum many-body systems, capturing structure and collective excitations of a material. In condensed matter, it can be measured via inelastic neutron scattering, which is an energy-resolving probe for the density fluctuations. In ultracold atoms, a similar approach could so far not be applied because of the diluteness of the system. Here we report on a direct, real-time and nondestructive measurement of the dynamic structure factor of a quantum gas exhibiting cavity-mediated long-range interactions. The technique relies on inelastic scattering of photons, stimulated by the enhanced vacuum field inside a high finesse optical cavity. We extract the density fluctuations, their energy and lifetime while the system undergoes a structural phase transition. We observe an occupation of the relevant quasi-particle mode on the level of a few excitations, and provide a theoretical description of this dissipative quantum many-body system. PMID:25944151

  19. Life cycle of superfluid vortices and quantum turbulence in the unitary Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlaz?owski, Gabriel; Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Roche, Kenneth J.

    2015-03-01

    The unitary Fermi gas (UFG) offers a unique opportunity to study quantum turbulence both experimentally and theoretically in a strongly interacting fermionic superfluid with the highest vortex line density of any known superfluid. It yields to accurate and controlled experiments and admits the only dynamical microscopic description via time-dependent density-functional theory, apart from dilute bosonic gases, of the crossing and reconnection of superfluid vortex lines conjectured by Feynman [R. P. Feynman, Prog. Low Temp. Phys. 1, 17 (1955), 10.1016/S0079-6417(08)60077-3] to be at the origin of quantum turbulence in superfluids at zero temperature. We demonstrate how various vortex configurations can be generated by using well-established experimental techniques: laser stirring and phase imprinting. New imaging techniques demonstrated by Ku et al. [M. J. H. Ku et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 065301 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.065301] should be able to directly visualize these crossings and reconnections in greater detail than performed so far in liquid helium. We demonstrate the critical role played by the geometry of the trap in the formation and dynamics of a vortex in the UFG and how laser stirring and phase imprint can be used to create vortex tangles with clear signatures of the onset of quantum turbulence.

  20. An ytterbium quantum gas microscope with narrow-line laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Ryuta; Kobayashi, Jun; Kuno, Takuma; Kato, Kohei; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic {}174{Yb} atoms in a Hubbard-regime two-dimensional optical lattice with a short lattice constant of 266 nm. To suppress the heating by probe light with the 1S0–1P1 transition of the wavelength λ = 399 nm for high-resolution imaging and preserve atoms at the same lattice sites during the fluorescence imaging, we simultaneously cool atoms by additionally applying narrow-line optical molasses with the 1S0–3P1 transition of the wavelength λ = 556 nm. We achieve a low temperature of T=7.4(13) μ {{K}}, corresponding to a mean oscillation quantum number along the horizontal axes of 0.22(4) during the imaging process. We detect, on average, 200 fluorescence photons from a single atom within a 400 ms exposure time, and estimate a detection fidelity of 87(2)%. The realization of a quantum gas microscope with enough fidelity for Yb atoms in a Hubbard-regime optical lattice opens up the possibilities for studying various kinds of quantum many-body systems such as Bose and Fermi gases, and their mixtures, and also long-range-interacting systems such as Rydberg states.

  1. Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Macfarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2016-02-01

    We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0–70% for propane and 0–90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5 μm utilizing a 10 cm gas cell in double pass configuration.

  2. Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0-70% for propane and 0-90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5??m utilizing a 10?cm gas cell in double pass configuration. PMID:26887891

  3. Multi-quantum excitation in optically pumped alkali atom: rare gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally-Kinney, K. L.; Rawlins, W. T.; Davis, S. J.

    2014-03-01

    Diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) technology offers a means of achieving high-energy gas laser output through optical pumping of the D-lines of Cs, Rb, and K. The exciplex effect, based on weak attractive forces between alkali atoms and polarizable rare gas atoms (Ar, Kr, Xe), provides an alternative approach via broadband excitation of exciplex precursors (XPAL). In XPAL configurations, we have observed multi-quantum excitation within the alkali manifolds which result in infrared emission lines between 1 and 4 μm. The observed excited states include the 42FJ states of both Cs and Rb, which are well above the two-photon energy of the excitation laser in each case. We have observed fluorescence from multi-quantum states for excitation wavelengths throughout the exciplex absorption bands of Cs-Ar, Cs-Kr, and Cs-Xe. The intensity scaling is roughly first-order or less in both pump power and alkali concentration, suggesting a collisional energy pooling excitation mechanism. Collisional up-pumping appears to present a parasitic loss term for optically pumped atomic systems at high intensities, however there may also be excitation of other lasing transitions at infrared wavelengths.

  4. Mid-infrared surface transmitting and detecting quantum cascade device for gas-sensing

    PubMed Central

    Harrer, Andreas; Szedlak, Rolf; Schwarz, Benedikt; Moser, Harald; Zederbauer, Tobias; MacFarland, Donald; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2016-01-01

    We present a bi-functional surface emitting and surface detecting mid-infrared device applicable for gas-sensing. A distributed feedback ring quantum cascade laser is monolithically integrated with a detector structured from a bi-functional material for same frequency lasing and detection. The emitted single mode radiation is collimated, back reflected by a flat mirror and detected by the detector element of the sensor. The surface operation mode combined with the low divergence emission of the ring quantum cascade laser enables for long analyte interaction regions spatially separated from the sample surface. The device enables for sensing of gaseous analytes which requires a relatively long interaction region. Our design is suitable for 2D array integration with multiple emission and detection frequencies. Proof of principle measurements with isobutane (2-methylpropane) and propane as gaseous analytes were conducted. Detectable concentration values of 0–70% for propane and 0–90% for isobutane were reached at a laser operation wavelength of 6.5 μm utilizing a 10 cm gas cell in double pass configuration. PMID:26887891

  5. High-power, micro-integrated diode laser modules at 767 and 780 nm for portable quantum gas experiments.

    PubMed

    Schiemangk, Max; Lampmann, Kai; Dinkelaker, Aline; Kohfeldt, Anja; Krutzik, Markus; Kürbis, Christian; Sahm, Alexander; Spießberger, Stefan; Wicht, Andreas; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther; Peters, Achim

    2015-06-10

    We present micro-integrated diode laser modules operating at wavelengths of 767 and 780 nm for cold quantum gas experiments on potassium and rubidium. The master-oscillator-power-amplifier concept provides both narrow linewidth emission and high optical output power. With a linewidth (10 μs) below 1 MHz and an output power of up to 3 W, these modules are specifically suited for quantum optics experiments and feature the robustness required for operation at a drop tower or on-board a sounding rocket. This technology development hence paves the way toward precision quantum optics experiments in space. PMID:26192832

  6. Transport studies of reentrant integer quantum Hall states forming in the two-dimensional electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Nianpei

    The two dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic field has been a model system in contemporary condensed matter physics which generated many beautiful experiments as well as novel fundamental concepts. These novel concepts are of broad interests and have benefited other fields of research. For example, the observations of conventional odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall states have enriched many-body physics with important concepts such as fractional statistics and composite fermions. The subsequent discovery of the enigmatic even-denominator nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state has led to more interesting concepts such as non-Abelian statistics and pairing of composite fermions which can be intimately connected to the electron pairing in superconductivity. Moreover, the observations of stripe phases and reentrant integer quantum Hall states have stimulated research on exotic electron solids which have more intricate structures than the Wigner Crystal. In contrast to fractional quantum Hall states and stripes phases, the reentrant integer quantum Hall states are very little studied and their ground states are the least understood. There is a lack of basic information such as exact filling factors, temperature dependence and energy scales for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. A critical experimental condition in acquiring this information is a stable ultra-low temperature environment. In the first part of this dissertation, I will discuss our unique setup of 3He immersion cell in a state-of-art dilution refrigerator which achieves the required stability of ultra-low temperature. With this experimental setup, we are able to observe for the first time very sharp magnetotransport features of reentrant integer quantum Hall states across many Landau levels for the first time. I will firstly present our results in the second Landau level. The temperature dependence measurements reveal a surprisingly sharp peak signature that is unique to the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. Such a peak signature allows us to define the energy scale of reentrant integer quantum Hall state. An analysis of the energy scales indicate the collective nature of electron solid states. In the following I will present our results in the third Landau level and higher Landau levels which are used in testing the bubble theory predictions for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. Currently there is no direct experimental probe of the microscopic structures of the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. Instead, by contrasting their energy scales, we find that certain predictions of the bubble theory are at odds with experimental data in the low Landau level limit. Furthermore, an orbital dependent energy scale from the second Landau level to the fifth Landau level is found which will provide useful insights in determining the bubble structures of these reentrant integer quantum Hall states. It must be appreciated that the reentrant integer quantum Hall states have only been observed in the cleanest GaAs/AlGaAs samples. While the highest electron mobility has been achieved in this system by Molecular Beam Epitaxy technique, further improvements are still necessary to facilitate the study of fragile many-body ground states. However, it is little understood that how different disorder which limits the electron mobility affects the strength of the many-body ground states. In the second part of this dissertation, I will present our work on the impact of alloy disorder on the nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state. This work is conducted in a series of specially engineered GaAs/AlGaAs samples with controllable alloy disorder. We are able to quantitatively measure the suppression of the nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state by alloy disorder scattering. Surprisingly, the nu=5/2 state is found to develop at significantly reduced mobility compared with the empirical mobility threshold according to prior experiments. An analysis of the results indicates that the short-range alloy disorder and the long-range Coulomb disorder play different roles in the formation of the nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state.

  7. Ideal Integrating Bolometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; DiPirro, M.; Moseley, S. H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a new "ideal integrator" bolometer as a prototype for a new generation of sensitive, flexible far-IR detectors suitable for use in large arrays. The combination of a non-dissipative sensor coupled with a fast heat switch provides breakthrough capabilities in both sensitivity and operation. The bolometer temperature varies linearly with the integrated infrared power incident on the detector, and may be sampled intermittently without loss of information between samples. The sample speed and consequent dynamic range depend only on the heat switch reset cycle and can be selected in software. Between samples, the device acts as an ideal integrator with noise significantly lower than resistive bolometers. Since there is no loss of information between samples, the device is well-suited for large arrays. A single SQUID readout could process an entire column of detectors, greatly reducing the complexity, power requirements, and cost of readout electronics for large pixel arrays.

  8. Ideal evaluation from coevolution.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Edwin D; Pollack, Jordan B

    2004-01-01

    In many problems of interest, performance can be evaluated using tests, such as examples in concept learning, test points in function approximation, and opponents in game-playing. Evaluation on all tests is often infeasible. Identification of an accurate evaluation or fitness function is a difficult problem in itself, and approximations are likely to introduce human biases into the search process. Coevolution evolves the set of tests used for evaluation, but has so far often led to inaccurate evaluation. We show that for any set of learners, a Complete Evaluation Set can be determined that provides ideal evaluation as specified by Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization. This provides a principled approach to evaluation in coevolution, and thereby brings automatic ideal evaluation within reach. The Complete Evaluation Set is of manageable size, and progress towards it can be accurately measured. Based on this observation, an algorithm named DELPHI is developed. The algorithm is tested on problems likely to permit progress on only a subset of the underlying objectives. Where all comparison methods result in overspecialization, the proposed method and a variant achieve sustained progress in all underlying objectives. These findings demonstrate that ideal evaluation may be approximated by practical algorithms, and that accurate evaluation for test-based problems is possible even when the underlying objectives of a problem are unknown. PMID:15157373

  9. The ideal satellite pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N T

    1987-02-01

    The pharmacy service at the Seattle Veterans Administration Medical Center moved into a replacement facility in September 1986. A description of the present medical center and the satellite pharmacy is presented. The ideal satellite pharmacy for this medical center is then described. The satellite is discussed with respect to the satellite door, transportation systems (i.e., dumbwaiter, pneumatic tubes), communication systems (i.e., Omnifax, intercom, typewriter, telephone, computer), equipment (i.e., IV hood, refrigerator, shelving), stock, and space. Because each medical center has specific needs and equipment available, the information presented should be used as a guide when designing a satellite pharmacy. PMID:10280299

  10. Propagation of a spherical shock wave in mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles under the influence of gravitational field with conductive and radiative heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, G.

    2016-01-01

    Self-similar solutions are obtained for one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow behind a spherical shock wave propagating in a dusty gas with conductive and radiative heat fluxes under the influence of a gravitational field. The shock is assumed to be driven out by a moving piston and the dusty gas to be a mixture of non-ideal gas and small solid particles, in which solid particles are uniformly distributed. It is assumed that the equilibrium flow-conditions are maintained and variable energy input is continuously supplied by the piston. The heat conduction is expressed in terms of Fourier's law and the radiation is considered to be of the diffusion type for an optically thick grey gas model. The thermal conductivity K and the absorption coefficient αR are assumed to vary with temperature and density. The medium is assumed to be under the influence of a gravitational field due to central mass ( bar{m} ) at the origin (Roche Model). It is assumed that the gravitational effect of the mixture itself can be neglected compared with the attraction of the central mass. The initial density of the ambient medium is taken to be always constant. The effects of the variation of the gravitational parameter and nonidealness of the gas in the mixture are investigated. Also, the effects of an increase in (i) the mass concentration of solid particles in the mixture and (ii) the ratio of the density of solid particles to the initial density of the gas on the flow variables are investigated. It is shown that due to an increase in the gravitational parameter the compressibility of the medium at any point in the flow-field behind the shock decreases and all other flow variables and the shock strength are increased. Further, it is found that the presence of gravitational field increases the compressibility of the medium, due to which it is compressed and therefore the distance between the piston and the shock surface is reduced. The shock waves in dusty gas under the influence of a gravitational field can be important for description of shocks in supernova explosions, in the study of central part of star burst galaxies, nuclear explosion, star formation in shocks and shocks in stellar explosion, rupture of a pressurized vessels and explosion in the ionosphere etc. Also, the solution obtained can be used to interpret measurements carried out by spacecraft in the solar wind and in neighborhood of the Earth's surface.

  11. Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-02-08

    We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 µm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate.

  12. Ferromagnetism of a repulsive atomic Fermi gas in an optical lattice: a quantum Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Pilati, S; Zintchenko, I; Troyer, M

    2014-01-10

    Using continuous-space quantum MonteCarlo methods, we investigate the zero-temperature ferromagnetic behavior of a two-component repulsive Fermi gas under the influence of periodic potentials that describe the effect of a simple-cubic optical lattice. Simulations are performed with balanced and with imbalanced components, including the case of a single impurity immersed in a polarized Fermi sea (repulsive polaron). For an intermediate density below half filling, we locate the transitions between the paramagnetic, and the partially and fully ferromagnetic phases. As the intensity of the optical lattice increases, the ferromagnetic instability takes place at weaker interactions, indicating a possible route to observe ferromagnetism in experiments performed with ultracold atoms. We compare our findings with previous predictions based on the standard computational method used in material science, namely density functional theory, and with results based on tight-binding models. PMID:24483906

  13. Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; , G. Timothy Noe, II; McGill, Stephen A.; Wang, Yongrui; Wjcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey A.; Kono, Junichiro

    2013-11-01

    Nonequilibrium can be a source of order. This rather counterintuitive statement has been proven to be true through a variety of fluctuation-driven, self-organization behaviors exhibited by out-of-equilibrium, many-body systems in nature (physical, chemical, and biological), resulting in the spontaneous appearance of macroscopic coherence. Here, we report on the observation of spontaneous bursts of coherent radiation from a quantum-degenerate gas of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in semiconductor quantum wells. Unlike typical spontaneous emission from semiconductors, which occurs at the band edge, the observed emission occurs at the quasi-Fermi edge of the carrier distribution. As the carriers are consumed by recombination, the quasi-Fermi energy goes down toward the band edge, and we observe a continuously red-shifting streak. We interpret this emission as cooperative spontaneous recombination of electron-hole pairs, or superfluorescence (SF), which is enhanced by Coulomb interactions near the Fermi edge. This novel many-body enhancement allows the magnitude of the spontaneously developed macroscopic polarization to exceed the maximum value for ordinary SF, making electron-hole SF even more ``super'' than atomic SF.

  14. Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hee; II, G. Timothy Noe; McGill, Stephen A.; Wang, Yongrui; Wjcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey A.; Kono, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Nonequilibrium can be a source of order. This rather counterintuitive statement has been proven to be true through a variety of fluctuation-driven, self-organization behaviors exhibited by out-of-equilibrium, many-body systems in nature (physical, chemical, and biological), resulting in the spontaneous appearance of macroscopic coherence. Here, we report on the observation of spontaneous bursts of coherent radiation from a quantum-degenerate gas of nonequilibrium electron-hole pairs in semiconductor quantum wells. Unlike typical spontaneous emission from semiconductors, which occurs at the band edge, the observed emission occurs at the quasi-Fermi edge of the carrier distribution. As the carriers are consumed by recombination, the quasi-Fermi energy goes down toward the band edge, and we observe a continuously red-shifting streak. We interpret this emission as cooperative spontaneous recombination of electron-hole pairs, or superfluorescence (SF), which is enhanced by Coulomb interactions near the Fermi edge. This novel many-body enhancement allows the magnitude of the spontaneously developed macroscopic polarization to exceed the maximum value for ordinary SF, making electron-hole SF even more super than atomic SF. PMID:24257510

  15. Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Carrillo, E.

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006), 10.1038/nature04693] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed.

  16. Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons.

    PubMed

    Solano-Carrillo, E

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006)] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed. PMID:26565225

  17. Interactive Instruction on Ideal and ``Real'' Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringlein, James

    2004-02-01

    This article explores efforts to use simulation software in conjunction with peer instruction techniques toward improving student comprehension of particle interactions in ideal and "real" gases. A series of Interactive Physics simulations builds group student inquiry from small-scale ideal gas cases through larger, more realistic particle simulations. The mathematics associated with the simulations is intentionally minimized in order to focus student attention on conceptual understanding. References are made to other efforts in this educational direction, both in terms of rationale and applications. A website is cited in the Notes section containing both movie versions of the simulations, and includes the files available for download by IP users.

  18. Multi-species trace gas analysis with dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jágerská, Jana; Tuzson, Béla; Looser, Herbert; Jouy, Pierre; Hugi, Andreas; Mangold, Markus; Soltic, Patrik; Faist, Jérôme; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    Simultaneous detection of multiple gas species using mid-IR laser spectroscopy is highly appealing for a large variety of applications ranging from air quality monitoring, medical breath analysis to industrial process control. However, state-of-the-art distributed-feedback (DFB) mid-IR lasers are usually tunable only within a narrow spectral range, which generally leads to one-laser-one-compound measurement strategy. Thus, multi-species detection involves several lasers and elaborate beam combining solutions [1]. This makes them bulky, costly, and highly sensitive to optical alignment, which limits their field deployment. In this paper, we explore an alternative measurement concept based on a dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser (DW-QCL) [2]. Such a laser can emit at two spectrally distinct wavelengths using a succession of two DFB gratings with different periodicities and a common waveguide to produce one output beam. The laser design was optimized for NOx measurements and correspondingly emits single-mode at 5.26 and 6.25 μm. Electrical separation of the respective laser sections makes it possible to address each wavelength independently. Thereby, it is possible to detect NO and NO2 species with one laser using the same optical path, without any beam combining optics, i.e. in a compact and cost-efficient single-path optical setup. Operated in a time-division multiplexed mode, the spectrometer reaches detection limits at 100 s averaging of 0.5 and 1.5 ppb for NO2 and NO, respectively. The performance of the system was validated against the well-established chemiluminescence detection while measuring the NOx emissions on an automotive test-bench, as well as monitoring the pollution at a suburban site. [1] B. Tuzson, K. Zeyer, M. Steinbacher, J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, M. S. Zahniser, and L. Emmenegger, 'Selective measurements of NO, NO2 and NOy in the free troposphere using quantum cascade laser spectroscopy,' Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 6, 927-936 (2013). [2] J. Jágerská, P. Jouy, A. Hugi, B. Tuzson, H. Looser, M. Mangold, M. Beck, L. Emmenegger, and J. Faist, 'Dual-wavelength quantum cascade laser for trace gas spectroscopy,' Applied Physics Letters 105, 161109-161109-4 (2014).

  19. Applications of quantum chemistry to gas and solid phase reaction kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senosiain, Juan Pablo

    Chemical kinetics has nourished from the achievements of computational quantum chemistry as perhaps no other field. This thesis illustrates the application of first-principles calculations to elucidate complex reaction mechanisms, and to quantitatively simulate reaction rates. The work embodied in this dissertation encompasses several projects with very diverse applications. In some cases, quantum chemistry calculations have been used for predicting reaction rates, while in others they are used in a semi-qualitative manner to elucidate complex reaction mechanisms. The first two chapters of this dissertation explain some key theoretical concepts of quantum chemistry and chemical kinetics. They are not intended to be exhaustive or detailed, but rather to illustrate general principles that are applied in the subsequent chapters. Chapter three reviews the disperse literature on the statistical treatment of internal rotors and provides a comparison of commonly used approximations. Chapters four through six cover three areas of special interest to gas-phase kinetics: bond dissociation energies, transition state theory and unimolecular reactions, with particular emphasis on combustion and atmospheric chemistry applications. A critical assessment of reaction barriers and bond dissociation energies calculated with several ab initio methods in common use is provided in chapters four and five, respectively. Chapters seven and eight illustrate how quantum chemistry can be used to decipher complex reaction mechanisms, with applications to current and future problems in semiconductor processing. The former studies the mechanisms of boron diffusion through thin gate oxide layers in metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs). The latter investigates the details of atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactions on germanium and silicon-germanium alloys. Both of these studies are motivated by the miniaturization trend in gate oxide layers in MOSFET devices. As the device feature size is scaled down, a lower operating voltage must be applied to maintain a constant electrical field, thereby requiring a larger capacitance. The capacitance can be increased by reducing the oxide thickness (as has been happening so far) or by substituting silica in transistor gates with a new material with a higher dielectric constant.

  20. Quantum state-resolved gas/surface reaction dynamics probed by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li; Ueta, Hirokazu; Bisson, Rgis; Beck, Rainer D.

    2013-05-01

    We report the design and characterization of a new molecular-beam/surface-science apparatus for quantum state-resolved studies of gas/surface reaction dynamics combining optical state-specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage with detection of surface-bound reaction products by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). RAIRS is a non-invasive infrared spectroscopic detection technique that enables online monitoring of the buildup of reaction products on the target surface during reactant deposition by a molecular beam. The product uptake rate obtained by calibrated RAIRS detection yields the coverage dependent state-resolved reaction probability S(?). Furthermore, the infrared absorption spectra of the adsorbed products obtained by the RAIRS technique provide structural information, which help to identify nascent reaction products, investigate reaction pathways, and determine branching ratios for different pathways of a chemisorption reaction. Measurements of the dissociative chemisorption of methane on Pt(111) with this new apparatus are presented to illustrate the utility of RAIRS detection for highly detailed studies of chemical reactions at the gas/surface interface.

  1. Cavity-Enhanced Quantum-Cascade Laser-Based Instrument for Trace gas Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, R.; Gupta, M.; Owano, T.; Baer, D.; Ricci, K.; O'Keefe, A.

    2005-12-01

    An autonomous instrument based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy has been successfully deployed for measurements of CO in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data acquisition electronics, and data analysis software. The instrument reports CO mixing ratio at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41000 ft, the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights. We will also present recent development efforts to extend the instrument's capabilities for the measurements of CH4, N2O and CO in real time.

  2. Classical field records of a quantum system: Their internal consistency and accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietraszewicz, Joanna; Deuar, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    We determine the regime where the widespread classical field description for quantum Bose gases is quantitatively accurate in one dimension (1D), 2D, and 3D by a careful study of the ideal gas limit. Numerical benchmarking in 1D shows that the ideal gas results carry over unchanged into the weakly interacting gas. The optimum high-energy cutoff is in general shown to depend strongly on the observable in question (e.g., energy, density fluctuations, phase coherence length, condensate fraction). This explains the wide range of past results. A consistent classical field representation with less than 10% deviation in all typical observables can be given for systems at temperatures below 0.0064 degeneracy temperature in 1D, and 0.49 critical temperature in 3D. Surprisingly, this is not possible for the two-dimensional ideal gas even at zero temperature because mean density, density fluctuations, and energy cannot be simultaneously matched to the quantum results.

  3. Elastic molecular collision models for quantum mechanical scattering in the Monte Carlo simulation of rarefied gas flow at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2008-09-01

    Elastic molecular collision models for Monte Carlo simulation of rarefied gas flow, such as the variable hard sphere (VHS), variable soft sphere (VSS), and variable sphere (VS) molecular models, were extended to quantum mechanical scattering, and then applied to the simulation of spherical expansion of He4. The profiles of number density, flow velocity, and parallel and perpendicular kinetic temperatures obtained with the VHS, VSS, and VS models were in good agreement with those yielded by direct calculation of quantum mechanical scattering by Koura [Phys. Fluids 11, 3174 (1999)].

  4. Traces, ideals, and arithmetic means

    PubMed Central

    Kaftal, Victor; Weiss, Gary

    2002-01-01

    This article grew out of recent work of Dykema, Figiel, Weiss, and Wodzicki (Commutator structure of operator ideals) which inter alia characterizes commutator ideals in terms of arithmetic means. In this paper we study ideals that are arithmetically mean (am) stable, am-closed, am-open, soft-edged and soft-complemented. We show that many of the ideals in the literature possess such properties. We apply these notions to prove that for all the ideals considered, the linear codimension of their commutator space (the “number of traces on the ideal”) is either 0, 1, or ∞. We identify the largest ideal which supports a unique nonsingular trace as the intersection of certain Lorentz ideals. An application to elementary operators is given. We study properties of arithmetic mean operations on ideals, e.g., we prove that the am-closure of a sum of ideals is the sum of their am-closures. We obtain cancellation properties for arithmetic means: for principal ideals, a necessary and sufficient condition for first order cancellations is the regularity of the generator; for second order cancellations, sufficient conditions are that the generator satisfies the exponential Δ2-condition or is regular. We construct an example where second order cancellation fails, thus settling an open question. We also consider cancellation properties for inclusions. And we find and use lattice properties of ideals associated with the existence of “gaps.” PMID:12032287

  5. The ideal physician entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Bottles, K

    2000-01-01

    How does the sometimes elusive and high-stakes world of venture capital really work? How can physician executives with innovative ideas or new technologies approach venture capitalists to help them raise capital to form a start-up company? These important questions are explored in this new column on the physician as entrepreneur. The ideal physician executive is described as: (1) an expert in an area that Wall Street perceives as hot; (2) a public speaker who can enthusiastically communicate scientific and business plans to a variety of audiences; (3) a team leader who is willing to share equity in the company with other employees; (4) a recruiter and a motivator; (5) an implementer who can achieve milestones quickly that allow the company to go public as soon as possible; and (6) a realist who does not resent the terms of the typical deal. The lucrative world of the venture capitalists is foreign territory for physician executives and requires a great idea, charisma, risk-taking, connections, patience, and perseverance to navigate it successfully. PMID:11187408

  6. DIPPR Project 871 For 1995 - Thermodynamic Properties and Ideal-Gas Enthalpies of Formation for Methyl Benzoate, Ethyl Benzoate, (R)-(+)-Limonene, Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether, Trans-Crotonaldehyde, and

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.

    2002-07-01

    Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, (R)-(+)-limonene, tert-amyl methyl ether, trans-crotonaldehyde, and diethylene glycol are reported. The standard energy of combustion and hence standard enthalpy of formation of each compound in the liquid phase has been measured using an oxygen rotating-bomb calorimeter without rotation. Vapor pressures were measured to a pressure limit of 270 kPa or the lower decomposition point for each of the six compounds using a twin ebulliometric apparatus. Liquid-phase densities along the saturation line were measured for each compound over a range of temperature (ambient to a maximum of 548 K). A differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure two-phase (liquid + vapor) heat capacities for each compound in the temperature region ambient to the critical temperature or lower decomposition point. For methyl benzoate and tert-amyl methyl ether, critical temperatures and critical densities were determined from the DSC results and corresponding critical pressures derived from the fitting procedures. Fitting procedures were used to derive critical temperatures, critical pressures, and critical densities for each of the remaining compounds. The results of the measurements were combined to derive a series of thermophysical properties including critical temperature, critical density, critical pressure, acentric factor, enthalpies of vaporization (restricted to within {+-}50 K of the temperature region of the experimentally determined vapor pressures), and heat capacities along the saturation line. Wagner-type vapor-pressure equations were derived for each compound. All measured and derived values were compared with those obtained in a search of the literature. Recommended critical parameters are listed for each of the compounds studied. Group-additivity parameters, useful in the application of the Benson gas-phase group-contribution correlations, were derived.

  7. Space Sciences and Idealism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M.

    Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they cannot use a turn-out or epaulement for their pas-de-bra. In other words Nijinsky's dancers must live in weightlessness in order to perform what his "Partitura" (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune, version of 1916) describes. Diaghilev and Benois, platonised theorists of the Ballet Russe, suggested that the true idealised classical dance must be performed in Tiepolo's weightlessnessful manner of later Baroque. Anna Pavlova by her idiosyncrasy of parallel motion opened the New World of Aesthetics and brought it to its utmost perfection. Hence, it is natural to think that some findings of choreographers could be developed and tested in space environment. Moreover, we believe that classical ballet itself could be brought to perfection in space fter Diaghilev's reform. Correspondingly, we may await that such innovations can initiate a development of the New Grand Style in Arts, Music and Choreography free from contemporary religious and national prejudices.

  8. Size-controlled synthesis of SnO2 quantum dots and their gas-sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianping; Zhao, Ruihua; Xie, Yajuan; Li, Jinping

    2015-08-01

    Tin dioxide quantum dots (TQDs) with controllable size were synthesized by changing the amount of alkaline reagent in the hydrothermal process. The gas-sensing properties were investigated by operating chemoresistor type sensor. The morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and Raman spectrometry. The as-synthesized SnO2 shows the characteristics of quantum dots and the narrowest size distribution is about 2-3 nm. The gas-sensing results indicate that the responses are strongly dependent on the size of quantum dots. TQDs with different sizes exhibit different sensitivities and selectivities to volatile toxic chemicals such as aldehyde, acetone, methanol, ethanol and amine. Especially, when the sensors are exposed to 100 ppm triethylamine (TEA), the sensing response value of TQDs with small size is two times higher than that of the large-size TQDs. The maximum response values of TQDs to 1 ppm and 100 ppm TEA are 15 and 153, respectively. The response time is 1 s and the recovery time is 47 s upon exposure to 1 ppm TEA. The results suggest that it is an effective method by regulating the size of SnO2 quantum dots to detect low-concentration hazardous volatile compounds.

  9. FK-DLR properties of a quantum multi-type Bose-gas with a repulsive interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Suhov, Y.; Stuhl, I.

    2014-08-01

    The paper extends earlier results from Suhov and Kelbert [FK-DLR states of a quantum Bose-gas with a hardcore interaction, http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1304.0782 ] and Suhov et al. [Shift-invariance for FK-DLR states of a 2D quantum Bose-gas, http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1304.4177 ] about infinite-volume quantum bosonic states (FK-DLR states) to the case of multi-type particles with non-negative interactions. (An example is a quantum WidomRowlinson model.) Following the strategy from Suhov and Kelbert and Suhov et al., we establish that, for the values of fugacity z?(0, 1) and inverse temperature ? > 0, finite-volume Gibbs states form a compact family in the thermodynamic limit. Next, in dimension two we show that any limit-point state (an FK-DLR state in the terminology adopted in Suhov and Kelbert and Suhov et al.) is translation-invariant.

  10. Characterization of Pb₂₄Te₇₆ quantum dot thin film synthesized by inert gas condensation.

    PubMed

    Mahdy, Manal A; Mahdy, Iman A; El Zawawi, I K

    2015-01-01

    Air-stable and thermal-stable lead telluride quantum dot was successfully prepared on glass substrate by inert gas condensation (IGC) method. Argon (Ar) is the inert gas used during deposition process with a constant flow rate of 3 × 10(-3)Torr. The effect of heat-treatment process at different times was studies for structure, optical and electrical properties for nanocrystalline thin films. The structures of the as deposited and heat-treated films were investigated using grazing incident in-plane X-ray diffraction (GIIXD). The GIIXD pattern showed nanostructure face centered cubic structure of PbTe thin films. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) of as deposited PbTe thin film was carried out and showed that the atomic ratio of Pb/Te was 24/76. The particle size of the as deposited PbTe film and after stored it in an unhumid atmosphere are 6.8 ± 0.3 nm and 7.2 ± 0.3 nm respectively as estimated form TEM image (i.e. in the same level of particle size). However, the particle size was changed to be 11.8 ± 0.3 nm after heat-treated for 5h at 473K. These particle size values of PbTe thin film are smaller than its Bohr radius. The estimated value of optical band gap Eg decreased from 1.71 eV for the as deposited film to 1.62 eV for film heat-treated (5 h at 473K). The dc electrical conductivity is increased with raising temperature in the range (303-473K) for all thin films under investigation. The deduced activation energy decreased from 0.222 eV for as deposited sample to 0.125 eV after heat-treated at 473K for 5 h. PMID:25022502

  11. Characterization of Pb24Te76 quantum dot thin film synthesized by inert gas condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdy, Manal A.; Mahdy, Iman A.; El Zawawi, I. K.

    2015-01-01

    Air-stable and thermal-stable lead telluride quantum dot was successfully prepared on glass substrate by inert gas condensation (IGC) method. Argon (Ar) is the inert gas used during deposition process with a constant flow rate of 3 × 10-3 Torr. The effect of heat-treatment process at different times was studies for structure, optical and electrical properties for nanocrystalline thin films. The structures of the as deposited and heat-treated films were investigated using grazing incident in-plane X-ray diffraction (GIIXD). The GIIXD pattern showed nanostructure face centered cubic structure of PbTe thin films. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) of as deposited PbTe thin film was carried out and showed that the atomic ratio of Pb/Te was 24/76. The particle size of the as deposited PbTe film and after stored it in an unhumid atmosphere are 6.8 ± 0.3 nm and 7.2 ± 0.3 nm respectively as estimated form TEM image (i.e. in the same level of particle size). However, the particle size was changed to be 11.8 ± 0.3 nm after heat-treated for 5 h at 473 K. These particle size values of PbTe thin film are smaller than its Bohr radius. The estimated value of optical band gap Eg decreased from 1.71 eV for the as deposited film to 1.62 eV for film heat-treated (5 h at 473 K). The dc electrical conductivity is increased with raising temperature in the range (303-473 K) for all thin films under investigation. The deduced activation energy decreased from 0.222 eV for as deposited sample to 0.125 eV after heat-treated at 473 K for 5 h.

  12. Quantum chaos in ultracold collisions of gas-phase erbium atoms.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Albert; Mark, Michael; Aikawa, Kiyotaka; Ferlaino, Francesca; Bohn, John L; Makrides, Constantinos; Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-03-27

    Atomic and molecular samples reduced to temperatures below one microkelvin, yet still in the gas phase, afford unprecedented energy resolution in probing and manipulating the interactions between their constituent particles. As a result of this resolution, atoms can be made to scatter resonantly on demand, through the precise control of a magnetic field. For simple atoms, such as alkalis, scattering resonances are extremely well characterized. However, ultracold physics is now poised to enter a new regime, where much more complex species can be cooled and studied, including magnetic lanthanide atoms and even molecules. For molecules, it has been speculated that a dense set of resonances in ultracold collision cross-sections will probably exhibit essentially random fluctuations, much as the observed energy spectra of nuclear scattering do. According to the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture, such fluctuations would imply chaotic dynamics of the underlying classical motion driving the collision. This would necessitate new ways of looking at the fundamental interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular systems, as well as perhaps new chaos-driven states of ultracold matter. Here we describe the experimental demonstration that random spectra are indeed found at ultralow temperatures. In the experiment, an ultracold gas of erbium atoms is shown to exhibit many Fano-Feshbach resonances, of the order of three per gauss for bosons. Analysis of their statistics verifies that their distribution of nearest-neighbour spacings is what one would expect from random matrix theory. The density and statistics of these resonances are explained by fully quantum mechanical scattering calculations that locate their origin in the anisotropy of the atoms' potential energy surface. Our results therefore reveal chaotic behaviour in the native interaction between ultracold atoms. PMID:24670766

  13. A quantum chemistry study for ionic liquids applied to gas capture and separation.

    PubMed

    Damas, Giane B; Dias, Amina B A; Costa, Luciano T

    2014-07-31

    In recent years, the global climate change is in evidence and it is almost a consensus that it is caused by the greenhouse gases emissions. An alternative to reduce these emissions is carbon capture and storage (CCS), which employs solvents based on amine compounds. In this scene, ionic liquids (IL) have been investigated to a greater extent for this application. In this work, we make an evaluation of interactions between gases (CO2, SO2, and H2S) and anion/cation from IL, as well as cation-anion interactions. For this, quantum calculations under vacuum were performed at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory and using the M06-2X functional, where dispersion effects are considered. Among the well-studied systems based on imidazolium cations and fluorinated anions, we also studied the tetraalkylammonium, tetraalkylphosphonium, ether-functionalized imidazolium based systems, and tetrahexylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, [THA][Tf2N], as a potential prototype. The ion pairs evaluated include [Tf2N](-)-based IL, with alkyl chain varying from [C1mim](+) to [C8mim](+) and [C1mim](+)-based IL. We found that the anion becomes more available to interact with gas with the weakening of the cation-anion interaction. [THA][Tf2N] has a binding energy of -274.89 kJ/mol at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory, which is considered energetically interesting to gas capture applications. PMID:24988534

  14. Long-term Operation of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser-based Trace-gas Sensor for Building Air Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Craig, Ian M.

    2013-11-03

    We analyze the long-term performance and stability of a trace-gas sensor based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser using data collected over a one-year period in a building air monitoring application.

  15. Uncountably Generated Ideals of Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sury, B.

    2011-01-01

    Maximal ideals in the ring of continuous functions on the closed interval [0, 1] are not finitely generated. This is well-known. What is not as well-known, but perhaps should be, is the fact that these ideals are not countably generated although the proof is not harder! We prove this here and use the result to produce some non-prime ideals in the

  16. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Cesium-Containing Species by Quantum Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Šulková, Katarína; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent

    2015-09-01

    Thermodynamics and kinetics of cesium species reactions have been studied by using high-level quantum chemical tools. A systematic theoretical study has been done to find suitable methodology for calculation of reliable thermodynamic properties, allowing us to determine bimolecular rate constants with appropriate kinetic theories of gas-phase reactions. Four different reactions have been studied in this work: CsO + H2 = CsOH + H (R1), Cs + HI = CsI + H (R2), CsI + H2O = CsOH + HI (R3), and CsI + OH = CsOH + I (R4). All reactions involve steam, hydrogen, and iodine in addition of cesium. Most of the reactions are fast and (R3) and (R4) proceed even without energetic barrier. In terms of chemical reactivity in the reactor coolant system (RCS) in the case of severe accident, it can be expected that there will be no kinetic limitations for main cesium species (CsOH and CsI) transported along the RCS. Cs chemical speciation inside the RCS should be governed by the thermodynamics. PMID:26237575

  17. Depletion of pair correlations by photoassociation of a ^7Li quantum degenerate gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Marin; Prodan, Ionut; Junker, Mark; Hulet, Randall G.

    2002-05-01

    Depletion of pair correlations, a non-mean-field effect, is responsible for damping of coherent oscillations of a resonantly coupled atomic-molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. This effect limits the rate at which atoms can be converted to molecules(M. Koš)trun et al. PRA, 62, 063616 (2000); M. Holland et al. PRL, 86, 1915 (2001)., since cold atoms cannot travel sufficient distances fast enough in order to find one another and form molecules. We investigate this effect by measuring the one-photon photoassociation rate in a quantum degenerate ^7Li gas. The rate to the high-lying v'=83 vibrational level of the 1^3Σ_g^+ state of ^7Li2 is measured as a function of laser intensity. At low intensities, the photoassociation rate increases linearly with intensity. At sufficiently high intensities, however, we observe the onset of saturation. This result is relevant to the understanding of the dynamics of molecule formation by photoassociation, as well as by magnetically-tuned Feshbach resonances.

  18. All-optical production of a lithium quantum gas using narrow-line laser cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R. A.; Hitchcock, J. M.; Corcovilos, T. A.; Yang, T.-L.; Reed, A.; Hulet, R. G.

    2011-12-15

    We have used the narrow 2S{sub 1/2}{yields}3P{sub 3/2} transition in the ultraviolet (uv) to laser cool and magneto-optically trap (MOT) {sup 6}Li atoms. Laser cooling of lithium is usually performed on the 2S{sub 1/2}{yields}2P{sub 3/2} (D2) transition, and temperatures of {approx}300 {mu}K are typically achieved. The linewidth of the uv transition is seven times narrower than the D2 line, resulting in lower laser cooling temperatures. We demonstrate that a MOT operating on the uv transition reaches temperatures as low as 59 {mu}K. Furthermore, we find that the light shift of the uv transition in an optical dipole trap at 1070 nm is small and blueshifted, facilitating efficient loading from the uv MOT. Evaporative cooling of a two spin-state mixture of {sup 6}Li in the optical trap produces a quantum degenerate Fermi gas with 3x10{sup 6} atoms in a total cycle time of only 11 s.

  19. Lorentz ratio of quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khalfaoui, A.; Bennaceur, D. )

    1994-06-01

    A quantum collective approach is developed to investigate linear transport properties of a system of highly degenerate weakly coupled electrons and strongly coupled semiclassical ions. The basic formalism rests upon suitable extention of the Boltzmann--Bloch quantum transport equation. The model considers electron--ion (e--i) and electron--electron (e--e) collisions in a unified scheme of both long- and short-range Coulomb interactions. The e--e collisions contribute to the thermal conductivity calculation in the low coupling regime. Even though they can be insignificant for strongly coupled systems, the extensively used Lorentz gas approximation cannot be justified for plasmas of astrophysical interests. It is shown that the Lorentz ratio of high-density plasma may exhibit substantial negative deviation from the ideal Sommerfeld value, due to some nonidealities, such as e--e interaction and quantum effects. Results are presented under analytical and compact forms allowing numerical applications, as well as comparisons with existing theories.

  20. Ideal thermodynamic processes of oscillatory-flow regenerative engines will go to ideal stirling cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ercang

    2012-06-01

    This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.

  1. 19F single-quantum and 19F-33S heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence NMR of SF6 in thermotropic nematogens and in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Henri; Saunavaara, Jani; Ingman, L Petri; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2006-08-24

    (19)F single-quantum (SQC) and (19)F-(33)S heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherence (HMQC) NMR spectroscopy of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) dissolved in thermotropic liquid crystals (TLCs) were used to investigate the properties of TLCs. On one hand, environmental effects on the NMR parameters of SF(6), (19)F nuclear shielding, (19)F-(33)S spin-spin coupling, secondary isotope effects of sulfur on (19)F shielding, and the self-diffusion coefficient in the direction of the external magnetic field were studied as well. The temperature dependence of the (19)F shielding of SF(6) in TLCs was modeled with a function that takes into account the properties of both TLC and SF(6). It appears that the TLC environment deforms the electronic system of SF(6) so that the (19)F shielding tensor becomes slightly anisotropic, with the anisotropy being from -0.5 to -1.4 ppm, depending upon the TLC solvent. On the contrary, no sign of residual dipolar coupling between (19)F and (33)S was found, meaning that the so-called deformational effects, which arise from the interaction between vibrational and reorientational motions of the molecule, on the geometry of the molecule are insignificant. Diffusion activation energies, E(a), were determined from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficients. In each TLC, E(a) increases when moving from an isotropic phase to a nematic phase. The spin-spin coupling constant, J((19)F,(33)S), increases by ca. 10 Hz when moving from the gas phase to TLC solutions. The secondary isotope shifts of (19)F shielding are practically independent of TLC solvent and temperature. For the first time, (19)F-(33)S heteronuclear multiple-quantum NMR spectra were recorded for SF(6) in the gas phase and in a liquid-crystalline solution. PMID:16913748

  2. Beyond the Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.; Mehmani, Bahar; Špička, Václav; Aghdami, Maryam J.; Khrennikov, Andrei Yu

    2007-09-01

    pt. A. Introductions. The mathematical basis for deterministic quantum mechanics / G.'t Hooft. What did we learn from quantum gravity? / A. Ashtekar. Bose-Einstein condensates and EPR quantum non-locality / F. Laloe. The quantum measurement process: lessons from an exactly solvable model / A.E. Allahverdyan, R. Balian and Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen -- pt. B. Quantum mechanics and quantum information. POVMs: a small but important step beyond standard quantum mechanics / W. M. de Muynck. State reduction by measurements with a null result / G. Nienhuis. Solving open questions in the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas via a hybrid mixture of laser and statistical physics / M. Kim, A. Svidzinsky and M.O. Scully. Twin-Photon light scattering and causality / G. Puentes, A. Aiello and J. P. Woerdman. Simultaneous measurement of non-commuting observables / G. Aquino and B. Mehmani. Quantum decoherence and gravitational waves / M.T. Jaekel ... [et al.]. Role of various entropies in the black hole information loss problem / Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen and I.V. Volovich. Quantum and super-quantum correlations / G.S. Jaeger -- pt. C. Long distance correlations and bell inequalities. Understanding long-distance quantum correlations / L. Marchildon. Connection of probability models to EPR experiments: probability spaces and Bell's theorem / K. Hess and W. Philipp. Fair sampling vs no-signalling principle in EPR experiments / G. Adenier and A. Yu. Khrennikov -- pt. D. Mathematical foundations. Where the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics comes from / G.M. D'Ariano. Phase space description of quantum mechanics and non-commutative geometry: Wigner-Moyal and Bohm in a wider context / B.J. Hiley. Quantum mechanics as simple algorithm for approximation of classical integrals / A. Yu. Khrennikov. Noncommutative quantum mechanics viewed from Feynman Formalism / J. Lages ... [et al.]. Beyond the quantum in Snyder space / J.F.S. van Huele and M. K. Transtrum -- pt. E. Stochastic electrodynamics. Some quantum experiments from the point of view of Stochastic electrodynamics / V. Spicka ... [et al.]. On the ergodic behaviour of atomic systems under the action of the zero-point radiation field / L. De La Peña and A. M. Cetto. Inertia and the vacuum-view on the emergence of the inertia reaction force / A. Rueda and H. Sunahata -- pt. F. Models for the electron. Rotating Hopf-Kinks: oscillators in the sense of de Broglie / U. Enz. Kerr-Newman particles: symmetries and other properties / H.I. Arcos and J.G. Pereira. Kerr geometry beyond the quantum theory / Th. M. Nieuwenhuizen -- pt. G. Philosophical considerations. Probability in non-collapse interpretations of a quantum mechanics / D. Dieks. The Schrödinger-Park paradox about the concept of "State" in quantum statistical mechanics and quantum information theory is still open: one more reason to go beyond? / G.P. Beretta. The conjecture that local realism is possible / E. Santos -- pt. H. The round table. Round table discussion / A.M. Cetto ... [et al.].

  3. Trace gas measurements using optically resonant cavities and quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welzel, S.; Lombardi, G.; Davies, P. B.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.; Röpcke, J.

    2008-11-01

    Achieving the high sensitivity necessary for trace gas detection in the midinfrared molecular fingerprint region generally requires long absorption path lengths. In addition, for wider application, especially for field measurements, compact and cryogen free spectrometers are definitely preferable. An alternative approach to conventional linear absorption spectroscopy employing multiple pass cells for achieving high sensitivity is to combine a high finesse cavity with thermoelectrically (TE) cooled quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and detectors. We have investigated the sensitivity limits of an entirely TE cooled system equipped with an ˜0.5 m long cavity having a small sample volume of 0.3 l. With this spectrometer cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy employing a continuous wave QCL emitting at 7.66 μm yielded path lengths of 1080 m and a noise equivalent absorption of 2×10-7 cm-1 Hz-1/2. The molecular concentration detection limit with a 20 s integration time was found to be 6×108 molecules/cm3 for N2O and 2×109 molecules/cm3 for CH4, which is good enough for the selective measurement of trace atmospheric constituents at 2.2 mbar. The main limiting factor for achieving even higher sensitivity, such as that found for larger volume multi pass cell spectrometers, is the residual mode noise of the cavity. On the other hand the application of TE cooled pulsed QCLs for integrated cavity output spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) was found to be limited by the intrinsic frequency chirp of the laser. Consequently the accuracy and advantage of an absolute internal absorption calibration, in theory inherent for CRDS experiments, are not achievable.

  4. Quantum state-resolved energy redistribution in gas ensembles containing highly excited N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffery, Anthony J.; Pritchard, Marisian; Turner, John F. C.; Marsh, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    A computational model is used to quantify the evolution of quantum state populations as highly vibrationally excited 14N2 (14N2*) equilibrates in various bath gases. Multicollision energy disposal follows general principles established in related single collision processes. Thus when state-to-state routes permit, maximum amounts of energy are deposited into partner species by direct vibration-to-vibration (V-V) exchange. When these pathways are absent, e.g., when Ar is the bath species, relaxation is very slow and multistaged. Conversely, in a bath of v = 0 14N2 molecules, 16 vibrational quanta (?v = 8) are resonantly exchanged from (v;j) = (8;10) with vibrational equilibration so rapid that rotation and translation still lag far behind after 1000 collisions. Near-resonant V-V exchange dominates the initial phase when 15N2 forms the bath gas and although some rotational warming occurs, vibrational modes remain decoupled from, and significantly hotter than, the low heat capacity modes. These forms of behavior seem likely to characterize excited and bath species that have closely similar vibration and rotation constants. More generic in nature is 14N2 in O2 or in a mixture that closely resembles air. Here, asymmetric V-V exchange is a dominant early feature in ensemble evolution but energy differences in the key vibration and rotation quanta lead to V-V energy defects that are compensated for by the low energy modes. This results in much more rapid ensemble equilibration, generally within 400-500 collisions, when O2 is present even as a minor constituent. Our results are in good general agreement with those obtained from experimental studies of N2 plasmas both in terms of modal temperatures and initial (first collision cycle) cross-sections.

  5. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gdel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ? is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ?(0) = 1 and |Im?(?)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gdel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  6. Ideal near-field thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Sean; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-05-01

    We ask the question, what are the ideal characteristics of a near-field thermophotovoltaic cell? Our search leads us to a reformulation of near-field radiative heat transfer in terms of the joint density of electronic states of the emitter-absorber pair in the thermophotovoltaic system. This form reveals that semiconducting materials with narrowband absorption spectra are critical to the energy-conversion efficiency. This essential feature is unavailable in conventional bulk semiconductor cells but can be obtained using low-dimensional materials. Our results show that the presence of matched van Hove singularities resulting from quantum confinement in the emitter and absorber of a thermophotovoltaic cell boosts both the magnitude and spectral selectivity of radiative heat transfer, dramatically improving energy-conversion efficiency. We provide a model near-field thermophotovoltaic system design making use of this idea by employing the van Hove singularities present in carbon nanotubes. Shockley-Queisser analysis shows that the predicted heat transfer characteristics of this model device are fundamentally better than existing thermophotovoltaic designs. Our work paves the way for the use of quantum dots, quantum wells, two-dimensional semiconductors, semiconductor nanowires, and carbon nanotubes as future materials for thermophotovoltaic cells.

  7. Diffusion thermopower of the two-dimensional electron gas in AlP quantum wells including exchange and correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tai, Vo; Khanh, Nguyen Quoc

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the diffusion thermopower for the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaP/AlP/GaP quantum well taking into account exchange and correlation effects. We consider the interface-roughness and remote impurity scattering, and study the dependence of diffusion thermopower on the temperature, carrier density and quantum well width using different approximations for the local-field correction. It is shown that at low density many-body effects due to exchange and correlation considerably modify the thermopower. We find that, for system parameters considered in this paper, the diffusion thermopower is mainly determined by the remote impurity scattering. In the case of the interface-roughness scattering and L>Lc, the diffusion thermopower as a function of carrier density may change sign at low densities due to strong correlation effects. We also discuss the limitations of Mott formula and the deviation from linear temperature dependence of thermopower.

  8. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael

    2013-12-04

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.

  9. Coherent quantum transport in two-dimensional electron gas/superconductor double junctions with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, C.; Yang, Y.-L.; Zhang, X.-D.

    2008-09-01

    Based on the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) approach, we have investigated the coherent quantum transport in two-dimensional electron gas/superconductor (2DEG/SC) double tunneling junctions in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). It is found that all the reflection coefficients in BTK theory as well as conductance spectra oscillate with the external voltage and energy. The oscillation feature of conductance can be tuned largely by the RSOC for low insulating barriers, while for high insulating barriers it is almost independent of the RSOC. These phenomena are essentially different from those found in ferromagnet/superconductor double tunneling junctions.

  10. Ultra-high mobility two-dimensional electron gas in a SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, M. Yu. Shashkin, A. A.; Dolgopolov, V. T.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.; Kravchenko, S. V.

    2015-03-02

    We report the observation of an electron gas in a SiGe/Si/SiGe quantum well with maximum mobility up to 240 m{sup 2}/Vs, which is noticeably higher than previously reported results in silicon-based structures. Using SiO, rather than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as an insulator, we obtain strongly reduced threshold voltages close to zero. In addition to the predominantly small-angle scattering well known in the high-mobility heterostructures, the observed linear temperature dependence of the conductivity reveals the presence of a short-range random potential.

  11. Analysis of Trace Gas Mixtures Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-07-01

    We measure and analyze mixtures of trace gases at ppb-ppm levels using an external cavity quantum cascade laser sensor with a 1-second response time. Accurate spectral fits are obtained in the presence of overlapping spectra.

  12. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} (or 1.25 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  13. The Geometry of Non-Ideal Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Arnold showed that the Euler equations of an ideal fluid describe geodesies on the Lie algebra of incompressible vector fields. We generalize this to fluids with dissipation and Gaussian random forcing. The dynamics is determined by the structure constants of a Lie algebra, along with inner products defining kinetic energy, Ohmic dissipation and the covariance of the forces. This allows us to construct tractable toy models for fluid mechanics with a finite number of degrees of freedom. We solve one of them to show how symmetries can be broken spontaneously.In another direction, we derive a deterministic equation that describes the most likely path connecting two points in the phase space of a randomly forced system: this is a WKB approximation to the Fokker-Plank-Kramer equation, analogous to the instantons of quantum theory. Applied to hydrodynamics, we derive a PDE system for Navier-Stokes instantons.

  14. Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 μm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The sensor was designed for operation in multiple modes, including gas sensing within a multi-pass Heriott cell and intracavity absorption sensing using the ECQCL compliance voltage. In addition, the ECQCL compliance voltage was used to reduce effects of long-term drifts in the ECQCL output power. The sensor was characterized for noise, drift, and detection of chemicals including ammonia, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, Freon- 134a, Freon-152a, and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). We also present use of the sensor for mobile detection of ammonia downwind of cattle facilities, in which concentrations were recorded at 1-s intervals.

  15. The Quantum Field Theory of the Ensemble Operator

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Richard N.

    2009-03-09

    Quantum field theory (QFT) provides a systematic investigative tool for ensembles of molecules. The grand-canonical ensemble operator (GCEO) for an ideal gas is presented in terms of the Fock creation and annihilation operators. The ideal GCEO can be shown to obey a simple equation which facilitates calculation of quantum-statistical properties of bosonic and fermionic molecules. Examples are linked-cluster QFT derivations of the grand-canonical partition function and the Poisson distribution for non-interacting molecules. The Boltzmann limit is achieved by omitting exchange diagrams. Summations of Feynman diagrams for long- and short-range interactions to infinite order lead to a useful model of the pair-correlation function and a new avenue for the study of dynamics near the critical point for gas-liquid phase transitions.

  16. Idealism and materialism in perception.

    PubMed

    Rose, David; Brown, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive. PMID:26492727

  17. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory. PMID:20540516

  18. Quantum memory Quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gout, Jean-Louis; Moiseev, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    Interaction of quantum radiation with multi-particle ensembles has sparked off intense research efforts during the past decade. Emblematic of this field is the quantum memory scheme, where a quantum state of light is mapped onto an ensemble of atoms and then recovered in its original shape. While opening new access to the basics of light-atom interaction, quantum memory also appears as a key element for information processing applications, such as linear optics quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters. Not surprisingly, it is far from trivial to practically recover a stored quantum state of light and, although impressive progress has already been accomplished, researchers are still struggling to reach this ambitious objective. This special issue provides an account of the state-of-the-art in a fast-moving research area that makes physicists, engineers and chemists work together at the forefront of their discipline, involving quantum fields and atoms in different media, magnetic resonance techniques and material science. Various strategies have been considered to store and retrieve quantum light. The explored designs belong to three mainwhile still overlappingclasses. In architectures derived from photon echo, information is mapped over the spectral components of inhomogeneously broadened absorption bands, such as those encountered in rare earth ion doped crystals and atomic gases in external gradient magnetic field. Protocols based on electromagnetic induced transparency also rely on resonant excitation and are ideally suited to the homogeneous absorption lines offered by laser cooled atomic clouds or ion Coulomb crystals. Finally off-resonance approaches are illustrated by Faraday and Raman processes. Coupling with an optical cavity may enhance the storage process, even for negligibly small atom number. Multiple scattering is also proposed as a way to enlarge the quantum interaction distance of light with matter. The quest for higher efficiency, better fidelity, broader bandwidth, multimode capacity and longer storage lifetime is pursued in all those approaches, as shown in this special issue. The improvement of quantum memory operation specifically requires in-depth study and control of numerous physical processes leading to atomic decoherence. The present issue reflects the development of rare earth ion doped matrices offering long lifetime superposition states, either as bulk crystals or as optical waveguides. The need for quantum sources and high efficiency detectors at the single photon level is also illustrated. Several papers address the networking of quantum memories either in long-haul cryptography or in the prospect of quantum processing. In this context, much attention has been paid recently to interfacing quantum light with superconducting qubits and with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Finally, the quantum interfacing of light with matter raises questions on entanglement. The last two papers are devoted to the generation of entanglement by dissipative processes. It is shown that long lifetime entanglement may be built in this way. We hope this special issue will help readers to become familiar with the exciting field of ensemble-based quantum memories and will stimulate them to bring deeper insights and new ideas to this area.

  19. Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.K.

    1993-12-01

    A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.

  20. Quantum-relativistic hydrodynamic model for a spin-polarized electron gas interacting with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Omar; Zamanian, Jens; Manfredi, Giovanni; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine

    2014-07-01

    We develop a semirelativistic quantum fluid theory based on the expansion of the Dirac Hamiltonian to second order in 1/c. By making use of the Madelung representation of the wave function, we derive a set of hydrodynamic equations that comprises a continuity equation, an Euler equation for the mean velocity, and an evolution equation for the electron spin density. This hydrodynamic model is then applied to study the dynamics of a dense and weakly relativistic electron plasma. In particular, we investigate the impact of the quantum-relativistic spin effects on the Faraday rotation in a one-dimensional plasma slab irradiated by an x-ray laser source.

  1. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  2. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  3. Collider performance with ideal collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1985-06-01

    Performance is estimated for head-on bunch collisions. The luminosity is written as a distribution in time and length along the collision path, using a Gaussian distribution in all space dimensions. Computations are made for the Tevatron. Sources of luminosity reduction are listed in the case of non-ideal conditions.

  4. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are

  5. An Ideal Remedial Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettcher, Judith A.

    An ideal secondary level remedial reading program would be based on the philosophy that both freedom and structure are required, that learning demands involvement and feedback, and that success breeds success. Such programs should be structured (i.e., based on clearly defined content and a clearly designated mode of presentation). There are many

  6. Critical Thinking and Educational Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Qian

    2007-01-01

    Critical thinking, as an educational trend, has been much discussed and proposed nowadays. In this paper, an analysis is made on the gap between our present educational practice and educational ideal from three different aspects, that is, the content, the manner and the one-sidedness of our teaching. It's observed that there is still a long way to

  7. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  8. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-12-12

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as {radical}(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  9. Potential interstellar noble gas molecules: ArOH+ and NeOH+ rovibrational analysis from quantum chemical quartic force fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, Riley A.; Fortenberry, Ryan C.

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of ArH+ in the interstellar medium has shown that noble gas chemistry may be of more chemical significance than previously believed. The present work extends the known chemistry of small noble gas molecules to NeOH+ and ArOH+. Besides their respective neonium and argonium diatomic cation cousins, these hydroxyl cation molecules are the most stable small noble gas molecules analyzed of late. ArOH+ is once again more stable than the neon cation, but both are well-behaved enough for a complete quartic force field analysis of their rovibrational properties. The Ar-O bond in ArOH+ , for instance, is roughly three-quarters of the strength of the Ar-H bond in ArH+ highlighting the rigidity of this system. The rotational constants, geometries, and vibrational frequencies for both molecules and their various isotopologues are computed from ab initio quantum chemical theory at high-level, and it is shown that these cations may form in regions where peroxy or weakly-bound alcohols may be present. The resulting data should be of significant assistance for the laboratory or observational analysis of these potential interstellar molecules.

  10. Monitoring derivation of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation

    SciTech Connect

    Hornberger, Klaus; Vacchini, Bassano

    2008-02-15

    We show how the effective equation of motion for a distinguished quantum particle in an ideal gas environment can be obtained by means of the monitoring approach introduced by Hornberger [EPL 77, 50007 (2007)]. The resulting Lindblad master equation accounts for the quantum effects of the scattering dynamics in a nonperturbative fashion and it describes decoherence and dissipation in a unified framework. It incorporates various established equations as limiting cases and reduces to the classical linear Boltzmann equation once the state is diagonal in momentum.

  11. Statistical mechanics based on fractional classical and quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Korichi, Z.; Meftah, M. T.

    2014-03-15

    The purpose of this work is to study some problems in statistical mechanics based on the fractional classical and quantum mechanics. At first stage we have presented the thermodynamical properties of the classical ideal gas and the system of N classical oscillators. In both cases, the Hamiltonian contains fractional exponents of the phase space (position and momentum). At the second stage, in the context of the fractional quantum mechanics, we have calculated the thermodynamical properties for the black body radiation, studied the Bose-Einstein statistics with the related problem of the condensation and the Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  12. Quantum oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas in black phosphorus thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Likai; Ye, Guo Jun; Tran, Vy; Fei, Ruixiang; Chen, Guorui; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Jian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Li; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2015-07-01

    For decades, two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) have allowed important experimental discoveries and conceptual developments in condensed-matter physics. When combined with the unique electronic properties of two-dimensional crystals, they allow rich physical phenomena to be probed at the quantum level. Here, we create a 2DEG in black phosphorusa recently added member of the two-dimensional atomic crystal familyusing a gate electric field. The black phosphorus film hosting the 2DEG is placed on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. The resulting high carrier mobility in the 2DEG allows the observation of quantum oscillations. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of these oscillations yields crucial information about the system, such as cyclotron mass and lifetime of its charge carriers. Our results, coupled with the fact that black phosphorus possesses anisotropic energy bands with a tunable, direct bandgap, distinguish black phosphorus 2DEG as a system with unique electronic and optoelectronic properties.

  13. The Dicke Quantum Phase Transition in a Superfluid Gas Coupled to an Optical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerlin, Christine; Baumann, Kristian; Brennecke, Ferdinand; Esslinger, Tilman

    2010-03-01

    A fundamental approach to collective matter-light interaction is given by the Dicke model which has been predicted to show an intriguing quantum phase transition. We have realized the Dicke quantum phase transition in an open system formed by a Bose-Einstein condensate coupled to an optical cavity, and observed the emergence of a self-organized supersolid phase [1]. The phase transition is driven by infinitely long-ranged interactions between the condensed atoms. We show that the phase transition is described by the Dicke Hamiltonian, including counter-rotating coupling terms, and that the supersolid phase is associated with a spontaneously broken spatial symmetry. The boundary of the phase transition is mapped out in quantitative agreement with the Dicke model. [4pt] [1] K. Baumann, C. Guerlin, F. Brennecke, T. Esslinger, arXiv 0912.2361, 2009

  14. On the Splitting of a Quantum Degenerate Gas of Identical Bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, Douglas Karl

    2011-12-01

    The observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute clouds of trapped atoms has stimulated a great deal of research in the last 15 years. Since the basic description of a single Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is that of a single macroscopic condensate wavefunction, or condensate order parameter, which displays all of the interference and non-local phenomena associated with the typical quantum mechanical wavefunction, yet describes up to millions of particles, these systems have the potential to bridge the quantum mechanical and visible classical worlds. Many basic scientific questions can be addressed by examining what happens when a single such system is split into multiple entities, independently manipulated and then recombined as has been done experimentally in the case of two potential welts [1] and many potential wells [2], [3]. This thesis shows that these experiments can operate in both a classical and quantum mechanical splitting regime and demarcates the boundary in between the two. By analyzing two specific BEC splitting experiments, it is shown that splitting experiments operating in the limit of a large number of particles per well can exhibit a phenomenon analogous to supercooling in classical phase transitions. In order to perform these simulations, a novel method, extending earlier theoretical work on the splitting problem is presented, computationally implemented, and supported by analytic calculations when possible.

  15. Sensitive trace gas detection with cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy using a continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, J. H.; Lang, N.; Macherius, U.; Zimmermann, H.; Röpcke, J.

    2013-09-01

    Trace gas sensing in the mid-infrared using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) promises high specificity and sensitivity. We report on the performance of a simple cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) sensor using a continuous wave external-cavity QCL at 7.4 μm. A noise-equivalent absorption coefficient αmin of 2.6 × 10-8 cm-1 in 625 s was achieved, which corresponds to a detection limit of 6 ± 1 ppb of CH4 in 15 millibars air for the R(3) transition at 1327.074 cm-1. This is the highest value of noise-equivalent absorption and among the longest effective path length (1780 m) reported to date with QCL-based CEAS.

  16. Microscopic description of quantum Lorentz gas and extension of the Boltzmann equation to entire space-time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kanki, K.; Tanaka, S.; Petrosky, T.

    2016-02-01

    Irreversible processes of weakly coupled one-dimensional quantum perfect Lorentz gas are studied on the basis of the fundamental laws of physics in terms of the complex spectral analysis associated with the resonance state of the Liouville-von Neumann operator. Without any phenomenological operations, such as a coarse-graining of space-time, or a truncation of the higher order correlation, we obtained irreversible processes in a purely dynamical basis in all space and time scale including the microscopic atomic interaction range that is much smaller than the mean-free length. Based on this solution, a limitation of the usual phenomenological Boltzmann equation, as well as an extension of the Boltzmann equation to entire space-time scale, is discussed.

  17. Quantum-tunneling dynamics of a spin-polarized Fermi gas in a double-well potential

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, L.; Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salerno, M.

    2010-02-15

    We study the exact dynamics of a one-dimensional spin-polarized gas of fermions in a double-well potential at zero and finite temperature. Despite the system being made of noninteracting fermions, its dynamics can be quite complex, showing strongly aperiodic spatio-temporal patterns during the tunneling. The extension of these results to the case of mixtures of spin-polarized fermions interacting with self-trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) at zero temperature is considered as well. In this case we show that the fermionic dynamics remains qualitatively similar to that observed in the absence of BEC but with the Rabi frequencies of fermionic excited states explicitly depending on the number of bosons and on the boson-fermion interaction strength. From this, the possibility of controlling quantum fermionic dynamics by means of Feshbach resonances is suggested.

  18. Quantum-size effects in the energy loss of charged particles interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.

    2006-01-15

    Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS BY AB INITIO QUANTUM MECHANICAL COMPUTATION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational chemistry, in conjunction with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC/MS/FT-IR), was used to tentatively identify seven tetrachlorobutadiene (TCBD) isomers detected in an environmental sample. Computation of the TCBD infrare...

  20. Active stand-off detection of gas leaks using an open-path quantum cascade laser sensor in a backscatter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2005-05-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the path-averaged concentration of N2O by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks.

  1. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment.

    PubMed

    Robson, R E; Brunger, M J; Buckman, S J; Garcia, G; Petrovi?, Z Lj; White, R D

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the 'gas-phase' assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002

  2. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    PubMed Central

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the gas-phase assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations. PMID:26246002

  3. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovi?, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the gas-phase assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.

  4. Detonation Failure in Ideal and Non-Ideal Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskins, P. J.; Cook, M. D.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we revisit and extend the classic treatment of detonation failure developed by Eyring et. al. [1]. We recently published a development of this theory [2] in which a pressure dependant rate law was substituted for the Arrhenius temperature dependant law originally considered. Here we show that by assuming a 2-component rate law based upon a temperature dependant ignition phase and a pressure dependant growth phase we are able to rationalise the very different failure characteristics (critical diameter and velocity decrement at failure) of ideal and non-ideal explosives. [1] Eyring, H., Powell, R.E., Duffy, G.H., and Parlin, R.B., ``The stability of detonation,'' Chem. Rev. 45, 69-181 (1949). [2] Haskins, P.J., Cook, M.D., and Wood, A.D., ``On the dependence of critical diameter and velocity decrement at failure on the burn law,'' in proceedings of the 33rd International Pyrotechnics Seminar, Fort Collins, Co, USA, 385-391 (2006).

  5. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  6. Phase diagram of a quantum Coulomb wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferr, G.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the quantum phase diagram of a one-dimensional Coulomb wire obtained using the path-integral Monte Carlo method. The exact knowledge of the nodal points of this system permits us to find the energy in an exact way, solving the sign problem which spoils fermionic calculations in higher dimensions. The results obtained allow for the determination of the stability domain, in terms of density and temperature, of the one-dimensional Wigner crystal. At low temperatures, the quantum wire reaches the quantum-degenerate regime, which is also described by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Increasing the temperature, the system transforms to a classical Boltzmann gas, which we simulate using classical Monte Carlo. At large enough density, we identify a one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas which remains quantum up to higher temperatures than in two- and three-dimensional electron gases. The obtained phase diagram and the energetic and structural properties of this system are relevant to experiments with electrons in quantum wires and to Coulomb ions in one-dimensional confinement.

  7. Obese people's perceptions of the thin ideal.

    PubMed

    Couch, Danielle; Thomas, Samantha L; Lewis, Sophie; Blood, R Warwick; Holland, Kate; Komesaroff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The media play a key role in promoting the thin ideal. A qualitative study, in which we used in depth interviews and thematic analysis, was undertaken to explore the attitudes of 142 obese individuals toward media portrayals of the thin ideal. Participants discussed the thin ideal as a social norm that is also supported through the exclusion of positive media portrayals of obese people. They perceived the thin ideal as an 'unhealthy' mode of social control, reflecting on their personal experiences and their concerns for others. Participants' perceptions highlighted the intersections between the thin ideal and gender, grooming and consumerism. Participants' personal responses to the thin ideal were nuanced - some were in support of the thin ideal and some were able to critically reflect and reject the thin ideal. We consider how the thin ideal may act as a form of synoptical social control, working in tandem with wider public health panoptical surveillance of body weight. PMID:26685706

  8. Perpetual motion of a mobile impurity in a one-dimensional quantum gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychkovskiy, O.

    2014-03-01

    Consider an impurity particle injected in a degenerate one-dimensional gas of noninteracting fermions (or, equivalently, Tonks-Girardeau bosons) with some initial momentum p0. We examine the infinite-time value of the momentum of the impurity, p?, as a function of p0. A lower bound on |p?(p0)| is derived under fairly general conditions. The derivation, based on the existence of the lower edge of the spectrum of the host gas, does not resort to any approximations. The existence of such bound implies the perpetual motion of the impurity in a one-dimensional gas of noninteracting fermions or Tonks-Girardeau bosons at zero temperature. The bound admits an especially simple and useful form when the interaction between the impurity and host particles is everywhere repulsive.

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Quantum hydrodynamics and nonlinear differential equations for degenerate Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettelheim, Eldad; Abanov, Alexander G.; Wiegmann, Paul B.

    2008-10-01

    We present new nonlinear differential equations for spacetime correlation functions of Fermi gas in one spatial dimension. The correlation functions we consider describe non-stationary processes out of equilibrium. The equations we obtain are integrable equations. They generalize known nonlinear differential equations for correlation functions at equilibrium [1-4] and provide vital tools for studying non-equilibrium dynamics of electronic systems. The method we developed is based only on Wick's theorem and the hydrodynamic description of the Fermi gas. Differential equations appear directly in bilinear form.

  10. Quantum oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas in black phosphorus thin films.

    PubMed

    Li, Likai; Ye, Guo Jun; Tran, Vy; Fei, Ruixiang; Chen, Guorui; Wang, Huichao; Wang, Jian; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yang, Li; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2015-07-01

    For decades, two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) have allowed important experimental discoveries and conceptual developments in condensed-matter physics. When combined with the unique electronic properties of two-dimensional crystals, they allow rich physical phenomena to be probed at the quantum level. Here, we create a 2DEG in black phosphorus--a recently added member of the two-dimensional atomic crystal family--using a gate electric field. The black phosphorus film hosting the 2DEG is placed on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. The resulting high carrier mobility in the 2DEG allows the observation of quantum oscillations. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of these oscillations yields crucial information about the system, such as cyclotron mass and lifetime of its charge carriers. Our results, coupled with the fact that black phosphorus possesses anisotropic energy bands with a tunable, direct bandgap, distinguish black phosphorus 2DEG as a system with unique electronic and optoelectronic properties. PMID:25984835

  11. Modified Coulomb gas construction of quantum Hall states from nonunitary conformal field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Milovanovic, M. V.; Vidanovic, I.; Jolicoeur, Th.

    2009-10-15

    Some fractional quantum Hall states observed in experiments may be described by first-quantized wavefunctions with special clustering properties such as the Moore-Read Pfaffian for filling factor {nu}=5/2. This wavefunction has been constructed by constructing correlation functions of a two-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) involving a free boson and a Majorana fermion. By considering other CFTs many other clustered states have been proposed as candidate fractional quantum Hall states under appropriate circumstances. It is believed that the underlying CFT should be unitary if one wants to describe an incompressible, i.e., gapped liquid state. We show that by changing the way one derives the wavefunction from its parent CFT it is possible to obtain an incompressible candidate state when starting from a nonunitary parent. The construction mimics a global change in parameters in the phase space of the electron system. We explicit our construction in the case of the so-called Gaffnian state (a state for filling factor 2/5) and also for the Haldane-Rezayi state (a spin-singlet state at filling 1/2). We note that there are obstructions along this path in the case of the permanent spin-singlet state of Read and Rezayi which can be characterized as a robust gapless state.

  12. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  13. Representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2013-02-15

    One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}(vector sign) Multiplication-Sign B(vector sign)) ensures that {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi}=0 at a resonance, with {psi} labelling an equilibrium flux surface. Also useful for the analysis of guiding center orbits in a perturbed field is the representation {delta}B(vector sign)={nabla} Multiplication-Sign {alpha}B(vector sign). These two representations are equivalent, but the vanishing of {delta}B(vector sign){center_dot}{nabla}{psi} at a resonance is necessary but not sufficient for the preservation of field line topology, and a indiscriminate use of either perturbation in fact destroys the original equilibrium flux topology. It is necessary to find the perturbed field to all orders in {xi}(vector sign) to conserve the original topology. The effect of using linearized perturbations on stability and growth rate calculations is discussed.

  14. Computational Methods for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercher, Andrew D.

    Numerical schemes for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are widely used for modeling space weather and astrophysical flows. They are designed to resolve the different waves that propagate through a magnetohydro fluid, namely, the fast, Alfven, slow, and entropy waves. Numerical schemes for ideal magnetohydrodynamics that are based on the standard finite volume (FV) discretization exhibit pseudo-convergence in which non-regular waves no longer exist only after heavy grid refinement. A method is described for obtaining solutions for coplanar and near coplanar cases that consist of only regular waves, independent of grid refinement. The method, referred to as Compound Wave Modification (CWM), involves removing the flux associated with non-regular structures and can be used for simulations in two- and three-dimensions because it does not require explicitly tracking an Alfven wave. For a near coplanar case, and for grids with 213 points or less, we find root-mean-square-errors (RMSEs) that are as much as 6 times smaller. For the coplanar case, in which non-regular structures will exist at all levels of grid refinement for standard FV schemes, the RMSE is as much as 25 times smaller. A multidimensional ideal MHD code has been implemented for simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs). Performance measurements were conducted for both the NVIDIA GeForce GTX Titan and Intel Xeon E5645 processor. The GPU is shown to perform one to two orders of magnitude greater than the CPU when using a single core, and two to three times greater than when run in parallel with OpenMP. Performance comparisons are made for two methods of storing data on the GPU. The first approach stores data as an Array of Structures (AoS), e.g., a point coordinate array of size 3 x n is iterated over. The second approach stores data as a Structure of Arrays (SoA), e.g. three separate arrays of size n are iterated over simultaneously. For an AoS, coalescing does not occur, reducing memory efficiency. All results are given for Cartesian grids, but the algorithms are implemented for a general geometry on a unstructured grids.

  15. Plasmon response of a quantum-confined electron gas probed by core-level photoemission

    SciTech Connect

    Ozer, Mustafa M; Moon, Eun Ju; Eguiluz, Adolfo G; Weitering, Harm H

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of quantized 'bulk' plasmons in ultrathin magnesium films on Si(111) by analyzing plasmon-loss satellites in core-level photoemission spectra, recorded as a function of the film thickness d. Remarkably, the plasmon energy is shown to vary as 1/d{sup 2} all the way down to three atomic layers. The loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. With decreasing film thickness, spectral weight is gradually transferred from the plasmon modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations. These results represent striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures.

  16. Plasmon Response of a Quantum-Confined Electron Gas Probed by Core-Level Photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zer, Mustafa M.; Moon, Eun Ju; Eguiluz, Adolfo G.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate the existence of quantized bulk plasmons in ultrathin magnesium films on Si(111) by analyzing plasmon-loss satellites in core-level photoemission spectra, recorded as a function of the film thickness d. Remarkably, the plasmon energy is shown to vary as 1/d2 all the way down to three atomic layers. The loss spectra are dominated by the n=1 and n=2 normal modes, consistent with the excitation of plasmons involving quantized electronic subbands. With decreasing film thickness, spectral weight is gradually transferred from the plasmon modes to the low-energy single-particle excitations. These results represent striking manifestations of the role of quantum confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely controlled nanostructures.

  17. Equation of state for a trapped quantum gas: remnant of zero-point energy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, P. C. M.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Roati, G.; Muniz, S. R.; Magalhães, D. V.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2016-02-01

    The study of the thermodynamic properties of trapped gases has attracted great attention during the last few years and can be used as a tool to characterize such clouds in the presence of other phenomena. Here, we obtain an equation of state for a harmonically trapped Bose–Einstein condensate taking the limit of T\\to 0 by means of global themodynamic variables. These variables allow us to explore limits in which the standard thermodynamics are not defined. Our results are taken in the high density limit, and the extrapolation for N\\to 1 is done later. Even in this situation, we qualitatively observe the well known existence of a zero-point energy for harmonic potentials in which the determination of conjugated variables is limited by the quantum nature of the system.

  18. Quantum oscillations of the two-dimensional hole gas at atomically flat diamond surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahide, Yamaguchi; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Deguchi, Keita; Uji, Shinya; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are observed in atomically flat hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces with high-density hole carriers introduced by the electric field effect using an ionic liquid. The Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations depend only on the magnetic field component perpendicular to the diamond surface, thus providing evidence of two-dimensional Fermi surfaces. The effective masses estimated from the temperature dependence of the oscillations are close to the cyclotron effective masses of the valence band maxima in diamond. The estimated quantum scattering time is one order of magnitude longer than the transport scattering time and indicates that the carrier mobility is locally as high as several thousand cm2/V s at low temperature.

  19. Visualizing edge states with an atomic Bose gas in the quantum Hall regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhl, B. K.; Lu, H.-I.; Aycock, L. M.; Genkina, D.; Spielman, I. B.

    2015-09-01

    Bringing ultracold atomic gases into the quantum Hall regime is challenging. We engineered an effective magnetic field in a two-dimensional lattice with an elongated-strip geometry, consisting of the sites of an optical lattice in the long direction and of three internal atomic spin states in the short direction. We imaged the localized states of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in this strip; via excitation dynamics, we further observed both the skipping orbits of excited atoms traveling down the system’s edges, analogous to edge magnetoplasmons in two-dimensional electron systems, and a dynamical Hall effect for bulk excitations. Our technique involves minimal heating, which will be important for spectroscopic measurements of the Hofstadter butterfly and realizations of Laughlin’s charge pump.

  20. Variational mixed quantum/semiclassical simulation of dihalogen guest and rare-gas solid host dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-01

    A variational mixed quantum-semiclassical theory for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium is developed, tested, and used to simulate the temporal evolution of nonstationary states of the internal molecular and surrounding medium degrees of freedom. In this theory, termed the Fixed Vibrational Basis/Gaussian Bath (FVB/GB) method, the system is treated fully quantum mechanically while Gaussian wave packets are used for the bath degrees of freedom. An approximate time-dependent wave function of the entire model is obtained instead of just a reduced system density matrix, so the theory enables the analysis of the entangled system and bath dynamics that ensues following initial displacement of the internal-molecular (system) coordinate from its equilibrium position. The norm- and energy-conserving properties of the propagation of our trial wave function are natural consequences of the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The variational approach also stabilizes the time evolution in comparison to the same ansatz propagated under a previously employed locally quadratic approximation to the bath potential and system-bath interaction terms in the bath-parameter equations of motion. Dynamics calculations are carried out for molecular iodine in a 2D krypton lattice that reveal both the time-course of vibrational decoherence and the details of host-atom motion accompanying energy dissipation and dephasing. This work sets the stage for the comprehensive simulation of ultrafast time-resolved optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature solids.

  1. Variational mixed quantum/semiclassical simulation of dihalogen guest and rare-gas solid host dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A

    2014-07-21

    A variational mixed quantum-semiclassical theory for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium is developed, tested, and used to simulate the temporal evolution of nonstationary states of the internal molecular and surrounding medium degrees of freedom. In this theory, termed the Fixed Vibrational Basis/Gaussian Bath (FVB/GB) method, the system is treated fully quantum mechanically while Gaussian wave packets are used for the bath degrees of freedom. An approximate time-dependent wave function of the entire model is obtained instead of just a reduced system density matrix, so the theory enables the analysis of the entangled system and bath dynamics that ensues following initial displacement of the internal-molecular (system) coordinate from its equilibrium position. The norm- and energy-conserving properties of the propagation of our trial wave function are natural consequences of the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The variational approach also stabilizes the time evolution in comparison to the same ansatz propagated under a previously employed locally quadratic approximation to the bath potential and system-bath interaction terms in the bath-parameter equations of motion. Dynamics calculations are carried out for molecular iodine in a 2D krypton lattice that reveal both the time-course of vibrational decoherence and the details of host-atom motion accompanying energy dissipation and dephasing. This work sets the stage for the comprehensive simulation of ultrafast time-resolved optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature solids. PMID:25053307

  2. Variational mixed quantum/semiclassical simulation of dihalogen guest and rare-gas solid host dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A.

    2014-07-21

    A variational mixed quantum-semiclassical theory for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium is developed, tested, and used to simulate the temporal evolution of nonstationary states of the internal molecular and surrounding medium degrees of freedom. In this theory, termed the Fixed Vibrational Basis/Gaussian Bath (FVB/GB) method, the system is treated fully quantum mechanically while Gaussian wave packets are used for the bath degrees of freedom. An approximate time-dependent wave function of the entire model is obtained instead of just a reduced system density matrix, so the theory enables the analysis of the entangled system and bath dynamics that ensues following initial displacement of the internal-molecular (system) coordinate from its equilibrium position. The norm- and energy-conserving properties of the propagation of our trial wave function are natural consequences of the Dirac-Frenkel-McLachlan variational principle. The variational approach also stabilizes the time evolution in comparison to the same ansatz propagated under a previously employed locally quadratic approximation to the bath potential and system-bath interaction terms in the bath-parameter equations of motion. Dynamics calculations are carried out for molecular iodine in a 2D krypton lattice that reveal both the time-course of vibrational decoherence and the details of host-atom motion accompanying energy dissipation and dephasing. This work sets the stage for the comprehensive simulation of ultrafast time-resolved optical experiments on small molecules in low-temperature solids.

  3. The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yingjie; Go, David B.

    2014-09-14

    The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electronsa process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10 ?m). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.

  4. Irreversibility in an ideal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    When a real fluid is expelled quickly from a tube, it forms a jet separated from the surrounding fluid by a thin, turbulent layer. On the other hand, when the same fluid is sucked into the tube, it enters from all directions, forming a sink-like flow. We show that, even for the ideal flow described by the time-reversible Euler equation, an experimenter who only controls the pressure in a pump attached to the tube would see jets form in one direction exclusively. The asymmetry between outflow and inflow therefore does not depend on viscous dissipation, but rather on the experimenter's limited control of initial and boundary conditions. This illustrates, in a rather different context from the usual one of thermal physics, how irreversibility may arise in systems whose microscopic dynamics are fully reversible.

  5. Internal rotation and equilibrium structure of 2-chloro-3-nitrothiophene from gas electron diffraction and quantum chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovtun, Dmitry M.; Kochikov, Igor V.; Tarasov, Yury I.

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium structure of the 2-chloro-3-nitrothiophene molecule and the internal rotation of the nitro group have been studied in gas phase using electron diffraction data and quantum chemical calculations in the framework of the large-amplitude motion model for internal rotation. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with various Pople and Dunning basis sets predict the planar minimum energy molecular conformation, with the internal rotation barrier height in the interval 1140-1560cm-1. The experimental GED data are consistent with the dynamic model governed by the twofold cosine potential energy function with the barrier height in the range from 600 to 1400cm-1. The main equilibrium structure parameters are as follows (values in parentheses correspond to 3 times standard deviations): re (Ndbnd O)=1.225/1.227(3) , re(C-C)/re(C-N)=1.362/1.376/1.403/1.438(3) , re(C-Cl)/re (C-S)=1.700/1.712/1.715(2) , ?e C2SC5=92.2 (5), ?e C3C2S=110.8 (6), ?e C4C5S=111.3 (5), ?e C3C4C5=113.0 (7), ?e C2C3C4=112.7 (8), ?e C3NO11=116.9(6), ?eC3NO10=118.5 (6), ?e SCCl=118.6 (5), ?e C4C3N=121.8 (7), ?e ONO=124.6(6), ?e C2C3N=125.1 (6), ?e C3C2Cl=130.7 (6). Thermally averaged parameters are provided for comparison with the results of traditional studies.

  6. Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice

  7. Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

  8. Numerical simulation of oscillatory flow in an idealized thermoacoustic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnoin, Etienne; Knio, Omar

    1998-11-01

    A vorticity-based computational model of an idealized thermoacoustic refrigerator is developed. The refrigerator consists of a stack of rectangular parallel plates and of heat exchangers on both sides of the stack. The heat exchangers are assumed to have a geometry similar to that of the stack and are separated from it by gaps whose widths can be varied. The evolution of the flow within the idealized refrigerator is described in terms of a low-Mach-number formulation of the compressible mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for an ideal gas mixture. The governing equations are simulated using a finite-difference solver which combines a domain-decomposition/boundary Green's function technique with fast Poisson solvers. The scheme is used to compute the response of the device to low-amplitude acoustic oscillations, and to analyze the evolution of the vorticity and temperature fields in the neighborhood of the stack and heat exchangers. * Supported by the Office of Naval Research

  9. Plasmon response of a quantum-confined electron gas probed by core-level photoemission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Mustafa M.; Moon, Eun Ju; Eguiluz, Adolfo G.; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2011-03-01

    The emergence of the ``bulk'' plasmon in atomically-smooth ultrathin Mg(0001) films on Si(111) has been determined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Plasmons in this quasi two-dimensional (2D) regime turn out to be excited primarily via the sudden creation of the core hole, as the extrinsic loss channel (which is dominant in bulk XPS spectra) is suppressed by electron confinement. The collective plasmon response of the films is remarkably similar to that of a thin slice of bulk matter, subject to quantum-size boundary conditions, in spite of the fact that the one-electron degrees of freedom are quantized. The energy-loss spectra of the thinnest films are characterized by a gradual transfer of spectral-weight from the bulk-like collective modes to the low-energy one-electron excitations, and the plasmon ultimately collapses below six monolayers. Our results represent striking manifestations of the role of electronic confinement on plasmon resonances in precisely-controlled nanostructures. DOE Office of BES, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering.

  10. Equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2009-05-15

    The equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas is studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. Going down to as low densities as na{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -100} permits us to obtain agreement on beyond mean-field level between predictions of perturbative methods and direct many-body numerical simulation, thus providing an answer to the fundamental question of the equation of state of a two-dimensional dilute Bose gas in the universal regime (i.e., entirely described by the gas parameter na{sup 2}). We also show that the measure of the frequency of a breathing collective oscillation in a trap at very low densities can be used to test the universal equation of state of a two-dimensional Bose gas.

  11. The Cracking of N-Heptane in the Gas Phase State and in the HZSM-5 Zeolite: A Quantum Molecular Dynamics Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zaragoza, I P.; Santamaria, Ruben

    2002-10-10

    Quantum molecular dynamics is used to investigate the cracking of a representative hydrocarbon of the paraffin family (n-heptane), analyzing the effects of temperature in the fragmentation of n-heptane when this compound is in the gas phase and inside a typical industrial catalyst (zeolite HZSM-5). The hydrocarbon structural and electronic features in the two environments are determined and compared. The results substantiate current views and exhibit the basic aspects in the cracking of n-heptane.

  12. A dipole-driven path for electron and positron attachments to gas-phase uracil and pyrimidine molecules: a quantum scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carelli, Fabio; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio; Franz, Jan; Satta, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Electron and positron scattering processes in the gas-phase are analysed for uracil and pyrimidine molecules using a multichannel quantum approach at energies close to threshold. The special effects on the scattering dynamics induced by the large dipole moments in both molecules on the spatial features of the continuum leptonic wavefunctions are here linked to the possible bound states of the Rydberg-like molecular anions or `positroned' molecules which could be reached via further couplings with molecular internal degrees of freedom.

  13. GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, H. P.; Tu, C. W.

    1998-05-01

    GaInNAs/GaAs multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with different N composition were successfully grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. A nitrogen radical beam source was used to incorporate N into GaInAs layers. High resolution x-ray rocking curves measurements indicate that the N composition in GaInNAs layer was increased from 0.009 to 0.03 with increasing N2 flow rate. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements show that the PL wavelength red shifts with increasing N composition in GaInNAs layer. For a 7-period Ga0.7In0.3N0.02As0.98/GaAs MQW, a PL peak at 1.3 μm wavelength at room temperature has been successfully obtained. The band offset ΔEc for Ga0.7In0.3NxAs1-x/GaAs enlarges quickly from 0.26 eV to 0.56 eV with increasing N concentration from 0% to 3%.

  14. A quartz enhanced photo-acoustic gas sensor based on a custom tuning fork and a terahertz quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Patimisco, Pietro; Borri, Simone; Sampaolo, Angelo; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Vitiello, Miriam S; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    An innovative quartz enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensing system operating in the THz spectral range and employing a custom quartz tuning fork (QTF) is described. The QTF dimensions are 3.3 cm × 0.4 cm × 0.8 cm, with the two prongs spaced by ∼800 μm. To test our sensor we used a quantum cascade laser as the light source and selected a methanol rotational absorption line at 131.054 cm(-1) (∼3.93 THz), with line-strength S = 4.28 × 10(-21) cm mol(-1). The sensor was operated at 10 Torr pressure on the first flexion QTF resonance frequency of 4245 Hz. The corresponding Q-factor was 74 760. Stepwise concentration measurements were performed to verify the linearity of the QEPAS signal as a function of the methanol concentration. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 7 parts per million in 4 seconds, corresponding to a QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption of 2 × 10(-10) W cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), comparable with the best result of mid-IR QEPAS systems. PMID:24167816

  15. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Sensor at 8.41 mu m Using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Taubman, Matthew S.

    2006-10-01

    We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 ?m between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz) and delivered a modest 5.3 mW at the tuning fork. This spectrometer was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultaneous absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10{sup -8} W cm-1 Hz{sup -1/2}. A corresponding theoretical analysis of the instrument sensitivity is presented and is capable of quantitatively reproducing the experimental NEAS, indicating that the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  16. Gas-phase structure of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate studied by electron diffraction and quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Gil, Diego M; Tuttolomondo, Mara E; Blomeyer, Sebastian; Reuter, Christian G; Mitzel, Norbert W; Altabef, Ada Ben

    2016-01-01

    The molecular structure and conformational properties of 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chloroformate, ClC(O)OCH2CCl3 were determined experimentally using gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) and theoretically based on quantum-chemical calculations at the MP2 and DFT levels of theory. Further experimental measurements such as UV-visible, IR and Raman spectroscopy were complemented with the corresponding theoretical studies. All experimental results and calculations confirm the presence of two conformers namely anti-gauche (C1 symmetry) and anti-anti (Cs symmetry). The conformational preference was rationalised by NBO and AIM analyses. Molecular properties such as ionisation potential, electronegativity, chemical potential, chemical hardness and softness were deduced from HOMO-LUMO analyses. The TD-DFT approach was applied to assign the electronic transitions observed in the UV-visible spectrum. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound are reported. Using calculated frequencies as a guide, IR and Raman spectra also provide evidence for the presence of both C1 and Cs conformers. PMID:26617390

  17. A trace methane gas sensor using mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser at 7.5 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Newcomb, Robert W.; Wang, Yiding

    2013-12-01

    Presented is a compact instrument developed for in situ high-stable and sensitive continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results shown for ambient methane (CH4) concentration. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in thermoelectrically cooled pulsed Fabry-Perot (FP) quantum cascaded (QC) laser driving in a pulse mode operating at 7.5 ?m to monitor a well-isolated spectral line near the ?4 fundamental band of CH4. A high-quality liquid nitrogen cooled mercury cadmium telluride mid-infrared detector with time discriminating electronics is used along with a total reflection coated gold ellipsoid mirror offering 20 cm single pass optical absorption in an open-path cell to achieve stability of 5.2 10-3 under experimental condition of 200 ppm measured ambient CH4. The instrument operates continuously, and integrated software for laser control using direct absorption provides quantitative trace gas measurements without calibration. One may substitute a QC laser operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases. The instrument can be applied to field measurements of gases of environmental concern.

  18. Equilibrium structure and relative stability of glyceraldehyde conformers: Gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) and quantum-chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Natalja; Atavin, Evgenii G.; Rykov, Anatolii N.; Popov, Evgenii V.; Vilkov, Lev V.

    2009-11-01

    For the first time, the five dimensional (5-D) analysis of potential energy surface (PES) from quantum-chemical calculations was carried out to predict reliably the various glyceraldehyde (GLA) conformers. 36 conformers with relative stabilities up to 38 kJ/mol were found in the B3LYP approximation. According to results of MP2/cc-pVQZ calculations, the molecule exists at the experimental temperature of 388 K as a mixture of five conformers in the ratio I:II:III:IV:V = 63:18:4:10:5. Contrary to the theoretical conclusion of Lovas et al., the conformer IV is predicted to be more stable than the conformer III. Our result can explain why the conformer IV could be detected in the microwave (MW) spectroscopic experiment by Lovas et al., whereas the conformer III could not. For the first time, thermal-average and equilibrium structural parameters of GLA (main conformer) have been determined from gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) data. Vibrational corrections to the experimental bond lengths were determined using quadratic and cubic force constants from high-level ab initio calculations (MP2/cc-pVTZ). It was shown that the experimental intensities are sensitive to the contribution of the second conformer (27(15)%). Rotational constants calculated from MP2/cc-pVQZ geometries were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental rotational constants corrected for anharmonic effects.

  19. Novel quantum Monte Carlo methods for spin-orbit Hamiltonians: 2D interacting electron gas with the Rashba interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shi; Zhu, Minyi; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2013-03-01

    Very recently, a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method was proposed for Rashba spin-orbit operators which expands the applicability of QMC to systems with variable spins. It is based on incorporating the spin-orbit into the Green's function and thus samples (ie, rotates) the spinors in the antisymmetric part of the trial function [1]. Here we propose a new alternative for both variational and diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for calculations of systems with variable spins. Specifically, we introduce a new spin representation which allows us to sample the spin configurations efficiently and without introducing additional fluctuations. We develop the corresponding Green's function which treats the electron spin as a dynamical variable and we use the fixed-phase approximation to eliminate the negative probabilities. The trial wave function is a Slater determinant of spinors and spin-indepedent Jastrow correlations. The method also has the zero variance property. We benchmark the method on the 2D electron gas with the Rashba interaction and we find very good overall agreement with previously obtained results. Research supported by NSF and ARO.

  20. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  1. [A trace gas sensor using mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser at 4.8 microm to detect carbon monoxide].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Biao; Li, Chun-Guang; Li, Jian; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-03-01

    Presented in the present paper is a compact instrument developed for rapid, sensitive and continuous monitoring of trace gases in air, with results shown for carbon monoxide concentration. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 4.8 microm and mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) mid-infrared (MIR) detector, combing MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 50 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4 s acquisition time. Meanwhile, in order to eliminate the instability induced by electrically modulated light source and effectively improve detection limit of the instrument, an optical structure with dual channel path was designed which is based on differential optical absorption spectroscopy method. The experimental results show that the instrument integrated with gas concentration inversion algorithm can be applied to in-situ measurements of trace gases without calibration. Additionally, operator could substitute a QCL operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases. PMID:25208424

  2. [A trace methane gas sensor using mid-infrared quantum cascaded laser at 7.5 microm].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Dang, Jing-Min; Huang, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Yue; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2012-11-01

    Presented is a compact instrument developed for in situ high-stable and sensitive continuous measurement of trace gases in air, with results shown for ambient methane (CH4) concentration accurate, real-time and in-situ. This instrument takes advantage of recent technology in thermoelectrically cooling (TEC) pulsed Fabry-Perot (FP) quantum cascaded laser (QCL) driving in a pulse mode operating at 7.5 microm ambient temperature to cover a fundamental spectral absorption band near v4 of CH4. A high quality Liquid Nitrogen (LN) cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) mid-infrared (MIR) detector is used along with a total reflection coated gold ellipsoid mirror offering 20 cm single pass optical absorption in an open-path cell to achieve stability of 5.2 x 10(-3) under experimental condition of 200 micromol x mol(-1) measured ambient CH4. The instrument integrated software via time discriminating electronics technology to control QCL provides continuous quantitative trace gas measurements without calibration. The results show that the instrument can be applied to field measurements of gases of environmental concern. Additional, operator could substitute a QCL operating at a different wavelength to measure other gases. PMID:23387197

  3. Quad quantum cascade laser spectrometer with dual gas cells for the simultaneous analysis of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baren, Randall E.; Parrish, Milton E.; Shafer, Kenneth H.; Harward, Charles N.; Shi, Quan; Nelson, David D.; McManus, J. Barry; Zahniser, Mark S.

    2004-12-01

    A compact, fast response, infrared spectrometer using four pulsed quantum cascade (QC) lasers has been applied to the analysis of gases in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke. QC lasers have many advantages over the traditional lead-salt tunable diode lasers, including near room temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling and single mode operation with improved long-term stability. The new instrument uses two 36 m, 0.3 l multiple pass absorption gas cells to obtain a time response of 0.1 s for the MS smoke system and 0.4 s for the SS smoke system. The concentrations of ammonia, ethylene, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide for three different reference cigarettes were measured simultaneously in MS and SS smoke. A data rate of 20 Hz provides sufficient resolution to determine the concentration profiles during each 2 s puff in the MS smoke. Concentration profiles before, during and after the puffs also have been observed for these smoke constituents in SS smoke. Also, simultaneous measurements of CO 2 from a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer are obtained for both MS and SS smoke. In addition, during this work, nitrous oxide was detected in both the MS and SS smoke for all reference cigarettes studied.

  4. Quantum gases. Critical dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Navon, Nir; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Kibble-Zurek theory models the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which plays an important role in a wide variety of physical contexts, ranging from cosmology to superconductors. We explored these dynamics in a homogeneous system by thermally quenching an atomic gas with short-range interactions through the Bose-Einstein phase transition. Using homodyne matter-wave interferometry to measure first-order correlation functions, we verified the central quantitative prediction of the Kibble-Zurek theory, namely the homogeneous-system power-law scaling of the coherence length with the quench rate. Moreover, we directly confirmed its underlying hypothesis, the freezing of the correlation length near the transition. Our measurements agree with a beyond-mean-field theory and support the expectation that the dynamical critical exponent for this universality class is z = 3/2. PMID:25574021

  5. Practicing Identity: A Crafty Ideal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brysbaert, A.; Vetters, M.

    This paper focuses on the materialization of technological practices as a form of identity expression. Contextual analyses of a Mycenaean workshop area in the Late Bronze Age citadel of Tiryns (Argolis, Greece) are presented to investigate the interaction of different artisans under changing socio-political and economic circumstances. The case study indicates that although certain technological practices are often linked to specific crafts, they do not necessarily imply the separation of job tasks related to the working of one specific material versus another. Shared technological practices and activities, therefore, may be a factor in shaping cohesive group identities of specialized artisans. Since tracing artisans' identities is easier said than done on the basis of excavated materials alone, we employ the concepts of multiple chanes opratoires combined with cross-craft interactions as a methodology in order to retrieve distinctive sets of both social and technological practices from the archaeological remains. These methodological concepts are not restricted to a specific set of steps in the production cycle, but ideally encompass reconstructing contexts of extraction, manufacture, distribution and discard/reuse for a range of artefacts. Therefore, these concepts reveal both technological practices, and, by contextualising these technological practices in their spatial layout, equally focus on social contacts that would have taken place during any of these actions. Our detailed contextual study demonstrates that the material remains when analysed in their entirety are complementary to textual evidence. In this case study they even form a source of information on palatial spheres of life about which the fragmentary Linear B texts, so far, remain silent.

  6. Gas-phase formation of the prebiotic molecule formamide: insights from new quantum computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, V.; Latouche, C.; Skouteris, D.; Vazart, F.; Balucani, N.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.

    2015-10-01

    New insights into the formation of interstellar formamide, a species of great relevance in prebiotic chemistry, are provided by electronic structure and kinetic calculations for the reaction NH2 + H2CO ? NH2CHO + H. Contrarily to what previously suggested, this reaction is essentially barrierless and can, therefore, occur under the low temperature conditions of intestellar objects thus providing a facile formation route of formamide. The rate coefficient parameters for the reaction channel leading to NH2CHO + H have been calculated to be A = 2.6 10-12 cm3 s-1, ? = -2.1 and ? = 26.9 K in the range of temperatures 10-300 K. Including these new kinetic data in a refined astrochemical model, we show that the proposed mechanism can well reproduce the abundances of formamide observed in two very different interstellar objects: the cold envelope of the Sun-like protostar IRAS16293-2422 and the molecular shock L1157-B2. Therefore, the major conclusion of this Letter is that there is no need to invoke grain-surface chemistry to explain the presence of formamide provided that its precursors, NH2 and H2CO, are available in the gas phase.

  7. Searching for perfect fluids: quantum viscosity in a universal Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Elliott, E.; Wu, H.; Thomas, J. E.

    2011-07-01

    We measure the shear viscosity in a two-component Fermi gas of atoms, tuned to a broad s-wave collisional (Feshbach) resonance. At resonance, the atoms strongly interact and exhibit universal behavior, where the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients are universal functions of density n and temperature T. We present a new calibration of the temperature as a function of global energy, which is directly measured from the cloud profiles. Using the calibration, the trap-averaged shear viscosity in units of planckn is determined as a function of the reduced temperature at the trap center, from nearly the ground state to the unitary two-body regime. Low-temperature data are obtained from the damping rate of the radial breathing mode, whereas high-temperature data are obtained from hydrodynamic expansion measurements. We also show that the best fit to the high-temperature expansion data is obtained for a vanishing bulk viscosity. The measured trap-averaged entropy per particle and shear viscosity are used to estimate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, which is compared with that conjectured for a perfect fluid.

  8. Towards enhancing two-dimensional electron gas quantum confinement effects in perovskite oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong

    2015-03-01

    We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO3/ATiO3 (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO3/BaTiO3 has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO3, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO3/BaTiO3 heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO3 as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.

  9. Towards enhancing two-dimensional electron gas quantum confinement effects in perovskite oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong

    2015-03-21

    We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO{sub 3}/ATiO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO{sub 3}, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO{sub 3} as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.

  10. Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Adam N.; Love, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making. PMID:24955325

  11. Pairing, Off-Diagonal Long-Range Order, and Quantum Phase Transition in Strongly Attracting Ultracold Bose Gas Mixtures in Tight Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Girardeau, M. D.

    2009-06-19

    A model of two 1D ideal Bose gases A and B with strong odd-wave AB attractions induced by a p-wave AB Feshbach resonance is studied. The model is solved exactly by a Bose-Bose duality mapping, and it is shown that there is no A-component or B-component Bose-Einstein condensation and no AB-pair off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO), but both AA-pair and BB-pair ODLRO. After generalization by adding even-wave AA and BB repulsions and reducing the strength of the odd-wave AB attraction by Feshbach resonance detuning, a quantum phase transition occurs between a phase with AB contact nodes and one with no such nodes.

  12. Ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the uniform electron gas without fixed nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, S.; Schoof, T.; Dornheim, T.; Bonitz, M.

    2016-02-01

    The uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature is of key relevance for many applications in the warm dense matter regime, e.g., dense plasmas and laser excited solids. Also, the quality of density functional theory calculations crucially relies on the availability of accurate data for the exchange-correlation energy. Recently, results for N =33 spin-polarized electrons at high density, rs=r ¯/aB≲4 , and low temperature have been obtained with the configuration path integral Monte Carlo (CPIMC) method [T. Schoof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 130402 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.130402]. To achieve these results, the original CPIMC algorithm [T. Schoof et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 51, 687 (2011), 10.1002/ctpp.201100012] had to be further optimized to cope with the fermion sign problem (FSP). It is the purpose of this paper to give detailed information on the manifestation of the FSP in CPIMC simulations of the UEG and to demonstrate how it can be turned into a controllable convergence problem. In addition, we present new thermodynamic results for higher temperatures. Finally, to overcome the limitations of CPIMC towards strong coupling, we invoke an independent method—the recently developed permutation blocking path integral Monte Carlo approach [T. Dornheim et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 204101 (2015), 10.1063/1.4936145]. The combination of both approaches is able to yield ab initio data for the UEG over the entire density range, above a temperature of about one half of the Fermi temperature. Comparison with restricted path integral Monte Carlo data [E. W. Brown et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 146405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.146405] allows us to quantify the systematic error arising from the free particle nodes.

  13. Quantum chemical analysis of the energy of proton transfer from phenol and chlorophenols to H2O in the gas phase and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrmann, Gerrit

    1998-12-01

    Proton transfer energies of phenol and 14 chlorophenols with H2O as a base are analyzed in the gas phase and in solution using quantum chemical methods at the semiempirical and ab initio level of computation. The effect of aqueous solution was accounted for by applying the density functional theory (DFT) implementation of the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) as well as semiempirical continuum-solvation models. The results reveal substantial and systematic overestimations of the free energies of proton transfer as derived from experimental solution-phase pKa data. This can be traced back to both deficiencies in the current model parameterization as well as to limitations of the underlying gas-phase quantum chemical models, which is further illustrated by additional complete-basis-set (CBS) calculations for the proton transfer reaction with phenol. In contrast, the relative pKa trend is reflected well by COSMO-DFT calculations with correlation coefficients (adjusted for degrees of freedom) of 0.96. Decomposition of the dissociation energy in aqueous solution into a gas-phase term and a term summarizing the solvation contributions provides new insights into the effect of solvation on proton transfer energies, and yields mechanistic explanations for the observed differences in the gas-phase and solution-phase acidity orders of various subgroups of the compounds.

  14. Not All Ideals are Equal: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ideals in Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Hadden, Benjamin W.; Knee, C. Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The ideal standards model suggests that greater consistency between ideal standards and actual perceptions of one’s relationship predicts positive relationship evaluations; however, no research has evaluated whether this differs across types of ideals. A self-determination theory perspective was derived to test whether satisfaction of intrinsic ideals buffers the importance of extrinsic ideals. Participants (N=195) in committed relationships directly and indirectly reported the extent to which their partner met their ideal on two dimensions: intrinsic (e.g., warm, intimate) and extrinsic (e.g., attractive, successful). Relationship need fulfillment and relationship quality were also assessed. Hypotheses were largely supported, such that satisfaction of intrinsic ideals more strongly predicted relationship functioning, and satisfaction of intrinsic ideals buffered the relevance of extrinsic ideals for outcomes. PMID:25821396

  15. The structure and conformations of piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidineacetamide): Gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksenafontov, Denis N.; Moiseeva, Natalia F.; Khristenko, Lyudmila V.; Karasev, Nikolai M.; Shishkov, Igor F.; Vilkov, Lev V.

    2010-12-01

    The geometric structure of piracetam was studied by quantum chemical calculations (DFT and ab initio), gas electron diffraction (GED), and FTIR spectroscopy. Two stable mirror symmetric isomers of piracetam were found. The conformation of pyrrolidine ring is an envelope in which the C4 atom deviates from the ring plane, the angle between the planes (C3 sbnd C4 sbnd C5) and (C2 sbnd C3 sbnd C5) is 154.1. The direction of the deviation is the same as that of the side acetamide group. The piracetam molecule is stabilized in the gas phase by an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the N9H 2 group and the oxygen O6, bonded to C2. The principal structural parameters ( re, and ?e, degrees; uncertainties are 3 ?LS values) were found to be: r(?3 sbnd ?4) = 1.533(1), r(C4 sbnd C5) = 1.540(1), r(N1 sbnd C5) = 1.456(1), r(C2 sbnd C3) = 1.520(1), r(N1 sbnd C7) = 1.452(1), r(C7 sbnd C8) = 1.537(1), r(N1 sbnd C2) = 1.365(2), r(C8 sbnd N9) = 1.360(2), r(C2 dbnd O6) = 1.229(1), r(C8 dbnd O10) = 1.221(1), ?C2 sbnd N1 sbnd C5 = 113.4(6), ?N1 sbnd C2 sbnd C3 = 106.9(6), ?N1 sbnd C7 sbnd C8 = 111.9(6), ?C7 sbnd C8 sbnd N9 = 112.5(6), ?N1 sbnd C2 sbnd O6 = 123.0(4), ?C3 sbnd N1 sbnd C7 = 120.4(4), ?C7 sbnd C8 sbnd O10 = 120.2(4), ?C5 sbnd N1 sbnd C2 sbnd O6 = 170(6), ?C3 sbnd C2 sbnd N1 sbnd C7 = 178(6), ?C2 sbnd N1 sbnd C7 sbnd C8 = 84.2, ?N1 sbnd C7 sbnd C8 sbnd O10 = 111.9.

  16. Quantum simulation of energy transport with embedded Rydberg aggregates.

    PubMed

    Schönleber, D W; Eisfeld, A; Genkin, M; Whitlock, S; Wüster, S

    2015-03-27

    We show that an array of ultracold Rydberg atoms embedded in a laser driven background gas can serve as an aggregate for simulating exciton dynamics and energy transport with a controlled environment. Energetic disorder and decoherence introduced by the interaction with the background gas atoms can be controlled by the laser parameters. This allows for an almost ideal realization of a Haken-Reineker-Strobl-type model for energy transport. The transport can be monitored using the same mechanism that provides control over the environment. The degree of decoherence is traced back to information gained on the excitation location through the monitoring, turning the setup into an experimentally accessible model system for studying the effects of quantum measurements on the dynamics of a many-body quantum system. PMID:25860741

  17. Quantum Simulation of Energy Transport with Embedded Rydberg Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönleber, D. W.; Eisfeld, A.; Genkin, M.; Whitlock, S.; Wüster, S.

    2015-03-01

    We show that an array of ultracold Rydberg atoms embedded in a laser driven background gas can serve as an aggregate for simulating exciton dynamics and energy transport with a controlled environment. Energetic disorder and decoherence introduced by the interaction with the background gas atoms can be controlled by the laser parameters. This allows for an almost ideal realization of a Haken-Reineker-Strobl-type model for energy transport. The transport can be monitored using the same mechanism that provides control over the environment. The degree of decoherence is traced back to information gained on the excitation location through the monitoring, turning the setup into an experimentally accessible model system for studying the effects of quantum measurements on the dynamics of a many-body quantum system.

  18. Ideal and Nonideal Reasoning in Educational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggar, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    The terms "ideal theory" and "nonideal theory" are used in contemporary Anglophone political philosophy to identify alternative methodological approaches for justifying normative claims. Each term is used in multiple ways. In this article Alison M. Jaggar disentangles several versions of ideal and nonideal theory with a view to

  19. Evaluating human enhancements: the importance of ideals.

    PubMed

    Roduit, Johann A R; Baumann, Holger; Heilinger, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Is it necessary to have an ideal of perfection in mind to identify and evaluate true biotechnological human "enhancements", or can one do without? To answer this question we suggest employing the distinction between ideal and non-ideal theory, found in the debate in political philosophy about theories of justice: the distinctive views about whether one needs an idea of a perfectly just society or not when it comes to assessing the current situation and recommending steps to increase justice. In this paper we argue that evaluating human enhancements from a non-ideal perspective has some serious shortcomings, which can be avoided when endorsing an ideal approach. Our argument starts from a definition of human enhancement as improvement, which can be understood in two ways. The first approach is backward-looking and assesses improvements with regard to a status quo ante. The second, a forward-looking approach, evaluates improvements with regard to their proximity to a goal or according to an ideal. After outlining the limitations of an exclusively backward-looking view (non-ideal theory), we answer possible objections against a forward-looking view (ideal theory). Ultimately, we argue that the human enhancement debate would lack some important moral insights if a forward-looking view of improvement is not taken into consideration. PMID:25743059

  20. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  1. A New Criterion for the "Ideal" Child?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Douglas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Teachers of gifted students and experts in creativity and gifted child education ranked personality characteristics of gifted students. Comparison with Torrance's Ideal Child Checklist (1963) revealed major shifts in the past 20 years in the image of the ideal child and in the extent of agreement between teachers and experts. (CL)

  2. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Calculations versus Quantum-State-Resolved Experiments on CHD3 + Pt(111): New Insights into a Prototypical Gas-Surface Reaction.

    PubMed

    Nattino, Francesco; Ueta, Hirokazu; Chadwick, Helen; van Reijzen, Maarten E; Beck, Rainer D; Jackson, Bret; van Hemert, Marc C; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2014-04-17

    The dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces is of fundamental and practical interest, being a rate-limiting step in the steam reforming process. The reaction is best modeled with quantum dynamics calculations, but these are currently not guaranteed to produce accurate results because they rely on potential energy surfaces based on untested density functionals and on untested dynamical approximations. To help overcome these limitations, here we present for the first time statistically accurate reaction probabilities obtained with ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) for a polyatomic gas-phase molecule reacting with a metal surface. Using a general purpose density functional, the AIMD reaction probabilities are in semiquantitative agreement with new quantum-state-resolved experiments on CHD3 + Pt(111). The comparison suggests the use of the sudden approximation for treating the rotations even though CHD3 has large rotational constants and yields an estimated reaction barrier of 0.9 eV for CH4 + Pt(111). PMID:26269970

  3. Quantum hairs’ and entropy of the quantum isolated horizon from Chern-Simons theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majhi, Abhishek; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2014-10-01

    We articulate the fact that the loop quantum gravity (LQG) description of the quantum macrostates of black hole horizons, modeled as quantum isolated horizons (QIHs), is completely characterized in terms of two independent integer-valued ‘quantum hairs’, viz, the coupling constant (k) of the quantum SU(2) Chern-Simons (CS) theory describing QIH dynamics, and the number of punctures (N) produced by the bulk spin network edges piercing the isolated horizon (which act as pointlike sources for the CS fields). We demonstrate that the microcanonical entropy of macroscopic (both parameters assuming very large values) QIHs can be obtained directly from the microstates of this CS theory using standard statistical mechanical methods, without having to additionally postulate the horizon as an ideal gas of punctures, or incorporate any additional classical or semiclassical input from general relativity vis-a-vis the functional dependence of the isolated horizon mass on its area, or indeed, without having to restrict to any special class of spins. Requiring the validity of the Bekenstein-Hawking area law relates these two parameters (as an equilibrium ‘equation of state’), and consequently allows the Barbero-Immirzi parameter to take any real and positive value depending on the value of k/N. The logarithmic correction to the area law obtained a decade ago by R Kaul and one of us (PM), ensues straightforwardly, with precisely the coefficient -3/2, making it a signature of the LQG approach to black hole entropy.

  4. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-09-01

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=sqrt{μ _0/p_0} I/(2 π ) where I is the current, μ0 is the permeability, and p0 is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then slows the shock Mach number growth producing a maximum followed by monotonic reduction towards magnetosonic conditions, even as the shock accelerates toward the axis. A parameter space of initial shock Mach number at a given radius is explored and the implications of the present results for inertial confinement fusion are discussed.

  5. Converging cylindrical shocks in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pullin, D. I.; Mostert, W.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, R.

    2014-09-15

    We consider a cylindrically symmetrical shock converging onto an axis within the framework of ideal, compressible-gas non-dissipative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In cylindrical polar co-ordinates we restrict attention to either constant axial magnetic field or to the azimuthal but singular magnetic field produced by a line current on the axis. Under the constraint of zero normal magnetic field and zero tangential fluid speed at the shock, a set of restricted shock-jump conditions are obtained as functions of the shock Mach number, defined as the ratio of the local shock speed to the unique magnetohydrodynamic wave speed ahead of the shock, and also of a parameter measuring the local strength of the magnetic field. For the line current case, two approaches are explored and the results compared in detail. The first is geometrical shock-dynamics where the restricted shock-jump conditions are applied directly to the equation on the characteristic entering the shock from behind. This gives an ordinary-differential equation for the shock Mach number as a function of radius which is integrated numerically to provide profiles of the shock implosion. Also, analytic, asymptotic results are obtained for the shock trajectory at small radius. The second approach is direct numerical solution of the radially symmetric MHD equations using a shock-capturing method. For the axial magnetic field case the shock implosion is of the Guderley power-law type with exponent that is not affected by the presence of a finite magnetic field. For the axial current case, however, the presence of a tangential magnetic field ahead of the shock with strength inversely proportional to radius introduces a length scale R=√(μ{sub 0}/p{sub 0}) I/(2 π) where I is the current, μ{sub 0} is the permeability, and p{sub 0} is the pressure ahead of the shock. For shocks initiated at r ≫ R, shock convergence is first accompanied by shock strengthening as for the strictly gas-dynamic implosion. The diverging magnetic field then slows the shock Mach number growth producing a maximum followed by monotonic reduction towards magnetosonic conditions, even as the shock accelerates toward the axis. A parameter space of initial shock Mach number at a given radius is explored and the implications of the present results for inertial confinement fusion are discussed.

  6. Informational derivation of quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2011-07-15

    We derive quantum theory from purely informational principles. Five elementary axioms - causality, perfect distinguishability, ideal compression, local distinguishability, and pure conditioning - define a broad class of theories of information processing that can be regarded as standard. One postulate - purification - singles out quantum theory within this class.

  7. Ideal regularization for learning kernels from labels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Binbin; Lai, Jianhuang; Shen, Lixin

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new form of regularization that is able to utilize the label information of a data set for learning kernels. The proposed regularization, referred to as ideal regularization, is a linear function of the kernel matrix to be learned. The ideal regularization allows us to develop efficient algorithms to exploit labels. Three applications of the ideal regularization are considered. Firstly, we use the ideal regularization to incorporate the labels into a standard kernel, making the resulting kernel more appropriate for learning tasks. Next, we employ the ideal regularization to learn a data-dependent kernel matrix from an initial kernel matrix (which contains prior similarity information, geometric structures, and labels of the data). Finally, we incorporate the ideal regularization to some state-of-the-art kernel learning problems. With this regularization, these learning problems can be formulated as simpler ones which permit more efficient solvers. Empirical results show that the ideal regularization exploits the labels effectively and efficiently. PMID:24824969

  8. [The style of leadership idealized by nurses].

    PubMed

    Higa, Elza de Ftima Ribeiro; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on nursing leadership on the basis of Grid theories. According to the authors, these theories are an alternative that allows for leadership development in nursing. The research aimed to identify and analyze the style of leadership idealized by nurses, according to their own view, and to compare the styles of leadership idealized by nurses between the two research institutions. Study subjects were 13 nurses. The results show that nurses at both institutions equally mention they idealize style 9.9, followed by 5.5 and 1.9, with a tendency to reject styles 9.1 and 1.1. PMID:15761581

  9. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    PubMed

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

  10. Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation of ideal photons in a one-dimensional barrel cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ze

    2016-02-01

    Our experimental scheme is based on a barrel optical microresonator filled with a dye solution. The barrel mirror provides a confining potential, a chemical potential, and an effective mass for a photon, making the system formally equivalent to a one-dimensional gas of harmonically trapped, number-conserving, and massive bosons. Within the framework of quantum statistical mechanics, we propose an exact analytical solution to the problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in harmonically trapped, one-dimensional, and ideal photons. It is found that the photon number of vapor is characterized by an analytical function, which involves a q -digamma function in mathematics. The numerical calculation of the analytical solution gives many interesting results. In the thermodynamic limit, the analytical expressions of the critical temperature and the condensate fraction are derived. We find that the spectral radiance of a one-dimensional barrel cavity has a sharp peak at the frequency of the cavity cutoff when the photon number exceeds the critical value determined by a temperature.

  12. Ideal magnetocaloric effect for active magnetic regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, A. M.; Barclay, J. A.

    2003-02-01

    The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) uses a magnetic solid as a thermal storage medium and as a working material in a refrigeration cycle. Thermodynamically coupled to a heat transfer fluid, the regenerator produces a cooling effect and generates a temperature gradient across the AMR. The coupling between the heat transfer fluid and the magnetic refrigerant is a key aspect governing the operating characteristics of an AMR. To increase our understanding of AMR thermodynamics, we examine the entropy balance in an idealized active magnetic regenerator. A relation for the entropy generation in an AMR with varying fluid capacity ratios is derived. Subsequently, an expression describing the ideal magnetocaloric effect (MCE) as a function of temperature is developed for the case of zero entropy generation. Finally, the link between ideal MCE and refrigerant symmetry is discussed showing that an ideal reverse Brayton-type magnetic cycle cannot be achieved using materials undergoing a second-order magnetic phase transition.

  13. Ideals and Realities of the Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibler, Richard W.

    1976-01-01

    With the growth of professionalism and the emphasis on money in sports, modern society is losing sight of the ideals of style and grace that were of primary importance in the early Olympic games. nJD)

  14. Ideal shrinking and expansion of discrete sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Ideal methods are described for shrinking or expanding a discrete sequence, image, or image sequence. The methods are ideal in the sense that they preserve the frequency spectrum of the input up to the Nyquist limit of the input or output, whichever is smaller. Fast implementations that make use of the discrete Fourier transform or the discrete Hartley transform are described. The techniques lead to a new multiresolution image pyramid.

  15. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2003-01-01

    Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.

  16. Guiding Center Equations for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Roscoe B. White

    2013-02-21

    Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through δ~B = ∇ X (ξ X B) however perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement ξ are derived which perserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.

  17. Guiding center equations for ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.

    2013-04-15

    Guiding center simulations are routinely used for the discovery of mode-particle resonances in tokamaks, for both resistive and ideal instabilities and to find modifications of particle distributions caused by a given spectrum of modes, including large scale avalanches during events with a number of large amplitude modes. One of the most fundamental properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics is the condition that plasma motion cannot change magnetic topology. The conventional representation of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes by perturbing a toroidal equilibrium field through {delta}B-vector={nabla} Multiplication-Sign ({xi}-vector Multiplication-Sign B-vector), however, perturbs the magnetic topology, introducing extraneous magnetic islands in the field. A proper treatment of an ideal perturbation involves a full Lagrangian displacement of the field due to the perturbation and conserves magnetic topology as it should. In order to examine the effect of ideal magnetohydrodynamic modes on particle trajectories, the guiding center equations should include a correct Lagrangian treatment. Guiding center equations for an ideal displacement {xi}-vector are derived which preserve the magnetic topology and are used to examine mode particle resonances in toroidal confinement devices. These simulations are compared to others which are identical in all respects except that they use the linear representation for the field. Unlike the case for the magnetic field, the use of the linear field perturbation in the guiding center equations does not result in extraneous mode particle resonances.

  18. Quantum computation speedup limits from quantum metrological precision bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Markiewicz, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scheme for translating metrological precision bounds into lower bounds on query complexity of quantum search algorithms. Within the scheme the link between quadratic performance enhancement in idealized quantum metrological and quantum computing schemes becomes clear. More importantly, we utilize results from the field of quantum metrology on a generic loss of quadratic quantum precision enhancement in the presence of decoherence to infer an analogous generic loss of quadratic speedup in oracle based quantum computing. While most of our reasoning is rigorous, at one of the final steps, we need to make use of an unproven technical conjecture. We hope that we will be able to amend this deficiency in the near future, but we are convinced that even without the conjecture proven our results provide a deep insight into the relationship between quantum algorithms and quantum metrology protocols.

  19. Mitosis, diffusible crosslinkers, and the ideal gas law.

    PubMed

    Odde, David J

    2015-03-12

    During mitosis, molecular motors hydrolyze ATP to generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubules and form the bipolar mitotic spindle. Lansky et al. now show that the diffusible microtubule crosslinker Ase1p can generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubules, and it does so without ATP hydrolysis. PMID:25768899

  20. A new model for ideal gases. Decay to the Maxwellian distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivanian, Elyas; Lpez-Ruiz, Ricardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, a new model in kinetic gas theory for deriving the Maxwellian velocity distribution (MVD) is proposed. We construct an operator that governs the discrete time evolution of the velocity distribution. This operator, which conserves the momentum and the energy of the ideal gas, has the MVD as a fixed point. Moreover, for any initial out-of-equilibrium velocity distribution, it is shown that the gas decays to the equilibrium distribution, that is, to the MVD.

  1. Can non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics solve the magnetic braking catastrophe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, James; Price, Daniel J.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate whether or not the low ionization fractions in molecular cloud cores can solve the `magnetic braking catastrophe', where magnetic fields prevent the formation of circumstellar discs around young stars. We perform three-dimensional smoothed particle non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the gravitational collapse of one solar mass molecular cloud cores, incorporating the effects of ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity and the Hall effect alongside a self-consistent calculation of the ionization chemistry assuming 0.1 μm grains. When including only ambipolar diffusion or Ohmic resistivity, discs do not form in the presence of strong magnetic fields, similar to the cases using ideal MHD. With the Hall effect included, disc formation depends on the direction of the magnetic field with respect to the rotation vector of the gas cloud. When the vectors are aligned, strong magnetic braking occurs and no disc is formed. When the vectors are anti-aligned, a disc with radius of 13 au can form even in strong magnetic when all three non-ideal terms are present, and a disc of 38 au can form when only the Hall effect is present; in both cases, a counter-rotating envelope forms around the first hydrostatic core. For weaker, anti-aligned fields, the Hall effect produces massive discs comparable to those produced in the absence of magnetic fields, suggesting that planet formation via gravitational instability may depend on the sign of the magnetic field in the precursor molecular cloud core.

  2. Gas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of gases that contain sulfur. Gas in the digestive tract comes from two sources: air that you swallow and the breakdown of undigested food by bacteria in the large intestine. Certain foods may ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  3. pyIAST: Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) Python package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Cory M.; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) is a widely-used thermodynamic framework to readily predict mixed-gas adsorption isotherms from a set of pure-component adsorption isotherms. We present an open-source, user-friendly Python package, pyIAST, to perform IAST calculations for an arbitrary number of components. pyIAST supports several common analytical models to characterize the pure-component isotherms from experimental or simulated data. Alternatively, pyIAST can use numerical quadrature to compute the spreading pressure for IAST calculations by interpolating the pure-component isotherm data. pyIAST can also perform reverse IAST calculations, where one seeks the required gas phase composition to yield a desired adsorbed phase composition.

  4. Reality television and the muscular male ideal.

    PubMed

    Dallesasse, Starla L; Kluck, Annette S

    2013-06-01

    Although researchers have examined the negative effects of viewing reality television (RTV) on women's body image, this research has not been extended to men. Exploring the extent to which RTV depicts men who embody the muscular ideal may enhance our understanding of the potential influence of this media genre. We explored the extent to which RTV depicted men who embodied the muscular ideal using a quantitative content analysis. Based on binomial tests, the primary male cast members of programs airing on networks popular among young adult men during the Fall 2009 broadcast season were more muscular, with lower levels of body fat, than average U.S. men. The chest-to-waist and shoulder-to-waist ratios of these cast members did not differ as a function of program type (i.e., reality drama, endurance, and romance). Young men who view RTV programs included in the present study would be exposed to an unrepresentative muscular ideal. PMID:23523084

  5. Far-infrared collision-induced absorption in rare gas mixtures: Quantum and semi-classical calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Buryak, Ilya; Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 3 Pyzhevsky per., 119017 Moscow ; Frommhold, Lothar; Vigasin, Andrey A.

    2014-04-21

    We compare calculations of the translational collision-induced spectra and their integrated intensities of both He–Ar and Ne–Ar collisional complexes, using the quantum mechanical and a semiclassical formalism. Advanced potential energy and induced dipole functions are used for the calculations. The quantum method used is as described previously [L. Frommhold, Collision-induced Absorption in Gases (Cambridge University Press, 1993 and 2006)]. The semiclassical method is based on repeated classical atom-atom scattering calculations to simulate an ensemble average; subsequent Fourier transform then renders the binary absorption coefficient as a function of frequency. The problem of classical calculations is the violation of the principle of detailed balance, which may be introduced only artificially in classical calculations. Nevertheless, it is shown that the use of classical trajectories permits a fairly accurate reproduction of the experimental spectra, comparable to the quantum mechanical results at not too low temperatures and for collisional pairs of not too small reduced mass. Inexpensive classical calculations may thus be promising to compute spectra also of molecular pairs, or even of polyatomic collisional pairs with anisotropic intermolecular interactions, for which the quantum approach is still inefficient or impractical.

  6. Analysis of an idealized Stirling thermocompressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kornhauser, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    A thermocompressor uses thermal energy to increase the pressure of a fluid without the intermediate production of mechanical work. The thermocompressor described here is essentially a cold-connected Gamma Stirling engine with the power cylinder replaced by inlet and discharge check valves. It is analyzed based on assumptions similar to those made in the analysis of an ideal Stirling engine. The analysis gives closed form predictions for thermocompressor thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, and non-dimensional heat input as functions of pressure and temperature ratio. It is also used to compare thermocompressor performance to that of an ideal Otto engine-driven mechanical compressor.

  7. Quantum computation: algorithms and implementation in quantum dot devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, John King

    In this thesis, we explore several aspects of both the software and hardware of quantum computation. First, we examine the computational power of multi-particle quantum random walks in terms of distinguishing mathematical graphs. We study both interacting and non-interacting multi-particle walks on strongly regular graphs, proving some limitations on distinguishing powers and presenting extensive numerical evidence indicative of interactions providing more distinguishing power. We then study the recently proposed adiabatic quantum algorithm for Google PageRank, and show that it exhibits power-law scaling for realistic WWW-like graphs. Turning to hardware, we next analyze the thermal physics of two nearby 2D electron gas (2DEG), and show that an analogue of the Coulomb drag effect exists for heat transfer. In some distance and temperature, this heat transfer is more significant than phonon dissipation channels. After that, we study the dephasing of two-electron states in a single silicon quantum dot. Specifically, we consider dephasing due to the electron-phonon coupling and charge noise, separately treating orbital and valley excitations. In an ideal system, dephasing due to charge noise is strongly suppressed due to a vanishing dipole moment. However, introduction of disorder or anharmonicity leads to large effective dipole moments, and hence possibly strong dephasing. Building on this work, we next consider more realistic systems, including structural disorder systems. We present experiment and theory, which demonstrate energy levels that vary with quantum dot translation, implying a structurally disordered system. Finally, we turn to the issues of valley mixing and valley-orbit hybridization, which occurs due to atomic-scale disorder at quantum well interfaces. We develop a new theoretical approach to study these effects, which we name the disorder-expansion technique. We demonstrate that this method successfully reproduces atomistic tight-binding techniques, while using a fraction of the computational resources and providing considerably more physical insight. Using this technique, we demonstrate that large dipole moments can exist between valley states in disordered systems, and calculate corrections to intervalley tunnel rates..

  8. Quantum degeneracy effect on the work output from a Stirling cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Hasan; ?i?man, Altu?

    2001-09-01

    The effect of quantum degeneracy on the work output from a Stirling cycle working at quantum degeneracy conditions (QDCs) is analyzed. Expressions for net work outputs of Stirling power cycles working with monatomic ideal Bose and Fermi gases are derived by using the quantum ideal gas equation of state. Ratios of net work outputs of Stirling cycles working with Bose and Fermi gases to the net work output of a classical Stirling cycle (RWB and RWF, respectively) are obtained. Variations of RWB and RWF with TH are examined for a given temperature ratio (?=TL/TH) and a specific volume ratio (r?=?H/?L). At QDC, it is seen that RWB has a maximum value, which is greater than unity. On the other hand, there is no maximum or minimum point for RWF and RWF?1 for any values of TH. Consequently, the use of Bose gas as a working fluid in a Stirling cycle provides an advantage since it causes the net work output per cycle to increase by consuming more heat energy. This fact is seen to be in the opposite direction for a Stirling cycle working with Fermi gas.

  9. Out-of-equilibrium evolution of kinetically constrained many-body quantum systems under purely dissipative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmos, Beatriz; Lesanovsky, Igor; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2014-10-01

    We explore the relaxation dynamics of quantum many-body systems that undergo purely dissipative dynamics through non-classical jump operators that can establish quantum coherence. Our goal is to shed light on the differences in the relaxation dynamics that arise in comparison to systems evolving via classical rate equations. In particular, we focus on a scenario where both quantum and classical dissipative evolution lead to a stationary state with the same values of diagonal or "classical" observables. As a basis for illustrating our ideas we use spin systems whose dynamics becomes correlated and complex due to dynamical constraints, inspired by kinetically constrained models (KCMs) of classical glasses. We show that in the quantum case the relaxation can be orders of magnitude slower than the classical one due to the presence of quantum coherences. Aspects of these idealized quantum KCMs become manifest in a strongly interacting Rydberg gas under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) conditions in an appropriate limit. Beyond revealing a link between this Rydberg gas and the rather abstract dissipative KCMs of quantum glassy systems, our study sheds light on the limitations of the use of classical rate equations for capturing the non-equilibrium behavior of this many-body system.

  10. Ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, P.

    The recent development of orifice pulse tube refrigerators has raised questions as to what limits their ultimate performance. Using an analogy to the Stirling cycle refrigerator, the efficiency (cooling power per unit input power) of an ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator is shown to be T1/T0, the ratio of the cold temperature to the hot temperature.

  11. What Is an "Ideal" Pedagogical Grammar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadkarni, Mangesh V.

    1987-01-01

    Questions the validity of two assumptions behind the search for the "best" pedagogical (English as a second language) grammar: (1) that there is one ideal pedagogical grammar; and (2) that the success of a pedagogical grammar depends primarily on the linguistic theoretical assumptions incorporated in it. (Author/CB)

  12. HLLC solver for ideal relativistic MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkkila, V.; Janhunen, P.

    2007-05-01

    An approximate Riemann solver of Godunov type for ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations (RMHD) named as HLLC ("C" denotes contact) is developed. In HLLC the Riemann fan is approximated by two intermediate states, which are separated by the entropy wave. Numerical tests show that HLLC resolves contact discontinuity more accurately than the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) method and an isolated contact discontinuity exactly.

  13. A jetlet hierarchy for ideal fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, C. J.; Holm, D. D.; Jacobs, H. O.; Meier, D. M.

    2014-09-01

    Truncated Taylor expansions of smooth flow maps are used in Hamilton's principle to derive a multiscale Lagrangian particle representation of ideal fluid dynamics. Numerical simulations for scattering of solutions at one level of truncation are found to produce solutions at higher levels. These scattering events to higher levels in the Taylor expansion are interpreted as modeling a cascade to smaller scales.

  14. Ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, P.

    1992-01-01

    The recent development of orifice pulse tube refrigerators has raised questions as to what limits their ultimate performance. Using an analogy to the Stirling cycle refrigerator, the efficiency (cooling power per unit input power) of an ideal orifice pulse tube refrigerator is shown to be T1/T0, the ratio of the cold temperature to the hot temperature.

  15. Rabindranath Tagore's Ideals of Aesthetic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Swati

    1984-01-01

    Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was an Indian educator who established the Santiniketan schools, which replicated to a large extent the ashram or forest school of ancient India, where gurus and their pupils lived in a residential hermitage. Tagore's aesthetic ideals of education as manifested in the school at Santiniketan are discussed. (RM)

  16. The World Grant Ideal and Engagement Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Simon, Lou Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Michigan State University President Lou Anna Simon's concept of the world grant ideal is grounded in three core values: quality, inclusiveness, and connectivity. These core values fuel the 21st-century imperative to build sustainable global prosperity. They represent an affirmation of the Morrill Act of 1862 in the context of a global society and…

  17. Street Children Draw the Ideal Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Margaret A.; And Others

    Forty-three adolescents (11-16 years of age) attending a health care program, Project Alternatives, for "street children" in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, drew randomly assigned pictures of either the ideal man or woman, engaged in some activity. These drawings were compared to samples from adolescents in various parts of the world to assess the global…

  18. Axisymmetric ideal MHD stellar wind flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinemann, M.; Olbert, S.

    1978-01-01

    The ideal MHD equations are reduced to a single equation under the assumption of axisymmetric flow. A variational principle from which the equation is derivable is given. The characteristics of the equation are briefly discussed. The equation is used to rederive the theorem of Gussenhoven and Carovillano.

  19. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  20. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.

  1. The Nautilus: An Ideal Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Gertrude M.

    The author presents the design for an ideal elementary school that would create a climate in which children could be educated to their maximum potential. The design arises from a philosophical base that incorporates this century's research in child development and learning theory. Consideration is given to the needs of the individual at the

  2. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  3. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  4. Classical representation of a quantum system at equilibrium: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufty, James; Dutta, Sandipan

    2013-03-01

    A quantum system at equilibrium is represented by a corresponding classical system, chosen to reproduce thermodynamic and structural properties. The motivation is to allow application of classical strong-coupling theories and molecular dynamics simulation to quantum systems at strong coupling. The correspondence is made at the level of the grand-canonical ensembles for the two systems. An effective temperature, local chemical potential, and pair potential are introduced to define the corresponding classical system. These are determined formally by requiring the equivalence of the grand potentials and their functional derivatives. Practical inversions of these formal definitions are indicated via the integral equations for densities and pair correlation functions of classical liquid theory. Application to the ideal Fermi gas is demonstrated, and the weak-coupling form for the pair potential is given. In a companion paper two applications are described: the thermodynamics and structure of uniform jellium over a range of temperatures and densities and the shell structure of harmonically bound charges.

  5. Low temperature second virial coefficients of para-H2 gas obtained from quantum mechanical pair correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, J.; Köhler, W. E.

    1989-09-01

    The successfully tested interaction potential of H2-H2 obtained from quantum chemical calculations (M 80) has been used again as input in the attempt of determining a fit interaction potential of the H2-H2 system. It does not only give quantitative agreement with measurements as obtained previously, but also reproduces the second virial coefficients at low temperatures, calculated via quantum mechanical pair correlation functions, as measured in several independent experiments. Since the unique determination of this fit is not possible in principle, we have chosen a final version by means of plausible estimates of the limitations of previous ab initio calculations. The new potential is included in this paper in a table. Our isotropic rigid rotor potential term will be discussed in comparisons with experimentally determined potential fits. More tests of our fit potential have already been completed and can be used for a final judgement.

  6. Purification of noisy quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Arno, Michele; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.

    2010-10-15

    We consider the problem of improving noisy quantum measurements by suitable preprocessing strategies making many noisy detectors equivalent to a single ideal detector. For observables pertaining to finite-dimensional systems (e.g., qubits or spins) we consider preprocessing strategies that are reminiscent of quantum error correction procedures and allow one to perfectly measure an observable on a single quantum system for increasing number of inefficient detectors. For measurements of observables with an unbounded spectrum (e.g., photon number and homodyne and heterodyne detection), the purification of noisy quantum measurements can be achieved by preamplification as suggested by Yuen [Opt. Lett. 12, 789 (1987)].

  7. Terahertz Dynamics of a Topologically Protected State: Quantum Hall Effect Plateaus near the Cyclotron Resonance of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. V.; Ellis, C. T.; Kwon, J.; Xing, H.; Zhang, H.; Eason, D.; Strasser, G.; Morimoto, T.; Aoki, H.; Zeng, H.; McCombe, B. D.; Cerne, J.

    2015-12-01

    We measure the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas formed at a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction in the terahertz regime close to the cyclotron resonance frequency using highly sensitive Faraday rotation measurements. The sample is electrically gated, allowing the electron density to be changed continuously by more than a factor of 3. We observe clear plateaulike and steplike features in the Faraday rotation angle vs electron density and magnetic field (Landau-level filling factor) even at fields or frequencies very close to cyclotron resonance absorption. These features are the high frequency manifestation of quantum Hall plateausa signature of topologically protected edge states. We observe both odd and even filling factor plateaus and explore the temperature dependence of these plateaus. Although dynamical scaling theory begins to break down in the frequency region of our measurements, we find good agreement with theory.

  8. High power, widely tunable, mode-hop free, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser for multi-species trace gas detection

    SciTech Connect

    Centeno, R.; Marchenko, D.; Mandon, J.; Cristescu, S. M.; Harren, F. J. M.; Wulterkens, G.

    2014-12-29

    We present a high power, widely tunable, continuous wave external cavity quantum cascade laser designed for infrared vibrational spectroscopy of molecules exhibiting broadband and single line absorption features. The laser source exhibits single mode operation with a tunability up to 303 cm{sup −1} (∼24% of the center wavelength) at 8 μm, with a maximum optical output power of 200 mW. In combination with off-axis integrated output spectroscopy, trace-gas detection of broadband absorption gases such as acetone was performed and a noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 3.7 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1 }Hz{sup −1/2} was obtained.

  9. The effect of charged quantum dots on the mobility of a two-dimensional electron gas: How important is the Coulomb scattering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzmann, A.; Beckel, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2015-02-01

    We have investigated the influence of a layer of charged self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on the mobility of a nearby two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Time-resolved transconductance spectroscopy was used to separate the two contributions of the change in mobility, which are: (i) The electrons in the QDs act as Coulomb scatterers for the electrons in the 2DEG. (ii) The screening ability and, hence, the mobility of the 2DEG decreases when the charge carrier density is reduced by the charged QDs, i.e., the mobility itself depends on the charge carrier concentration. Surprisingly, we find a negligible influence of the Coulomb scattering on the mobility for a 2DEG, separated by a 30 nm tunneling barrier to the layer of QDs. This means that the mobility change is completely caused by depletion, i.e., reduction of the charge carrier density in the 2DEG, which indirectly influences the mobility.

  10. The effect of charged quantum dots on the mobility of a two-dimensional electron gas: How important is the Coulomb scattering?

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzmann, A. Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-02-07

    We have investigated the influence of a layer of charged self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on the mobility of a nearby two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Time-resolved transconductance spectroscopy was used to separate the two contributions of the change in mobility, which are: (i) The electrons in the QDs act as Coulomb scatterers for the electrons in the 2DEG. (ii) The screening ability and, hence, the mobility of the 2DEG decreases when the charge carrier density is reduced by the charged QDs, i.e., the mobility itself depends on the charge carrier concentration. Surprisingly, we find a negligible influence of the Coulomb scattering on the mobility for a 2DEG, separated by a 30 nm tunneling barrier to the layer of QDs. This means that the mobility change is completely caused by depletion, i.e., reduction of the charge carrier density in the 2DEG, which indirectly influences the mobility.

  11. Terahertz Dynamics of a Topologically Protected State: Quantum Hall Effect Plateaus near the Cyclotron Resonance of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    PubMed

    Stier, A V; Ellis, C T; Kwon, J; Xing, H; Zhang, H; Eason, D; Strasser, G; Morimoto, T; Aoki, H; Zeng, H; McCombe, B D; Cerne, J

    2015-12-11

    We measure the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas formed at a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction in the terahertz regime close to the cyclotron resonance frequency using highly sensitive Faraday rotation measurements. The sample is electrically gated, allowing the electron density to be changed continuously by more than a factor of 3. We observe clear plateaulike and steplike features in the Faraday rotation angle vs electron density and magnetic field (Landau-level filling factor) even at fields or frequencies very close to cyclotron resonance absorption. These features are the high frequency manifestation of quantum Hall plateaus-a signature of topologically protected edge states. We observe both odd and even filling factor plateaus and explore the temperature dependence of these plateaus. Although dynamical scaling theory begins to break down in the frequency region of our measurements, we find good agreement with theory. PMID:26705653

  12. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  13. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine.

    PubMed

    Hardal, Ali C; Mstecapl?o?lu, zgr E

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  14. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    PubMed Central

    Hardal, Ali Ü. C.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart. PMID:26260797

  15. Fano resonance in the nonadiabatically pumped shot noise of a time-dependent quantum well in a two-dimensional electron gas and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rui; Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong

    2015-04-01

    Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained with transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.

  16. Voltage-controlled electron tunneling from a single self-assembled quantum dot embedded in a two-dimensional-electron-gas-based photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mar, J. D.; Xu, X. L.; Baumberg, J. J.; Irvine, A. C.; Stanley, C.; Williams, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    We perform high-resolution photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy to investigate resonantly the neutral exciton ground-state (X0) in a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot (QD) embedded in the intrinsic region of an n-i-Schottky photodiode based on a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), which was formed from a Si ?-doped GaAs layer. Using such a device, a single-QD PC spectrum of X0 is measured by sweeping the bias-dependent X0 transition energy through that of a fixed narrow-bandwidth laser via the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE). By repeating such a measurement for a series of laser energies, a precise relationship between the X0 transition energy and bias voltage is then obtained. Taking into account power broadening of the X0 absorption peak, this allows for high-resolution measurements of the X0 homogeneous linewidth and, hence, the electron tunneling rate. The electron tunneling rate is measured as a function of the vertical electric field and described accurately by a theoretical model, yielding information about the electron confinement energy and QD height. We demonstrate that our devices can operate as 2DEG-based QD photovoltaic cells and conclude by proposing two optical spintronic devices that are now feasible.

  17. Fano resonance in the nonadiabatically pumped shot noise of a time-dependent quantum well in a two-dimensional electron gas and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Rui Dai, Jiao-Hua; Guo, Yong

    2015-04-28

    Interference between different quantum paths can generate Fano resonance. One of the examples is transport through a quasibound state driven by a time-dependent scattering potential. Previously it is found that Fano resonance occurs as a result of energy matching in one-dimensional systems. In this work, we demonstrate that when transverse motion is present, Fano resonance occurs precisely at the wavevector matching situation. Using the Floquet scattering theory, we considered the transport properties of a nonadiabatic time-dependent well both in a two-dimensional electron gas and monolayer graphene structure. Dispersion of the quasibound state of a static quantum well is obtained with transverse motion present. We found that Fano resonance occurs when the wavevector in the transport direction of one of the Floquet sidebands is exactly identical to that of the quasibound state in the well at equilibrium and follows the dispersion pattern of the latter. To observe the Fano resonance phenomenon in the transmission spectrum, we also considered the pumped shot noise properties when time and spatial symmetry secures vanishing current in the considered configuration. Prominent Fano resonance is found in the differential pumped shot noise with respect to the reservoir Fermi energy.

  18. The Quantum World of Ultra-Cold Atoms and Light - Book 1: Foundations of Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Crispin; Zoller, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Abstract The Table of Contents is as follows: * I - THE PHYSICAL BACKGROUND * 1. Controlling the Quantum World * 1.1 Quantum Optics * 1.2 Quantum Information * 2. Describing the Quantum World * 2.1 Classical Stochastic Processes * 2.2. Theoretical Quantum Optics * 2.3. Quantum Stochastic Methods * 2.4. Ultra-Cold Atoms * II - CLASSICAL STOCHASTIC METHODS * 3. Physics in a Noisy World * 3.1. Brownian Motion and the Thermal Origin of Noise * 3.2. Brownian Motion, Friction, Noise and Temperature * 3.3. Measurement in a Fluctuating System * 4. Stochastic Differential Equations * 4.1. Ito Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.2. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 4.3. The Stratonovich Stochastic Differential Equation * 4.4. Systems with Many Variables * 4.5. Numerical Simulation of Stochastic Differential Equations * 5. The Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.1. Fokker-Planck Equation in One Dimension * 5.2. Eigenfunctions of the Fokker-Planck Equation * 5.3. Many-Variable Fokker-Planck Equations * 6. Master Equations and Jump Processes * 6.1. The Master Equation * 7. Applications of Random Processes * 7.1. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck Process * 7.2. Johnson Noise * 7.3. Complex Variable Oscillator Processes * 8. The Markov Limit * 8.1. The White Noise Limit * 8.2. Interpretation and Generalizations of the White Noise Limit * 8.3. Linear Non-Markovian Stochastic Differential Equations * 9. Adiabatic Elimination of Fast Variables * 9.1 Slow and Fast Variables * 9.2. Other Applications of the Adiabatic Elimination Method * III - FIELDS, QUANTA AND ATOMS * 10. Ideal Bose and Fermi Systems * 10.1. The Quantum Gas * 10.2. Thermal States * 10.3. Fluctuations in the Ideal Bose Gas * 10.4. Bosonic Quantum Gaussian Systems * 10.5. Coherent States * 10.6. Fluctuations in Systems of Fermions * 10.7. Two-Level Systems and Pauli Matrices * 11. Quantum Fields * 11.1 Kinds of Quantum Field * 11.2 Coherence and Correlation Functions * 12. Atoms, Light and their Interaction * 12.1. Interaction with the Quantized Radiation Field * 12.2. Decay of an Excited Atom * 12.3. The Two-Level Atom in a Strong Classical Driving Field * 12.4. Interaction of a Two-Level Atom with a Single Mode * IV - QUANTUM STOCHASTIC PROCESSES * 13. Quantum Markov Processes * 13.1. Two-Level Atom in a Finite-Temperature Electromagnetic Field * 13.2. Derivation of theMaster Equation * 13.3. More General Heat Baths * 13.4. Quantum Correlation Functions and Spectra * 14. Applications of the Master Equation * 14.1. A Two-Level Atom Interacting with a Thermal Heat Bath * 14.2. The Two-Level Atom Driven by a Coherent Light Field * 14.3. Master Equations for Harmonic Oscillator Systems * 14.4. A Simple Model of Laser Cooling * V - PHASE SPACE METHODS * 15. Phase Space Representations for Bosons * 15.1. The Quantum Characteristic Function * 15.2. Phase Space Representations of the Density Operator * 16. Wigner Function Methods * 16.1. Operator Correspondences and Equations of Motion * 16.2. Damped and Driven Systems * 16.3. The Wigner Distribution Function f (x, p) * 16.4. Quantum Fluctuations in Equations of Motion * 17. P-Function Methods * 17.1. Introduction * 17.2. Artificial Neural Networks * 17.3. Clinical Example * VI - QUANTUM MEASUREMENT THEORY * 18. Foundations and Formalism of Quantum Measurement * 18.1. Formulations of Quantum Mechanics * 18.2. Modelling a Measurement-Tracks in a Cloud Chamber * 18.3. Formal Quantum Measurement Theory * 18.4. Multitime Measurements * 19. Continuous Measurements * 19.1. Photon Counting * 19.2. Wavefunction Interpretation of Continuous Measurement * 19.3. Application to Matter Wave Interference * 19.4. Damping of Quantum Coherence * 19.5. The Emergence of the oscopic World * 20. The Quantum Zeno Effect * 20.1. Theoretical Basis for the Quantum Zeno Effect * 20.2. A Quantum Model of Trapped Atoms * 20.3. Quantum Zeno Effect for a Bose-Einstein Condensate * References * Author Index * Subject Index

  19. Defining the ideal femtosecond laser capsulotomy

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Mark; Teuma, E Valas; Glasser, Adrian; Bott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We define the ideal anterior capsulotomy through consideration of capsular histology and biomechanics. Desirable qualities include preventing posterior capsular opacification (PCO), maintaining effective lens position (ELP) and optimising capsular strength. Methods Laboratory study of capsular biomechanics and literature review of histology and published clinical results. Results Parameters of ideal capsulotomy construction include complete overlap of the intraocular lens to prevent PCO, centration on the clinical approximation of the optical axis of the lens to ensure concentricity with the capsule equator, and maximal capsular thickness at the capsulotomy edge to maintain integrity. Conclusions Constructing the capsulotomy centred on the clinical approximation of the optical axis of the lens with diameter 5.25 mm optimises prevention of PCO, consistency of ELP and capsular strength. PMID:25829488

  20. Small generators of the ideal class group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabas, Karim; Diaz, Francisco Diaz Y.; Friedman, Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, Bach has shown that the ideal class group ?of a number field K can be generated by the prime ideals of K having norm smaller than 12big(logabs{mathrm{Discriminant}(K)}big)^2 . This result is essential for the computation of the class group and units of K by Buchmann's algorithm, currently the fastest known. However, once mathcal{C}ell_K has been computed, one notices that this bound could have been replaced by a much smaller value, and so much work could have been saved. We introduce here a short algorithm which allows us to reduce Bach's bound substantially, usually by a factor 20 or so. The bound produced by the algorithm is asymptotically worse than Bach's, but favorable constants make it useful in practice.

  1. ICRF coil for the IDEAL plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Motley, R.W.; Majeski, R.; Cohen, S.A.; Diesso, M.; Wilson, J.R. )

    1994-10-15

    We describe an ICRH coil to drive the plasma in the proposed IDEAL device, a linear plasma machine designed to study the physics and engineering problems of the ITER divertor. In initial operation, 2 MW of CW power at [similar to]40 MHz will be applied to a hydrogen plasma via four 0.75-m long multiple saddle coils that excite ICRF slow waves. The waves propagate to a 30 % magnetic beach, where they undergo cyclotron absorption. At full heating power the power flow out the ends of IDEAL is designed to equal that in the ITER divertor. Coil loading and the radial distribution of the E[sup +] and E[sup [minus

  2. Non-ideal Solution Thermodynamics of Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U.; McGann, Locksley E.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative description of the non-ideal solution thermodynamics of the cytoplasm of a living mammalian cell is critically necessary in mathematical modeling of cryobiology and desiccation and other fields where the passive osmotic response of a cell plays a role. In the solution thermodynamics osmotic virial equation, the quadratic correction to the linear ideal, dilute solution theory is described by the second osmotic virial coefficient. Herein we report, for the first time, intracellular solution second osmotic virial coefficients for four cell types [TF-1 hematopoietic stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), porcine hepatocytes, and porcine chondrocytes] and further report second osmotic virial coefficients indistinguishable from zero (for the concentration range studied) for human hepatocytes and mouse oocytes. PMID:23840923

  3. Ideal photon number amplifier and duplicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dariano, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The photon number-amplification and number-duplication mechanism are analyzed in the ideal case. The search for unitary evolutions leads to consider also a number-deamplification mechanism, the symmetry between amplification and deamplification being broken by the integer-value nature of the number operator. Both transformations, amplification and duplication, need an auxiliary field which, in the case of amplification, turns out to be amplified in the inverse way. Input-output energy conservation is accounted for using a classical pump or through frequency-conversion of the fields. Ignoring one of the fields is equivalent to considering the amplifier as an open system involving entropy production. The Hamiltonians of the ideal devices are given and compared with those of realistic systems.

  4. Computational methods for ideal compressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleer, B.

    1983-01-01

    Conservative dissipative difference schemes for computing one dimensional flow are introduced, and the recognition and representation of flow discontinuities are discussed. Multidimensional methods are outlined. Second order finite volume schemes are introduced. Conversion of difference schemes for a single linear convection equation into schemes for the hyperbolic system of the nonlinear conservation laws of ideal compressible flow is explained. Approximate Riemann solvers are presented. Monotone initial value interpolation; and limiters, switches, and artificial dissipation are considered.

  5. Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Hovenier, J. N.; Cui, M.; Hayton, D. J.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Shi, S. C.; Kao, T.-Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    We report frequency locking of two 3.5-THz third-order distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by using methanol molecular absorption lines, a proportional-integral-derivative controller, and a NbN bolometer. We show that the free-running linewidths of the QCLs are dependent on the electrical and temperature tuning coefficients. For both lasers, the frequency locking induces a similar linewidth reduction factor, whereby the narrowest locked linewidth is below 18 kHz with a Gaussian-like shape. The linewidth reduction factor and the ultimate linewidth correspond to the measured frequency noise power spectral density.

  7. Real-Time Trace Gas Sensing of Fluorocarbons using a Swept-wavelength External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Stahl, Robert D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2014-05-04

    We present results demonstrating real-time sensing of four different fluorocarbons at low-ppb concentrations using an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) operating in a swept-wavelength configuration. The ECQCL was repeatedly swept over its full tuning range at a 20 Hz rate with a scan rate of 3535 cm-1/s, and a detailed characterization of the ECQCL scan stability and repeatability is presented. The sensor was deployed on a mobile automotive platform to provide spatially resolved detection of fluorocarbons in outdoor experiments. Noise-equivalent detection limits of 800-1000 parts-per-trillion (ppt) are demonstrated for 1 s integration times.

  8. Quantum Shock Waves and Domain Walls in the Real-Time Dynamics of a Superfluid Unitary Fermi Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgac, Aurel; Luo, Yuan-Lung; Roche, Kenneth J.

    2012-04-10

    We show that in the collision of two superfluid fermionic atomic clouds one observes the formation of quantum shock waves as discontinuities in the number density and collective flow velocity. Domain walls, which are topological excitations of the superfluid order parameter, are also generated and exhibit abrupt phase changes by $\\pi$ and slower motion than the shock waves. The domain walls are distinct from the gray soliton train or number density ripples formed in the wake of the shock waves and observed in the collisions of superfluid bosonic atomic clouds. Domain walls with opposite phase jumps collide elastically.

  9. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  10. Principles for designing ideal protein structures.

    PubMed

    Koga, Nobuyasu; Tatsumi-Koga, Rie; Liu, Gaohua; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas B; Montelione, Gaetano T; Baker, David

    2012-11-01

    Unlike random heteropolymers, natural proteins fold into unique ordered structures. Understanding how these are encoded in amino-acid sequences is complicated by energetically unfavourable non-ideal features--for example kinked ?-helices, bulged ?-strands, strained loops and buried polar groups--that arise in proteins from evolutionary selection for biological function or from neutral drift. Here we describe an approach to designing ideal protein structures stabilized by completely consistent local and non-local interactions. The approach is based on a set of rules relating secondary structure patterns to protein tertiary motifs, which make possible the design of funnel-shaped protein folding energy landscapes leading into the target folded state. Guided by these rules, we designed sequences predicted to fold into ideal protein structures consisting of ?-helices, ?-strands and minimal loops. Designs for five different topologies were found to be monomeric and very stable and to adopt structures in solution nearly identical to the computational models. These results illuminate how the folding funnels of natural proteins arise and provide the foundation for engineering a new generation of functional proteins free from natural evolution. PMID:23135467

  11. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  12. Dimensional Analysis Using Toric Ideals: Primitive Invariants

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Mark A.; Bates, Ronald A.; Wynn, Henry P.

    2014-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer matrix from the initial integer matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by . One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of , is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found. PMID:25436774

  13. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We

  14. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  15. A Comparison of Two Intermediate State HLLC Solvers for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurski, K. F.

    2008-04-01

    This paper compares a solver based on the HLLC (Harten-Lax-van Leer-contact wave) approximate nonlinear Riemann solver for gas dynamics for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) with the HLL, Roe, Linde, and Li solvers. Simulation results are given for three one-dimensional test cases not previously shown in the original paper presenting the smooth HLLC solver for MHD.

  16. Upper limit on the transition temperature for non-ideal Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Wusheng . E-mail: daiwusheng@tju.edu.cn; Xie Mi . E-mail: xiemi@tju.edu.cn

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, we show that for a non-ideal Bose gas there exists an upper limit on the transition temperature above which Bose-Einstein condensation cannot occur regardless of the pressure applied. Such upper limits for some realistic Bose gases are estimated.

  17. New insights into the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

    PubMed

    Furmaniak, Sylwester; Koter, Stanis?aw; Terzyk, Artur P; Gauden, Piotr A; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Rychlicki, Gerhard

    2015-03-21

    The GCMC technique is used for simulation of adsorption of CO2-CH4, CO2-N2 and CH4-N2 mixtures (at 298 K) on six porous carbon models. Next we formulate a new condition of the IAS concept application, showing that our simulated data obey this condition. Calculated deviations between IAS predictions and simulation results increase with the rise in pressure as in the real experiment. For the weakly adsorbed mixture component the deviation from IAS predictions is higher, especially when its content in the gas mixture is low, and this is in agreement with the experimental data. Calculated activity coefficients have similar plots to deviations between IAS and simulations, moreover obtained from simulated data activity coefficients are similar qualitatively as well as quantitatively to experimental data. Since the physical interpretation of activity coefficients is completely lacking we show for the first time that they can be described by the formulas derived from the expression for G(ex) for the ternary mixture. Finally we also for the first time show the linear relationship between the chemical potentials of nonideal and ideal solutions and the reduced temperature of interacting mixture components, and it is proved that the deviation from ideality is larger if adsorption occurs in a more microporous system. PMID:25689966

  18. Spreading of correlations and Loschmidt echo after quantum quenches of a Bose gas in the Aubry-Andr potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Gullo, Nicola; Dell'Anna, Luca

    2015-12-01

    We study the spreading of density-density correlations and the Loschmidt echo, after different sudden quenches in an interacting one-dimensional Bose gas on a lattice, also in the presence of a superimposed aperiodic potential. We use a time dependent Bogoliubov approach to calculate the evolution of the correlation functions and employ the linked cluster expansion to derive the Loschmidt echo.

  19. Quantum light in coupled interferometers for quantum gravity tests.

    PubMed

    Ruo Berchera, I; Degiovanni, I P; Olivares, S; Genovese, M

    2013-05-24

    In recent years quantum correlations have received a lot of attention as a key ingredient in advanced quantum metrology protocols. In this Letter we show that they provide even larger advantages when considering multiple-interferometer setups. In particular, we demonstrate that the use of quantum correlated light beams in coupled interferometers leads to substantial advantages with respect to classical light, up to a noise-free scenario for the ideal lossless case. On the one hand, our results prompt the possibility of testing quantum gravity in experimental configurations affordable in current quantum optics laboratories and strongly improve the precision in "larger size experiments" such as the Fermilab holometer; on the other hand, they pave the way for future applications to high precision measurements and quantum metrology. PMID:23745871

  20. Infrared planar laser-induced fluorescence with a CW quantum-cascade laser for spatially resolved CO2 and gas properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenstein, Christopher S.; Miller, Victor A.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2015-08-01

    The design and demonstration of a new infrared laser-induced fluorescence (IR-LIF) technique that enables spatially resolved measurements of CO2, temperature, and pressure, with potential for velocity, are presented. A continuous-wave, wavelength-tunable, quantum-cascade laser (QCL) near with up to 120 mW was used to directly excite the asymmetric-stretch fundamental-vibration band of CO2 for approximately 200 to times more absorbance compared with previous IR-LIF techniques. This enabled LIF detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 1) of 20 and 70 ppm of CO2 in Ar and , respectively, at 1 bar and 296 K in static-cell experiments. Simplified and detailed kinetic models for simulating the LIF signal as a function of gas properties are presented and enable quantitative, calibration-free, IR-LIF measurements of CO2 mole fraction within 1-8 % of known values at 0.5-1 bar. By scanning the laser across two absorption transitions and performing a multi-line Voigt fit to the LIF signal, measurements of temperature, pressure, and within 2 % of known values were obtained. LIF measurements of gas pressure at a repetition rate up to 200 Hz (in argon) are also presented. Planar-LIF (PLIF) was used to image steady and unsteady CO2-Ar jets at 330 frames per second with a spatial signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 25, corresponding to a detection limit (SNR = 1) of 200 ppm with a projected pixel size of . The gas pressure was measured within % of the known value (1 bar) at 5 Hz by scanning the QCL across the P(42) absorption transition and least-squares fitting a Voigt profile to the PLIF signal. Spatially resolved measurements of absolute CO2 mole fraction in a laminar jet are also presented.

  1. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  2. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.

  3. Dust Transport in MRI Turbulent Disks: Ideal and Non-Ideal MHD With Ambipolar Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Bai, Xue-Ning

    2015-03-01

    We study dust transport in turbulent protoplanetary disks using three-dimensional global unstratified MHD simulations including Lagrangian dust particles. The turbulence is driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) with either ideal or non-ideal MHD that includes ambipolar diffusion (AD). In ideal MHD simulations, the surface density evolution (except for dust that drifts fastest), turbulent diffusion, and vertical scale height of dust can all be reproduced by simple one-dimensoinal and/or analytical models. However, in AD dominated simulations which simulate protoplanetary disks beyond 10s of AU, the vertical scale height of dust is larger than previously predicted. To understand this anomaly in more detail, we carry out both unstratified and stratified local shearing box simulations with Lagrangian particles, and find that turbulence in AD dominated disks has very different properties (e.g., temporal autocorrelation functions and power spectra) than turbulence in ideal MHD disks, which leads to quite different particle diffusion efficiency. For example, MRI turbulence with AD has a longer correlation time for the vertical velocity, which causes significant vertical particle diffusion and large dust scale height. In ideal MHD the Schmidt numbers (Sc) for radial and vertical turbulent diffusion are S{{c}r}? 1 and S{{c}z}? 3, but in the AD dominated regime both Scr and Scz are ? 1. Particle concentration in pressure bumps induced by MRI turbulence has also been studied. Since non-ideal MHD effects dominate most regions in protoplanetary disks, our study suggests that modeling dust transport in turbulence driven by MRI with non-ideal MHD effects is important for understanding dust transport in realistic protoplanetary disks.

  4. Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shi-Hsin; Milošević, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jankó, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241

  5. Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Hsin; Miloevi?, M. V.; Covaci, L.; Jank, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-04-01

    Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos.

  6. Quantum rotor in nanostructured superconductors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shi-Hsin; Miloevi?, M V; Covaci, L; Jank, B; Peeters, F M

    2014-01-01

    Despite its apparent simplicity, the idealized model of a particle constrained to move on a circle has intriguing dynamic properties and immediate experimental relevance. While a rotor is rather easy to set up classically, the quantum regime is harder to realize and investigate. Here we demonstrate that the quantum dynamics of quasiparticles in certain classes of nanostructured superconductors can be mapped onto a quantum rotor. Furthermore, we provide a straightforward experimental procedure to convert this nanoscale superconducting rotor into a regular or inverted quantum pendulum with tunable gravitational field, inertia, and drive. We detail how these novel states can be detected via scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The proposed experiments will provide insights into quantum dynamics and quantum chaos. PMID:24686241

  7. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Mark A; Bates, Ronald A; Wynn, Henry P

    2014-01-01

    Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups) is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found. PMID:25436774

  8. Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the rotation axis.

  9. Broken symmetry in ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of the long-time evolution of a number of cases of inviscid, isotropic, incompressible, three-dimensional fluid, and magneto-fluid turbulence has been completed. The results confirm that ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is non-ergodic if there is no external magnetic field present. This is due essentially to a canonical symmetry being broken in an arbitrary dynamical representation. The broken symmetry manifests itself as a coherent structure, i.e., a non-zero time-averaged part of the turbulent magnetic field. The coherent structure is observed, in one case, to contain about eighteen percent of the total energy.

  10. Idealized simulations of aerosol influences on tornadogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerach, David G.; Gaudet, Brian J.; Cotton, William R.

    2008-12-01

    Numerical simulations of an idealized supercell thunderstorm were performed to assess effects of increased aerosol concentrations acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and giant CCN (GCCN) on tornadogenesis. Initial background profiles of CCN and GCCN concentrations were set to represent ``clean'' continental and aerosol-polluted environments, respectively. With a reduction in warm- and cold-rain processes, the polluted environment produced a longer-lived supercell with a well-defined rear flank downdraft (RFD) and relatively weak forward flank downdraft (FFD) that produced weak evaporative cooling, a weak cold pool, and an EF-1 tornado. The clean environment produced no tornado and was less favorable for tornadogenesis.

  11. Ideal functional outcomes for amputation levels.

    PubMed

    Meier, Robert H; Melton, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    This article provides a generalized overview of amputation classifications and the idealized outcomes for upper and lower amputations at their respective levels. The following levels are discussed: above knee/transfemoral, below knee/transtibial, above elbow/transhumeral, below elbow/transradial, and bilateral for upper and lower extremities. This classification defines a framework for clinicians to share with patients so that they understand the potential for their expected functional outcomes regarding mobility and activities of daily living, both with and without a prosthesis. Moreover, it addresses some of the vocational and avocational needs of the individual regarding amputation. PMID:24287248

  12. Ideal pre-conceptual design development

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzlinger, R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Abel, B.

    1993-12-31

    A preconceptual design has been produced for a plasma device to further divertor concepts and validate technology in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor program. The ITER Diverter Experiment and Laboratory (IDEAL) design effort is to develop a reliable, maintainable and robust facility for steady-state divertor simulation experiments. The configuration includes a 30 meter vacuum vessel, enclosed within a set of 30 high field superconducting solenoid modules, a resistive quadrupole coil set, a radio-frequency heating system and a complement of diagnostics. It is planned to utilize existing facilities, and off-the-shelf hardware, wherever possible to maximize technological return on investment.

  13. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  14. "The Scientific Method" as Myth and Ideal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, Brian A.

    2014-10-01

    "The Scientific Method" as it has been portrayed in popular and introductory contexts has been declared a myth. The variation that one finds in introductory presentations of "The Scientific Method" is explained by the fact that there is no canonical account among historians and philosophers of science. What, in particular, is wrong with "The Scientific Method"? This essay provides a fairly comprehensive survey of shortcomings of "The Scientific Method". Included are corrections to several misconceptions that often accompany such presentations. Rather than treating "The Scientific Method" as a useful approximation or an ideal, the myth should be discarded. Lessons can be learned for introductory pedagogical contexts from considering the shortcomings of the myth.

  15. Fractal hard drives for quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, James R.

    2016-02-01

    A quantum hard drive, capable of storing qubits for unlimited timescales, would be very useful for quantum computation. Unfortunately, the most ideal solutions currently known can only be built in a universe of four spatial dimensions. In a recent publication (Brell 2016 New J. Phys. 18 013050), Brell introduces a new family of models based on these ideal solutions. These use fractal lattices, and result in models whose Hausdorff dimension is less than 3. This opens a new avenue of research towards a quantum hard drive that can be build in our own 3D universe.

  16. Global invariants in ideal magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, John V.

    2013-10-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is an important though incompletely understood factor affecting the dynamics of many astrophysical, geophysical, and technological plasmas. As an approximation, viscosity and resistivity may be ignored, and ideal MHD turbulence may be investigated by statistical methods. Incompressibility is also assumed and finite Fourier series are used to represent the turbulent velocity and magnetic field. The resulting model dynamical system consists of a set of independent Fourier coefficients that form a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density function (PDF). This PDF is similar in form to that of Boltzmann, except that its argument may contain not just the energy multiplied by an inverse temperature, but also two other invariant integrals, the cross helicity and magnetic helicity, each multiplied by its own inverse temperature. However, the cross and magnetic helicities, as usually defined, are not invariant in the presence of overall rotation or a mean magnetic field, respectively. Although the generalized form of the magnetic helicity is known, a generalized cross helicity may also be found, by adding terms that are linear in the mean magnetic field and angular rotation vectors, respectively. These general forms are invariant even in the presence of overall rotation and a mean magnetic field. We derive these general forms, explore their properties, examine how they extend the statistical theory of ideal MHD turbulence, and discuss how our results may be affected by dissipation and forcing.

  17. Simple Waves in Ideal Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B M

    2008-09-03

    In the dynamic diffusion limit of radiation hydrodynamics, advection dominates diffusion; the latter primarily affects small scales and has negligible impact on the large scale flow. The radiation can thus be accurately regarded as an ideal fluid, i.e., radiative diffusion can be neglected along with other forms of dissipation. This viewpoint is applied here to an analysis of simple waves in an ideal radiating fluid. It is shown that much of the hydrodynamic analysis carries over by simply replacing the material sound speed, pressure and index with the values appropriate for a radiating fluid. A complete analysis is performed for a centered rarefaction wave, and expressions are provided for the Riemann invariants and characteristic curves of the one-dimensional system of equations. The analytical solution is checked for consistency against a finite difference numerical integration, and the validity of neglecting the diffusion operator is demonstrated. An interesting physical result is that for a material component with a large number of internal degrees of freedom and an internal energy greater than that of the radiation, the sound speed increases as the fluid is rarefied. These solutions are an excellent test for radiation hydrodynamic codes operating in the dynamic diffusion regime. The general approach may be useful in the development of Godunov numerical schemes for radiation hydrodynamics.

  18. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Homogeneous Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2002-01-01

    Plasmas, such as those found in the space environment or in plasma confinement devices, are often modeled as electrically conducting fluids. When fluids and plasmas are energetically stirred, regions of highly nonlinear, chaotic behavior known as turbulence arise. Understanding the fundamental nature of turbulence is a long-standing theoretical challenge. The present work describes a statistical theory concerning a certain class of nonlinear, finite dimensional, dynamical models of turbulence. These models arise when the partial differential equations describing incompressible, ideal (i.e., nondissipative) homogeneous fluid and magnetofluid (i.e., plasma) turbulence are Fourier transformed into a very large set of ordinary differential equations. These equations define a divergenceless flow in a high-dimensional phase space, which allows for the existence of a Liouville theorem, guaranteeing a distribution function based on constants of the motion (integral invariants). The novelty of these particular dynamical systems is that there are integral invariants other than the energy, and that some of these invariants behave like pseudoscalars under two of the discrete symmetry transformations of physics, parity, and charge conjugation. In this work the 'rugged invariants' of ideal homogeneous turbulence are shown to be the only significant scalar and pseudoscalar invariants. The discovery that pseudoscalar invariants cause symmetries of the original equations to be dynamically broken and induce a nonergodic structure on the associated phase space is the primary result presented here. Applicability of this result to dissipative turbulence is also discussed.

  19. Quantum computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization. PMID:11562459

  20. Comparison of Hugoniots calculated for aluminum in the framework of three quantum-statistical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadatskiy, M. A.; Khishchenko, K. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of calculations of thermodynamic properties of aluminum under shock compression in the framework of the Thomas-Fermi model, the Thomas-Fermi model with quantum and exchange corrections and the Hartree-Fock-Slater model are presented. The influences of the thermal motion and the interaction of ions are taken into account in the framework of three models: the ideal gas, the one-component plasma and the charged hard spheres. Calculations are performed in the pressure range from 1 to 107 GPa. Calculated Hugoniots are compared with available experimental data.

  1. Quantum-Carnot engine for particle confined to 2D symmetric potential well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfaqih, Idrus Husin; Sutantyo, Trengginas Eka Putra; Prayitno, T. B.; Sulaksono, Anto

    2015-09-01

    Carnot model of heat engine is the most efficient cycle consisting of isothermal and adiabatic processes which are reversible. Although ideal gas usually used as a working fluid in the Carnot engine, Bender used quantum particle confined in 1D potential well as a working fluid. In this paper, by following Bender we generalize the situation to 2D symmetric potential well. The efficiency is express as the ratio of the initial length of the system to the final length of the compressed system. The result then is shown that for the same ratio, 2D potential well is more efficient than 1D potential well.

  2. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In the last 40 years, barriers to compliant and timely disposition of radioactive sealed sources have become apparent. The story starts with the explosive growth of nuclear gauging technologies in the 1960s. Dozens of companies in the US manufactured sources and many more created nuclear solutions to industrial gauging problems. Today they do not yet know how many Cat 1, 2, or 3 sources there are in the US. There are, at minimum, tens of thousands of sources, perhaps hundreds of thousands of sources. Affordable transportation solutions to consolidate all of these sources and disposition pathways for these sources do not exist. The root problem seems to be a lack of necessary regulatory framework that has allowed all of these problems to accumulate with no national plan for solving the problem. In the 1960s, Pu-238 displaced Pu-239 for most neutron and alpha source applications. In the 1970s, the availability of inexpensive Am-241 resulted in a proliferation of low energy gamma sources used in nuclear gauging, well logging, pacemakers, and X-ray fluorescence applications for example. In the 1980s, rapid expansion of worldwide petroleum exploration resulted in the expansion of Am-241 sources into international locations. Improvements of technology and regulation resulted in a change in isotopic distribution as Am-241 made Pu-239 and Pu-238 obsolete. Many early nuclear gauge technologies have been made obsolete as they were replaced by non-nuclear technoogies. With uncertainties in source end of life disposition and increased requirements for sealed source security, nuclear gauging technology is the last choice for modern process engineering gauging solutions. Over the same period, much was learned about licensing LLW disposition facilities as evident by the closure of early disposition facilities like Maxey Flats. The current difficulties in sealed source disposition start with adoption of the NLLW policy act of 1985, which created the state LLW compact system they we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  3. Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1999-05-06

    Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced.

  4. The influence of the temperature and density of an electron gas on beta processes in a quantum magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, V. N.; Starcheus, S. G.; Tasev, M. A.; Ternov, I. M.

    1988-01-01

    Beta processes occurring upon variation of the temperature and density of an electron gas in a wide range are investigated by accounting for the effect of a strong magnetic field on the motion of charged particles. The study is performed in the Furry framework. Inherent to the case considered is that, for certain relationships between the main parameters of the problem, the probabilities of beta processes and the neutrino luminosities caused by them exhibit an oscillatory behavior. In the degeneracy case, the interference effects reflecting the nonanalyticity of the expressions upon field vanishing exceed the contributions from perturbation theory. The results are of interest in connection with the collapse of massive stellar nuclei.

  5. Joule-Thomson coefficient of ideal anyons within fractional exclusion statistics.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fang; Chen, Ji-sheng

    2011-02-01

    The analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient for homogeneous and harmonically trapped three-dimensional ideal anyons which obey Haldane fractional exclusion statistics are derived. For an ideal Fermi gas, the Joule-Thomson coefficient is negative, which means that there is no maximum Joule-Thomson inversion temperature. With careful study, it is found that there exists a Joule-Thomson inversion temperature in the fractional exclusion statistics model. Furthermore, the relations between the Joule-Thomson inversion temperature and the statistical parameter g are investigated. PMID:21405822

  6. Joule-Thomson coefficient of ideal anyons within fractional exclusion statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2011-02-15

    The analytical expressions of the Joule-Thomson coefficient for homogeneous and harmonically trapped three-dimensional ideal anyons which obey Haldane fractional exclusion statistics are derived. For an ideal Fermi gas, the Joule-Thomson coefficient is negative, which means that there is no maximum Joule-Thomson inversion temperature. With careful study, it is found that there exists a Joule-Thomson inversion temperature in the fractional exclusion statistics model. Furthermore, the relations between the Joule-Thomson inversion temperature and the statistical parameter g are investigated.

  7. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  8. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  9. Das ideale Quantenlabor: Bose-Einstein-Kondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus; Bongs, Kai; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-07-01

    Bose-Einstein-Kondensate (BEC) sind extrem kalte Gase aus bosonischen Atomen, die sich alle im energetischen Grundzustand versammeln. Ein BEC ist ein perfektes Quantenlabor. Es bietet eine makroskopische Materiewelle aus vielen Tausend Teilchen an, die dem Experiment offen zugänglich ist. Das unterscheidet es von anderen makroskopischen Quantenzuständen wie der Suprafluidität oder der Supraleitung, denn diese verbergen sich in Flüssigkeiten oder Festkörpern. Das BEC ist also ein ideales Modellsystem, um diese und andere Phänomene der Quantenmechanik zu studieren. Neue Perspektiven eröffnet die schnelle Erzeugung und leichte Manipulation eines Kondensats auf einem Mikrochip. Dazu gehören auch vielfältige Anwendungen bis hin zum Quantencomputer.

  10. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria.

    PubMed

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I

    2002-11-01

    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)

  11. [What criteria for an ideal antipsychotic treatment?].

    PubMed

    Bordet, R

    2015-02-01

    Antipsychotics are, by definition, drugs to treat all symptomatic dimensions of schizophrenia, even if, following the discovery of chlorpromazine, the effect assessment has been focused on the ability to reduce positive symptoms. Nevertheless, expectations of treatment are no longer limited to only support this one dimension, but integrate the need to treat negative, cognitive and affective symptoms, through long-term modulation of dopamine transmission but also non-dopaminergic pathways. Beyond symptomatic treatment, it is also necessary to have a treatment modifying the evolution course of the disease (disease modifier), acting by a long-term effect on neuropathological and neurochemical abnormalities. The limitation of long-term effect remains the issue of therapeutic observance. Moreover, this concern for efficiency should be at the cost of reduced induction of adverse effects to maximize the benefit/risk ratio. All these dimensions should the components to profile an ideal antipsychotic treatment in 2015. PMID:25638050

  12. Thermal stability of idealized folded carbyne loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranford, Steven W.

    2013-11-01

    Self-unfolding items provide a practical convenience, wherein ring-like frames are contorted into a state of equilibrium and subsequently pop up' or deploy when perturbed from a folded structure. Can the same process be exploited at the molecular scale? At the limiting scale is a closed chain of single atoms, used here to investigate the limits of stability of such folded ring structures via full atomistic molecular dynamics. Carbyne is a one-dimensional carbon allotrope composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Here, we explore the stability of idealized carbyne loops as a function of chain length, curvature, and temperature, and delineate an effective phase diagram between folded and unfolded states. We find that while overall curvature is reduced, in addition to torsional and self-adhesive energy barriers, a local increase in curvature results in the largest impedance to unfolding.

  13. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic interchanges in low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yimin; Goel, Deepak; Hassam, A.B.

    2005-03-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations are usually derived under the assumption V{sub A}<

  14. Thermal stability of idealized folded carbyne loops

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Self-unfolding items provide a practical convenience, wherein ring-like frames are contorted into a state of equilibrium and subsequently  pop up’ or deploy when perturbed from a folded structure. Can the same process be exploited at the molecular scale? At the limiting scale is a closed chain of single atoms, used here to investigate the limits of stability of such folded ring structures via full atomistic molecular dynamics. Carbyne is a one-dimensional carbon allotrope composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Here, we explore the stability of idealized carbyne loops as a function of chain length, curvature, and temperature, and delineate an effective phase diagram between folded and unfolded states. We find that while overall curvature is reduced, in addition to torsional and self-adhesive energy barriers, a local increase in curvature results in the largest impedance to unfolding. PMID:24252156

  15. Achieving ideal breast aesthetics with autologous reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Achieving ideal breast aesthetic has become a top priority for women considering breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The use of autologous tissue is generally regarded as providing the most natural results because donor tissues quality and consistency is similar to that of the native breast. There are several donor sites that are particularly useful for autologous reconstruction that include the abdomen, gluteal region, posterior thorax, and the thigh. Traditional and microsurgical techniques can be used. Shaping is a critical component and involves a basic understanding of the footprint, conus, and skin envelope. This manuscript will review many aspects of breast shaping in-order to achieve aesthetically pleasing results in a predictable manner. PMID:26005645

  16. Tunneling in one-dimensional ideal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Jacek M.; Fry, John L.

    1987-10-01

    General properties of the transmission coefficient of an ideal, one-dimensional potential barrier of arbitrary shape are studied. It is proved that an arbitrary symmetric barrier is perfectly transparent for at least one energy in each energy band of the related band problem, where the barrier potential is periodically continued on the whole real axis. Recursion relations are obtained for transmission coefficients of barriers consisting of 2k structural units. They are used in a simple proof showing that transmission coefficients of finite barriers composed of m identical arbitrary structural units have chaotic behavior for almost all energies for m?? in each energy band. There exists, however, becoming more dense with m, a countable set of energies in each energy band where finite repeated barriers are perfectly transparent. The results are illustrated by a numerical example.

  17. The theoretically ideal donor site dressing.

    PubMed

    Birdsell, D C; Hein, K S; Lindsay, R L

    1979-06-01

    Many of the choices for managing split-thickness skin graft donor sites are satisfactory, but none is ideal. Epidermal regeneration in a donor site is readily available for clinical study. We have reviewed experimental studies of epidermal regeneration and applied those results to the clinical study of a new donor site dressing. This dressing is a vapor-permeable, transparent, polyurethane film with a polyvinyl ether adhesive. Used on 100 patients, it was found to be safe and effective in allowing rapid and painless healing. Although the dressing is occlusive and theoretically could promote infection in a contaminated wound, no infections were encountered. Comparison was made with 15 patients managed by other methods. No marked difference in healing time was noted clinically. The striking advantage of the new dressing was painless healing. PMID:396845

  18. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  19. Idealized simulations of sting jet cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, L. H.; Gray, S. L.; Clark, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    An idealized modeling study of sting-jet cyclones is presented. Sting jets are descending mesoscale jets that occur in some extratropical cyclones and produce localized regions of strong low-level winds in the frontal fracture region. Moist baroclinic lifecycle (LC1) simulations are performed with modifications to produce cyclones resembling observed sting-jet cyclones. Two jets exist in the control idealized cyclone that descend into the frontal fracture region and result in strong winds near to the top of the boundary layer; one of these satisfies the criteria for a sting jet, the other is associated with the warm front. Sensitivity experiments show that both these jets are robust features. The sting jet strength (measured by maximum low-level wind speed or descent rate) increases with the cyclone growth rate; growth rate increases with increasing basic-state zonal jet maximum or decreasing basic-state tropospheric static stability. The two cyclones with the weakest basic-state static stability have by far the strongest sting jets, with descent rates comparable to those observed. Evaporative cooling contributes up to 20% of the descent rate in these sting jets compared with up to 4% in the other sting jets. Conditional symmetric instability (CSI) release in the cloud head also contributes to the sting jet, although there is less extensive CSI than in observed cases. The robustness of the sting jets suggests that they could occur frequently in cyclones with frontal fracture; however, they are unlikely to be identified unless momentum transport through the boundary layer leads to strong surface wind gusts.

  20. [The search for an "ideal" surgical dressing].

    PubMed

    Kleczyński, S; Niedźwiecki, T; Brzeziński, M

    1986-01-01

    Trials of a new occlusive dressing, Op-site (Smith Nephew), were conducted on a group of patients. Op-site is a fine, transparent, elastic, self-adhesive polyurethan film. Although non-porous and therefore water- and bacteria-proof, it is permeable to gases. The existing dressings fulfil only a few of the criteria of an "ideal" dressing and in some cases actually interfere with the healthy process. The main disadvantages are: the disturbance of newly formed epithelium, when many dressings are removed, their fibres become embedded in the new tissues and cause inflammation and delayed healing. Few dressings are true bacterial barriers and the hazard of infection of the wound is always present. Recent studies of the mechanism of wound healing have indicated that a moist, not dry surrounding provides the optimum conditions for wound repair. Healing under Op-site is said to be quicker because the serous exudate permits unhindered migration of new cells across the wound bed and prevents cellular dehydration. In contrast, under dry conditions healing is delayed because the new skin cells must first cleave a path through dehydrated dermis before migrating across the wound. The Op-site wound dressing can be readily applied over the joints and allows complete freedom of movement. The skin remains dry and the wound moist, providing the ideal environment for rapid healing. The film does not adhere to the moist wound and can therefore be removed without damage to the newly formed epidermis. The adhesive is low allergic. Finally, the wound can be assessed without removing the transparent Op-site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3540915