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Sample records for identificados em local

  1. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K.; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-01-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5–4.5 Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders’ overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  2. Refinement of atomic models in high resolution EM reconstructions using Flex-EM and local assessment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Agnel Praveen; Malhotra, Sony; Burnley, Tom; Wood, Chris; Clare, Daniel K; Winn, Martyn; Topf, Maya

    2016-05-01

    As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL. A hierarchical refinement protocol was adopted where the rigid body definitions are relaxed and atom displacement steps are reduced progressively at successive stages of refinement. For the assessment of local fit, we used the SMOC (segment-based Manders' overlap coefficient) score, while the model quality was checked using the Qmean score. Comparison of SMOC profiles at different stages of refinement helped in detecting regions that are poorly fitted. We also show how initial model errors can have significant impact on the goodness-of-fit. Finally, we discuss the implementation of Flex-EM in the CCP-EM software suite. PMID:26988127

  3. A HF EM installation allowing simultaneous whole body and deep local EM hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Mazokhin, V N; Kolmakov, D N; Lucheyov, N A; Gelvich, E A; Troshin, I I

    1999-01-01

    The structure and main features of a HF EM installation based upon a new approach for creating electromagnetic fields destined for whole body (WBH) and deep local (DLH) hyperthermia are discussed. The HF EM field, at a frequency of 13.56 MHz, is created by a coplanar capacity type applicator positioned under a distilled water filled bolus that the patient is lying on. The EM energy being released directly in the deep tissues ensures effective whole body heating to required therapeutic temperatures of up to 43.5 degrees C, whereas the skin temperature can be maintained as low as 39-40.5 degrees C. For DLH, the installation is equipped with additional applicators and a generator operating at a frequency of 40.68 MHz. High efficiency of the WBH applicator makes it possible to carry out the WBH procedure without any air-conditioning cabin. Due to this, a free access to the patient's body during the WBH treatment is provided and a simultaneous WBH/DLH or WBH/LH procedure by means of additional applicators is possible. Controllable power output in the range of 100-800 W at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and 50-350 W at a frequency of 40.68 MHz allows accurate temperature control during WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures. SAR patterns created by the WBH and DLH applicators in a liquid muscle phantom and measured by means of a non-perturbing E-dipole are investigated. The scattered EM field strength measured in the vicinity of the operating installation during the WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures does not exceed security standards. Examples of temperature versus time graphs in the course of WBH, DLH and WBH/DLH procedures in clinics are presented. The installation is successfully used in leading oncological institutions of Russia and Belarus, though combined WBH/DLH procedures are evidently more complicated and demand thorough planning and temperature measurements to avoid overheating. PMID:10458570

  4. Nano-fEM: Protein Localization Using Photo-activated Localization Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Richards, Jackson; Hollopeter, Gunther; Hobson, Robert J.; Davis, Wayne M.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the distribution of proteins is essential for understanding the function of proteins in a cell. Fluorescence microscopy is extensively used for protein localization, but subcellular context is often absent in fluorescence images. Immuno-electron microscopy, on the other hand, can localize proteins, but the technique is limited by a lack of compatible antibodies, poor preservation of morphology and because most antigens are not exposed to the specimen surface. Correlative approaches can acquire the fluorescence image from a whole cell first, either from immuno-fluorescence or genetically tagged proteins. The sample is then fixed and embedded for electron microscopy, and the images are correlated 1-3. However, the low-resolution fluorescence image and the lack of fiducial markers preclude the precise localization of proteins. Alternatively, fluorescence imaging can be done after preserving the specimen in plastic. In this approach, the block is sectioned, and fluorescence images and electron micrographs of the same section are correlated 4-7. However, the diffraction limit of light in the correlated image obscures the locations of individual molecules, and the fluorescence often extends beyond the boundary of the cell. Nano-resolution fluorescence electron microscopy (nano-fEM) is designed to localize proteins at nano-scale by imaging the same sections using photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) and electron microscopy. PALM overcomes the diffraction limit by imaging individual fluorescent proteins and subsequently mapping the centroid of each fluorescent spot 8-10. We outline the nano-fEM technique in five steps. First, the sample is fixed and embedded using conditions that preserve the fluorescence of tagged proteins. Second, the resin blocks are sectioned into ultrathin segments (70-80 nm) that are mounted on a cover glass. Third, fluorescence is imaged in these sections using the Zeiss PALM microscope. Fourth, electron dense structures are imaged

  5. Efficient crosswell EM tomography using localized nonlinear approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hee Joon; Song, Yoonho; Lee, Ki Ha; Wilt, Michael J.

    2003-07-21

    This paper presents a fast and stable imaging scheme using the localized nonlinear (LN) approximation of integral equation (IE) solutions for inverting electromagnetic data obtained in a crosswell survey. The medium is assumed to be cylindrically symmetric about a source borehole and to maintain the symmetry a vertical magnetic dipole is used as a source. To find an optimum balance between data fitting and smoothness constraint, we introduce an automatic selection scheme of Lagrange multiplier, which is sought at each iteration with a least misfit criterion. In this selection scheme, the IE algorithm is quite attractive in speed because Green's functions, a most time-consuming part in IE methods, are repeatedly reusable throughout the inversion process. The inversion scheme using the LN approximation has been tested to show its stability and efficiency using both synthetic and field data. The inverted image derived from the field data, collected in a pilot experiment of water flood monitoring in an oil field, is successfully compared with that of a 2.5-dimensional inversion scheme.

  6. EM localization for resonance frequency of pre-Cantor bar of higher stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaino, K.; Obata, T.; Sonoda, J.; Kojo, J.

    2013-02-01

    Using the transmission-line theory, we investigate properties of wave propagation and resonance in a pre-Cantor multilayer called pre-Cantor bars whose interval is [0,L]. When the stage number n increases, the pre-Cantor bar will not transmit almost anywhere for ɛr2 > 1 where ɛr2 is the ratio of dielectric constants of two kinds of layers. For resonance frequencies of the n-th pre-Cantor bar, the largest amplitude of voltage at the midpoint of the bar, V(L/2), increases double-exponentially because of the inequality |V(L/2)|≤ɛr22n-2. For such a resonance frequency, the amplitude of the voltage at the midpoint of an interval [L/3k+1,2L/3k+1] is given by |V(L/2ṡ3k)|≤ɛr22n-k-2 where k = 1,2, ..., n - 1. Because the voltage |V(x)| is localized around x = L/2, the electro-magnetic wave (EM) localization occurs for the resonance frequencies of the pre-Cantor bar of the higher stages. Using a microstripline of the 3rd stage Cantor structure we will show that the measured transmission spectrum is consistent with the ideal one if the dissipation factor of the substrate is tan δ = 0.023 that is a typical value for the substrate of glassy epoxy resin in microwave frequencies.

  7. Induced EM field in a layered eccentric spheres model of the head: Plane-wave and localized source exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Skaropoulos, N.C.; Ioannidou, M.P.; Chrissoulidis, D.P.

    1996-10-01

    Understanding the interaction of EM radiation with humans is essential in a number of contemporary applications. Special attention is paid to the absorption of EM energy by the human head, which exhibits a resonant behavior in the frequency band 0.1--3 GHz. The use of handheld transceivers for wireless communications, which operate in close proximity to the head, has raised safety-related questions and questions concerning the effect of the head on the performance of the mobile phone antenna. The induced electromagnetic (EM) field in a layered eccentric spheres structure is determined through a concise analytical formulation based on indirect mode-matching (IMM). The exact analytical solution is applied to a six-layer model of the head. This model allows for eccentricity between the inner and outer sets of concentric spherical layers which simulate brain and skull, respectively. Excitation is provided by a nearby localized source or by an incident plane wave. The numerical application provides information about the total absorbed power, the absorption in each layer, and the spatial distribution of the specific absorption rate (SAR) at frequencies used by cellular phones. The effects of excitation frequency, eccentricity, exposure configuration, and antenna-head separation are investigated.

  8. Evaluating local-scale anisotropy and heterogeneity along a fractured sedimentary bedrock river using EM azimuthal resistivity and ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, C. M.; Parker, B. L.; Kennedy, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Fractured sedimentary bedrock rivers exhibit complicated flow patterns controlled by the geometry, extent and connectivity of fractures and dissolution-enhanced conduits. In a bedrock river environment these features variably connect surface water to groundwater. Given the nature of discrete fracture and conduit networks, these flow systems can be anisotropic and heterogeneous over a wide range of scales. Portable and non-invasive geophysical methods are ideal for the initial characterization of shallow hydrogeologic systems in ecologically sensitive environments. Here, we evaluate the utility of the electromagnetic (EM) azimuthal resistivity method for characterizing shallow vertical and subvertical fracture set orientations in the presence of localized dissolution-enhanced features near a sedimentary bedrock river located in Southern Ontario, Canada. Multiple EM coil spacings ranging from 1 to 10 m in vertical and horizontal dipole modes were applied at two locations within a 10 × 25 m study plot; azimuthal rotations were conducted using symmetric and asymmetric geometries. The observed anisotropic response was evaluated using 100 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements collected across the study plot area. A joint analysis of EM and GPR data revealed that fracture-based anisotropy can be identified in the presence of local heterogeneities (i.e., dissolution-enhanced features) at scales considerably smaller than those of previous studies. These non-invasive geophysical data sets can be used to optimize the design of multi-borehole groundwater monitoring stations along bedrock river channels, such that angled boreholes could be emplaced and orientated to intercept major fracture networks and local dissolution features. These data could also improve 3-D fracture network conceptualizations utilizing discrete information from angled and vertical boreholes.

  9. EM International. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  10. Localized modes in optics of photonic liquid crystals with local anisotropy of absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, V. A.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The localized optical modes in spiral photonic liquid crystals are theoretically studied for the certainty at the example of chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) for the case of CLC with an anisotropic local absorption. The model adopted here (absence of dielectric interfaces in the structures under investigation) makes it possible to get rid of mixing of polarizations on the surfaces of the CLC layer and of the defect structure and to reduce the corresponding equations to only the equations for light with polarization diffracting in the CLC. The dispersion equations determining connection of the edge mode (EM) and defect mode (DM) frequencies with the CLC layer parameters (anisotropy of local absorption, CLC order parameter) and other parameters of the DMS are obtained. Analytic expressions for the transmission and reflection coefficients of CLC layer and DMS for the case of CLC with an anisotropic local absorption are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the CLC layers with locally anisotropic absorption reduce the EM and DM lifetimes (and increase the lasing threshold) in the way different from the case of CLC with an isotropic local absorption. Due to the Borrmann effect revealing of which is different at the opposite stop-band edges in the case of CLC layers with an anisotropic local absorption the EM life-times for the EM frequencies at the opposite stop-bands edges may be significantly different. The options of experimental observations of the theoretically revealed phenomena are briefly discussed.

  11. Click-EM for imaging metabolically tagged nonprotein biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Ngo, John T; Adams, Stephen R; Deerinck, Thomas J; Boassa, Daniela; Rodriguez-Rivera, Frances; Palida, Sakina F; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y

    2016-06-01

    EM has long been the main technique for imaging cell structures with nanometer resolution but has lagged behind light microscopy in the crucial ability to make specific molecules stand out. Here we introduce click-EM, a labeling technique for correlative light microscopy and EM imaging of nonprotein biomolecules. In this approach, metabolic labeling substrates containing bioorthogonal functional groups are provided to cells for incorporation into biopolymers by endogenous biosynthetic machinery. The unique chemical functionality of these analogs is exploited for selective attachment of singlet oxygen-generating fluorescent dyes via bioorthogonal 'click chemistry' ligations. Illumination of dye-labeled structures generates singlet oxygen to locally catalyze the polymerization of diaminobenzidine into an osmiophilic reaction product that is readily imaged by EM. We describe the application of click-EM in imaging metabolically tagged DNA, RNA and lipids in cultured cells and neurons and highlight its use in tracking peptidoglycan synthesis in the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. PMID:27110681

  12. Local Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-05-31

    The LOCAL Toolkit contains tools and libraries developed under the LLNL LOCAL LDRD project for managing and processing large unstructured data sets primrily from parallel numerical simulations, such as triangular, tetrahedral, and hexahedral meshes, point sets, and graphs. The tools have three main functionalities: cache-coherent, linear ordering of multidimensional data; lossy and lossless data compression optimized for different data types; and an out-of-core streaming I/O library with simple processing modules for unstructed data.

  13. When Gravity Fails: Local Search Topology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Local search algorithms for combinatorial search problems frequently encounter a sequence of states in which it is impossible to improve the value of the objective function; moves through these regions, called {\\em plateau moves), dominate the time spent in local search. We analyze and characterize {\\em plateaus) for three different classes of randomly generated Boolean Satisfiability problems. We identify several interesting features of plateaus that impact the performance of local search algorithms. We show that local minima tend to be small but occasionally may be very large. We also show that local minima can be escaped without unsatisfying a large number of clauses, but that systematically searching for an escape route may be computationally expensive if the local minimum is large. We show that plateaus with exits, called benches, tend to be much larger than minima, and that some benches have very few exit states which local search can use to escape. We show that the solutions (i.e. global minima) of randomly generated problem instances form clusters, which behave similarly to local minima. We revisit several enhancements of local search algorithms and explain their performance in light of our results. Finally we discuss strategies for creating the next generation of local search algorithms.

  14. Local Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uehling, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    As critics complain about higher education's shortcomings, trustees may need to communicate their institution's economic, cultural, and intellectual contributions to the local community. The most obvious and easily understood benefit is purchasing power, but it also contributes to small business growth, individual quality of life, the social,…

  15. Localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (also called morphea) is a term encompassing a spectrum of sclerotic autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the skin, but also might involve underlying structures such as the fat, fascia, muscle, and bones. Its exact pathogenesis is still unknown, but several trigger factors in genetically predisposed individuals might initially lead to an immunologically triggered release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a profound dysregulation of the connective tissue metabolism and ultimately to induction of fibrosis. To date, there are no specific serological markers available for localized scleroderma. Within the last years, several validated clinical scores have been introduced as potential outcome measures for the disease. Given the rarity of localized scleroderma, only few evidence-based therapeutical treatment options exist. So far, the most robust data is available for ultraviolet A1 phototherapy in disease that is restricted to the skin, and methotrexate alone or in combination with systemic corticosteroids in more severe disease that additionally affects extracutaneous structures. This practical review summarizes relevant information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical subtypes and classifications, differential diagnoses, clinical scores and outcome measures, and current treatment strategies of localized scleroderma. PMID:22741933

  16. Local Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the value of setting-specific research for action research in social psychology. Discusses the following concepts: (1) local variation; (2) seeing the general in the specific; (3) connectedness as the fundamental law of ecology; and (4) the value of field stations for community research. (JS)

  17. Local hyperdynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Perez, Danny; Voter, Arthur F

    2013-10-14

    We present a new formulation of the hyperdynamics method in which the biasing effect is local, making it suitable for large systems. In standard hyperdynamics, the requirement that the bias potential be zero everywhere on the dividing surface bounding the state has the consequence that as the system size increases the boost factor decays to unity, regardless of the form of the bias potential. In the new method, the bias force on each atom is obtained by differentiating a local bias energy that depends only on the coordinates of atoms within a finite range of this atom. This bias force is thus independent of the bias force in distant parts of the system, providing a method that gives a constant boost factor, independent of the system size. We demonstrate for some realistic atomistic systems that the method gives escape rates in excellent agreement with direct molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24116606

  18. Local Influence Analysis of Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Tang, Nian-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    By regarding the latent random vectors as hypothetical missing data and based on the conditional expectation of the complete-data log-likelihood function in the EM algorithm, we investigate assessment of local influence of various perturbation schemes in a nonlinear structural equation model. The basic building blocks of local influence analysis…

  19. Crosshole EM in steel-cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Lee, K.H.; Becker, A.; Spies, B.; Wang, B.

    1996-07-01

    The application of crosshole EM methods through steel well-casing was investigated in theoretical, laboratory and field studies. A numerical code was developed that calculates the attenuation and phase delay of an EM dipole signal propagated through a steel well casing lodged in a homogeneous medium. The code was validated with a scale model and used for sensitivity studies of casing and formation properties. Finally, field measurements were made in an oil field undergoing waterflooding. Our most important findings are that (1) crosshole surveys are feasible using a well pair with one metallic and one non-metallic casing. (2) The casing effect seems be localized within the pipe section that includes the sensor. (3) The effects of the casing can be corrected using simple means and (4) crosshole field data that are sensitive to both formation and casing were acquired in a working environment.

  20. The EM SSAB Annual Work Plan Process: Focusing Board Efforts and Resources - 13667

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    One of the most daunting tasks for any new member of a local board of the Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB) is to try to understand the scope of the clean-up activities going on at the site. In most cases, there are at least two or three major cleanup activities in progress as well as monitoring of past projects. When planning for future projects is added to the mix, the list of projects can be long. With the clean-up activities involving all major environmental media - air, water, soils, and groundwater, new EM SSAB members can find themselves totally overwhelmed and ineffective. Helping new members get over this initial hurdle is a major objective of EM and all local boards of the EM SSAB. Even as members start to understand the size and scope of the projects at a site, they can still be frustrated at the length of time it takes to see results and get projects completed. Many project and clean-up timelines for most of the sites go beyond 10 years, so it's not unusual for an EM SSAB member to see the completion of only 1 or 2 projects over the course of their 6-year term on the board. This paper explores the annual work planning process of the EM SSAB local boards, one tool that can be used to educate EM SSAB members into seeing the broader picture for the site. EM SSAB local work plans divide the site into projects focused on a specific environmental issue or media such as groundwater and/or waste disposal options. Projects are further broken down into smaller segments by highlighting major milestones. Using these metrics, local boards of the EM SSAB can start to quantify the effectiveness of the project in achieving the ultimate goal of site clean-up. These metrics can also trigger board advice and recommendations for EM. At the beginning of each fiscal year, the EM SSAB work plan provides a road map with quantifiable checkpoints for activities throughout the year. When the work plans are integrated with site-specific, enforceable

  1. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  2. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vaissier, P E B; Beekman, F J; Goorden, M C

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level. PMID:27206135

  3. Similarity-regulation of OS-EM for accelerated SPECT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaissier, P. E. B.; Beekman, F. J.; Goorden, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ordered subsets expectation maximization (OS-EM) is widely used to accelerate image reconstruction in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Speedup of OS-EM over maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) is close to the number of subsets used. Although a high number of subsets can shorten reconstruction times significantly, it can also cause severe image artifacts such as improper erasure of reconstructed activity if projections contain few counts. We recently showed that such artifacts can be prevented by using a count-regulated OS-EM (CR-OS-EM) algorithm which automatically adapts the number of subsets for each voxel based on the estimated number of counts that the voxel contributed to the projections. While CR-OS-EM reached high speed-up over ML-EM in high-activity regions of images, speed in low-activity regions could still be very slow. In this work we propose similarity-regulated OS-EM (SR-OS-EM) as a much faster alternative to CR-OS-EM. SR-OS-EM also automatically and locally adapts the number of subsets, but it uses a different criterion for subset regulation: the number of subsets that is used for updating an individual voxel depends on how similar the reconstruction algorithm would update the estimated activity in that voxel with different subsets. Reconstructions of an image quality phantom and in vivo scans show that SR-OS-EM retains all of the favorable properties of CR-OS-EM, while reconstruction speed can be up to an order of magnitude higher in low-activity regions. Moreover our results suggest that SR-OS-EM can be operated with identical reconstruction parameters (including the number of iterations) for a wide range of count levels, which can be an additional advantage from a user perspective since users would only have to post-filter an image to present it at an appropriate noise level.

  4. Quantum Locality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  5. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  6. Quantum Locality?

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  7. Bioterrorism awareness for EMS.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Richard W

    2004-04-01

    It is important to understand that the issues surrounding bioterrorism and all weapons of mass destruction are complex. In an effort to enhance response to such events, EMS should handle all incidents from the perspective of an all-hazards approach. Prevention, preparation, response and recovery are essential to the safe mitigation of all incidents. Organizations must be prepared. Plan now for a safer tomorrow. Your personnel and communities depend on you. PMID:15131906

  8. On <EM>p>-adic height pairings and locally free classgroups of Hopf orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboola, A.

    1998-05-01

    Let E be an elliptic curve with complex multiplication by the ring of integers [fraktur O] of an imaginary quadratic field K. The purpose of this paper is to describe certain connections between the arithmetic of E on the one hand and the Galois module structure of certain arithmetic principal homogeneous spaces arising from E on the other. The present paper should be regarded as a complement to [AT]; we assume that the reader is equipped with a copy of the latter paper and that he is not averse to referring to it from time to time.

  9. Degradation of Benzodiazepines after 120 Days of EMS Deployment

    PubMed Central

    McMullan, Jason T.; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. Objective To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Methods Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May–August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). Results 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7–98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7–100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6–99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7–92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1–36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Conclusions Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure. PMID:24548058

  10. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  11. EPA LABORATORIES IMPLEMENT EMS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper highlights the breadth and magnitude of carrying out an effective Environmental Management System (EMS) program at the U.S. EPA's research and development laboratories. Federal research laboratories have unique operating challenges compared to more centralized industr...

  12. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    SciTech Connect

    De Roeck, W. Schütz, M.

    2015-06-15

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  13. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  14. Temporal Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In this article I investigate several possibilities to define the concept of "temporal non-locality" within the standard framework of quantum theory. In particular, I analyze the notions of "temporally non-local states", "temporally non-local events" and "temporally non-local observables". The idea of temporally non-local events is already inherent in the standard formalism of quantum mechanics, and Basil Hiley recently defined an operator in order to measure the degree of such a temporal non-locality. The concept of temporally non-local states enters as soon as "clock-representing states" are introduced in the context of special and general relativity. It is discussed in which way temporally non-local measurements may find an interesting application for experiments which test temporal versions of Bell inequalities.

  15. Time to Go Local!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...

  16. Local network assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  17. Is EMS communicating with the FCC?

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; VanCott, C; Glass, C; Anderson, P B

    1989-07-01

    Radio communication problems in EMS run the spectrum from annoying to deadly. Dedicated radio frequencies for EMS, much like those exclusive to police and fire departments, are long overdue. PMID:10293680

  18. Learning from Software Localization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, She-Sen

    2003-01-01

    Localization is the process of adapting a product to meet the language, cultural and other requirements of a specific target environment or market. This article describes ways in which software localization impacts upon curriculum, and discusses what students will learn from software localization. (AEF)

  19. Magen David Adom--the EMS in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Daniel Y; Sorene, Eliot

    2008-01-01

    Israel is a small country with a population of around 7 million. The sole EMS provider for Israel is Magen David Adom (MDA) (translated as 'Red Shield of David'). MDA also carries out the functions of a National Society (similar to the Red Cross) and provides all the blood and blood product services for the country. Nationwide, the organisation responds to over 1000 emergency calls a day and uses doctors, paramedics, emergency medical technicians and volunteers. Local geopolitics has meant that MDA has to be prepared for anything from everyday emergency calls to suicide bombings and regional wars. MDA also prides itself in being able to rapidly assemble and dispatch mobile aid teams to scenes of international disasters. Such a broad range of activities is unusual for a single EMS organisation. PMID:17767990

  20. Alveolar Echinococcosis: Characterization of Diagnostic Antigen Em18 and Serological Evaluation of Recombinant Em18

    PubMed Central

    Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Gottstein, Bruno; Lightowers, Marshall W.; Schantz, Peter M.; Ito, Akira

    2002-01-01

    The Echinococcus multilocularis protein Em18 is one of the most promising antigens for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis in human patients. Here we identify an antigenic relationship between Em18 and a 65-kDa immunodominant E. multilocularis surface protein previously identified as either EM10 or EmII/3. The NH2-terminal sequence of native Em18 was determined, revealing it to be a fragment of EM10. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of proteinase inhibitors on the degradation of EM10 in crude extracts of E. multilocularis protoscoleces. Em18 was found to be the product of degradation of EM10 by cysteine proteinase. A recombinant Em18 (RecEm18, derived from 349K to 508K of EM10) was successfully expressed by using Escherichia coli expression system and then evaluated for use in serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. RecEm18 was recognized by 27 (87.1%) and 28 (90.3%) of 31 serum samples from clinically and/or pathologically confirmed alveolar echinococcosis patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, respectively. Of 33 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis patients, 1 was recorded as having a weak positive reaction to RecEm18; however, none of the serum samples which were tested from neurocysticercosis patients (n = 10) or healthy people (n = 15) showed positive reactions. RecEm18 has the potential for use in the differential serodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:12149326

  1. Measurement of EM Field Inside a Cruising Aircraft: Potential Problems for the Use of Mobile Phones on Board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmura, A.; Picard, J.; Yonemoto, N.; Yamamoto, K.

    Electromagnetic (EM) emissions from portable electronic devices (PEDs) carried onboard aircraft can interfere with avionic systems. Several onboard systems using EM waves have been planned, such as mobile communications and UWB (ultra-wideband) entertainment services distribution. Manufacturers of this system develop schemes to avoid electromagnetic interference by the transmissions (emissions) of mobile phones with avionic systems; some local-specific problems still remain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate to what extent non-GSM transmissions from the ground base stations reach inside a cruising aircraft. The EM field at the base station frequency bands is measured in a cruising small aircraft.

  2. The European Mobile System (EMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jongejans, A.; Rogard, R.; Mistretta, I.; Ananasso, F.

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Agency is presently procuring an L band payload in order to promote a regional European L band system coping with the specific needs of the European market. The payload, and the two communications systems to be supported, are described below. The potential market for EMS in Europe is discussed.

  3. EM Modelling of RF Propagation Through Plasma Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfo, L.; Bandinelli, M.; Araque Quijano, J. L.; Vecchi, G.; Pawlak, H.; Marliani, F.

    2012-05-01

    Electric propulsion is a commercially attractive solution for attitude and position control of geostationary satellites. Hall-effect ion thrusters generate a localized plasma flow in the surrounding of the satellite, whose impact on the communication system needs to be qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. An electromagnetic modelling tool has been developed and integrated into the Antenna Design Framework- ElectroMagnetic Satellite (ADF-EMS). The system is able to guide the user from the plume definition phases through plume installation and simulation. A validation activity has been carried out and the system has been applied to the plume modulation analysis of SGEO/Hispasat mission.

  4. Our Local Superbubble and Local Bubble Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, Carl

    2009-08-01

    We briefly describe the local superbubbles and supershells that lie near the Sun. These include, of course, the famous ones-the Orion/Eridanus superbubble and the North Polar Spur shell. It also includes less famous, less prominent, older, but equally important ones: we stress the elliptical Lindblad Ring, which surrounds the Sun and has a maximum diameter 364 pc, and GSH 238+00+09, which is a huge old shell. Both appear to be responsible for shock-induced star formation; GSR 238+0+09, in particular, may be responsible for the Orion and Gum associations. We then turn to the Local Bubble and describe some of its little-known and remarkable occupants: interstellar scattering centers, which are ionized blobs having sizes of a few Earth diameters, and one of the coldest HI clouds known, which produces prominent X-ray shadow and allows us to estimate the local X-ray production rate within a few dozen parsec from the Sun.

  5. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  6. Local Power: Tribe & Township.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlala, Padi; Moloi, Dudley

    1995-01-01

    Examines the service infrastructure of a rural township in South Africa and the struggle to acquire services like water and electricity. Discusses the interaction of a system of transitional local councils and tribal authorities in the face of local government elections. (LZ)

  7. Local available quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundarain, Douglas F.; de Guevara, María L. Ladrón

    2015-12-01

    In this work, local available quantum correlations are studied. They are defined in terms of mutual information of bipartite local measurements done over an optimal local basis complementary to the local basis which defines the respective classical correlations. For two qubits, it is always possible to choose the basis of classical correlations as the set of eigenvectors of σ _z (the third Pauli matrix) and complementary bases become the sets of eigenvectors of the observables orthogonal to σ _z. It is shown that all states with zero local available quantum correlations are separable but not necessarily strictly classical; this fact puts this kind of correlations in the middle between discord and entanglement. Since in many cases it may suffice to know whether a given state has quantum correlations, the structure of the states with zero local available quantum correlations is presented. It is also shown that there is a close connection between local available quantum correlations and the protocol of entanglement activation developed by Piani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 106:220403, 2011). If a state satisfies the sufficient condition for the entanglement swapping associated with this protocol, this state has nonzero local available quantum correlations.

  8. Mechanisms Regulating Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nicholas C; Doetsch, Paul W; Corbett, Anita H

    2015-10-01

    Cellular functions are dictated by protein content and activity. There are numerous strategies to regulate proteins varying from modulating gene expression to post-translational modifications. One commonly used mode of regulation in eukaryotes is targeted localization. By specifically redirecting the localization of a pool of existing protein, cells can achieve rapid changes in local protein function. Eukaryotic cells have evolved elegant targeting pathways to direct proteins to the appropriate cellular location or locations. Here, we provide a general overview of these localization pathways, with a focus on nuclear and mitochondrial transport, and present a survey of the evolutionarily conserved regulatory strategies identified thus far. We end with a description of several specific examples of proteins that exploit localization as an important mode of regulation. PMID:26172624

  9. Local likelihood estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tibshirani, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    In this work, we extend the idea of local averaging to likelihood-based regression models. One application is in the class of generalized linear models (Nelder and Wedderburn (1972). We enlarge this class by replacing the covariate form chi..beta.. with an unspecified smooth function s(chi). This function is estimated from the data by a technique we call Local Likelihood Estimation - a type of local averaging. Multiple covariates are incorporated through a forward stepwise algorithm. In a number of real data examples, the local likelihood technique proves to be effective in uncovering non-linear dependencies. Finally, we give some asymptotic results for local likelihood estimates and provide some methods for inference.

  10. Localization by entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, J.; Flach, S.; Fleurov, V.; Schulman, L. S.; Tolkunov, D.

    2008-08-01

    We study the localization of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, which interact in a spatially confined region. The classical theory predicts that there is no localization below a threshold value for the strength of interaction that is inversely proportional to the number of participating atoms. In a full quantum treatment, however, we find that localized states exist for arbitrarily weak attractive or repulsive interactions for any number (>1) of atoms. We further show, using an explicit solution of the two-particle bound state and an appropriate measure of entanglement, that the entanglement tends to a finite value in the limit of weak interactions. Coupled with the non-existence of localization in an optimized quantum product state, we conclude that the localization exists by virtue of entanglement.

  11. Localized whistlers in magnetized spin quantum plasmas.

    PubMed

    Misra, A P; Brodin, G; Marklund, M; Shukla, P K

    2010-11-01

    The nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic (EM) electron-cyclotron waves (whistlers) along an external magnetic field, and their modulation by electrostatic small but finite amplitude ion-acoustic density perturbations are investigated in a uniform quantum plasma with intrinsic spin of electrons. The effects of the quantum force associated with the Bohm potential and the combined effects of the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive forces (CPF and SPF, respectively) are taken into consideration. The latter modify the local plasma density in a self-consistent manner. The coupled modes of wave propagation is shown to be governed by a modified set of nonlinear Schrödinger-Boussinesq-like equations which admit exact solutions in form of stationary localized envelopes. Numerical simulation reveals the existence of large-scale density fluctuations that are self-consistently created by the localized whistlers in a strongly magnetized high density plasma. The conditions for the modulational instability (MI) and the value of its growth rate are obtained. Possible applications of our results, e.g., in strongly magnetized dense plasmas and in the next generation laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments are discussed. PMID:21230601

  12. Localized whistlers in magnetized spin quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. P.; Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-11-01

    The nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic (EM) electron-cyclotron waves (whistlers) along an external magnetic field, and their modulation by electrostatic small but finite amplitude ion-acoustic density perturbations are investigated in a uniform quantum plasma with intrinsic spin of electrons. The effects of the quantum force associated with the Bohm potential and the combined effects of the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive forces (CPF and SPF, respectively) are taken into consideration. The latter modify the local plasma density in a self-consistent manner. The coupled modes of wave propagation is shown to be governed by a modified set of nonlinear Schrödinger-Boussinesq-like equations which admit exact solutions in form of stationary localized envelopes. Numerical simulation reveals the existence of large-scale density fluctuations that are self-consistently created by the localized whistlers in a strongly magnetized high density plasma. The conditions for the modulational instability (MI) and the value of its growth rate are obtained. Possible applications of our results, e.g., in strongly magnetized dense plasmas and in the next generation laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments are discussed.

  13. Localized whistlers in magnetized spin quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Brodin, G.; Marklund, M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-11-15

    The nonlinear propagation of electromagnetic (EM) electron-cyclotron waves (whistlers) along an external magnetic field, and their modulation by electrostatic small but finite amplitude ion-acoustic density perturbations are investigated in a uniform quantum plasma with intrinsic spin of electrons. The effects of the quantum force associated with the Bohm potential and the combined effects of the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive forces (CPF and SPF, respectively) are taken into consideration. The latter modify the local plasma density in a self-consistent manner. The coupled modes of wave propagation is shown to be governed by a modified set of nonlinear Schroedinger-Boussinesq-like equations which admit exact solutions in form of stationary localized envelopes. Numerical simulation reveals the existence of large-scale density fluctuations that are self-consistently created by the localized whistlers in a strongly magnetized high density plasma. The conditions for the modulational instability (MI) and the value of its growth rate are obtained. Possible applications of our results, e.g., in strongly magnetized dense plasmas and in the next generation laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments are discussed.

  14. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  15. Ergodicity breaking and localization.

    PubMed

    Geneston, Elvis; Tuladhar, Rohisha; Beig, M T; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We study the joint action of the non-Poisson renewal events (NPR) yielding Continuous-time random walk (CTRW) with index α<1 and two different generators of Hurst coefficient H≠0.5, one generating fractional Brownian motion (FBM) and another scaled Brownian motion (SBM). We discuss the ergodicity breaking emerging from these joint actions and we find that in both cases the adoption of time averages leads to localization. In the case of the joint action of NPR and SBM, localization occurs when SBM would produce subdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM, on the contrary, may lead to localization when FBM is a source of superdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM is equivalent to extending the CTRW to the case where the jumps of the runner are correlated and we argue that the the memory-induced localization requires a refinement of the theoretical perspective about determinism and randomness. PMID:27575105

  16. Focus on Local Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the student newspaper "The Lance" (at Westside High School in Omaha, Nebraska) covered the shootings at Columbine High School. Notes that the staff localized the event and brought the student body into the story. (RS)

  17. Ergodicity breaking and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geneston, Elvis; Tuladhar, Rohisha; Beig, M. T.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    We study the joint action of the non-Poisson renewal events (NPR) yielding Continuous-time random walk (CTRW) with index α <1 and two different generators of Hurst coefficient H ≠0.5 , one generating fractional Brownian motion (FBM) and another scaled Brownian motion (SBM). We discuss the ergodicity breaking emerging from these joint actions and we find that in both cases the adoption of time averages leads to localization. In the case of the joint action of NPR and SBM, localization occurs when SBM would produce subdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM, on the contrary, may lead to localization when FBM is a source of superdiffusion. The joint action of NPR and FBM is equivalent to extending the CTRW to the case where the jumps of the runner are correlated and we argue that the the memory-induced localization requires a refinement of the theoretical perspective about determinism and randomness.

  18. Local entropy generation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; White, M.D.

    1991-02-01

    Second law analysis techniques have been widely used to evaluate the sources of irreversibility in components and systems of components but the evaluation of local sources of irreversibility in thermal processes has received little attention. While analytical procedures for evaluating local entropy generation have been developed, applications have been limited to fluid flows with analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature fields. The analysis of local entropy generation can be used to evaluate more complicated flows by including entropy generation calculations in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The research documented in this report consists of incorporating local entropy generation calculations in an existing CFD code and then using the code to evaluate the distribution of thermodynamic losses in two applications: an impinging jet and a magnetic heat pump. 22 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Müller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2009-11-01

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  20. Localized pityriasis rosea.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Charles-Holmes, R

    2000-11-01

    Pityriasis rosea is a relatively common skin disorder. In its typical form it is easily recognizable; however, atypical forms can pose diagnostic problems. We report a 44-year-old woman with an acute onset of a localized eruption on her left breast. The morphology of the rash and the time course were typical of pityriasis rosea. Localized pityriasis rosea is an unusual variant, which has been described previously. PMID:11167977

  1. Anderson Localization of Solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub; Mueller, Cord A.; Delande, Dominique

    2009-11-20

    At low temperature, a quasi-one-dimensional ensemble of atoms with an attractive interaction forms a bright soliton. When exposed to a weak and smooth external potential, the shape of the soliton is hardly modified, but its center-of-mass motion is affected. We show that in a spatially correlated disordered potential, the quantum motion of a bright soliton displays Anderson localization. The localization length can be much larger than the soliton size and could be observed experimentally.

  2. Localization protected quantum order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandkishore, Rahul

    2015-03-01

    Many body localization occurs in isolated quantum systems, usually with strong disorder, and is marked by absence of dissipation, absence of thermal equilibration, and a memory of the initial conditions that survives in local observables for arbitrarily long times. The many body localized regime is a non-equilibrium, strongly disordered, non-self averaging regime that presents a new frontier for quantum statistical mechanics. In this talk, I point out that there exists a vast zoo of correlated many body localized states of matter, which may be classified using familiar notions of spontaneous symmetry breaking and topological order. I will point out that in the many body localized regime, spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur even at high energy densities in one dimensional systems, and topological order can occur even without a bulk gap. I will also discuss the phenomenology of imperfectly isolated many body localized systems, which are weakly coupled to a heat bath. I will conclude with a brief discussion of how these phenomena may best be detected in experiments. Collaborators: David Huse, S.L. Sondhi, Arijeet Pal, Vadim Oganesyan, A.C. Potter, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, S. Johri, R.N. Bhatt.

  3. An optically scanned EMS reporting form and analysis system for statewide use: development and five years' experience.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S M; Brown, D E

    1991-12-01

    Analysis of emergency medical services (EMS) systems data is crucial to planning, education, research, and quality assurance programs. Currently, comparative analysis of EMS data between regions or states is virtually impossible due to wide variations in data collection and analysis methods. To devise a practical and uniform EMS reporting system, we referenced the minimum data set (MDS) established by the federal government in 1974 and surveyed 22 states known to be using uniform reporting systems. In developing our final data set, elements were added based on inclusion in the MDS, national survey results, a review of current EMS literature, and consensus of local EMS providers. This set of 48 elements then was incorporated into a reporting form using narrative and optically scanned formats, allowing automated data collection for computer analysis. After a pilot study, the system was improved to allow high-speed ink reading and large volume data storage and analysis using a microcomputer. This system has subsequently been adopted by seven states. The combined data base exceeds 250,000 cases. Error screening algorithms ensure data integrity and are also used for quality assurance. Customized output reports can be generated within minutes and have assisted in EMS quality assurance, planning, and research. We believe that the successful performance of this system supports the use of the suggested data elements as well as optical scanning and microcomputer analysis of EMS data. PMID:1746736

  4. Diffusion-Based EM Algorithm for Distributed Estimation of Gaussian Mixtures in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Yang; Xiao, Wendong; Xie, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Distributed estimation of Gaussian mixtures has many applications in wireless sensor network (WSN), and its energy-efficient solution is still challenging. This paper presents a novel diffusion-based EM algorithm for this problem. A diffusion strategy is introduced for acquiring the global statistics in EM algorithm in which each sensor node only needs to communicate its local statistics to its neighboring nodes at each iteration. This improves the existing consensus-based distributed EM algorithm which may need much more communication overhead for consensus, especially in large scale networks. The robustness and scalability of the proposed approach can be achieved by distributed processing in the networks. In addition, we show that the proposed approach can be considered as a stochastic approximation method to find the maximum likelihood estimation for Gaussian mixtures. Simulation results show the efficiency of this approach. PMID:22163956

  5. LOCAL TADPOLE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Putko, Joseph; Dewberry, Janosz; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2012-05-10

    Tadpole galaxies have a giant star-forming region at the end of an elongated intensity distribution. Here we use Sloan Digital Sky Survey data to determine the ages, masses, and surface densities of the heads and tails in 14 local tadpoles selected from the Kiso and Michigan surveys of UV-bright galaxies, and we compare them to tadpoles previously studied in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The young stellar mass in the head scales linearly with rest-frame galaxy luminosity, ranging from {approx}10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} at galaxy absolute magnitude U = -13 mag to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} at U = -20 mag. The corresponding head surface density increases from several M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2} locally to 10-100 M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2} at high redshift, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit area in the head increases from {approx}0.01 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} locally to {approx}1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} at high z. These local values are normal for star-forming regions, and the increases with redshift are consistent with other cosmological SFRs, most likely reflecting an increase in gas abundance. The tails in the local sample look like bulge-free galaxy disks. Their photometric ages decrease from several Gyr to several hundred Myr with increasing z, and their surface densities are more constant than the surface densities of the heads. The far-outer intensity profiles in the local sample are symmetric and exponential. We suggest that most local tadpoles are bulge-free galaxy disks with lopsided star formation, perhaps from environmental effects such as ram pressure or disk impacts, or from a Jeans length comparable to half the disk size.

  6. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  7. Local relativistic exact decoupling.

    PubMed

    Peng, Daoling; Reiher, Markus

    2012-06-28

    We present a systematic hierarchy of approximations for local exact decoupling of four-component quantum chemical Hamiltonians based on the Dirac equation. Our ansatz reaches beyond the trivial local approximation that is based on a unitary transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal part of the Hamiltonian. Systematically, off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix blocks can be subjected to a unitary transformation to yield relativistically corrected matrix elements. The full hierarchy is investigated with respect to the accuracy reached for the electronic energy and for selected molecular properties on a balanced test molecule set that comprises molecules with heavy elements in different bonding situations. Our atomic (local) assembly of the unitary exact-decoupling transformation--called local approximation to the unitary decoupling transformation (DLU)--provides an excellent local approximation for any relativistic exact-decoupling approach. Its order-N(2) scaling can be further reduced to linear scaling by employing a neighboring-atomic-blocks approximation. Therefore, DLU is an efficient relativistic method well suited for relativistic calculations on large molecules. If a large molecule contains many light atoms (typically hydrogen atoms), the computational costs can be further reduced by employing a well-defined nonrelativistic approximation for these light atoms without significant loss of accuracy. We also demonstrate that the standard and straightforward transformation of only the atomic block-diagonal entries in the Hamiltonian--denoted diagonal local approximation to the Hamiltonian (DLH) in this paper--introduces an error that is on the order of the error of second-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (i.e., DKH2) when compared with exact-decoupling results. Hence, the local DLH approximation would be pointless in an exact-decoupling framework, but can be efficiently employed in combination with the fast to evaluate DKH2 Hamiltonian in order to speed up calculations

  8. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  9. Correlative Microscopy for Localization of Proteins In Situ: Pre-embedding Immuno-Electron Microscopy Using FluoroNanogold, Gold Enhancement, and Low-Temperature Resin.

    PubMed

    Boassa, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Immuno-electron microscopy (immuno-EM) is a technique that has been used widely to determine subcellular localization of proteins. Different approaches are available for immuno-EM: pre-embedding method, post-embedding, and cryosectioning (Tokuyasu "style"). Here we describe a pre-embedding technique that allows the labeling of a target protein in situ, retention of fluorescence signal in plastic, and its localization at the EM level in a given cellular context. The procedure can be technically challenging and labor intensive: it requires optimization of fixation protocols to better preserve the cellular morphology and screening of compatible antibodies. Nevertheless, immuno-EM can be a powerful localization tool. PMID:26160575

  10. EM-54 Technology Development In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. EM manages remediation of all DOE sites as well as wastes from current operations. The goal of the EM program is to minimize risks to human health, safety and the environment, and to bring all DOE sites into compliance with Federal, state, and local regulations by 2019. EM-50 is charged with developing new technologies that are safer, more effective and less expensive than current methods. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (the subject of this report) is part of EM-541, the Environmental Restoration Research and Development Division of EM-54. The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: Significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces; in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP tends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years.

  11. Scalable and interactive segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM datasets.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won-Ki; Beyer, Johanna; Hadwiger, Markus; Vazquez, Amelio; Pfister, Hanspeter; Whitaker, Ross T

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in scanning technology provide high resolution EM (Electron Microscopy) datasets that allow neuro-scientists to reconstruct complex neural connections in a nervous system. However, due to the enormous size and complexity of the resulting data, segmentation and visualization of neural processes in EM data is usually a difficult and very time-consuming task. In this paper, we present NeuroTrace, a novel EM volume segmentation and visualization system that consists of two parts: a semi-automatic multiphase level set segmentation with 3D tracking for reconstruction of neural processes, and a specialized volume rendering approach for visualization of EM volumes. It employs view-dependent on-demand filtering and evaluation of a local histogram edge metric, as well as on-the-fly interpolation and ray-casting of implicit surfaces for segmented neural structures. Both methods are implemented on the GPU for interactive performance. NeuroTrace is designed to be scalable to large datasets and data-parallel hardware architectures. A comparison of NeuroTrace with a commonly used manual EM segmentation tool shows that our interactive workflow is faster and easier to use for the reconstruction of complex neural processes. PMID:19834227

  12. School Budget Hold'em Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "School Budget Hold'em" is a game designed to help school districts rethink their budgeting process. It evolved out of Education Resource Strategies' (ERS) experience working with large urban districts around the country. "School Budget Hold'em" offers a completely new approach--one that can turn the budgeting process into a long-term visioning…

  13. View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    View of Spacelab engineering Model (EM) as it is being brought in the O and C bldg at Kenndey Space Center (27464); view of the EM as it is being offloaded from the C-54 aircraft. Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 108-KSC-80-OC-666 (27465); model taken out to launch pad (27466).

  14. EM international activities. February 1997 highlights

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    EM International Highlights is a brief summary of on-going international projects within the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM). This document contains sections on: Global Issues, activities in Western Europe, activities in central and Eastern Europe, activities in Russia, activities in Asia and the Pacific Rim, activities in South America, activities in North America, and International Organizations.

  15. Lauding Local Legacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamolinara, Guy

    1999-01-01

    As part of its bicentennial celebration, the Library of Congress is sponsoring the Local Legacies project, an unprecedented effort in which Americans across the nation work with their members of Congress to document unique traditions for the collections of the American Folklife Center. Libraries will have a critical role in directing documentation…

  16. Theme: Local Program Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Includes "Professional Propagation" (Camp); "Managing Human Resources with Local Program Success (LPS)" (Daley); "Profit Sharing with LPS" (Moses); "Partners for Success" (Mecey- Smith); "Achieving LPS by Collaborating with Partners, Allies and Volunteers" (Oglesby); LPS...Just What Agricultural Education Needs, Another Acronym" (Rist); "The…

  17. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasatir, Marilyn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four papers discuss LANs (local area networks) and library applications: (1) "Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers Standards..." (Charles D. Brown); (2) "Facilities Planning for LANs..." (Gail Persky); (3) "Growing up with the Alumni Library: LAN..." (Russell Buchanan); and (4) "Implementing a LAN...at the Health Sciences Library"…

  18. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, David

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of word processors, micro- and minicomputer systems, and other digital office equipment is causing major design changes in existing networks. Local Area Networks (LANs) which have adequately served terminal users in the past must now be redesigned. Implementation at Clemson is described. (MLW)

  19. Local Area Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  20. Social Studies: Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kressler, Joe, Comp.

    Elementary and secondary school teachers interested in developing a local history unit can adapt this fourth grade program created for three school districts in Cortland County, New York. Material is divided into 13 chapters. Chapter 1 charts the New York fourth grade curriculum by concept and content and outlines specific community study…

  1. Tackling a Local Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Students studying water as a class project were concerned by levels of pollution at a nearby river and the local beach. They identified three environmental problems for research including sewage discharge, beach litter, and quality of swimming water. Research consisted of field trips which allowed for opportunities to improve skills in collecting…

  2. State and local governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The Virginia Space Grant Consortium approach to a close working relation to state and local governments is presented as a model for consideration. State government relations are especially important in that this is a primary resource in securing matching funds. Avenues for establishing these relationships are listed and discussed.

  3. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond to 'Editing Is…

  4. Symbolic local information transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Haruna, T.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the permutation-information theoretic approach has been used in a broad range of research fields. In particular, in the study of high-dimensional dynamical systems, it has been shown that this approach can be effective in characterizing global properties, including the complexity of their spatiotemporal dynamics. Here, we show that this approach can also be applied to reveal local spatiotemporal profiles of distributed computations existing at each spatiotemporal point in the system. J. T. Lizier et al. have recently introduced the concept of local information dynamics, which consists of information storage, transfer, and modification. This concept has been intensively studied with regard to cellular automata, and has provided quantitative evidence of several characteristic behaviors observed in the system. In this paper, by focusing on the local information transfer, we demonstrate that the application of the permutation-information theoretic approach, which introduces natural symbolization methods, makes the concept easily extendible to systems that have continuous states. We propose measures called symbolic local transfer entropies, and apply these measures to two test models, the coupled map lattice (CML) system and the Bak-Sneppen model (BS-model), to show their relevance to spatiotemporal systems that have continuous states. In the CML, we demonstrate that it can be successfully used as a spatiotemporal filter to stress a coherent structure buried in the system. In particular, we show that the approach can clearly stress out defect turbulences or Brownian motion of defects from the background, which gives quantitative evidence suggesting that these moving patterns are the information transfer substrate in the spatiotemporal system. We then show that these measures reveal qualitatively different properties from the conventional approach using the sliding window method, and are also robust against external noise. In the BS-model, we demonstrate that

  5. Localization and vector spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brecht, James H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes the following localization property for vector spherical harmonics: a wide class of non-local, vector-valued operators reduce to local, multiplication-type operations when applied to a vector spherical harmonic. As localization occurs in a very precise, quantifiable and explicitly computable fashion, the localization property provides a set of useful formulae for analyzing vector-valued fractional diffusion and non-local differential equations defined on S d - 1. As such analyses require a detailed understanding of operators for which localization occurs, we provide several applications of the result in the context of non-local differential equations.

  6. EM International, July 1994, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking out and leveraging foreign technology, data, and resources in keeping with EM`s mandate to protect public health and the environment through the safe and cost-effective remediation of the Department`s nuclear weapons sites. EM works closely with foreign governments, industry, and universities to obtain innovative environmental technologies, scientific and engineering expertise, and operations experience that will support EM`s objectives. Where appropriate, these international resources are used to manage the more urgent risks at our sites, secure a safe workplace, help build consensus on critical issues, and strengthen our technology development program. Through international agreements EM engages in cooperative exchange of information, technology, and individuals. Currently, we are managing agreements with a dozen countries in Europe, Latin America, and Asia. These agreements focus on environmental restoration, waste management, transportation of radioactive wastes, and decontamination and decommissioning. This publication contains the following articles: in situ remediation integrated program; in-situ characterization and inspection of tanks; multimedia environmental pollutant assessment system (MEPAS); LLNL wet oxidation -- AEA technology. Besides these articles, this publication covers: EU activities with Russia; technology transfer activities; and international organization activities.

  7. Local normal galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    In the near future, high energy (E greater than 20 MeV) gamma ray astronomy offers the promise of a new means of examining the closest galaxies. Two and possibly three local galaxies, the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds and M31, should be visible to the high energy gamma ray telescope on the Gamma Ray Observatory, and the first should be seen by GAMMA-1. With the assumptions of adequate cosmic ray production and reasonable magnetic field strengths, both of which should likely be satisfied, specific predictions of the gamma ray emission can be made separating the concepts of the galactic and universal nature of cosmic rays. A study of the synchrotron radiation from the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) suggests that the cosmic ray density is similar to that in the local region of our galaxy, but not uniform. It is hoped the measurements will be able to verify this independent of assumptions about the magnetic fields in the LMC.

  8. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  9. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  10. Local quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.

  11. Classical dynamical localization.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker

    2014-10-24

    We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a well-known argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tight-binding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918

  12. The Local Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, H.L.

    2005-10-21

    The observations of the extended rotation curves of some galaxies provide important constraints upon the nature of the local dark matter present in the halos of these galaxies. Using these constraints, one can show that the halo dark matter cannot be some population of conventional astronomical objects and (most probably) cannot be a population of exotic non-interacting particles. We suggest that the halos can be regarded as large spatial fluctuations in a classic scalar field.

  13. [Cardiotoxicity of local anesthetics].

    PubMed

    de La Coussaye, J E; Eledjam, J J; Brugada, J; Sassine, A

    1993-01-01

    The intravascular administration and the high blood resorption of local anesthetic agents are known to induce neurotoxic accidents. However, the use of potent local anesthetic drugs such as bupivacaine is responsible for serious cardiotoxic accidents with a mortality of about 50%. Indeed, bupivacaine induces both electrophysiologic and haemodynamic disturbances with the occurrence of conduction blocks, arrhythmias and cardiovascular collapse. Moreover, cardiotoxicity is worsened by: bupivacaine-induced sympathetic activation which facilitates tachycardia and arrhythmias, metabolic abnormalities such as hypoxia, acidosis, hyperkaliemia and hypothermia, pregnancy, diazepam pretreatment, and the antiarrhythmic drugs. In case of cardiac arrest, CPR must be made. In the other cases, the first treatment is to oxygenate, to intubate the trachea and to ventilate the lungs, and then to stop convulsions. Specific cardiac resuscitation remains controversial because it is based principally on experimental results. We demonstrated that the combination of clonidine and dobutamine is efficient to reverse both haemodynamic and electrophysiologic impairments induced by a large dose of bupivacaine in anesthetized dogs. Whatever the efficiency of specific resuscitation, it must be emphasized that prevention of toxic accident must always include: the best choice of local anesthetic drug (e.g.: lidocaine+alpha-2 agonist vs bupivacaine), test dose, aspiration and slow administration. Finally, the monitoring of regional anaesthesia must be similar to that in use for general anaesthesia and drugs and devices for resuscitation must be ready. PMID:8287299

  14. Acoustic source localization.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tribikram

    2014-01-01

    In this article different techniques for localizing acoustic sources are described and the advantages/disadvantages of these techniques are discussed. Some source localization techniques are restricted to isotropic structures while other methods can be applied to anisotropic structures as well. Some techniques require precise knowledge of the direction dependent velocity profiles in the anisotropic body while other techniques do not require that knowledge. Some methods require accurate values of the time of arrival of the acoustic waves at the receivers while other techniques can function without that information. Published papers introducing various techniques emphasize the advantages of the introduced techniques while ignoring and often not mentioning the limitations and weaknesses of the new techniques. What is lacking in the literature is a comprehensive review and comparison of the available techniques; this article attempts to do that. After reviewing various techniques the paper concludes which source localization technique should be most effective for what type of structure and what the current research needs are. PMID:23870388

  15. Enhanced local tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.; Ramm, Alexander G.

    1996-01-01

    Local tomography is enhanced to determine the location and value of a discontinuity between a first internal density of an object and a second density of a region within the object. A beam of radiation is directed in a predetermined pattern through the region of the object containing the discontinuity. Relative attenuation data of the beam is determined within the predetermined pattern having a first data component that includes attenuation data through the region. In a first method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, the relative attenuation data is inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA. to define the location S of the density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA. is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA.. In a second method for evaluating the value of the discontinuity, a gradient value for a mollified local tomography function .gradient..function..sub..LAMBDA..epsilon. (x.sub.ij) is determined along the discontinuity; and the value of the jump of the density across the discontinuity curve (or surface) S is estimated from the gradient values.

  16. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes. PMID:27515076

  17. Mass Gathering Medical Care: Resource Document for the National Association of EMS Physicians Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Brian; Nafziger, Sarah; Milsten, Andrew; Luk, Jeffrey; Yancey, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Mass gatherings are heterogeneous in terms of size, duration, type of event, crowd behavior, demographics of the participants and spectators, use of recreational substances, weather, and environment. The goals of health and medical services should be the provision of care for participants and spectators consistent with local standards of care, protection of continuing medical service to the populations surrounding the event venue, and preparation for surge to respond to extraordinary events. Pre-event planning among jurisdictional public health and EMS, acute care hospitals, and event EMS is essential, but should also include, at a minimum, event security services, public relations, facility maintenance, communications technicians, and the event planners and organizers. Previous documented experience with similar events has been shown to most accurately predict future needs. Future work in and guidance for mass gathering medical care should include the consistent use and further development of universally accepted consistent metrics, such as Patient Presentation Rate and Transfer to Hospital Rate. Only by standardizing data collection can evaluations be performed that link interventions with outcomes to enhance evidence-based EMS services at mass gatherings. Research is needed to evaluate the skills and interventions required by EMS providers to achieve desired outcomes. The event-dedicated EMS Medical Director is integral to acceptable quality medical care provided at mass gatherings; hence, he/she must be included in all aspects of mass gathering medical care planning, preparations, response, and recovery. Incorporation of jurisdictional EMS and community hospital medical leadership, and emergency practitioners into these processes will ensure that on-site care, transport, and transition to acute care at appropriate receiving facilities is consistent with, and fully integrated into the community's medical care system, while fulfilling the needs of event

  18. Many factors complicate EM susceptibility tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    Procedures and apparatus currently employed for assaying the EM susceptibility of communication, navigation, and EW equipment are described. Susceptibility is examined in either conducted susceptibility tests, where signals are introduced into the input port of the device under test, or in radiated modes, where the entire device is exposed to an EM field to test for component and system failure. Noting that military standards require up to 10 times the EM resistance as commercial standards, the use of shielded enclosures in both commercial and military testing facilities is explored. RF-tight enclosures are filled with a homogeneous EM field produced by, optimally, broadband generators which emit signals which are amplified to desired levels. Sweep functions permit testing under broadband conditions. Attention is given to radiator selection and antenna choice to produce satisfactory test conditions at all frequencies.

  19. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  20. EMS in Taiwan: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wen-Chu; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Wang, Hui-Chih; Yang, Chi-Wei; Shih, Fuh-Yuan; Hsiung, Kuang-Hua; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan is a small island country located in East Asia. From around 1995 modern concepts of the EMS were imported and supported by legislation. Considerable progress has since been made towards the construction of an effective pre-hospital care system. This article introduces the current status of the EMS in Taiwan, including the systems, response configurations, funding, personnel, medical directorship, and outcome research. The features and problems of in-hospital emergency care are also discussed. Key areas for further development in the country vary depending on regional differences in available resource and population density. An analysis of the strength, weakness, opportunity, and threats of the evolving EMS in Taiwan could be an example for other countries where the EMS is undergoing a similar process of development and optimisation. PMID:19059690

  1. Local Affinity Release.

    PubMed

    Delplace, Vianney; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Shoichet, Molly S

    2016-07-26

    The use of hydrogels for therapeutic delivery is a burgeoning area of investigation. These water-swollen polymer matrices are ideal platforms for localized drug delivery that can be further combined with specific ligands or nanotechnologies to advance the controlled release of small-molecule drugs and proteins. Due to the advantage of hydrophobic, electrostatic, or specific extracellular matrix interactions, affinity-based strategies can overcome burst release and challenges associated with encapsulation. Future studies will provide innovative binding tools, truly stimuli-responsive systems, and original combinations of emerging technologies to control the release of therapeutics spatially and temporally. Local drug delivery can be achieved by directly injecting a therapeutic to its site of action and is advantageous because off-target effects associated with systemic delivery can be minimized. For prolonged benefit, a vehicle that provides sustained drug release is required. Hydrogels are versatile platforms for localized drug release, owing to the large library of biocompatible building blocks from which they can be formed. Injectable hydrogel formulations that gel quickly in situ and provide sustained release of therapeutics are particularly advantageous to minimize invasiveness. The incorporation of polymers, ligands or nanoparticles that have an affinity for the therapeutic of interest improve control over the release of small-molecule drugs and proteins from hydrogels, enabling spatial and temporal control over the delivery. Such affinity-based strategies can overcome drug burst release and challenges associated with protein instability, allowing more effective therapeutic molecule delivery for a range of applications from therapeutic contact lenses to ischemic tissue regeneration. PMID:27403513

  2. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  3. Local Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Paloma; Salas, María; Blanca-López, Natalia; Rondón, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This review focuses on local allergic rhinitis, a new phenotype of allergic rhinitis, commonly misdiagnosed as nonallergic rhinitis. It has gained attention over last decade and can affect patients from all countries, ethnic groups and ages, impairing their quality of life, and is frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the demonstration of a positive response to nasal allergen provocation test and/or the detection of nasal sIgE. A positive basophil activation test may support the diagnosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that allergen immunotherapy is an effective immune-modifying treatment, highlighting the importance of early diagnosis. PMID:27083105

  4. Local Group Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David

    2013-11-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. The formation of the Milky Way in the CDM paradigm Ken Freeman; 2. Dark matter content and tidal effects in Local Group dwarf galaxies Steven R. Majewski; 3. Notes on the missing satellites problem James Bullock; 4. The Milky Way satellite galaxies Pavel Kroupa; 5. Stellar tidal streams Rodrigo Ibata; 6. Tutorial: the analysis of colour-magnitude diagrams David Valls-Gabaud; 7. Tutorial: modeling tidal streams using N-body simulations Jorge Peñarrubia.

  5. Research fuels local economies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosisio, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Research from US DOA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has resulted in a number of new products, alternative crops, and an increase in planted acreage of crops due to pest control by pheromones. Superslurper, produced from cornstarch, was found to absorb 1400 times its weight in moisture. This material is being used in fuel filters to remove water in fuel tanks and pumps. There is a growing market for these filters; superslurpers also are used in body powders, diapers, absorbent soft goods, batteries, soil additives, and in medical and recreational coldpacks. Local economies have benefited as a direct result of ARS efforts.

  6. DOLORS: versatile strategy for internal labeling and domain localization in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pick-Wei; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; MacRae, Ian J

    2012-12-01

    Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) is a powerful tool for studying the structures of large biological molecules. However, the achievable resolution does not always allow for direct recognition of individual protein domains. Labels that can be visualized by EM have been developed for protein termini, but tagging internal domains remains a challenge. We describe a robust strategy for determining the position of internal sites within EM maps, termed domain localization by RCT sampling (DOLORS). DOLORS uses monovalent streptavidin added posttranslationally to tagged sites in the target protein. Internal labels generally display less conformational flexibility than terminal labels, providing more precise positional information. Automated methods are used to rapidly generate assemblies of unique 3D models allowing the attachment sites of labeled domains to be accurately identified and thus provide an overall architectural map of the molecule. PMID:23217681

  7. The Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, S.

    2006-09-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere --- the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and climate. Since the LISM shares the same volume as practically all known extrasolar planets, the prototypical debris disks systems, and nearby low-mass star-formation sites, it will be important to understand the structures of the LISM and how they may influence planetary atmospheres.

  8. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  9. LOCALITY AND REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    1980-02-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The, theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohr.' s pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed.

  10. Generalized local emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Katsevich, Alexander J.

    1998-01-01

    Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

  11. All Holdings Are Local: Archivists and Local Government Archives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Russell D.

    2004-01-01

    Archivists working in repositories that contain local government records play an integral role within the local community. Unlike their colleagues in state, regional, or national repositories, the local government archivist concentrates on a small geographic region and demonstrates knowledge of the politics, history, and socio-economics of the…

  12. THz Local Oscillator Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Siegel, Peter H.

    Most operational Submillimeter-wave radio telescopes, both space borne and ground based, employ local oscillator sources based on Gunn diodes followed by whisker contacted Schottky multipliers. Enough progress, however, has been made on a number of fronts to conclude that next generation of radio telescopes that become operational in the new Millennium will have a different local oscillator (LO) generation architecture. MMIC power amplifiers with impressive gain in the Ka- to-W band have enabled the use of microwave synthesizers which can then be actively multiplied to provide a frequency agile power source beyond 100 GHz. This medium power millimeter source can then be amplified to enable efficient pumping of follow-on balanced multiplier stages. Input power to the multipliers can be further enhanced by power combining to achieve close to half a Watt at W-band. An 800 GHz three-stage multiplier chain, implemented this way has demonstrated a peak output power of 1 mW. A second advance in LO generation lies in the Schottky diode varactor technology. Planar Schottky diode multipliers have now been demonstrated up to 1500 GHz and it can be assumed that most of the future multiplier chains will be based on these robust devices rather than the whisker contacted diode of the past. The ability to produce planar GaAs diode chips deep into the THz range, with submicron dimensions, has opened up a wide range of circuit design space which can be taken advantage of to improve efficiency, bandwidth, and power handling capability of the multipliers. A third breakthrough has been the demonstration of photonic based LO sources utilizing GaAs photomixers. These sources, though not yet implemented in robust space borne missions, offer a number of advantages over their electronic counterparts, including extremely broad tuning, fiber coupled components, and solid-state implementation. Another development, which holds some promise, is the use of micro-machining technology to implement

  13. Modeling the Local Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, D. P.

    Modeling the Local Bubble is one of those activities fraught with danger. It is very easy to be too naive, to fail to consider the dependence of the model on assumptions about the nearby ambient state, or the likelihood of such a structure. It is similarly easy to become so caught up in the details of the vicinity that it is unclear where to begin a necessarily idealized modeling effort. And finally, it is important to remember that the data we have may in some cases be lying to us, and that we have not yet learned to read their facial expressions quite carefully enough. That said, I've tried in this paper to be helpful to those who may wish to take the risks. I surveyed the very most basic stories that the data seem to tell, and pointed out the standard coincidences that may be telling us a lot about what is happening, but may turn out once again to have been just coincidences. I've described 5 distinct conceptions that in one flavor or another pretty well survey the collection of mental images that have so far been carried by those who've attempted models. One may be right, or something entirely different may be more appropriate. It's at least vital to realize that a conception comes first, followed by a simplified model of details. I've also included a long list of questions directed at observers. Some have partial answers, some one wouldn't know today quite how to approach. But it is a list that students of the soft x-ray background, interstellar absorption lines, possible instrumentation, and the heliosphere may wish to review from time to time, just to see whether they can figure out how to be more helpful. There is another list for modelers, things the models must address, however-so-flimsily if necessary, because there are strong observational constraints (and stronger ones coming) on what can and cannot be present in the local ISM. To that I've added a few remarks concerning x-ray emission coming from beyond the Local Bubble, and another few on how x

  14. Nhs: Network-based Hierarchical Segmentation for Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Virginia; Chennubhotla, Chakra

    2012-01-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) experiments yield low-resolution (3–30Å) 3D-density maps of macromolecules. These density maps are segmented to identify structurally distinct proteins, protein domains, and sub-units. Such partitioning aids the inference of protein motions and guides fitting of high-resolution atomistic structures. Cryo-EM density map segmentation has traditionally required tedious and subjective manual partitioning or semi-supervised computational methods, while validation of resulting segmentations has remained an open problem in this field. Our network-based bias-free segmentation method for cryo-EM density map segmentation, Nhs (Network-based hierarchical segmentation), provides the user with a multi-scale partitioning, reflecting local and global clustering, while requiring no user input. This approach models each map as a graph, where map voxels constitute nodes and edges connect neighboring voxels. Nhs initiates Markov diffusion (or random walk) on the weighted graph. As Markov probabilities homogenize through diffusion, an intrinsic segmentation emerges. We validate the segmentations with ground-truth maps based on atomistic models. When implemented on density maps in the 2010 Cryo-EM Modeling Challenge, Nhs efficiently and objectively partitions macromolecules into structurally and functionally relevant sub-regions at multiple scales. PMID:22696408

  15. Stable local oscillator microcircuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.

  16. Headphone localization of speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic display systems have recently been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the pinnae. In this study, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with nonindividualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgments toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgments; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head, with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results suggest that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized HRTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  17. The local minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moelbert, S.; De Los Rios, P.

    2002-01-01

    Ecologists and economists try to explain collective behavior in terms of competitive systems of selfish individuals with the ability to learn from the past. Statistical physicists have been investigating models which might contribute to the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these systems. During the last 3 yr one intuitive model, commonly referred to as the minority game (MG), has attracted considerable attention. Powerful yet simple, the minority game has produced encouraging results which can explain the temporal behavior of competitive systems. Here we switch the interest to the phenomena due to a distribution of the individuals in space. For analyzing these effects we modify the minority game and the local minority game (LMG) is introduced. We study the system both numerically and analytically, using the customary techniques already developed for the ordinary Minority Game.

  18. Sleep locally, act globally.

    PubMed

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

    2012-10-01

    In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

  19. Localized wave pulse experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D L; Henderson, T L; Krueger, K L; Lewis, D K; Zilkowski, R N

    1999-06-01

    The Localized Wave project of the Strategic System Support Program has recently finished an experiment in cooperation with the Advanced SONAR group of the Applied Research Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin. The purpose of the experiment was three-fold. They wanted to see if (1) the LW pulse could propagate over significant distances, to see if (2) a new type of array and drive system specifically designed for the pulse would increase efficiency over single frequency tone bursts, and to see if (3) the complexity of our 24 channel drivers resulted in better efficiency than a single equivalent pulse driving a piston. In the experiment, several LW pulses were launched from the Lake Travis facility and propagated over distances of either 100 feet or 600 feet, through a thermocline for the 600 foot measurements. The results show conclusively that the Localized Wave will propagate past the near field distance. The LW pulses resulted in extremely broad frequency band width pulses with narrow spatial beam patterns and unmeasurable side lobes. Their array gain was better than most tone bursts and further, were better than their equivalent piston pulses. This marks the first test of several Low Diffraction beams against their equivalent piston pulses, as well as the first propagation of LW pulses over appreciable distances. The LW pulse is now proven a useful tool in open water, rather than a laboratory curiosity. The experimental system and array were built by ARL, and the experiments were conducted by ARL staff on their standard test range. The 600 feet measurements were made at the farthest extent of that range.

  20. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find ...

  1. Meeting the Local Skills Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccarelli, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    In Brittany, a project that integrates training and social development was designed to meet local labor market needs. Key features are innovative uses of training (pretraining, alternating training and work) and strong company involvement in local regeneration. (SK)

  2. Artinianness of local cohomology modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghapournahr, Moharram; Melkersson, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Some uniform theorems on the artinianness of certain local cohomology modules are proven in a general situation. They generalize and imply previous results about the artinianness of some special local cohomology modules in the graded case.

  3. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... local health and social services for survivors of TBI is as important as knowing about the medical ...

  4. Genomic analysis of RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Taliaferro, J Matthew; Wang, Eric T; Burge, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    The localization of mRNAs to specific subcellular sites is widespread, allowing cells to spatially restrict and regulate protein production, and playing important roles in development and cellular physiology. This process has been studied in mechanistic detail for several RNAs. However, the generality or specificity of RNA localization systems and mechanisms that impact the many thousands of localized mRNAs has been difficult to assess. In this review, we discuss the current state of the field in determining which RNAs localize, which RNA sequences mediate localization, the protein factors involved, and the biological implications of localization. For each question, we examine prominent systems and techniques that are used to study individual messages, highlight recent genome-wide studies of RNA localization, and discuss the potential for adapting other high-throughput approaches to the study of localization. PMID:25483039

  5. Estimation of local spatial scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of local scale asserts that for a given class of psychophysical measurements, performance at any two visual field locations is equated by magnifying the targets by the local scale associated with each location. Local scale has been hypothesized to be equal to cortical magnification or alternatively to the linear density of receptors or ganglion cells. Here, it is shown that it is possible to estimate local scale without prior knowledge about the scale or its physiological basis.

  6. Local virial and tensor theorems.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Leon

    2011-11-17

    We show that for any wave function and potential the local virial theorem can always be satisfied 2K(r) = r·ΔV by choosing a particular expression for the local kinetic energy. In addition, we show that for each choice of local kinetic energy there are an infinite number of quasi-probability distributions which will generate the same expression. We also consider the local tensor virial theorem. PMID:21863837

  7. DOE's Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board: The Roles, Work, and Assessment of the Constituent Local Boards - 13587

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Catherine; Freeman, Jenny; Cantrell, Yvette

    2013-07-01

    The charter for the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) Site-Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) was approved under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1994. With a unique mandate to provide public input on issues associated with the cleanup of nuclear legacy sites in the U.S., the EM SSAB comprises eight local boards, which are based at major EM sites. While each board is unique to the community in which it is located and reflects the diversity of the local population, the boards are governed by FACA, related regulations, and DOE policies that are intended to standardize agency advisory board operations. The EM SSAB local boards are made up of a diverse group of citizens who want to understand the mission and goals of the EM program and to help EM achieve those goals for the benefit of their communities. Some are quite passionate about their mission; others need to be coaxed into active participation. Maintaining productive relationships and a supportive environment for effective board operations is the challenge of board management for DOE EM and the board members themselves. DOE draws on research findings and best practices literature from academics and practitioners in the field of public involvement in its board management practices. The EM SSAB is also evaluated annually under the law to ensure that the investment of taxpayer dollars in the board is warranted in light of the contributions of the board. Further evaluation takes place at the agency and site levels in order to identify what aspects of board functioning the agency and board members find important to its success and to address areas where improvement is needed. Board contributions, compliance factors, and measurable outcomes related to board products and process areas are key to agency commitment to ongoing support of the boards and to participant satisfaction and thus continued member involvement. In addition to evaluation of these factors in improving board effectiveness

  8. Local Molecular Orbitals from a Projection onto Localized Centers.

    PubMed

    Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-06-14

    A localization method for molecular orbitals is presented which exploits the locality of the eigenfunctions associated with the largest eigenvalues of the matrix representation of spatially localized functions. Local molecular orbitals are obtained by a projection of the canonical orbitals onto the set of the eigenvectors which correspond to the largest eigenvalues of these matrices. Two different types of spatially localized functions were chosen in this work, a two-parameter smooth-step-type function and the weight functions determined by a Hirshfeld partitioning of the molecular volume. It is shown that the method can provide fairly local occupied molecular orbitals if the positions of the set of local functions are set to the molecular bond centers. The method can also yield reasonably well-localized virtual molecular orbitals, but here, a sensible choice of the positions of the functions are the atomic sites and the locality then depends more strongly on the shape of the set of local functions. The method is tested for a range of polypeptide molecules in two different conformations, namely, a helical and a β-sheet conformation. Futhermore, it is shown that an adequate locality of the occupied and virtual orbitals can also be obtained for highly delocalized systems. PMID:27164445

  9. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a “V” shape during 1910–1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations. PMID:26097285

  10. Causal Learning with Local Computations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Sloman, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed and tested a psychological theory of causal structure learning based on local computations. Local computations simplify complex learning problems via cues available on individual trials to update a single causal structure hypothesis. Structural inferences from local computations make minimal demands on memory, require…

  11. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  12. Local Government: The Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Charles, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Service-Learning Network" looks at the ways that service learning can transform local government into a learning laboratory for civic education. The first article, "Creating the Missing Link: Local Government, Service Learning, and Civic Education" (Todd Clark), introduces the issue. "Service Learning and Local Government" (Ann…

  13. Guidance for establishment and implementation of field sample management programs in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    The role of the National Sample Management Program (NSMP) proposed by the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to be a resource for EM programs and for local Field Sample Management Programs (FSMPs). It will be a source of information on sample analysis and data collection within the DOE complex. The purpose of this document is to establish the suggested scope of the FSMP activities to be performed under each Operations Office, list the drivers under which the program will operate, define terms and list references. This guidance will apply only to EM sampling and analysis activities associated with project planning, contracting, laboratory selection, sample collection, sample transportation, laboratory analysis and data management.

  14. Comparison of an Atomic Model and Its Cryo-EM Image at the Central Axis of a Helix

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Zeil, Stephanie; Hallak, Hussam; McKaig, Kele; Kovacs, Julio; Wriggers, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is an important biophysical technique that produces three-dimensional (3D) density maps at different resolutions. Because more and more models are being produced from cryo-EM density maps, validation of the models is becoming important. We propose a method for measuring local agreement between a model and the density map using the central axis of the helix. This method was tested using 19 helices from cryo-EM density maps between 5.5 Å and 7.2 Å resolution and 94 helices from simulated density maps. This method distinguished most of the well-fitting helices, although challenges exist for shorter helices.

  15. Control of Cell Migration Through Mrna Localization and Local Translation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guoning; Mingle, Lisa; Van De Water, Livingston; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration plays an important role in many normal and pathological functions such as development, wound healing, immune defense and tumor metastasis. Polarized migrating cells exhibit asymmetric distribution of many cytoskeletal proteins which is believed to be critical for establishing and maintaining cell polarity and directional cell migration. To target these proteins to the site of function, cells use a variety of mechanisms such as protein transport and mRNA localization-mediated local protein synthesis. In contrast to the former which is intensively investigated and relatively well understood, the latter has been under-studied and relatively poorly understood. However, recent advances in the study of mRNA localization and local translation have demonstrated that mRNA localization and local translation are specific and effective ways for protein localization and are crucial for embryo development, neuronal function and many other cellular processes. There are excellent reviews on mRNA localization, transport and translation during development and other cellular processes. This review will focus on mRNA localization-mediated local protein biogenesis and its impact on somatic cell migration. PMID:25264217

  16. EMS adaptation for climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, C.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.; Tsai, M.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find an appropriate scenario of pre-hospital transportation of an emergency medical service (EMS) system for burdensome casualties resulting from extreme climate events. A case of natural catastrophic events in Taiwan, 88 wind-caused disasters, was reviewed and analyzed. A sequential-conveyance method was designed to shorten the casualty transportation time and to promote the efficiency of ambulance services. A proposed mobile emergency medical center was first constructed in a safe area, but nearby the disaster area. The Center consists of professional medical personnel who process the triage of incoming patients and take care of casualties with minor injuries. Ambulances in the Center were ready to sequentially convey the casualties with severer conditions to an assigned hospital that is distant from the disaster area for further treatment. The study suggests that if we could construct a spacious and well-equipped mobile emergency medical center, only a small portion of casualties would need to be transferred to distant hospitals. This would reduce the over-crowding problem in hospital ERs. First-line ambulances only reciprocated between the mobile emergency medical center and the disaster area, saving time and shortening the working distances. Second-line ambulances were highly regulated between the mobile emergency medical center and requested hospitals. The ambulance service of the sequential-conveyance method was found to be more efficient than the conventional method and was concluded to be more profitable and reasonable on paper in adapting to climate change. Therefore, additional practical work should be launched to collect more precise quantitative data.

  17. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  18. Local Universe Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, Claude

    2015-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is addressing the "small-scale crisis" and understanding structure formation at the smallest scales. Standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmological simulations of Milky Way-size DM halos predict many more DM sub-halos than the number of dwarf galaxies observed. This is the so-called Missing Satellites Problem. The most popular interpretation of the Missing Satellites Problem is that the smallest dark matter halos in the universe are extremely inefficient at forming stars. The virialized extent of the Milky Way's halo should contain ~500 satellites, while only ˜100 satellites and dwarfs are observed in the whole Local Group. Despite the large amount of theoretical work and new optical observations, the discrepancy, even if reduced, still persists between observations and hierarchical models, regardless of the model parameters. It may be possible to find those isolated ultra-faint missing dwarf galaxies via their neutral gas component, which is one of the goals we are pursuing with the SKA precursor KAT-7 in South Africa, and soon with the SKA pathfinder MeerKAT.

  19. Fooled by local robustness.

    PubMed

    Sniedovich, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    One would have expected the considerable public debate created by Nassim Taleb's two best selling books on uncertainty, Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan, to inspire greater caution to the fundamental difficulties posed by severe uncertainty. Yet, methodologies exhibiting an incautious approach to uncertainty have been proposed recently in a range of publications. So, the objective of this short note is to call attention to a prime example of an incautious approach to severe uncertainty that is manifested in the proposition to use the concept radius of stability as a measure of robustness against severe uncertainty. The central proposition of this approach, which is exemplified in info-gap decision theory, is this: use a simple radius of stability model to analyze and manage a severe uncertainty that is characterized by a vast uncertainty space, a poor point estimate, and a likelihood-free quantification of uncertainty. This short discussion serves then as a reminder that the generic radius of stability model is a model of local robustness. It is, therefore, utterly unsuitable for the treatment of severe uncertainty when the latter is characterized by a poor estimate of the parameter of interest, a vast uncertainty space, and a likelihood-free quantification of uncertainty. PMID:22384828

  20. Local quantum ergodic conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano, Eduardo; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Ozorio de Almeida, Alfredo M.

    2015-04-01

    The quantum ergodic conjecture equates the Wigner function for a typical eigenstate of a classically chaotic Hamiltonian with a δ function on the energy shell. This ensures the evaluation of classical ergodic expectations of simple observables, in agreement with Shnirelman's theorem, but this putative Wigner function violates several important requirements. Consequently, we transfer the conjecture to the Fourier transform of the Wigner function, that is, the chord function. We show that all the relevant consequences of the usual conjecture require only information contained within a small (Planck) volume around the origin of the phase space of chords: translations in ordinary phase space. Loci of complete orthogonality between a given eigenstate and its nearby translation are quite elusive for the Wigner function, but our local conjecture stipulates that their pattern should be universal for ergodic eigenstates of the same Hamiltonian lying within a classically narrow energy range. Our findings are supported by numerical evidence in a Hamiltonian exhibiting soft chaos. Heavily scarred eigenstates are remarkable counter-examples of the ergodic universal pattern.

  1. Impact of Local Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Leela R.; Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Forecasters at the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) use observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) wind tower network and the CCAFS (XMR) daily rawinsonde observations (RAOB) to issue and verify wind advisories and warnings for operations. These observations are also used by the National Weather Service (NWS) Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) in Houston, Texas and the NWS Melbourne, Florida (NWS MLB) to initialize their locally-run mesoscale models. In addition, SMG uses these observations to support shuttle landings at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). Due to impending budget cuts, some or all of the KSC/CCAFS wind towers on the east-central Florida mainland and the XMR RAOBs may be eliminated. The locations of the mainland towers and XMR RAOB site are shown in Figure I. The loss of these data may impact the forecast capability of the 45 WS, SMG and NWS MLB. The AMU was tasked to conduct an objective independent modeling study to help determine how important these observations are to the accuracy of the model output used by the forecasters. To accomplish this, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) performed a sensitivity study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model initialized with and without KSC/CCAFS wind tower and XMR RAOB data.

  2. Measurement dependent locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pütz, Gilles; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration and use of Bell-nonlocality, a concept that is fundamentally striking and is at the core of applications in device independent quantum information processing, relies heavily on the assumption of measurement independence, also called the assumption of free choice. The latter cannot be verified or guaranteed. In this paper, we consider a relaxation of the measurement independence assumption. We briefly review the results of Pütz et al (2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 190402), which show that with our relaxation, the set of so-called measurement dependent local (MDL) correlations is a polytope, i.e. it can be fully described using a finite set of linear inequalities. Here we analyze this polytope, first in the simplest case of two parties with binary inputs and outputs, for which we give a full characterization. We show that partially entangled states are preferable to the maximally entangled state when dealing with measurement dependence in this scenario. We further present a method which transforms any Bell-inequality into an MDL inequality and give valid inequalities for the case of arbitrary number of parties as well as one for arbitrary number of inputs. We introduce the assumption of independent sources in the measurement dependence scenario and give a full analysis for the bipartite scenario with binary inputs and outputs. Finally, we establish a link between measurement dependence and another strong hindrance in certifying nonlocal correlations: nondetection events.

  3. LOCAL EM ESTIMATION OF THE HAZARD FUNCTION FOR INTERVAL CENSORED DATA. (R824757)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  5. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  6. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  7. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  8. 10 CFR Appendixes E-M to Part 52 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false E Appendixes E-M to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Appendixes E-M to Part 52...

  9. The ISO 14001 EMS Implementation Process and Its Implications: A Case Study of Central Japan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed

    2000-02-01

    / This study aims to investigate the ISO 14001 implementation process and its implications for regional environmental management. The region of Central Japan (known as Chubu in Japanese, which literally means center) was chosen for this case study. The study focuses on selected issues such as the: (1) trends and motives of private firms in the implementation of an ISO 14001-based environmental management system (EMS); (2) obstacles during system implementation; (3) role of the system in enhancing environmental performance within the certified organization; and (4) relation between the major stakeholders, local citizens, governments, and firms after adopting the system. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was mailed to all certified firms in the region. A 58% response was achieved overall. The results show that the main aims behind the adoption of ISO 14001 by firms in the Chubu region are to improve the environmental aspects within the enterprises and to enhance the employees' environmental awareness and capacity. The results have also shown that the ISO 14001-based EMS has had a great effect on a firm's environmental status as certified firms have claimed that natural resources such as fuel, water, and paper consumption have been more efficiently managed after adopting the system. Implementation of the system causes the firms to consider the role of the local people and the government in more effectively involving the local people in the firm's daily environmental activities. It also helps to enhance the environmental awareness among the local people. Adopting the system also promotes a better relation within the enterprises affiliated to the same group, such as more attention given by the parent firms (head offices) towards other firms working for the same group, or branches-mainly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)-in the field of EMS. Finally, the results show that firms give serious consideration to their final products' impacts on the

  10. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  11. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J F; Ng, L C

    2001-02-06

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced, 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions'' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions or other targets vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding synthesis and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  12. The mean field theory in EM procedures for blind Markov random field image restoration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J

    1993-01-01

    A Markov random field (MRF) model-based EM (expectation-maximization) procedure for simultaneously estimating the degradation model and restoring the image is described. The MRF is a coupled one which provides continuity (inside regions of smooth gray tones) and discontinuity (at region boundaries) constraints for the restoration problem which is, in general, ill posed. The computational difficulty associated with the EM procedure for MRFs is resolved by using the mean field theory from statistical mechanics. An orthonormal blur decomposition is used to reduce the chances of undesirable locally optimal estimates. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world images show that this approach provides good blur estimates and restored images. The restored images are comparable to those obtained by a Wiener filter in mean-square error, but are most visually pleasing. PMID:18296192

  13. Speech Articulator and User Gesture Measurements Using Micropower, Interferometric EM-Sensore

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    2000-09-15

    Very low power, GHz frequency, ''radar-like'' sensors can measure a variety of motions produced by a human user of machine interface devices. These data can be obtained ''at a distance'' and can measure ''hidden'' structures. Measurements range from acoustic induced 10-micron amplitude vibrations of vocal tract tissues, to few centimeter human speech articulator motions, to meter-class motions of the head, hands, or entire body. These EM sensors measure ''fringe motions' as reflected EM waves are mixed with a local (homodyne) reference wave. These data, when processed using models of the system being measured, provide real time states of interface positions vs. time. An example is speech articulator positions vs. time in the user's body. This information appears to be useful for a surprisingly wide range of applications ranging from speech coding and recognition, speaker or object identification, noise cancellation, hand or head motions for cursor direction, and other applications.

  14. All strategy is local.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Bruce; Kahn, Judd

    2005-09-01

    The aim of strategy is to master a market environment by understanding and anticipating the actions of other economic agents, especially competitors. A firm that has some sort of competitive advantage-privileged access to customers, for instance--will have relatively few competitors to contend with, since potential competitors without an advantage, if they have their wits about them, will stay away. Thus, competitive advantages are actually barriers to entry and vice versa. In markets that are exposed, by contrast, competition is intense. If the incumbents have even brief success in earning greater than normal returns on investments, new entrants will swarm in to grab a share of the profits. Sooner or later, the additional competition will push returns as far down as the firms' costs of capital. For firms operating in such markets, the only choice is to forget about strategy and run the business as efficiently as possible. Barriers to entry are easier to maintain in a competitive arena that is "local", either in the geographic sense or in the sense of being limited to one product or a handful of related ones. The two most powerful competitive advantages-customer captivity and economies of scale-are more achievable and sustainable in circumscribed markets of this kind. Their opposites are the open markets and host of rivals that are features of globalization. Compapies entering such markets risk frittering away the advantages they secured on smaller playing fields.., Ifa company wants to grow but still obtain superior returns, the authors argue, the best strategy is to dominate a series of discrete but preferably contiguous markets and then expand only at their edges. WalMart's diminishing margins over the past 15 years are strong evidence of the danger of proceeding otherwise. PMID:16171214

  15. Localization of Mixed Completely and Partially Polarized Signals with Crossed-Dipole Sensor Arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; He, Jin; Shu, Ting; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of source localization and classification under the coexistence of both completely polarized (CP) and partially polarized (PP) electromagnetic (EM) signals, using a crossed-dipole sensor array. We propose a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-based solution, which does not require multidimensional searches. Moreover, the proposed method need no estimation of the degree of polarization of signals. The efficacy of the proposed method is examined by comparing with existing methods. PMID:26694410

  16. Localization of Mixed Completely and Partially Polarized Signals with Crossed-Dipole Sensor Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; He, Jin; Shu, Ting; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of source localization and classification under the coexistence of both completely polarized (CP) and partially polarized (PP) electromagnetic (EM) signals, using a crossed-dipole sensor array. We propose a MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC)-based solution, which does not require multidimensional searches. Moreover, the proposed method need no estimation of the degree of polarization of signals. The efficacy of the proposed method is examined by comparing with existing methods. PMID:26694410

  17. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a placeholder for other concepts. Thus ''risk'' communication

  18. Locally finite dimensional Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Johanna

    We prove that in a locally finite dimensional Lie algebra L, any maximal, locally solvable subalgebra is the stabilizer of a maximal, generalized flag in an integrable, faithful module over L. Then we prove two structure theorems for simple, locally finite dimensional Lie algebras over an algebraically closed field of characteristic p which give sufficient conditions for the algebras to be of the form [K(R, *), K( R, *)] / (Z(R) ∩ [ K(R, *), K(R, *)]) for a simple, locally finite dimensional associative algebra R with involution *. Lastly, we explore the noncommutative geometry of locally simple representations of the diagonal locally finite Lie algebras sl(ninfinity), o( ninfinity), and sp(n infinity).

  19. Localized RNAs and their functions.

    PubMed

    Ding, D; Lipshitz, H D

    1993-10-01

    The eukaryotic cell is partitioned by membranes into spatially and functionally discrete subcellular organelles. In addition, the cytoplasm itself is partitioned into discrete subregions that carry out specific functions. Such compartmentation can be achieved by localizing proteins and RNAs to different subcellular regions. This review will focus on localized RNAs, with a particular emphasis on RNA localization mechanisms and on the possible biological functions of localization of these RNAs. In recent years, an increasing number of localized RNAs have been identified in a variety of cell types among many animal species. Emphasis here will be on localized RNAs in the most intensively studied systems-Drosophila and Xenopus eggs and early embryos. PMID:7506023

  20. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  1. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  2. Localized structure of Euglena bioconvection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku; Izumi, Shunsuke; Hiroshima University Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Bioconvection of a suspension of Euglena gracilis, a photosensitive flagellate whose body length is approximately 50 micrometers, was experimentally studied. Under strong light intensity, Euglena has a negative phototaxis; they tend to go away from the light source. When the bright illumination is given from the bottom, a large scale spatio-temporal pattern is generated as a result of interaction between Euglena and surrounding flow. Recently, localized convection pattern had been reported, however, the generation process and interaction of the localized convection cells has not been analyzed. We performed experimental study to understand the localization mechanism, in particular, the onset of bioconvection and lateral localization behavior due to phototaxis. Experiments started from different initial condition suggests a bistability near the onset of the convection as binary fluid convection that also shows localized convection cells. Dynamics of localized convections cells, which is similar to the binary fluid convection case although the basic equations are not the same, is also reported.

  3. Global/Local Dynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeffer, A; Das, S; Lawless, D; Ng, B

    2006-10-10

    Many dynamic systems involve a number of entities that are largely independent of each other but interact with each other via a subset of state variables. We present global/local dynamic models (GLDMs) to capture these kinds of systems. In a GLDM, the state of an entity is decomposed into a globally influenced state that depends on other entities, and a locally influenced state that depends only on the entity itself. We present an inference algorithm for GLDMs called global/local particle filtering, that introduces the principle of reasoning globally about global dynamics and locally about local dynamics. We have applied GLDMs to an asymmetric urban warfare environment, in which enemy units form teams to attack important targets, and the task is to detect such teams as they form. Experimental results for this application show that global/local particle filtering outperforms ordinary particle filtering and factored particle filtering.

  4. Localization algorithm for acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, V.; Vargas, Y.; Ruzzante, J.; Gaete, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an iterative algorithm for localization of acoustic emission (AE) source is presented. The main advantage of the system is that it is independent of the 'ability' in the determination of signal level to triggering the signal by the researcher. The system was tested in cylindrical samples with an AE localized in a known position; the precision in the source determination was of about 2 mm, better than the precision obtained with classic localization algorithms (˜1 cm).

  5. Astronomia para/com crianças carentes em Limeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Oliveira, V. C.

    2003-08-01

    Em 2001, o Instituto Superior de Ciências Aplicadas (ISCA Faculdades de Limeira) iniciou um projeto pelo qual o Observatório do Morro Azul empreendeu uma parceria com o Centro de Promoção Social Municipal (CEPROSOM), instituição mantida pela Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira para atender crianças e adolescentes carentes. O CEPROSOM contava com dois projetos: Projeto Centro de Convivência Infantil (CCI) e Programa Criança e Adolescente (PCA), que atendiam crianças e adolescentes em Centros Comunitários de diversas áreas da cidade. Esses projetos têm como prioridades estabelecer atividades prazerosas para as crianças no sentido de retirá-las das ruas. Assim sendo, as crianças passaram a ter mais um tipo de atividade - as visitas ao observatório. Este painel descreve as várias fases do projeto, que envolveu: reuniões de planejamento, curso de Astronomia para as orientadoras dos CCIs e PCAs, atividades relacionadas a visitas das crianças ao Observatório, proposta de construção de gnômons e relógios de Sol nos diversos Centros Comunitários de Limeira e divulgação do projeto na imprensa. O painel inclui discussões sobre a aprendizagem de crianças carentes, relatos que mostram a postura das orientadoras sobre a pertinência do ensino de Astronomia, relatos do monitor que fez o atendimento no Observatório e o que o número de crianças atendidas representou para as atividades da instituição desde o início de suas atividades e, em particular, em 2001. Os resultados são baseados na análise de relatos das orientadoras e do monitor do Observatório, registros de visitas e matérias da imprensa local. Conclui com uma avaliação do que tal projeto representou para as Instituições participantes. Para o Observatório, em particular, foi feita uma análise com relação às outras modalidades de atendimentos que envolvem alunos de escolas e público em geral. Também é abordada a questão do compromisso social do Observatório na educação do

  6. Statistical signatures of photon localization

    PubMed

    Chabanov; Stoytchev; Genack

    2000-04-20

    The realization that electron localization in disordered systems (Anderson localization) is ultimately a wave phenomenon has led to the suggestion that photons could be similarly localized by disorder. This conjecture attracted wide interest because the differences between photons and electrons--in their interactions, spin statistics, and methods of injection and detection--may open a new realm of optical and microwave phenomena, and allow a detailed study of the Anderson localization transition undisturbed by the Coulomb interaction. To date, claims of three-dimensional photon localization have been based on observations of the exponential decay of the electromagnetic wave as it propagates through the disordered medium. But these reports have come under close scrutiny because of the possibility that the decay observed may be due to residual absorption, and because absorption itself may suppress localization. Here we show that the extent of photon localization can be determined by a different approach--measurement of the relative size of fluctuations of certain transmission quantities. The variance of relative fluctuations accurately reflects the extent of localization, even in the presence of absorption. Using this approach, we demonstrate photon localization in both weakly and strongly scattering quasi-one-dimensional dielectric samples and in periodic metallic wire meshes containing metallic scatterers, while ruling it out in three-dimensional mixtures of aluminium spheres. PMID:10786786

  7. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  8. Local modes and localization in a multicomponent nonlinear lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Forinash, K.,; Cretegny, T.; Peyrard, M.,; Cretegny, T.,; Peyrard, M.,

    1997-04-01

    The existence, stability, and the conditions for the formation of nonlinear localized modes are investigated in a two-component one-dimensional lattice. In spite of their possible coupling with acoustic phonons, discrete breathers can exist as exact stable solutions or show a very slow decay. Nonlinear energy localization through energy exchange between localized excitations, exhibited previously for a one-component lattice [T. Dauxois and M. Peyrard, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 70}, 3935 (1993)] is more general and also valid in a multicomponent lattice. A self-localization of thermal fluctuations is also observed in such a system. The model is used to investigate the effect of bending proteins on DNA. It shows that a bend can collect the energy of moving localized modes or insulate one part of the molecule from transfers of energy from large amplitude excitations in other parts. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-04-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  10. An analysis of the implementation of an environmental management system in a local public administration.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Macarena; Vallés, José

    2007-03-01

    The Environmental Management System (EMS) is commonly implemented in private firms. However, on the basis of a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis, our work analyzes the consequences of implementing an EMS within the context of local public administrations, particularly regarding the City Council of Ohanes in Almería (Spain). This is the first European corporation to implement an EMS according to the ISO 14001 Standard, certified by the Spanish Association of Normalization and Certification. Its analysis would be equivalent to the Shumpeterian "market innovator study", so that public administration "followers" can take advantage of the derived benefits and of minimizing the negative effects of such an experience. On the other hand, we show that the economic and environmental advantages derived from the EMS go beyond the activities that the City Council is in charge of. They have spillover effects that extend them to all economic activities in the municipality and these effects are expected to be increased in the medium and long-term perspective. In this paper, we compare the costs and benefits that the municipality obtains in two cases: the City Council implements the EMS or it does not implement it. The main objective of this article is to show the economic and environmental advantages obtained by a municipality when it is only the City Council who is implementing an EMS. It is logical to suppose that this case study can stimulate other municipalities to use this instrument, even if the economic and environmental characteristics of the municipality are different. PMID:16632169

  11. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus multilocularis on a local scale.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J; Guislain, M-H; Bart, J M; Raoul, F; Gottstein, B; Giraudoux, P; Piarroux, R

    2008-05-01

    Echinococcusmultilocularis is the causative agent of human Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE), and it is one of the most lethal zoonotic infections in the Northern Hemisphere. In France, the eastern and central regions are endemic areas; Franche-Comté, Lorraine and Auvergne are particularly contaminated. Recently, several human cases were recorded in the French Ardennes area, a region adjacent to the western border of the E. multilocularis range in France. A previous study in this focus described a prevalence of over 50% of the parasite in red foxes. The present study investigated the genetic diversity of adult worms collected from foxes in a 900km(2) area in the Ardennes. Instead of a conventional mitochondrial target (ATP6), two microsatellite targets (EmsB and NAK1) were used. A total of 140 adult worms isolated from 25 red foxes were genotyped. After hierarchical clustering analyses, the EmsB target enabled us to distinguish two main assemblages, each divided into sub-groups, yielding the differentiation of six clusters or assemblage profiles. Thirteen foxes (52% of the foxes) each harbored worms from at least two different assemblage profiles, suggesting they had become infected by several sources. Using the NAK1 target, we identified 3 alleles, two found in association with the two EmsB assemblages. With the NAK1 target, we investigated the parasite breeding system and the possible causes of genetic diversification. Only one fox harbored hybrid worms, indicative of a possible (and rare) occurrence of recombination, although multiple infections have been observed in foxes. These results confirm the usefulness of microsatellite targets for assessing genetic polymorphism in a geographically restricted local range. PMID:18406214

  12. Do earthquakes generate EM signals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Christina; Onacha, Stephen; Malin, Peter; Shalev, Eylon; Lucas, Alan

    2010-05-01

    study areas, large swarms of earthquakes were located very close to the electromagnetic coils. This abstract focuses on the data from the Wairakei area. Preliminary data analysis has been carried out by band pass filtering and removing of the harmonics of the 50 Hz power line frequency. The initial results clearly show that electromagnetic signals accompany the seismic P and S waves (coseismic signal). Further data analysis involves the extraction of the seismoelectric signal generated at the onset of the earthquake and at interfaces from the coseismic signal and other ‘noise' sources. This processing step exhibits a major challenge in seismoelectric data processing. Unlike in other studies we measured the EM field and the seismic field at one location. Therefore the seismoelectric wave travelling at the speed of light cannot be determined as easily in the arrival times as when an array of coils is used. This makes the determination of the origin time much more difficult. Hence other processing techniques need to be explored.

  13. How Just is Local Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze, William A.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of criminal law practices suggest that variations in treatment from locality to locality depend on the judicial culture of the particular city, socioeconomic status of the accused, and the attitudes and actions of the police. This journal is available from the Law in American Society Foundation, 33 North LaSalle Street, Suite 1700; Chicago…

  14. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee, Kansas"; "Patrons of…

  15. Hendrix College Local Food Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    By purchasing locally grown foods, Hendrix College (Arkansas) has found it can offer better nutrition, cut environmental damage, and spur economic development. The Local Food Project has reduced the amount of food purchased out of state from 90-70 percent, and is aiming for 50 percent in three years. Student participation is integral. (Author/MSE)

  16. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  17. Development and Implementation of Dynamic Scripts to Support Local Model Verification at National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; Gotway, John H.; White, Kristopher; Medlin, Jeffrey; Wood, Lance; Radell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Local modeling with a customized configuration is conducted at National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) to produce high-resolution numerical forecasts that can better simulate local weather phenomena and complement larger scale global and regional models. The advent of the Environmental Modeling System (EMS), which provides a pre-compiled version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and wrapper Perl scripts, has enabled forecasters to easily configure and execute the WRF model on local workstations. NWS WFOs often use EMS output to help in forecasting highly localized, mesoscale features such as convective initiation, the timing and inland extent of lake effect snow bands, lake and sea breezes, and topographically-modified winds. However, quantitatively evaluating model performance to determine errors and biases still proves to be one of the challenges in running a local model. Developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) verification software makes performing these types of quantitative analyses easier, but operational forecasters do not generally have time to familiarize themselves with navigating the sometimes complex configurations associated with the MET tools. To assist forecasters in running a subset of MET programs and capabilities, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed and transitioned a set of dynamic, easily configurable Perl scripts to collaborating NWS WFOs. The objective of these scripts is to provide SPoRT collaborating partners in the NWS with the ability to evaluate the skill of their local EMS model runs in near real time with little prior knowledge of the MET package. The ultimate goal is to make these verification scripts available to the broader NWS community in a future version of the EMS software. This paper provides an overview of the SPoRT MET scripts, instructions for how the scripts are run, and example use

  18. Local Oscillatory Rheology from Echography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Michel, Brice; Gibaud, Thomas; Leocmach, Mathieu; Manneville, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Local oscillatory rheology from echography consists of a traditional rheology experiment synchronized with high-frequency ultrasonic imaging which gives access to the local material response to oscillatory shear. Besides classical global rheological quantities, this method provides quantitative time-resolved information on the local displacement across the entire gap of the rheometer. From the local displacement response, we compute and decompose the local strain in its Fourier components and measure the spatially resolved viscoelastic moduli. After benchmarking our method on homogeneous Newtonian fluids and soft solids, we demonstrate that this technique is well suited to characterize spatially heterogeneous samples, wall slip, and the emergence of nonlinearity under large-amplitude oscillatory stress in soft materials.

  19. A local coastal adaptation pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, J.; Graham, S.; Mortreux, C.; Fincher, R.; Waters, E.; Hurlimann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Local governments are not adapting to sea-level rise because it is difficult to build consensus on the need for change and the best way to implement it. In theory, adaptation pathways can resolve this impasse. Adaptation pathways are a sequence of linked strategies that are triggered by a change in environmental conditions, and in which initial decisions can have low regrets and preserve options for future generations. We report on a project that sought to empirically test the relevance and feasibility of a local pathway for adapting to sea-level rise. We find that triggers of change that have social impacts are salient to local people, and developing a local adaptation pathway helps build consensus among diverse constituencies. Our results show that adaptation pathways are feasible at the local scale, offering a low-risk, low-cost way to begin the long process of adaptation to sea-level rise.

  20. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ˜0.5 m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1 m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ˜17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy

  1. Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Emily L.; Lopez R., Eric X.

    2015-01-01

    Fossil deposits in the petroleum-rich sediments of the Santa Elena Peninsula in southwestern Ecuador contain some of the largest and best-preserved assemblages of Pleistocene megafaunal remains known from the neotropics, and thus represent an opportunity to greatly expand our knowledge of Pleistocene paleoecology and the extinction of Quaternary megafauna in this region. This paper reports data from excavations at Tanque Loma, a late-Pleistocene locality on the Santa Elena Peninsula that preserves a dense assemblage of megafaunal remains in hydrocarbon-saturated sediments along with microfaunal and paleobotanical material. The megafauna bones are concentrated in and just above a ˜0.5 m thick asphaltic layer, but occur sparsely and with poorer preservation up to 1 m above this deposit. Several meters of presumed-Holocene sediments overlying the megafauna-bearing strata are rich in bones of microvertebrates including birds, squamates, and rodents. These are interpreted as raptor assemblages. While over 1000 megafaunal bones have been identified from the Pleistocene strata at Tanque Loma, more than 85% of these remains pertain to a single species, the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi. Only five other megafauna taxa have been identified from this site, including Glossotherium cf. tropicorum, Holmesina occidentalis, cf. Notiomastodon platensis, Equus (Amerhippus) c.f. santaeelenae, and a cervid tentatively assigned to cf. Odocoileus salinae based on body size and geography. No carnivores have yet been identified from Tanque Loma, and microvertebrate remains are extremely rare in the Pleistocene deposits, although terrestrial snail shells and fragmented remains of marine invertebrates are occasionally encountered. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon dates on Eremotherium and cf. Notiomaston bones from within and just above the asphaltic layer yielded dates of ˜17,000 - 23,500 radiocarbon years BP. Taken together, the taxonomic composition, taphonomy

  2. Localization scheme for relativistic spinors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciupka, J.; Hanrath, M.; Dolg, M.

    2011-12-01

    A new method to determine localized complex-valued one-electron functions in the occupied space is presented. The approach allows the calculation of localized orbitals regardless of their structure and of the entries in the spinor coefficient matrix, i.e., one-, two-, and four-component Kramers-restricted or unrestricted one-electron functions with real or complex expansion coefficients. The method is applicable to localization schemes that maximize (or minimize) a functional of the occupied spinors and that use a localization operator for which a matrix representation is available. The approach relies on the approximate joint diagonalization (AJD) of several Hermitian (symmetric) matrices which is utilized in electronic signal processing. The use of AJD in this approach has the advantage that it allows a reformulation of the localization criterion on an iterative 2 × 2 pair rotating basis in an analytical closed form which has not yet been described in the literature for multi-component (complex-valued) spinors. For the one-component case, the approach delivers the same Foster-Boys or Pipek-Mezey localized orbitals that one obtains from standard quantum chemical software, whereas in the multi-component case complex-valued spinors satisfying the selected localization criterion are obtained. These localized spinors allow the formulation of local correlation methods in a multi-component relativistic framework, which was not yet available. As an example, several heavy and super-heavy element systems are calculated using a Kramers-restricted self-consistent field and relativistic two-component pseudopotentials in order to investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on localization.

  3. An Open Localization and Local Communication Embodied Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Campo, Alexandre; Dorigo, Marco; Amor, Daniel; Magdalena, Luis; Félix, Monasterio-Huelin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a localization and local communication system which allows situated agents to communicate locally, obtaining at the same time both the range and the bearing of the emitter without the need of any centralized control or any external reference. The system relies on infrared communications with frequency modulation and is composed of two interconnected modules for data and power measurement. Thanks to the open hardware license under which it is released, the research community can easily replicate the system at a low cost and/or adapt it for applications in sensor networks and in robotics.

  4. Localizing the lipid products of PI3Kγ in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Laura; Lindsay, Yvonne; Deladeriere, Arnaud; Chessa, Tamara; Guillou, Hervé; Suire, Sabine; Lucocq, John; Walker, Simon; Andrews, Simon; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Rausch, Oliver; Finan, Peter; Sasaki, Takehiko; Du, Cheng-Jin; Bretschneider, Till; Ferguson, G. John; Hawkins, Phillip T.; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important regulators of neutrophil migration in response to a range of chemoattractants. Their primary lipid products PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 preferentially accumulate near to the leading edge of migrating cells and are thought to act as an important cue organizing molecular and morphological polarization. We have investigated the distribution and accumulation of these lipids independently in mouse neutrophils using eGFP-PH reportersand electron microscopy (EM). We found that authentic mouse neutrophils rapidly polarized their Class I PI3K signalling, as read-out by eGFP-PH reporters, both at the up-gradient leading edge in response to local stimulation with fMLP as well as spontaneously and randomly in response to uniform stimulation. EM studies revealed these events occurred at the plasma membrane, were dominated by accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but not PtdIns(3,4)P2, and were dependent on PI3Kγ and its upstream activation by both Ras and Gβγs. PMID:26596865

  5. Localizing the lipid products of PI3Kγ in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Norton, Laura; Lindsay, Yvonne; Deladeriere, Arnaud; Chessa, Tamara; Guillou, Hervé; Suire, Sabine; Lucocq, John; Walker, Simon; Andrews, Simon; Segonds-Pichon, Anne; Rausch, Oliver; Finan, Peter; Sasaki, Takehiko; Du, Cheng-Jin; Bretschneider, Till; Ferguson, G John; Hawkins, Phillip T; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important regulators of neutrophil migration in response to a range of chemoattractants. Their primary lipid products PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2 preferentially accumulate near to the leading edge of migrating cells and are thought to act as an important cue organizing molecular and morphological polarization. We have investigated the distribution and accumulation of these lipids independently in mouse neutrophils using eGFP-PH reportersand electron microscopy (EM). We found that authentic mouse neutrophils rapidly polarized their Class I PI3K signalling, as read-out by eGFP-PH reporters, both at the up-gradient leading edge in response to local stimulation with fMLP as well as spontaneously and randomly in response to uniform stimulation. EM studies revealed these events occurred at the plasma membrane, were dominated by accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, but not PtdIns(3,4)P2, and were dependent on PI3Kγ and its upstream activation by both Ras and Gβγs. PMID:26596865

  6. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  7. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W; Stevens, Markus F; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk factors for perioperative nerve injury include regional block technique, patient risk factors, and local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Surgery can lead to nerve damage by use of tourniquets or by direct mechanical stress on nerves, such as traction, transection, compression, contusion, ischemia, and stretching. Current literature suggests that the majority of perioperative nerve injuries are unrelated to regional anesthesia. Besides the blockade of sodium channels which is responsible for the anesthetic effect, systemic local anesthetics can have a positive influence on the inflammatory response and the hemostatic system in the perioperative period. However, next to these beneficial effects, local anesthetics exhibit time and dose-dependent toxicity to a variety of tissues, including nerves. There is equivocal experimental evidence that the toxicity varies among local anesthetics. Even though the precise order of events during local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity is not clear, possible cellular mechanisms have been identified. These include the intrinsic caspase-pathway, PI3K-pathway, and MAPK-pathways. Further research will need to determine whether these pathways are non-specifically activated by local anesthetics, or whether there is a single common precipitating factor. PMID:26959012

  8. Local and Non-⁠local Mechanisms of Polar Amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Jackson, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    Polar amplification (PA) is a prominent feature of currently observed and predicted future climate change suggested by both observations and models. Surface albedo feedback (SAF) has been shown to contribute prominently to the currently observed PA along with other mechanisms, e.g. involving atmospheric heat transport. SAF is believed to be a strong positive local feedback, while the atmospheric heat transport makes the connection between the Arctic and the low latitudes non-local. We will discuss several PA mechanisms and feedbacks suggested by different researchers. We will also discuss a more general method of feedback analysis that results in feedback and gain matrices. These matrices generalize (both globally and locally) the classically defined numerical gains and feedback factors and are independent of the applied forcing. The gain matrix, in particular, is shown to reveal, under any forcing scenario, the global pattern by which a given feedback process amplifies or dampens fixed-feedback temperature anomalies. Moreover, in the case of a feedback process that is not purely a function of local temperature, these matrices will show the degree to which this "local feedback process" depends on non-local perturbations. We apply this method in the context of a simple box model as well as a one-dimensional energy balance climate model.

  9. Quantum localization of classical mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum localization of classical mechanics within the BRST-BFV and BV (or field-antifield) quantization methods are studied. It is shown that a special choice of gauge fixing functions (or BRST-BFV charge) together with the unitary limit leads to Hamiltonian localization in the path integral of the BRST-BFV formalism. In turn, we find that a special choice of gauge fixing functions being proportional to extremals of an initial non-degenerate classical action together with a very special solution of the classical master equation result in Lagrangian localization in the partition function of the BV formalism.

  10. Local governments LANDSAT applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.

  11. Stress Localization in Elastic Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selden, Sarah; Evans, Arthur; Bende, Nakul; Hayward, Ryan; Santangelo, Christian

    Upon indentation, thin shells react by localizing strain energy in polygonal structures as opposed to a uniform axisymmetric distribution. While the formation of these localized structures are well-characterized for perfect shells, a change in shell thickness or the introduction of a crease fundamentally changes the nature of the shell deformation. We perform finite element simulations, in tandem with experiments to explore the effect of different shell geometries on the energy landscape. We find that the crease induces a new symmetry-breaking localization that does not appear in perfect shells, and we explore the deformation characteristics of the creased shell over a wide range of crease radii, and crease orientations.

  12. Speeding up local correlation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kats, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

  13. Speeding up local correlation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kats, Daniel

    2014-12-28

    We present two techniques that can substantially speed up the local correlation methods. The first one allows one to avoid the expensive transformation of the electron-repulsion integrals from atomic orbitals to virtual space. The second one introduces an algorithm for the residual equations in the local perturbative treatment that, in contrast to the standard scheme, does not require holding the amplitudes or residuals in memory. It is shown that even an interpreter-based implementation of the proposed algorithm in the context of local MP2 method is faster and requires less memory than the highly optimized variants of conventional algorithms.

  14. Advanced local area network concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Terry

    1985-01-01

    Development of a good model of the data traffic requirements for Local Area Networks (LANs) onboard the Space Station is the driving problem in this work. A parameterized workload model is under development. An analysis contract has been started specifically to capture the distributed processing requirements for the Space Station and then to develop a top level model to simulate how various processing scenarios can handle the workload and what data communication patterns result. A summary of the Local Area Network Extendsible Simulator 2 Requirements Specification and excerpts from a grant report on the topological design of fiber optic local area networks with application to Expressnet are given.

  15. Localized functionalization of single nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, J; Lee, J I; Ratto, T V; Letant, S E

    2005-09-12

    We demonstrate the localization of chemical functionality at the entrance of single nanopores for the first time by using the controlled growth of an oxide ring. Nanopores were fabricated by Focused Ion Beam machining on silicon platforms, locally derivatized by ion beam assisted oxide deposition, and further functionalized with DNA probes via silane chemistry. Ionic current recorded through single nanopores at various stages of the fabrication process demonstrated that the apertures can be locally functionalized with DNA probes. Future applications for this functional platform include the selective detection of biological organisms and molecules by ionic current blockade measurements.

  16. Eocene deep-sea communities in localized limestones formed by subduction-related methane seeps, southwestern Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goedert, James L.; Squires, Richard L.

    1990-12-01

    Densely populated communities of soft-bottom-dwelling taxa similar to those found today along subduction zones off the coasts of Japan and Oregon have been discovered in very localized deep-water limestones of late middle to late Eocene age along the southwestern margin of Washington. Subduction was prevalent in this area during this time, and compressive forces squeezed subsurface methanerich waters onto the ocean floor, where opportunistic bivalves (especially Modiolusem>, Calyptogenaem>, and Thyasiraem>), vestimentiferan? tube worms, serpufid tube worms, siliceous sponges, very small limpets, trochid and turbinid archaeogastropods, and other macrobenthos colonized. These assemblages are the earliest recorded biologic communities formed in response to methane seeps in subduction zones.

  17. Structure of the E. coli ribosome-EF-Tu complex at <3 Å resolution by Cs-corrected cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Niels; Neumann, Piotr; Konevega, Andrey L; Bock, Lars V; Ficner, Ralf; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2015-04-23

    Single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has recently made significant progress in high-resolution structure determination of macromolecular complexes due to improvements in electron microscopic instrumentation and computational image analysis. However, cryo-EM structures can be highly non-uniform in local resolution and all structures available to date have been limited to resolutions above 3 Å. Here we present the cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome from Escherichia coli in complex with elongation factor Tu, aminoacyl-tRNA and the antibiotic kirromycin at 2.65-2.9 Å resolution using spherical aberration (Cs)-corrected cryo-EM. Overall, the cryo-EM reconstruction at 2.9 Å resolution is comparable to the best-resolved X-ray structure of the E. coli 70S ribosome (2.8 Å), but provides more detailed information (2.65 Å) at the functionally important ribosomal core. The cryo-EM map elucidates for the first time the structure of all 35 rRNA modifications in the bacterial ribosome, explaining their roles in fine-tuning ribosome structure and function and modulating the action of antibiotics. We also obtained atomic models for flexible parts of the ribosome such as ribosomal proteins L9 and L31. The refined cryo-EM-based model presents the currently most complete high-resolution structure of the E. coli ribosome, which demonstrates the power of cryo-EM in structure determination of large and dynamic macromolecular complexes. PMID:25707802

  18. The E-MS Algorithm: Model Selection with Incomplete Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiming; Nguyen, Thuan; Rao, J. Sunil

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure associated with the idea of the E-M algorithm for model selection in the presence of missing data. The idea extends the concept of parameters to include both the model and the parameters under the model, and thus allows the model to be part of the E-M iterations. We develop the procedure, known as the E-MS algorithm, under the assumption that the class of candidate models is finite. Some special cases of the procedure are considered, including E-MS with the generalized information criteria (GIC), and E-MS with the adaptive fence (AF; Jiang et al. 2008). We prove numerical convergence of the E-MS algorithm as well as consistency in model selection of the limiting model of the E-MS convergence, for E-MS with GIC and E-MS with AF. We study the impact on model selection of different missing data mechanisms. Furthermore, we carry out extensive simulation studies on the finite-sample performance of the E-MS with comparisons to other procedures. The methodology is also illustrated on a real data analysis involving QTL mapping for an agricultural study on barley grains. PMID:26783375

  19. Recovering entanglement by local operations

    SciTech Connect

    D’Arrigo, A.; Lo Franco, R.; Benenti, G.; Paladino, E.; Falci, G.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of bipartite entanglement revivals under purely local operations in systems subject to local and independent classical noise sources. We explain this apparent paradox in the physical ensemble description of the system state by introducing the concept of “hidden” entanglement, which indicates the amount of entanglement that cannot be exploited due to the lack of classical information on the system. For this reason this part of entanglement can be recovered without the action of non-local operations or back-transfer process. For two noninteracting qubits under a low-frequency stochastic noise, we show that entanglement can be recovered by local pulses only. We also discuss how hidden entanglement may provide new insights about entanglement revivals in non-Markovian dynamics.

  20. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  1. Local reaction kinetics by imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the "kinetics by imaging" approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics.

  2. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  3. Local reaction kinetics by imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther

    2016-01-01

    In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the “kinetics by imaging” approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local kinetic measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local kinetic phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved kinetic studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction kinetics. PMID:26865736

  4. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  5. Composition of Local Galactic Medium

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animated view showing the neon to oxygen ratio in the neutral gas of the local cloud, as obtained with IBEX, in comparison with the ratio for the Sun and the Milky Way galaxy. There is much less ox...

  6. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  7. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyozato, Yuta; Higuchi, Masafumi; Nojiri, Shin'ichi

    2016-03-01

    Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25]), we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space-time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009) [23].

  8. Local Realism of Macroscopic Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Paterek, T.; Kay, A.; Kurzyński, P.; Kaszlikowski, D.

    2011-08-01

    We identify conditions under which correlations resulting from quantum measurements performed on macroscopic systems (systems composed of a number of particles of the order of the Avogadro number) can be described by local realism. We argue that the emergence of local realism at the macroscopic level is caused by an interplay between the monogamous nature of quantum correlations and the fact that macroscopic measurements do not reveal properties of individual particles.

  9. Percutaneous absorption and disposition of Tinopal EMS.

    PubMed

    Black, J G; Moule, R C; Philp, J

    1977-08-01

    A cotton-substantive, anionic, fluorescent whitening agent manufactured by several suppliers under various trade names e.g. Tinopal EMS, has been synthesized in radioactive form. Intubation of detergent or aqueous solution into rats resulted in little absorption from the intestinal tract as evidenced by low radioactivity in the urine and tissues. Most of the dose was excreted rapidly in the faeces. After parenteral administration to rats, the radioactivity was rapidly excreted in the faeces with small amounts remaining in tissues and organs. There was slight evidence of retention of radioactivity in the kidneys. Very small amounts of Tinopal EMS in detergent were absorbed through rat skin, but only when concentrations greater than those normally used by the consumer, together with occlusion of the skin were employed. Small amounts were absorbed throught skin when applied in ethanol. It is concluded that the possibility of systemic toxic effects in man as a result of percutaneous absorption is remote. PMID:929616

  10. Promoting local management in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Frank

    2006-03-01

    There is a strong case for making greater effort to promote local groundwater management—in addition to other measures that regulate groundwater use. Though scattered, there are several examples—from India, Pakistan, Yemen and Egypt—where groundwater users effectively self-imposed restrictions on the use of groundwater. There are a number of recurrent themes in such spontaneously-developed examples of local regulation: the importance of not excluding potential users; the importance of simple, low transaction cost rules; the power of correct and accessible hydrogeological information; the possibility of making more use of demand and supply management strategies; and the important supportive role of local governments. The case is made, using examples, for actively promoting local groundwater management as an important element in balancing groundwater uses. Two programmes for promoting local groundwater management in South India are described—one focussing on participatory hydrological monitoring, and one focussing on micro-resource planning and training. In both cases the response was very positive and the conclusion is that promoting local groundwater regulation is not difficult, costly or sensitive and can reach the necessary scale quickly.

  11. Localization and broadband follow-up of the gravitational-wave transient GW150914

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abbott, B. P.

    2016-07-20

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize themore » follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Furthermore, detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.« less

  12. Localization and Broadband Follow-up of the Gravitational-wave Transient GW150914

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Barthelmy, S.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. C.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. C.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavagliá, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. C.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. G.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O’Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, R. J.; O’Reilly, B.; O’Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palliyaguru, N.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Allison, J.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Chatterjee, S.; Chippendale, A. P.; Edwards, P. G.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Heywood, Ian; Hotan, A.; Indermuehle, B.; Marvil, J.; McConnell, D.; Murphy, T.; Popping, A.; Reynolds, J.; Sault, R. J.; Voronkov, M. A.; Whiting, M. T.; Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) Collaboration; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cunniffe, R.; Jelínek, M.; Tello, J. C.; Oates, S. R.; Hu, Y.-D.; Kubánek, P.; Guziy, S.; Castellón, A.; García-Cerezo, A.; Muñoz, V. F.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Hudec, R.; Caballero-García, M. D.; Páta, P.; Vitek, S.; Adame, J. A.; Konig, S.; Rendón, F.; Mateo Sanguino, T. de J.; Fernández-Muñoz, R.; Yock, P. C.; Rattenbury, N.; Allen, W. H.; Querel, R.; Jeong, S.; Park, I. H.; Bai, J.; Cui, Ch.; Fan, Y.; Wang, Ch.; Hiriart, D.; Lee, W. H.; Claret, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Pandey, S. B.; Mediavilla, T.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; BOOTES Collaboration; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Berger, E.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doctor, Z.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Drout, M. R.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Foley, R. J.; Fong, W.-F.; Fosalba, P.; Fox, D. B.; Frieman, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Herner, K.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Johnson, M. D.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Karliner, I.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kim, A. G.; Kind, M. C.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; Margutti, R.; Marriner, J.; Martini, P.; Matheson, T.; Melchior, P.; Metzger, B. D.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Quataert, E.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rosell, A. C.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Scolnic, D.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, N.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Stebbins, A.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Wester, W.; Yanny, B.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.; Dark Energy Survey; Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration; Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.-B.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Mailyan, B.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, O.; Sparke, L.; Stanbro, M.; Toelge, K.; Veres, P.; Yu, H.-F.; Blackburn, L.; Fermi GBM Collaboration; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; D’Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kensei, S.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meyer, M.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Salvetti, D.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Venters, T. M.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zhu, S.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Brocato, E.; Cappellaro, E.; Covino, S.; Grado, A.; Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Pian, E.; Amati, L.; Antonelli, L. A.; Capaccioli, M.; D’Avanzo, P.; D’Elia, V.; Getman, F.; Giuffrida, G.; Iannicola, G.; Limatola, L.; Lisi, M.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P.; Melandri, A.; Piranomonte, S.; Possenti, A.; Pulone, L.; Rossi, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stella, L.; Testa, V.; Tomasella, L.; Yang, S.; GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm (GRAWITA); Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Ferrigno, C.; Hanlon, L.; Kuulkers, E.; Laurent, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Roques, J. P.; Savchenko, V.; Ubertini, P.; INTEGRAL Collaboration; Kasliwal, M. M.; Singer, L. P.; Cao, Y.; Duggan, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bhalerao, V.; Miller, A. A.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Manulis, I.; Rana, J.; Laher, R.; Masci, F.; Surace, J.; Rebbapragada, U.; Cook, D.; Van Sistine, A.; Sesar, B.; Perley, D.; Ferreti, R.; Prince, T.; Kendrick, R.; Horesh, A.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) Collaboration; Hurley, K.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Aptekar, R. L.; Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Rau, A.; von Kienlin, A.; Zhang, X.; Smith, D. M.; Cline, T.; Krimm, H.; InterPlanetary Network; Abe, F.; Doi, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Kawabata, K. S.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Tanaka, M.; Ohta, K.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yoshida, M.; J-GEM Collaboration; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Ellman, N.; Rostami, S.; La Silla–QUEST Survey; Bersier, D. F.; Bode, M. F.; Collins, C. A.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Darnley, M. J.; Galloway, D. K.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Mazzali, P.; Mundell, C. G.; Piascik, A. S.; Pollacco, Don; Steele, I. A.; Ulaczyk, K.; Liverpool Telescope Collaboration; Broderick, J. W.; Fender, R. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Rowlinson, A.; Stappers, B. W.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) Collaboration; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tyurina, N.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Buckley, D.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Israelian, G.; Budnev, N. M.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Poleshuk, V.; Tlatov, A.; Yurkov, V.; MASTER Collaboration; Kawai, N.; Serino, M.; Negoro, H.; Nakahira, S.; Mihara, T.; Tomida, H.; Ueno, S.; Tsunemi, H.; Matsuoka, M.; MAXI Collaboration; Croft, S.; Feng, L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Morales, M. F.; Tingay, S. J.; Wayth, R. B.; Williams, A.; Murchison Wide-field Array (MWA) Collaboration; Smartt, S. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Smith, K. W.; Huber, M. E.; Young, D. R.; Wright, D. E.; Schultz, A.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Magnier, E. A.; Primak, N.; Rest, A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Willman, M.; Pan-STARRS Collaboration; Olivares E., F.; Campbell, H.; Kotak, R.; Sollerman, J.; Smith, M.; Dennefeld, M.; Anderson, J. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Chen, T.-W.; Valle, M. D.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Kankare, E.; Kupfer, T.; Harmanen, J.; Galbany, L.; Le Guillou, L.; Lyman, J. D.; Maguire, K.; Mitra, A.; Nicholl, M.; Razza, A.; Terreran, G.; Valenti, S.; Gal-Yam, A.; PESSTO Collaboration; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Opiela, R.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Pi of the Sky Collaboration; Onken, C. A.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wolf, C.; Yuan, F.; SkyMapper Collaboration; Evans, P. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Giommi, P.; Marshall, F. E.; Nousek, J.; O’Brien, P.; Osborne, J. P.; Palmer, D.; Perri, M.; Siegel, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Swift Collaboration; Klotz, A.; Turpin, D.; Laugier, R.; TAROT, Zadko, Algerian National Observatory, C2PU Collaboration; Beroiz, M.; Peñuela, T.; Macri, L. M.; Oelkers, R. J.; Lambas, D. G.; Vrech, R.; Cabral, J.; Colazo, C.; Dominguez, M.; Sanchez, B.; Gurovich, S.; Lares, M.; Marshall, J. L.; DePoy, D. L.; Padilla, N.; Pereyra, N. A.; Benacquista, M.; TOROS Collaboration; Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K.; Levan, A. J.; Steeghs, D.; Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D.; Irwin, M.; Fernandez, C. G.; McMahon, R. G.; Banerji, M.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Schulze, S.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thoene, C. C.; Cano, Z.; Rosswog, S.; VISTA Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A gravitational-wave (GW) transient was identified in data recorded by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 2015 September 14. The event, initially designated G184098 and later given the name GW150914, is described in detail elsewhere. By prior arrangement, preliminary estimates of the time, significance, and sky location of the event were shared with 63 teams of observers covering radio, optical, near-infrared, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths with ground- and space-based facilities. In this Letter we describe the low-latency analysis of the GW data and present the sky localization of the first observed compact binary merger. We summarize the follow-up observations reported by 25 teams via private Gamma-ray Coordinates Network circulars, giving an overview of the participating facilities, the GW sky localization coverage, the timeline, and depth of the observations. As this event turned out to be a binary black hole merger, there is little expectation of a detectable electromagnetic (EM) signature. Nevertheless, this first broadband campaign to search for a counterpart of an Advanced LIGO source represents a milestone and highlights the broad capabilities of the transient astronomy community and the observing strategies that have been developed to pursue neutron star binary merger events. Detailed investigations of the EM data and results of the EM follow-up campaign are being disseminated in papers by the individual teams.

  13. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  14. Helicopter EMS: Research Endpoints and Potential Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen H.; Arthur, Annette O.

    2012-01-01

    Patients, EMS systems, and healthcare regions benefit from Helicopter EMS (HEMS) utilization. This article discusses these benefits in terms of specific endpoints utilized in research projects. The endpoint of interest, be it primary, secondary, or surrogate, is important to understand in the deployment of HEMS resources or in planning further HEMS outcomes research. The most important outcomes are those which show potential benefits to the patients, such as functional survival, pain relief, and earlier ALS care. Case reports are also important “outcomes” publications. The benefits of HEMS in the rural setting is the ability to provide timely access to Level I or Level II trauma centers and in nontrauma, interfacility transport of cardiac, stroke, and even sepsis patients. Many HEMS crews have pharmacologic and procedural capabilities that bring a different level of care to a trauma scene or small referring hospital, especially in the rural setting. Regional healthcare and EMS system's benefit from HEMS by their capability to extend the advanced level of care throughout a region, provide a “backup” for areas with limited ALS coverage, minimize transport times, make available direct transport to specialized centers, and offer flexibility of transport in overloaded hospital systems. PMID:22203905

  15. Quantum theory of extended particle dynamics in the presence of EM radiation-reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a trajectory-based relativistic quantum wave equation is established for extended charged spinless particles subject to the action of the electromagnetic (EM) radiation-reaction (RR) interaction. The quantization pertains the particle dynamics, in which both the external and self EM fields are treated classically. The new equation proposed here is referred to as the RR quantum wave equation. This is shown to be an evolution equation for a complex scalar quantum wave function and to be realized by a first-order PDE with respect to a quantum proper time s . The latter is uniquely prescribed by representing the RR quantum wave equation in terms of the corresponding quantum hydrodynamic equations and introducing a parametrization in terms of Lagrangian paths associated with the quantum fluid velocity. Besides the explicit proper time dependence, the theory developed here exhibits a number of additional notable features. First, the wave equation is variational and is consistent with the principle of manifest covariance. Second, it permits the definition of a strictly positive 4-scalar quantum probability density on the Minkowski space-time, in terms of which a flow-invariant probability measure is established. Third, the wave equation is non-local, due to the characteristic EM RR retarded interaction. Fourth, the RR wave equation recovers the Schrödinger equation in the non-relativistic limit and the customary Klein-Gordon wave equation when the EM RR is negligible or null. Finally, the consistency with the classical RR Hamilton-Jacobi equation is established in the semi-classical limit.

  16. Local cloning of entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  17. Localization and Quantitative Co-localization of Enamelin with Amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallon, Victoria; Chen, Lisha; Yang, Xiudong; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Enamelin and amelogenin are vital proteins in enamel formation. The cooperative function of these two proteins controls crystal nucleation and morphology in vitro. We quantitatively analyzed the co-localization between enamelin and amelogenin by confocal microscopy and using two antibodies, one raised against a sequence in the porcine 32 kDa enamelin region and the other raised against full-length recombinant mouse amelogenin. We further investigated the interaction of the porcine 32 kDa enamelin and recombinant amelogenin using immuno-gold labeling. This study reports the quantitative co-localization results for postnatal days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 mandibular mouse molars. We show that amelogenin and enamelin are secreted into the extracellular matrix on the cuspal slopes of the molars at day 1 and that secretion continues to at least day 8. Quantitative co-localization analysis (QCA) was performed in several different configurations using large (45 μm height, 33 μm width) and small (7 μm diameter) regions of interest to elucidate any patterns. Co-localization patterns in day 8 samples revealed that enamelin and amelogenin co-localize near the secretory face of the ameloblasts and appear to be secreted approximately in a 1:1 ratio. The degree of co-localization decreases as the enamel matures, both along the secretory face of ameloblasts and throughout the entire thickness of the enamel. Immuno-reactivity against enamelin is concentrated along the secretory face of ameloblasts, supporting the theory that this protein together with amelogenin is intimately involved in mineral induction at the beginning of enamel formation. PMID:23563189

  18. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  19. 2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HI PAR (ACQUISITION RADAR) TOWER AND ENLISTED MEN (EM) BARRACKS WITH RADAR ATTACHED. - Nike Hercules Missile Battery Summit Site, Battery Control Administration & Barracks Building, Anchorage, Anchorage, AK

  20. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition. PMID:26353319

  1. Sound localization in the alligator.

    PubMed

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution. PMID:26048335

  2. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  3. Local non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Jinwoo, Lee; Tanaka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Local Shannon entropy lies at the heart of modern thermodynamics, with much discussion of trajectory-dependent entropy production. When taken at both boundaries of a process in phase space, it reproduces the second law of thermodynamics over a finite time interval for small scale systems. However, given that entropy is an ensemble property, it has never been clear how one can assign such a quantity locally. Given such a fundamental omission in our knowledge, we construct a new ensemble composed of trajectories reaching an individual microstate, and show that locally defined entropy, information, and free energy are properties of the ensemble, or trajectory-independent true thermodynamic potentials. We find that the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and Landauer's principle can be generalized naturally as properties of the ensemble, and that trajectory-free state functions of the ensemble govern the exact mechanism of non-equilibrium relaxation. PMID:25592077

  4. Locally-referenced ultrasonic--LPS for localization and navigation.

    PubMed

    Gualda, David; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan C; Lindo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible deployment of ultrasonic position sensors and a novel positioning algorithm suitable for the navigation of mobile robots (MRs) in extensive indoor environments. Our proposal uses several independently-referenced local positioning systems (LPS), which means that each one of them operates within its own local reference system. In a typical layout, an indoor extensive area can be covered using just a reduced set of globally-referenced LPS (GRLPS), whose beacon positions are known to the global reference system, while the rest of the space can be covered using locally-referenced LPSs (LRLPS) that can be distributed arbitrarily. The number of LRLPS and their position can be also changed at any moment. The algorithm is composed of several Bayesian filters running in parallel, so that when an MR is under the GRLPS coverage area, its position is updated by a global filter, whereas when the MR is inside the LRLPS area, its position is updated using position increments within a local filter. The navigation algorithm has been tested by simulation and with actual data obtained using a real set of ultrasonic LPSs. PMID:25412215

  5. Locally-Referenced Ultrasonic – LPS for Localization and Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Gualda, David; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan C.; Lindo, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible deployment of ultrasonic position sensors and a novel positioning algorithm suitable for the navigation of mobile robots (MRs) in extensive indoor environments. Our proposal uses several independently-referenced local positioning systems (LPS), which means that each one of them operates within its own local reference system. In a typical layout, an indoor extensive area can be covered using just a reduced set of globally-referenced LPS (GRLPS), whose beacon positions are known to the global reference system, while the rest of the space can be covered using locally-referenced LPSs (LRLPS) that can be distributed arbitrarily. The number of LRLPS and their position can be also changed at any moment. The algorithm is composed of several Bayesian filters running in parallel, so that when an MR is under the GRLPS coverage area, its position is updated by a global filter, whereas when the MR is inside the LRLPS area, its position is updated using position increments within a local filter. The navigation algorithm has been tested by simulation and with actual data obtained using a real set of ultrasonic LPSs. PMID:25412215

  6. Foreign English Language Teachers' Local Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eusafzai, Hamid Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    ELT methods have been criticized for being limited and inadequate. Postmethod pedagogy has been offered as an alternate to these methods. The postmethod pedagogy emphasises localization of pedagogy and celebrates local culture, teachers and knowledge. Localizing pedagogy is easy for local teachers as knowledge and understanding of the local comes…

  7. NASA SPoRT Initialization Datasets for Local Model Runs in the Environmental Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.

  8. Pressure ulcers. Local wound care.

    PubMed

    Goode, P S; Thomas, D R

    1997-08-01

    Local care of pressure ulcers includes wound cleansing, débridement, and dressings. Wound cleansing should remove loose debris and exudate but should not damage viable tissue. Saline irrigation is the standard. Débridement is often necessary for Stage III and IV pressure ulcers and can be performed autolytically, mechanically, enzymatically, or sharply. Prompt débridement is essential for infected wounds. Dressings should keep the wound bed continuously moist, should not be toxic to granulation tissue, and should keep the surrounding intact skin dry. Randomized, controlled clinical trials are necessary to define optimal local wound care further. PMID:9227943

  9. Multigrid for locally refined meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, Y.

    1999-12-01

    A multilevel method for the solution of finite element schemes on locally refined meshes is introduced. For isotropic diffusion problems, the condition number of the two-level method is bounded independently of the mesh size and the discontinuities in the diffusion coefficient. The curves of discontinuity need not be aligned with the coarse mesh. Indeed, numerical applications with 10 levels of local refinement yield a rapid convergence of the corresponding 10-level, multigrid V-cycle and other multigrid cycles which are more suitable for parallelism even when the discontinuities are invisible on most of the coarse meshes.

  10. The Louisiana Go Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Melissa; Pesch, Wendy T.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009, two health sciences librarians at Baton Rouge General Medical Center created and launched the Louisiana segment of the National Library of Medicine’s Go Local program, whose ultimate goal was to improve the health information-seeking experience of the general public. Louisiana Go Local was successfully launched in October 2009, but in spring 2010, the national umbrella project was cancelled by the National Library of Medicine. This article describes the three-year development of a statewide database of health services descriptions and contact information to assist non-expert health information seekers in finding those health care providers located geographically closest to them. PMID:22347810

  11. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  12. A local adaptive image descriptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid Ishraque, S. M.; Shoyaib, Mohammad; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M.; Monirul Hoque, Md; Chae, Oksam

    2013-12-01

    The local binary pattern (LBP) is a robust but computationally simple approach in texture analysis. However, LBP performs poorly in the presence of noise and large illumination variation. Thus, a local adaptive image descriptor termed as LAID is introduced in this proposal. It is a ternary pattern and is able to generate persistent codes to represent microtextures in a given image, especially in noisy conditions. It can also generate stable texture codes if the pixel intensities change abruptly due to the illumination changes. Experimental results also show the superiority of the proposed method over other state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Localized lesions in secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Dar, Nasser Rashid; Raza, Naeem

    2008-05-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. PMID:18541087

  14. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these ‘hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient ‘top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid ‘bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  15. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating.

    PubMed

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J; Rotello, Vincent M; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these 'hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient 'top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid 'bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication. PMID:26961708

  16. Spatial control of chemical processes on nanostructures through nano-localized water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Calum; Karimullah, Affar S.; Tullius, Ryan; Khorashad, Larousse Khosravi; Rodier, Marion; Fitzpatrick, Brian; Barron, Laurence D.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Lapthorn, Adrian J.; Rotello, Vincent M.; Cooke, Graeme; Govorov, Alexander O.; Kadodwala, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Optimal performance of nanophotonic devices, including sensors and solar cells, requires maximizing the interaction between light and matter. This efficiency is optimized when active moieties are localized in areas where electromagnetic (EM) fields are confined. Confinement of matter in these `hotspots' has previously been accomplished through inefficient `top-down' methods. Here we report a rapid `bottom-up' approach to functionalize selective regions of plasmonic nanostructures that uses nano-localized heating of the surrounding water induced by pulsed laser irradiation. This localized heating is exploited in a chemical protection/deprotection strategy to allow selective regions of a nanostructure to be chemically modified. As an exemplar, we use the strategy to enhance the biosensing capabilities of a chiral plasmonic substrate. This novel spatially selective functionalization strategy provides new opportunities for efficient high-throughput control of chemistry on the nanoscale over macroscopic areas for device fabrication.

  17. Localization of latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) on mitotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Rahayu, Retno; Ohsaki, Eriko; Omori, Hiroko; Ueda, Keiji

    2016-09-01

    In latent infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), viral gene expression is extremely limited and copy numbers of viral genomes remain constant. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is known to have a role in maintaining viral genome copy numbers in growing cells. Several studies have shown that LANA is localized in particular regions on mitotic chromosomes, such as centromeres/pericentromeres. We independently examined the distinct localization of LANA on mitotic chromosomes during mitosis, using super-resolution laser confocal microscopy and correlative fluorescence microscopy-electron microscopy (FM-EM) analyses. We found that the majority of LANA were not localized at particular regions such as telomeres/peritelomeres, centromeres/pericentromeres, and cohesion sites, but at the bodies of condensed chromosomes. Thus, LANA may undergo various interactions with the host factors on the condensed chromosomes in order to tether the viral genome to mitotic chromosomes and realize faithful viral genome segregation during cell division. PMID:27254595

  18. Communication - An Effective Tool for Implementing ISO 14001/EMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Damewood; Bowen Huntsman

    2004-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) received ISO 14001/EMS certification in June 2002. Communication played an effective role in implementing ISO 14001/EMS at the INEEL. This paper describes communication strategies used during the implementation and certification processes. The INEEL achieved Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) and Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Star status in 2001. ISMS implemented a formal process to plan and execute work. VPP facilitated worker involvement by establishing geographic units at various facilities with employee points of contact and management champions. The INEEL Environmental Management System (EMS) was developed to integrate the environmental functional area into its ISMS and VPP. Since the core functions of ISMS, VPP, and EMS are interchangeable, they were easy to integrate. Communication is essential to successfully implement an EMS. (According to ISO 14001 requirements, communication interacts with 12 other elements of the requirements.) We developed communication strategies that integrated ISMS, VPP, and EMS. For example, the ISMS, VPP, and EMS Web sites communicated messages to the work force, such as “VPP emphasizes the people side of doing business, ISMS emphasizes the system side of doing business, and EMS emphasizes the systems to protect the environment; but they all define work, identify and analyze hazards, and mitigate the hazards.” As a result of this integration, the work force supported and implemented the EMS. In addition, the INEEL established a cross-functional communication team to assist with implementing the EMS. The team included members from the Training and Communication organizations, VPP office, Pollution Prevention, Employee and Media Relations, a union representative, facility environmental support, and EMS staff. This crossfunctional team used various communication strategies to promote our EMS to all organization levels and successfully implemented EMS

  19. Superbubbles and Local Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, Robert E.; Jones, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the possibility that distinctive features of the local cosmic ray spectra and composition are influenced by the Solar system being embedded within the cavity of an ancient superbubble. Shifts in the measured cosmic ray composition between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 20) eV as well as the "knee" and "second knee" may be understood in this picture.

  20. Arthur Smith, Local Baptist Pastor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Written and published by the students at Gary High School this volume has three articles dealing with East Texas life. The first "Arthur Smith" (David Hancock and others) is an account of growing up in Marian County, Texas is described by the local Baptist minister. The pastor begins with the year of his birth and gives detailed information about…

  1. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  2. Local Area Networks: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessy, Raymond E.

    1982-01-01

    Local area networks are common communication conduits allowing various terminals, computers, discs, printers, and other electronic devices to intercommunicate over short distances. Discusses the vocabulary of such networks including RS-232C point-to-point and IEEE-488 multidrop protocols; error detection; message packets; multiplexing; star, ring,…

  3. Local Evaluation of Chemistry Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Joseph R.; Hansen, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of local usage statistics of a specific set of chemistry journals at the University of Denver in Colorado, USA. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that commercial publishers in chemistry charge considerably more for their journals than those from the non-commercial sector. There are three variables…

  4. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  5. Community Education and Local Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamm, Larry; Wager, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Describes development and preliminary implementation of the Community Education Program on Home Rule, a statewide program to aid local communities in educating citizens about the possibility of modifying their municipal government under the provisions of Pennsylvania's Home Rule Charter and Optional Plans Law. (JG)

  6. Research for Locally Relevant Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the CIDA-funded University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development program--where Canadian universities establish knowledge partnerships with Southern universities--projects with a well-developed research dimension have proven to be the strongest projects, with broader and deeper contributions to the local institutions and larger community.…

  7. Quantum Strategies and Local Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2010-02-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I we introduce a new formalism for quantum strategies, which specify the actions of one party in any multi-party interaction involving the exchange of multiple quantum messages among the parties. This formalism associates with each strategy a single positive semidefinite operator acting only upon the tensor product of the input and output message spaces for the strategy. We establish three fundamental properties of this new representation for quantum strategies and we list several applications, including a quantum version of von Neumann's celebrated 1928 Min-Max Theorem for zero-sum games and an efficient algorithm for computing the value of such a game. In Part II we establish several properties of a class of quantum operations that can be implemented locally with shared quantum entanglement or classical randomness. In particular, we establish the existence of a ball of local operations with shared randomness lying within the space spanned by the no-signaling operations and centred at the completely noisy channel. The existence of this ball is employed to prove that the weak membership problem for local operations with shared entanglement is strongly NP-hard. We also provide characterizations of local operations in terms of linear functionals that are positive and "completely" positive on a certain cone of Hermitian operators, under a natural notion of complete positivity appropriate to that cone. We end the thesis with a discussion of the properties of no-signaling quantum operations.

  8. Philippine Programme Initiates Local Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Describes a public health program for mothers and children developed by UNICEF workers in the Philippines that incorporates literacy and environmental awareness along with the usual focus on immunizations, nutrition, and clean water. The program contained an organic gardening project intended to empower women at the local level. (LZ)

  9. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. PMID:23800269

  10. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  11. State and Local Revenue Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quindry, Kenneth E.

    This report contains the results of an extensive study into State and local tax revenue potentials for the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) States. It identifies both the degree of current use and the potential for increased use of (1) general and selective sales and gross receipts taxes, (2) death and gift taxes, (3) property taxes,…

  12. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  13. Think Globally and Act Locally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Chadwick F.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests ways teachers can involve themselves and their students in local action as a means of furthering effective and practical global education. Considers possible barriers related to the ideology of the state system, and current breakthroughs, e.g., the nuclear freeze movement, anti-apartheid activism, and the sanctuary movement for Salvadoran…

  14. Targeting p21 Degradation Locally

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Just as the activity of many multifunctional proteins is restricted by subcellular localization, so is their regulation. In this issue of Development Cell, Starostina et al. identify an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CRL2LRR1, for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 that specifically ubiquitylates cytoplasmic p21 to facilitate cell migration. PMID:21074711

  15. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  16. Localization model for cochlear implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas A.; Matin, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-01

    Normal hearing persons are able to localize the direction of sounds better using both ears than when listening with only one ear. Localization ability is dependent on auditory system perception of interaural differences in time, intensity, and phase. Interaural timing differences (ITDs) provide information for locating direction of low and mid frequency sounds, while interaural level differences (ILDs), which occur because of the horizontal plane shadowing effect of the head, provide information for locating direction of higher frequency sounds. The head related transfer function (HRTF) contains characteristic information important for acoustic localization. Models based on HRTFs take into account head shadow, torso, and pinna effects, and their impact on interaural frequency, level, and timing differences. Cochlear implants (CIs) have proven a successful treatment for persons with bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. A problem is that only some ITD and ILD cues are maintained with CI sound processing, and the microphone position alters the acoustic cues. The relative impact of differences in physical cues received by the auditory system with bilateral CIs versus differences in the ability of the damaged auditory nervous system to process bilateral inputs is not yet clear. The model presented in this paper was constructed as a step toward answering this question, and is intended to serve as a tool for future development of more optimal signal processing algorithms that may provide better localization ability for persons with bilateral CIs.

  17. Collaboration with the Local Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael L.; Cherrey, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Colleges and universities continually search for ways to enhance the safety and security of their educational programs and physical plant. This article examines how the University of Southern California and other institutions are using collaborative efforts with the local community to enhance their mutual safety and security through dynamic…

  18. Local Violence and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    High School and Beyond data were used to analyze how local violence affects high school graduation and college attendance. Moderate violence reduced the likelihood of graduation by 5.1 percentage points and college attendance by 6.9 points. More substantial violence raised the dropout rate by 27% and reduced college attendance by 15.9 points.…

  19. Sound localization by echolocating bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, Murat

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies

  20. A Mathematical Foundation for Locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierhorst, Peter L.

    This work is motivated by two non-intuitive predictions of Quantum Mechanics:non-locality and contextuality . Non-locality is a phenomenon whereby interactions between spatially separated objects appear to be occurring faster than the speed of light. Contextuality is a phenomenon whereby the outcome of a measurement cannot be interpreted as the revelation of an intrinsic fixed property of the system being measured, but instead necessarily depends on the configuration of the measurement apparatus. Quantum Mechanics predicts non-local behavior in certain types of experiments collectively known as Bell tests. However, ruling out all possible alternative local theories is a subtle and demanding task. In this work, we lay out a mathematically-rigorous framework for analyzing Bell experiments. Using this framework, we derive the famous Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, an important constraint that is obeyed by all local theories and violated by Quantum Mechanics. We further demonstrate how to analyze the data of a CHSH experiment without assuming that successive experimental trials are independent and/or identically distributed. We also derive the Clauser-Horne (CH74) inequality, an inequality that is more well-suited for realistic Bell experiments using photons. We demonstrate a robust method for statistically analyzing the data of a CH74 experiment, and show how to calculate exact p-values for this analysis, improving on the previously-best-known (loose) upper bounds obtained from Hoeffding-style inequalities. The work concludes with an exploration of contextuality. The Kochen-Specker theorem -- a result demonstrating the contextual nature of Quantum Mechanics -- is applied to resolve a conjecture in Domain Theory regarding the spectral order on quantum states.

  1. Stacking attributes from local slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Gajewski, D.; Dell, S.; Nath, S. K.; Wave Inversion Technology (Wit) Consortium

    2010-12-01

    CMP stacking is controlled by the stacking velocity which is determined by a one-dimendional optimization procedure using semblance as a coherence criterion. New multi-parameter stacking formulas like the Common Reflection Surface (CRS) operator consider neighboring CMP locations in the stack. These methods stack considerably more traces than conventional CMP processing leading to stacked sections with an improved signal-to-nose ratio and better image quality. The corresponding stacking trajectories are controlled by three stacking attributes for the 2-D case and eight for the 3-D case. The determination of these attributes requires a multi-dimensional optimization procedure which is time consuming. If we know good starting values, we can limit the search intervals considerably and speed up the process. It was shown that the stacking attributes are linked to local slopes in seismic zero offset and constant offset sections. Therefore, the determination of local slopes can guide the choice of the search intervals in the optimization procedure. We use structural tensors for the determination of local slopes. Structural tensors represent a versatile tool to investigate coherent features in the data superior to other slop determination tools like slant stacking or plane wave destructors. The window size is adjustable and allows to optimize smoothing and smearing in the slope determination process where the smoothing can be performed along structural events (directional smoothing). This smart feature helps to consider complex geologies and acknowledges faults and conflicting dips without any significant change in computation time. Different variants of the algorithm are used to determine slopes in CMP gathers, stacked and time or depth migrated sections. The results of the local slope determinations are used to compute stacking attributes for the CRS method. We compare these to stacking attributes obtained from optimization. The attributes determined from local slopes

  2. EM threat analysis for wireless systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, R. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Mariano, Robert J.; Schniter, P. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory); Gupta, I. J. (Ohio State University Electroscience Laboratory)

    2006-06-01

    Modern digital radio systems are complex and must be carefully designed, especially when expected to operate in harsh propagation environments. The ability to accurately predict the effects of propagation on wireless radio performance could lead to more efficient radio designs as well as the ability to perform vulnerability analyses before and after system deployment. In this report, the authors--experts in electromagnetic (EM) modeling and wireless communication theory--describe the construction of a simulation environment that is capable of quantifying the effects of wireless propagation on the performance of digital communication.

  3. Comments on localized and integral localized approximations in spherical coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouesbet, Gérard; Lock, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Localized approximation procedures are efficient ways to evaluate beam shape coefficients of laser beams, and are particularly useful when other methods are ineffective or inefficient. Comments on these procedures are, however, required in order to help researchers make correct decisions concerning their use. This paper has the flavor of a short review and takes the opportunity to attract the attention of the readers to a required refinement of terminology.

  4. Stochastic EM-based TFBS motif discovery with MITSU

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Alastair M.; Ward, Bruce; Aitken, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The Expectation–Maximization (EM) algorithm has been successfully applied to the problem of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motif discovery and underlies the most widely used motif discovery algorithms. In the wider field of probabilistic modelling, the stochastic EM (sEM) algorithm has been used to overcome some of the limitations of the EM algorithm; however, the application of sEM to motif discovery has not been fully explored. Results: We present MITSU (Motif discovery by ITerative Sampling and Updating), a novel algorithm for motif discovery, which combines sEM with an improved approximation to the likelihood function, which is unconstrained with regard to the distribution of motif occurrences within the input dataset. The algorithm is evaluated quantitatively on realistic synthetic data and several collections of characterized prokaryotic TFBS motifs and shown to outperform EM and an alternative sEM-based algorithm, particularly in terms of site-level positive predictive value. Availability and implementation: Java executable available for download at http://www.sourceforge.net/p/mitsu-motif/, supported on Linux/OS X. Contact: a.m.kilpatrick@sms.ed.ac.uk PMID:24931999

  5. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  6. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...

  7. 7 CFR 1945.20 - Making EM loans available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Secretary in making a decision on the requested natural disaster determination. (4) The Secretary will... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Making EM loans available. 1945.20 Section 1945.20...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.20 Making EM loans...

  8. Sacroplasty for Local or Massive Localization of Multiple Myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Raimondo, Francesco Di; Coppolino, Francesco; Coppolino, Carmelo; Mundo, Elena; Desiderio, Carla; Granata, Antonio; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas. We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009. The patients had difficulty walking because of increasing pain. Six patients had persistent pain despite other cementoplasties for vertebral and femoral localization, whereas two patients referred at the time of diagnosis had only sacral lesions. The clinical indication for treatment was (1) a pain intensity score {>=}5 on visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) pain totally or partially refractory to analgesic treatment in patients with a life expectancy >3 months. Technical planning was based on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Six patients had previously undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy and were receiving varying doses of analgesics, whereas sacroplasty represented the first treatment for two patients. Five patients had monolateral local involvement, and the other patients had massive involvement of the sacrum; Technical success was achieved in all cases. We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak. All patients experienced improvement in symptoms after the procedure, as demonstrated by improved VAS scores and performance status (PS) and decreased analgesic dose constant during follow-up. In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.

  9. Subcellular Localization of the Sigma-1 Receptor in Retinal Neurons — an Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    The Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is known to play a protective role in the central nervous system including the retina. A major barrier for understanding the underlying mechanism is an ambiguity of S1R subcellular localizations. We thus conducted the first electron microscopy (EM) study of S1R subcellular distribution in the mouse retina. Immuno-EM imaging showed previously under-appreciated S1R presence in photoreceptor cells. Unlike in other cell types in previous reports, in photoreceptor cells S1R was found in the nuclear envelope but not localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising a possibility of S1R-mediated modulatory mechanisms different than conventionally thought. While in bipolar cells S1R was detected only in the nuclear envelope, in ganglion cells S1R was identified predominantly in the nuclear envelope and found in the ER as well. A predominant localization of S1R in the nuclear envelope in all three retinal neurons implicates a potential role of S1R in modulating nuclear activities. Moreover, its absence in the plasma membrane and presence in the subsurface ER cisternae that are juxtaposed to the plasma membrane in ganglion cells may lend mechanistic insights generally important for frequently reported S1R modulations of ion channels in neurons. PMID:26033680

  10. Subcellular localization of the sigma-1 receptor in retinal neurons - an electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Epstein, Miles; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-01-01

    The Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is known to play a protective role in the central nervous system including the retina. A major barrier for understanding the underlying mechanism is an ambiguity of S1R subcellular localizations. We thus conducted the first electron microscopy (EM) study of S1R subcellular distribution in the mouse retina. Immuno-EM imaging showed previously under-appreciated S1R presence in photoreceptor cells. Unlike in other cell types in previous reports, in photoreceptor cells S1R was found in the nuclear envelope but not localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), raising a possibility of S1R-mediated modulatory mechanisms different than conventionally thought. While in bipolar cells S1R was detected only in the nuclear envelope, in ganglion cells S1R was identified predominantly in the nuclear envelope and found in the ER as well. A predominant localization of S1R in the nuclear envelope in all three retinal neurons implicates a potential role of S1R in modulating nuclear activities. Moreover, its absence in the plasma membrane and presence in the subsurface ER cisternae that are juxtaposed to the plasma membrane in ganglion cells may lend mechanistic insights generally important for frequently reported S1R modulations of ion channels in neurons. PMID:26033680

  11. Fractal superconductivity near localization threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Ioffe, L.B.; Kravtsov, V.E.; Cuevas, E.

    2010-07-15

    We develop a semi-quantitative theory of electron pairing and resulting superconductivity in bulk 'poor conductors' in which Fermi energy E{sub F} is located in the region of localized states not so far from the Anderson mobility edge E{sub c}. We assume attractive interaction between electrons near the Fermi surface. We review the existing theories and experimental data and argue that a large class of disordered films is described by this model. Our theoretical analysis is based on analytical treatment of pairing correlations, described in the basis of the exact single-particle eigenstates of the 3D Anderson model, which we combine with numerical data on eigenfunction correlations. Fractal nature of critical wavefunction's correlations is shown to be crucial for the physics of these systems. We identify three distinct phases: 'critical' superconductive state formed at E{sub F} = E{sub c}, superconducting state with a strong pseudo-gap, realized due to pairing of weakly localized electrons and insulating state realized at E{sub F} still deeper inside a localized band. The 'critical' superconducting phase is characterized by the enhancement of the transition temperature with respect to BCS result, by the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of superconductive order parameter and local density of states. The major new feature of the pseudo-gapped state is the presence of two independent energy scales: superconducting gap {Delta}, that is due to many-body correlations and a new 'pseudo-gap' energy scale {Delta}{sub P} which characterizes typical binding energy of localized electron pairs and leads to the insulating behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature above superconductive T{sub c}. Two gap nature of the pseudo-gapped superconductor is shown to lead to specific features seen in scanning tunneling spectroscopy and point-contact Andreev spectroscopy. We predict that pseudo-gapped superconducting state demonstrates anomalous behavior of the optical

  12. Acoustic space learning for sound-source separation and localization on binaural manifolds.

    PubMed

    Deleforge, Antoine; Forbes, Florence; Horaud, Radu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we address the problems of modeling the acoustic space generated by a full-spectrum sound source and using the learned model for the localization and separation of multiple sources that simultaneously emit sparse-spectrum sounds. We lay theoretical and methodological grounds in order to introduce the binaural manifold paradigm. We perform an in-depth study of the latent low-dimensional structure of the high-dimensional interaural spectral data, based on a corpus recorded with a human-like audiomotor robot head. A nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique is used to show that these data lie on a two-dimensional (2D) smooth manifold parameterized by the motor states of the listener, or equivalently, the sound-source directions. We propose a probabilistic piecewise affine mapping model (PPAM) specifically designed to deal with high-dimensional data exhibiting an intrinsic piecewise linear structure. We derive a closed-form expectation-maximization (EM) procedure for estimating the model parameters, followed by Bayes inversion for obtaining the full posterior density function of a sound-source direction. We extend this solution to deal with missing data and redundancy in real-world spectrograms, and hence for 2D localization of natural sound sources such as speech. We further generalize the model to the challenging case of multiple sound sources and we propose a variational EM framework. The associated algorithm, referred to as variational EM for source separation and localization (VESSL) yields a Bayesian estimation of the 2D locations and time-frequency masks of all the sources. Comparisons of the proposed approach with several existing methods reveal that the combination of acoustic-space learning with Bayesian inference enables our method to outperform state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25164245

  13. The Orthogonally Partitioned EM Algorithm: Extending the EM Algorithm for Algorithmic Stability and Bias Correction Due to Imperfect Data.

    PubMed

    Regier, Michael D; Moodie, Erica E M

    2016-05-01

    We propose an extension of the EM algorithm that exploits the common assumption of unique parameterization, corrects for biases due to missing data and measurement error, converges for the specified model when standard implementation of the EM algorithm has a low probability of convergence, and reduces a potentially complex algorithm into a sequence of smaller, simpler, self-contained EM algorithms. We use the theory surrounding the EM algorithm to derive the theoretical results of our proposal, showing that an optimal solution over the parameter space is obtained. A simulation study is used to explore the finite sample properties of the proposed extension when there is missing data and measurement error. We observe that partitioning the EM algorithm into simpler steps may provide better bias reduction in the estimation of model parameters. The ability to breakdown a complicated problem in to a series of simpler, more accessible problems will permit a broader implementation of the EM algorithm, permit the use of software packages that now implement and/or automate the EM algorithm, and make the EM algorithm more accessible to a wider and more general audience. PMID:27227718

  14. Local optimization of neuron arbors.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, C

    1992-01-01

    How parsimoniously is brain wiring laid out, that is, how well does a neuron minimize costs of connections among its synapses? Neural optimization of dendritic and axonic arbors can be evaluated using a generalization of the Steiner tree concept from combinatorial network optimization theory. Local branch-junction geometry of neuronal connecting structures fits a volume minimization model well. In addition, volume of the arborizations at this neighborhood level is significantly more strongly minimized than their length, signal propagation speed, or surface area. The mechanism of this local volume optimization resembles those involved in formation of nonliving tree structures such as river junctions and electric-discharge patterns, and appears to govern initial nerve growth-cone behavior through vector-mechanical energy minimization. PMID:1586674

  15. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  16. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer. PMID:24960442

  17. Update on local allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Oktemer, Tugba; Ipci, Kagan; Birdane, Leman; Aricigil, Mitat; Senturk, Mehmet; Bafaqeeh, Sameer Ali; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-08-01

    We here provide an update on the literature regarding local allergic rhinitis (LAR). In reviewing LAR, we have included an updated definition, classifications, mechanisms, comorbidities, and recommendations for diagnosis and treatment for LAR, as well as the defined research areas for future evidence-based studies. LAR is a localised nasal allergic response in the absence of systemic atopy characterised by local production of specific IgE (sIgE) antibodies, a TH2 pattern of mucosal cell infiltration during natural exposure to aeroallergens, and a positive nasal allergen provocation test response, with the release of inflammatory mediators. The localised allergic response of LAR is an important topic for the study of allergies. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of LAR. PMID:27368453

  18. Acoustic Localization with Infrasonic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Numerous geophysical and anthropogenic events emit infrasonic frequencies (<20 Hz), including volcanoes, hurricanes, wind turbines and tornadoes. These sounds, which cannot be heard by the human ear, can be detected from large distances (in excess of 100 miles) due to low frequency acoustic signals having a very low decay rate in the atmosphere. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of these events. An array of microphones separated by known distances can be used to locate a given source, which is known as acoustic localization. However, acoustic localization with infrasound is particularly challenging due to contamination from other signals, sensitivity to wind noise and producing a trusted source for system development. The objective of the current work is to create an infrasonic source using a propane torch wand or a subwoofer and locate the source using multiple infrasonic microphones. This presentation will present preliminary results from various microphone configurations used to locate the source.

  19. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-07-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  20. Localized Pancreatic Cancer: Multidisciplinary Management.

    PubMed

    Coveler, Andrew L; Herman, Joseph M; Simeone, Diane M; Chiorean, E Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive cancer that continues to have single-digit 5-year mortality rates despite advancements in the field. Surgery remains the only curative treatment; however, most patients present with late-stage disease deemed unresectable, either due to extensive local vascular involvement or the presence of distant metastasis. Resection guidelines that include a borderline resectable group, as well as advancements in neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation that improve resectability of locally advanced disease, may improve outcomes for patients with more invasive disease. Multi-agent chemotherapy regimens fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and nab-paclitaxel with gemcitabine improved response rates and survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer and are now being used in earlier stages for patients with localized potentially resectable and unresectable disease, with goals of downstaging tumors to allow margin-negative resection and reducing systemic recurrence. Chemoradiotherapy, although still controversial for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer, is being used in the context of contemporary chemotherapy backbone regimens, and novel radiation techniques such as stereotactic body frame radiation therapy (SBRT) are studied on the premise of maintaining or improving efficacy and reducing treatment duration. Patient selection for optimal treatment designation is currently provided by multidisciplinary tumor boards, but biomarker discovery, in blood, tumors, or through novel imaging, is an area of intense research. Results to date suggest that some patients with unresectable disease at the outset have survival rates as good as those with initially resectable disease if able to undergo surgical resection. Long-term follow-up and improved clinical trials options are needed to determine optimal treatment modalities for patients with localized pancreatic cancer. PMID:27249726

  1. Local cloning of entangled qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhary, Sujit K.; Kunkri, Samir; Rahaman, Ramij; Roy, Anirban

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the exact cloning of orthogonal but entangled qubits under local operations and classical communication. The amount of entanglement necessary in a blank copy is obtained for various cases. Surprisingly, this amount is more than 1 ebit for certain sets of two nonmaximal but equally entangled states of two qubits. To clone any three Bell states, at least log{sub 2} 3 ebit is necessary.

  2. Localization in optics - Quasiperiodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohmoto, Mahito; Sutherland, Bill; Iguchi, K.

    1987-06-01

    An experiment to probe the (quasi)localization of the photon is proposed, in which optical layers are constructed following the Fibonacci sequence. The transmission coefficient has a rich structure as a function of the wavelength of light and, in fact, is multifractal. For particular wavelengths for which the resonance conditions is satisfied, the light propagation has scaling with respect to the number of layers, as well as an interesting fluctuation.

  3. Coordinating sensing and local navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Marc G.

    1991-01-01

    Based on Navigation Templates (or NaTs), this work presents a new paradigm for local navigation which addresses the noisy and uncertain nature of sensor data. Rather than creating a new navigation plan each time the robot's perception of the world changes, the technique incorporates perceptual changes directly into the existing navigation plan. In this way, the robot's navigation plan is quickly and continuously modified, resulting in actions that remain coordinated with its changing perception of the world.

  4. Working within local funding trends.

    PubMed

    Pomales-Connors, Irma

    2004-06-01

    Like politics, environmentalism, and fashion, there are trends in health care research and funding. According to a series of reports by the Foundation Center-which collects, organizes, and communicates information on U.S. philanthropy-it is important to understand the significant financial and programmatic changes in the way foundations give. For pharmacists considering soliciting grant support, it is critical that they become aware of these trends and be responsive to the local or regional environments that affect funding. PMID:16553471

  5. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  6. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  7. Visualization of localization microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, David; Cannell, Mark B; Soeller, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Localization microscopy techniques based on localizing single fluorophore molecules now routinely achieve accuracies better than 30 nm. Unlike conventional optical microscopies, localization microscopy experiments do not generate an image but a list of discrete coordinates of estimated fluorophore positions. Data display and analysis therefore generally require visualization methods that translate the position data into conventional images. Here we investigate the properties of several widely used visualization techniques and show that a commonly used algorithm based on rendering Gaussians may lead to a 1.44-fold loss of resolution. Existing methods typically do not explicitly take sampling considerations into account and thus may produce spurious structures. We present two additional visualization algorithms, an adaptive histogram method based on quad-trees and a Delaunay triangulation based visualization of point data that address some of these deficiencies. The new visualization methods are designed to suppress erroneous detail in poorly sampled image areas but avoid loss of resolution in well-sampled regions. A number of criteria for scoring visualization methods are developed as a guide for choosing among visualization methods and are used to qualitatively compare various algorithms. PMID:20082730

  8. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local Procurement Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.40 Local procurement. Local procurement in the cooperating...

  9. Genetic Algorithms with Local Minimum Escaping Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hiroki; Sakata, Kenichiro; Tang, Zheng; Ishii, Masahiro

    In this paper, we propose a genetic algorithm(GA) with local minimum escaping technique. This proposed method uses the local minimum escaping techique. It can escape from the local minimum by correcting parameters when genetic algorithm falls into a local minimum. Simulations are performed to scheduling problem without buffer capacity using this proposed method, and its validity is shown.

  10. Computational methods for global/local analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Jonathan B.; Mccleary, Susan L.; Aminpour, Mohammad A.; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Computational methods for global/local analysis of structures which include both uncoupled and coupled methods are described. In addition, global/local analysis methodology for automatic refinement of incompatible global and local finite element models is developed. Representative structural analysis problems are presented to demonstrate the global/local analysis methods.

  11. Local-scale dynamics and local drivers of bushmeat trade.

    PubMed

    Nyaki, Angela; Gray, Steven A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Skibins, Jeffrey C; Rentsch, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    Bushmeat management policies are often developed outside the communities in which they are to be implemented. These policies are also routinely designed to be applied uniformly across communities with little regard for variation in social or ecological conditions. We used fuzzy-logic cognitive mapping, a form of participatory modeling, to compare the assumptions driving externally generated bushmeat management policies with perceptions of bushmeat trade dynamics collected from local community members who admitted to being recently engaged in bushmeat trading (e.g., hunters, sellers, consumers). Data were collected during 9 workshops in 4 Tanzanian villages bordering Serengeti National Park. Specifically, we evaluated 9 community-generated models for the presence of the central factors that comprise and drive the bushmeat trade and whether or not models included the same core concepts, relationships, and logical chains of reasoning on which bushmeat conservation policies are commonly based. Across local communities, there was agreement about the most central factors important to understanding the bushmeat trade (e.g., animal recruitment, low income, and scarcity of food crops). These matched policy assumptions. However, the factors perceived to drive social-ecological bushmeat trade dynamics were more diverse and varied considerably across communities (e.g., presence or absence of collaborative law enforcement, increasing human population, market demand, cultural preference). Sensitive conservation issues, such as the bushmeat trade, that require cooperation between communities and outside conservation organizations can benefit from participatory modeling approaches that make local-scale dynamics and conservation policy assumptions explicit. Further, communities' and conservation organizations' perceptions need to be aligned. This can improve success by allowing context appropriate policies to be developed, monitored, and appropriately adapted as new evidence is

  12. Dynamical Localization in Molecular Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xidi

    In the first four chapters of this thesis we concentrate on the Davydov model which describes the vibrational energy quanta of Amide I bonds (C=O bonds on the alpha -helix) coupled to the acoustic phonon modes of the alpha-helix backbone in the form of a Frohlich Hamiltonian. Following a brief introduction in chapter one, in chapter two we formulate the dynamics of vibrational quanta at finite temperature by using coherent state products. The fluctuation-dissipation relation is derived. At zero temperature, in the continuum limit, we recover the original results of Davydov. We also achieve good agreement with numerical simulations. In chapter three, the net contraction of the lattice is calculated exactly at any temperature, and its relation to the so -call "topological stability" of the Davydov soliton is discussed. In the second section of the chapter three we calculate the overtone spectra of crystalline acetanilide (according to some opinions ACN provides experimental evidence for the existence of Davydov solitons). Good agreement with experimental data has been obtained. In chapter four we study the self-trapped vibrational excitations by the Quantum Monte Carlo technique. For a single excitation, the temperature dependence of different physical observables is calculated. The quasi-particle which resembles the Davydov soliton has been found to be fairly narrow using the most commonly used data for the alpha -helix; at temperatures above a few Kelvin, the quasi-particle reaches its smallest limit (extends over three sites), which implies diffusive motion of the small polaron-like quasi-particle at high temperatures. For the multi-excitation case, bound pairs and clusters of excitations are found at low temperatures; they gradually dissociate when the temperature of the system is increased as calculated from the density-density correlation function. In the last chapter of this thesis, we study a more general model of dynamical local modes in molecular systems

  13. Indoor localization using magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathapati Subbu, Kalyan Sasidhar

    Indoor localization consists of locating oneself inside new buildings. GPS does not work indoors due to multipath reflection and signal blockage. WiFi based systems assume ubiquitous availability and infrastructure based systems require expensive installations, hence making indoor localization an open problem. This dissertation consists of solving the problem of indoor localization by thoroughly exploiting the indoor ambient magnetic fields comprising mainly of disturbances termed as anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field caused by pillars, doors and elevators in hallways which are ferromagnetic in nature. By observing uniqueness in magnetic signatures collected from different campus buildings, the work presents the identification of landmarks and guideposts from these signatures and further develops magnetic maps of buildings - all of which can be used to locate and navigate people indoors. To understand the reason behind these anomalies, first a comparison between the measured and model generated Earth's magnetic field is made, verifying the presence of a constant field without any disturbances. Then by modeling the magnetic field behavior of different pillars such as steel reinforced concrete, solid steel, and other structures like doors and elevators, the interaction of the Earth's field with the ferromagnetic fields is described thereby explaining the causes of the uniqueness in the signatures that comprise these disturbances. Next, by employing the dynamic time warping algorithm to account for time differences in signatures obtained from users walking at different speeds, an indoor localization application capable of classifying locations using the magnetic signatures is developed solely on the smart phone. The application required users to walk short distances of 3-6 m anywhere in hallway to be located with accuracies of 80-99%. The classification framework was further validated with over 90% accuracies using model generated magnetic signatures representing

  14. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look.

    PubMed

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-04-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  15. Oregon Health Go Local: A Retrospective Look

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Emily; Hannon, Todd

    2010-01-01

    MedlinePlus® Go Local is the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health's Internet resource that allows individuals to find health services in their local communities. Oregon Health Go Local recently joined the network of active Go Local projects. This paper describes the planning and development of Oregon Health Go Local, with a discussion of the success and challenges of initiating such a project. Funding, marketing, volunteer coordination, data acquisition, and taxonomy are discussed. PMID:20640231

  16. Constrained Local UniversE Simulations: a Local Group factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Sorce, Jenny G.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Gottlöber, Stefan; Yepes, Gustavo; Libeskind, Noam I.; Pilipenko, Sergey V.; Knebe, Alexander; Courtois, Hélène; Tully, R. Brent; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Near-field cosmology is practised by studying the Local Group (LG) and its neighbourhood. This paper describes a framework for simulating the `near field' on the computer. Assuming the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model as a prior and applying the Bayesian tools of the Wiener filter and constrained realizations of Gaussian fields to the Cosmicflows-2 (CF2) survey of peculiar velocities, constrained simulations of our cosmic environment are performed. The aim of these simulations is to reproduce the LG and its local environment. Our main result is that the LG is likely a robust outcome of the ΛCDMscenario when subjected to the constraint derived from CF2 data, emerging in an environment akin to the observed one. Three levels of criteria are used to define the simulated LGs. At the base level, pairs of haloes must obey specific isolation, mass and separation criteria. At the second level, the orbital angular momentum and energy are constrained, and on the third one the phase of the orbit is constrained. Out of the 300 constrained simulations, 146 LGs obey the first set of criteria, 51 the second and 6 the third. The robustness of our LG `factory' enables the construction of a large ensemble of simulated LGs. Suitable candidates for high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations of the LG can be drawn from this ensemble, which can be used to perform comprehensive studies of the formation of the LG.

  17. [Symptoms. Localizations: knee, hip, hands, spine, other localizations].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of osteoarthritis vary widely from patient to patient, depending especially on the localization on the disease. There is a poor correlation between radiological involvement and pain. In general, symptom onset is gradual and symptoms increase slowly but progressively. The most commonly affected joints are the knees, hips, hands, and spine. The main signs and symptoms are pain, stiffness, joint deformity, and crepitus. Pain is mechanical and its causes are multifactorial; in the initial phases, pain usually manifests in self-limiting episodes but may subsequently be almost constant. The criteria of the American college of Rheumatology for the classification of osteoarthritis of the knee, hip and hands are an aid to classification and standardization but are not useful for diagnosis. Hip osteoarthritis usually produces inguinal pain in the internal and anterior sections of the muscle extending to the knee and, with progression, tends to limit mobility. Knee osteoarthritis is more frequent in women and is usually associated with hand osteoarthritis and obesity. In hand osteoarthritis, the most commonly affected joints are the distal interphalangeal joints, followed by the proximal interphalangeal joints and the trapeziometacarpal joints; the development of Heberden and Bouchard nodes is common; involvement of the trapeziometacarpal joint is called rhizarthrosis and is one of the forms of osteoarthritis that produces the greatest limitation on hand function. Osteoarthritis of the spine affects the facet joints and the vertebral bodies. Other, less frequent, localizations are the foot, elbow and shoulder, which are generally secondary forms of osteoarthritis. PMID:24467955

  18. Functional characterization, localization, and inhibitor sensitivity of the TPR-FGFR1 fusion in 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Malli, Theodora; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Rammer, Melanie; Erdel, Martin; Kranewitter, Wolfgang; Rumpold, Holger; Marschon, Renate; Deutschbauer, Sabine; Simonitsch-Klupp, Ingrid; Valent, Peter; Muellner-Ammer, Kirsten; Sebesta, Christian; Birkner, Thomas; Webersinke, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) abnormalities, also known as 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS), represent rare and aggressive disorders, associated with chromosomal aberrations that lead to the fusion of FGFR1 to different partner genes. We report on a third patient with a fusion of the translocated promoter region (TPR) gene, a component of the nuclear pore complex, to FGFR1 due to a novel ins(1;8)(q25;p11p23). The fact that this fusion is a rare but recurrent event in EMS prompted us to examine the localization and transforming potential of the chimeric protein. TPR-FGFR1 localizes in the cytoplasm, although the nuclear pore localization signal of TPR is retained in the fusion protein. Furthermore, TPR-FGFR1 enables cytokine-independent survival, proliferation, and granulocytic differentiation of the interleukin-3 dependent myeloid progenitor cell line 32Dcl3, reflecting the chronic phase of EMS characterized by myeloid hyperplasia. 32Dcl3 cells transformed with the TPR-FGFR1 fusion and treated with increasing concentrations of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors ponatinib (AP24534) and infigratinib (NVP-BGJ398) displayed reduced survival and proliferation with IC50 values of 49.8 and 7.7 nM, respectively. Ponatinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is already shown to be effective against several FGFR1-fusion kinases. Infigratinib, tested only against FGFR1OP2-FGFR1 to date, is also efficient against TPR-FGFR1. Taking its high specificity for FGFRs into account, infigratinib could be beneficial for EMS patients and should be further investigated for the treatment of myeloproliferative neoplasms with FGFR1 abnormalities. PMID:26391436

  19. Evaluation of Fracture Azimuth by EM Wave and Elastic Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Wang, Q.; Liu, C.; Lu, Q.; Zeng, Z.; Liang, W.; Yu, Y.; Ren, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Fracture system plays an important role in the development of underground energy, for example enhanced geothermal system (EGS), oil shale and shale gas, etc. Therefore, it becomes more and more important to detect and evaluate the fracture system. Geophysical prospecting is an useful method to evaluate the characteristics of the subsurface fractures. Currently, micro-seismology, multi-wave seismic exploration, and electromagnetic (EM) survey are reported to be used for the purpose. We are studying a method using both elastic wave and EM wave to detect and evaluate the fracture azimuth in laboratory. First, we build a 3D horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI) model, shown in the figure 1, by dry parallel fractures system, which was constructed by plexiglass plates and papers. Then, we used the ultrasonic system to obtain reflected S-wave data. Depending on the shear wave splitting, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the algorithm of Pearson correlation coefficient. In addition, we used the full Polarimetric ultra wide band electromagnetic (FP-UWB-EM) wave System, shown in the figure 2, to obtain full polarimetric reflected EM-wave data. Depending on the rotation of the EM wave polarimetry, we evaluated the fracture azimuth by the the ration between maximum amplitude of co-polarimetric EM wave and maximum amplitude of cross-polarimetric EM wave. Finally, we used both EM-wave data and S-wave data to evaluate the fracture azimuth by the method of cross plot and statistical mathematics. To sum up, we found that FP-UWB-EM wave can be used to evaluated the fracture azimuth and is more accurate than ultrasound wave. Also joint evaluation using both data could improve the precision.

  20. Localization of Peptidases in Lactococci

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Paris S. T.; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Pos, Klaas M.; Rousseau, Micheline; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Gripon, Jean-Claude; Konings, Wil N.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of two aminopeptidases, an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, an endopeptidase, and a tripeptidase in Lactococcus lactis was studied. Polyclonal antibodies raised against each purified peptidase are specific and do not cross-react with other peptidases. Experiments were performed by immunoblotting after cell fractionation and by electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled peptidases. All peptidases were found to be intracellular. However, immunogold studies showed a peripheral labeling of the X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, the tripeptidase, and the endopeptidase. This peripheral location was further supported by the detection of these three enzymes in cell membrane fractions in which none of the two aminopeptidases was present. Images PMID:16348629

  1. A Localized Ensemble Kalman Smoother

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butala, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous geophysical inverse problems prove difficult because the available measurements are indirectly related to the underlying unknown dynamic state and the physics governing the system may involve imperfect models or unobserved parameters. Data assimilation addresses these difficulties by combining the measurements and physical knowledge. The main challenge in such problems usually involves their high dimensionality and the standard statistical methods prove computationally intractable. This paper develops and addresses the theoretical convergence of a new high-dimensional Monte-Carlo approach called the localized ensemble Kalman smoother.

  2. Local Observation in Eternal Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartle, James; Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    We consider landscape models that admit several regions where the conditions for eternal inflation hold. It is shown that one can use the no-boundary wave function to calculate small departures from homogeneity within our past light cone despite the possibility of much larger fluctuations on super horizon scales. The dominant contribution comes from the history exiting eternal inflation at the lowest value of the potential. In a class of landscape models this predicts a tensor to scalar ratio of about 10%. In this way the no-boundary wave function defines a measure for the prediction of local cosmological observations.

  3. State and Local Government Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Alexander; Rinebold, Joel; Aresta, Paul

    2012-03-30

    The State and Local Government Partnership project has built relationships between the Department of Energy (DOE), regional states, and municipalities. CCAT implemented this project using a structure that included leadership by the DOE. Outreach was undertaken through collaborative meetings, workshops, and briefings; the development of technical models and local energy plans; support for state stakeholder groups; and implementation of strategies to facilitate the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The final guidance documents provided to stakeholders consisted of individual strategic state “Roadmaps” to serve as development plans. These “Roadmaps” confirm economic impacts, identify deployment targets, and compare policies and incentives for facility development in each of the regional states. The partnerships developed through this project have improved the exchange of knowledge between state and local government stakeholders and is expected to increase the deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in early market applications, consistent with the DOE’s market transformation efforts. Technically accurate and objective information was, and continues to be, provided to improve public and stakeholder perceptions regarding the use of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Based on the “Roadmaps” and studies conducted for this project, there is the potential to generate approximately 10.75 million megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity annually from hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at potential host sites in the Northeast regional states, through the development of 1,364 to 1,818 megawatts (MW) of fuel cell electric generation capacity. Currently, the region has approximately 1,180 companies that are part of the growing hydrogen and fuel cell industry supply chain in the region. These companies are estimated to have over $1 billion in annual revenue and investment, contribute more than $51 million in annual state and local tax revenue

  4. [Diagnostic laparoscopy under local anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Grantcharov, Teodor P; Schulze, Svend

    2005-11-14

    Laparoscopy under local anaesthesia (LULA) is a safe, feasible and well-tolerated procedure. LULA has been successfully used for such outpatient gynaecological procedures as diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain and sterilisation. Single studies have indicated that LULA can be performed for diagnosis of possible intra-abdominal catastrophe in ICU patients, appendectomy and preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. LULA in abdominal surgery for diagnosis of conditions presenting with acute lower abdominal pain is being introduced at our institution. This paper describes the possible applications of LULA in current practice as well as the technical aspects of the procedure. PMID:16287520

  5. Anderson localization from classical trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Piet W.; Altland, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    We show that Anderson localization in quasi-one-dimensional conductors with ballistic electron dynamics, such as an array of ballistic chaotic cavities connected via ballistic contacts, can be understood in terms of classical electron trajectories only. At large length scales, an exponential proliferation of trajectories of nearly identical classical action generates an abundance of interference terms, which eventually leads to a suppression of transport coefficients. We quantitatively describe this mechanism in two different ways: the explicit description of transition probabilities in terms of interfering trajectories, and an hierarchical integration over fluctuations in the classical phase space of the array cavities.

  6. Hair transplant and local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-10-01

    Hair restoration is an art and a science that requires an experienced and dedicated surgeon and team to achieve consistently superior outcomes. In addition to discussion of local anesthetic in use for hair restoration, this article emphasizes the pearls and pitfalls that are involved at every phase of the procedure including judgment, hairline design, donor harvesting, recipient-site creation, graft preparation, and graft placement. Two recent advances in the field are highlighted: the use of regenerative medicine (platelet-rich plasma and ACell), and developments in follicular-unit extraction as an alternative to traditional linear donor harvesting. PMID:24093656

  7. Genetic Algorithms and Local Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Darrell

    1996-01-01

    The first part of this presentation is a tutorial level introduction to the principles of genetic search and models of simple genetic algorithms. The second half covers the combination of genetic algorithms with local search methods to produce hybrid genetic algorithms. Hybrid algorithms can be modeled within the existing theoretical framework developed for simple genetic algorithms. An application of a hybrid to geometric model matching is given. The hybrid algorithm yields results that improve on the current state-of-the-art for this problem.

  8. Nuclear scission and quantum localization.

    PubMed

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2011-09-23

    We examine nuclear scission within a fully quantum-mechanical microscopic framework, focusing on the nonlocal aspects of the theory. Using (240)Pu hot fission as an example, we discuss the identification of the fragments and the calculation of their kinetic, excitation, and interaction energies, through the localization of the orbital wave functions. We show that the disentanglement of the fragment wave functions is essential to the quantum-mechanical definition of scission and the calculation of physical observables. Finally, we discuss the fragments' prescission excitation mechanisms and give a nonadiabatic description of their evolution beyond scission. PMID:22026846

  9. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 Ω m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  10. Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522). Annual report, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Environmental Education and Development Division (EM-522) is one of three divisions within the Office of Technology Integration and Environmental Education and Development (EM-52) in Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) Office of Technology Development (EM-50). The primary design criterion for EM-522 education activities is directly related to meeting EM`s goal of environmental compliance on an accelerated basis and cleanup of the 1989 inventory of inactive sites and facilities by the year 2019. Therefore, EM-522`s efforts are directed specifically toward stimulating knowledge and capabilities to achieve the goals of EM while contributing to DOE`s overall goal of increasing scientific, mathematical, and technical literacy and competency. This report discusses fiscal year 1993 activities.

  11. Electromagnetic optimization of EMS-MAGLEV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.

    1998-07-01

    In EMS-MAGLEV high-speed transport systems, devices for propulsion, levitation and contactless on-board electric power transfer are combined in a single electromagnetic structure. The strong coupling among the windings affects the performance of each device and requires the utilization of numerical codes. The paper describes an overall optimization procedure, based on a suitable mathematical model of the system, which takes into account several items of the system performance. The parameters of the model are calculated by an automated sequence of FEM analyses of the configuration. Both the linear generator output characteristics and the propulsion force ripple are improved applying the procedure to a reference configuration. The results are compared with the results obtained by a sequence of partial optimizations operating separately on two different subsets of the geometric parameters.

  12. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1997-12-01

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD&D, as well as testing and evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. OST has organized technology management activities along focus teams for each major problem area. There are currently five focus areas: decontamination and decommissioning, tanks, subsurface contaminants, mixed waste, and plutonium. In addition, OST is pursuing research and development (R&D) that cuts across these focus areas by having applications in two or more focus areas. Currently, there are three cross-cutting programs: the robotics technology development; characterization, monitoring, and sensor technologies; and efficient separations and processing.

  13. Online EM with weight-based forgetting.

    PubMed

    Celaya, Enric; Agostini, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    In the online version of the EM algorithm introduced by Sato and Ishii ( 2000 ), a time-dependent discount factor is introduced for forgetting the effect of the old estimated values obtained with an earlier, inaccurate estimator. In their approach, forgetting is uniformly applied to the estimators of each mixture component depending exclusively on time, irrespective of the weight attributed to each unit for the observed sample. This causes an excessive forgetting in the less frequently sampled regions. To address this problem, we propose a modification of the algorithm that involves a weight-dependent forgetting, different for each mixture component, in which old observations are forgotten according to the actual weight of the new samples used to replace older values. A comparison of the time-dependent versus the weight-dependent approach shows that the latter improves the accuracy of the approximation and exhibits much greater stability. PMID:25710091

  14. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  15. A localization model to localize multiple sources using Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Joshua Rolv

    Accurate localization of a sound source in a room setting is important in both psychoacoustics and architectural acoustics. Binaural models have been proposed to explain how the brain processes and utilizes the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) of sound waves arriving at the ears of a listener in determining source location. Recent work shows that applying Bayesian methods to this problem is proving fruitful. In this thesis, pink noise samples are convolved with head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) and compared to combinations of one and two anechoic speech signals convolved with different HRTFs or binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) to simulate room positions. Through exhaustive calculation of Bayesian posterior probabilities and using a maximal likelihood approach, model selection will determine the number of sources present, and parameter estimation will result in azimuthal direction of the source(s).

  16. Localized Excitons in Carbon Nanotubes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamska, Lyudmyla; Doorn, Stephen K.; Tretiak, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    It has been historically known that unintentional defects in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may fully quench the fluorescence. However, some dopants may enhance the fluorescence by one order of magnitude thus turning the CNTs, which are excellent light absorbers, in good emitters. We have correlated the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra to the electronic structure simulations. Our experiment reveals multiple sharp asymmetric emission peaks at energies 50-300 meV red-shifted from that of the lowest bright exciton peak. Our simulations suggest an association of these peaks with deep trap states tied to different specific chemical adducts. While the wave functions of excitons in undoped CNTs are delocalized, those of the deep-trap states are strongly localized and pinned to the dopants. These findings are consistent with the experimental observation of asymmetric broadening of the deep trap emission peaks, which can result from scattering of acoustic phonons on localized excitons. Our work lays the foundation to utilize doping as a generalized route for wave function engineering and direct control of carrier dynamics in SWCNTs toward enhanced light emission properties for photonic applications.

  17. Localized control of oxidized RNA.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yu; Dhaliwal, James S; Adjibade, Pauline; Uniacke, James; Mazroui, Rachid; Zerges, William

    2015-11-15

    The oxidation of biological molecules by reactive oxygen species (ROS) can render them inactive or toxic. This includes the oxidation of RNA, which appears to underlie the detrimental effects of oxidative stress, aging and certain neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigate the management of oxidized RNA in the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our immunofluorescence microscopy results reveal that oxidized RNA (with 8-hydroxyguanine) is localized in the pyrenoid, a chloroplast microcompartment where CO2 is assimilated by the Calvin cycle enzyme Rubisco. Results of genetic analyses support a requirement for the Rubisco large subunit (RBCL), but not Rubisco, in the management of oxidized RNA. An RBCL pool that can carry out such a 'moonlighting' function is revealed by results of biochemical fractionation experiments. We also show that human (HeLa) cells localize oxidized RNA to cytoplasmic foci that are distinct from stress granules, processing bodies and mitochondria. Our results suggest that the compartmentalization of oxidized RNA management is a general phenomenon and therefore has some fundamental significance. PMID:26449969

  18. Building a local research consortium.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A

    1994-05-01

    Although state, regional, and national networking often are critical to the nurse researchers, local support that is broader than what is found in any single agency may be the foundation needed by clinicians who want "more" research than that prescribed by their current role. More formal consortiums have successfully implemented a variety of research projects and are another possibility to explore (Beaman & Strader, 1990; Bolton, 1991; Chenitz et al., 1990; Keefe et al., 1988; Thiele, 1989). Another option is some state nurses' associations that have formal research assemblies (eg., Ohio Nurses Association, Assembly of Nurse Researchers). However, forming a local, less formal group with a few expert advisors may supply the energy and momentum necessary for both using and conducting research at a grassroots level. The expert advisors should be research-trained nurses (almost always with a PhD or DNS) who are active group members. Although Fitzpatrick encouraged collaborative research and writing early in the history of Applied Nursing Research (Fitzpatrick, 1989), in 1993 approximately two thirds of the articles in Applied Nursing Research still were single authored. Nurses are not using collaboration to its fullest extent. An informal group in one community has been one way to release the scholarship that was latent in many nurses. PMID:8031105

  19. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food–rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout) between the two response alternatives in an experiment with three phases: In Phase 1, the delay on one alternative was 0 s, and the other was varied between 0 and 8 s; in Phase 2, both delays were equal and were varied from 0 to 4 s; in Phase 3, the two delays summed to 8 s, and each was varied from 1 to 7 s. The results showed that increasing delay affected local choice, measured by a pulse in preference, in the same way as decreasing magnitude, but we found also that increasing the delay at the other alternative increased local preference. This result casts doubt on the traditional view that a reinforcer strengthens a response depending only on the reinforcer's value discounted by any response–reinforcer delay. The results suggest that food guides, rather than strengthens, behavior. PMID:17465314

  20. Local area networks for radiology.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S J; Mankovich, N J; Cox, G G; Bauman, R A

    1988-11-01

    This article is a tutorial on local area networks (LAN) for radiology applications. LANs are being implemented in radiology departments for the management of text and images, replacing the inflexible point-to-point wiring between two devices (computer-to-terminal). These networks enable the sharing of computers and computer devices, reduce equipment costs, and provide improved reliability. Any LAN must include items from the following four categories: transmission medium, topology, data transmission mode, and access protocol. Media for local area networks are twisted pair, coaxial, and optical fiber cables. The topology of these networks include the star, ring, bus, tree, and circuit-switching. Data transmission modes are either analog signals or digital signals. Access protocol methods include the broadcast bus system and the ring system. A performance measurement for a LAN is the throughput rate as a function of the number of active computer nodes. Standards for LANs help to ensure that products purchased from multiple manufacturers will operate successfully. PMID:3154655

  1. Developing Photo Activated Localization Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Harald

    2015-03-01

    Photo Activated Localization Microscopy, PALM, acquires super-resolution images by activating a subset of activatable fluorescent labels and estimating the center of the each molecular label to sub-diffractive accuracy. When this process is repeated thousands of times for different subsets of molecules, then an image can be rendered from all the center coordinates of the molecules. I will describe the circuitous story of its development that began with another super-resolution technique, NSOM, developed by my colleague Eric Betzig, who imaged single molecules at room temperature, and later we spectrally resolved individual luminescent centers of quantum wells. These two observations inspired a generalized path to localization microscopy, but that path was abandoned because no really useful fluorescent labels were available. After a decade of nonacademic industrial pursuits and the subsequent freedom of unemployment, we came across a class of genetically expressible fluorescent proteins that were switchable or convertible that enabled the concept to be implemented and be biologically promising. The past ten years have been very active with many groups exploring applications and enhancements of this concept. Demonstrating significant biological relevance will be the metric if its success.

  2. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  3. Severe Local Storms Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladich, I.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Morgan, G. M.; Stel, F.

    2009-09-01

    Local storms always had a deep impact on people communities, mainly because of the severe damage caused, because of their unpredictability and, up to a few years ago, even because of the lack of knowledge and awareness on their physical origin. Because of this large impact on real life and on imagination, people needed and wanted to describe and report the occurrence of these events, giving them suited names. Often, these nouns are related to the myth developed to explain the cause of the events. In this work, a short presentation and description of the popular nouns used to describe severe local storm events in different areas of the World is given. Countries taken into account span from Italy, moving toward Africa and reaching a few communities of Native Americans. The etymology of the names gives interesting information, useful even under the anthropological point of view, on the Culture and Believes of the peoples who adopted them. This research work is the result of an underground activity carried out in the last ten years by the authors, during their contacts with students and researchers coming from different Countries and mainly met at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste.

  4. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  5. Hardy's test for local realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quynh; Dregli, Aurelio

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrated the violation of Bell inequality using entangled photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experiment is based on a local realism test originally proposed by Lucien Hardy. Polarized entangled photons is produced in down-conversion through a pair of beta barium borate crystals. Polarization is adjusted by half wave plates and quartz plates. Single photons travel down two separate paths, each pass through a half-wave plate and a broad band polarizing beam splitter. Light from the beam splitter is collected by lens and focused into optic fibers that direct light into a single photon counting module. Coincidence counting is done using time-to-amplitude converter/single-channel-analyzer units. The probabilities in Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality is calculated by the ratio of the measured coincidence counts on the transmitted laser beams to the total number of coincidence. The counting is done by a LabVIEW program. We find the data to violate local realism by 30 standard deviation. The experiment is based on straight forward quantum mechanical calculations and experimental techniques more accessible to undergraduate students than other methods of testing Bell inequalities.

  6. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool. PMID:26431367

  7. Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Castrigiano, Domenico P. L. Leiseifer, Andreas D.

    2015-07-15

    Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.

  8. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.

    1998-11-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15{percent}/{radical} (E) {circle_plus}0.7{percent} with non-linearity less than 1{percent} in a energy range of 5{endash}180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2{percent} with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0{percent} with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}C{sub s} Source was stable within 1{percent} in the period of 8 months. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. E.M. and Hadronic Shower Simulation with FLUKA

    SciTech Connect

    Battistoni, G.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ranft, J.; Rubbia, A.; Sala, P.R.; /INFN, Milan /SLAC /CERN /Siegen U. /Zurich, ETH

    2005-10-03

    A description of the main features of e.m. and hadronic shower simulation models used in the FLUKA code is summarized and some recent applications are discussed. The general status of the FLUKA project is also reported.

  10. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  11. 7 CFR 759.6 - EM to be made available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture under the Plant Protection Act or the animal quarantine laws, as defined in section 2509 of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, automatically authorizes EM for production...

  12. Structural Convergence between CryoEM and NMR Reveals Novel Intersubunit Interactions Critical for HIV-1 Capsid Function

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, In-Ja L.; Meng, Xin; Jung, Jinwon; Zhao, Gongpu; Yang, Ruifeng; Ahn, Jinwoo; Shi, Jiong; Concel, Jason; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun; Gronenborn, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Mature HIV-1 particles contain conical-shaped capsids that enclose the viral RNA genome and perform essential functions in the virus life cycle. Previous structural analysis of two and three-dimensional arrays provided a molecular model of the capsid protein (CA) hexamer and revealed three interfaces. Here, we present a cryoEM study of a tubular assembly of CA and a high-resolution NMR structure of the CA C-terminal domain (CTD) dimer. In the solution dimer structure, the monomers exhibit different relative orientations compared to previous X-ray structures. The solution structure fits extremely well into the EM density map, suggesting that the dimer interface is retained in the assembled CA. We also identified a novel CTD-CTD interface at the local three-fold axis in the cryoEM map and confirmed its functional importance by mutagenesis. In the tubular assembly, CA intermolecular interfaces vary slightly, accommodating the asymmetry present in tubes. This provides the necessary plasticity to allow for controlled virus capsid dis/assembly. PMID:19914170

  13. Transport and mixing of eolian sand from local sources resulting in variations in grain size in a gypsum dune field, White Sands, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Richard P.; Gill, Thomas E.; Jones, Slade B.

    2016-03-01

    The White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico (USA), provides a unique opportunity to study sources and eolian transport of sand. End member mixing analysis provides unbiased correlation of the grain size distributions of populations that mix sands from four different local source surface types. Textural differences between sources allow local transport paths to be deduced. In total, 1214 surface samples from 10 dunes and 2 downwind-oriented transects were collected. Neither elevation on the dune, lee or stoss location nor distance downwind correlated with mean grain size, coarsest 10% (D90), or sorting. Instead, grain size distributions are controlled by mixing of locally sourced sand populations. Adjacent dunes can have different mean grain sizes, resulting from different local source populations. Local within-dune and between-dune variability resulting from different sand sources dominates any larger-scale trends across and within dunes. Four sand populations are identified, based on microscopically observable differences in grain size, shape and angularity. Each correlates with high loading of a different statistical factor, derived from End Member Mixing Analysis. End Member 1 (EM1) correlates with well-sorted populations of finer-grained, equant, rounded sands. EM2 correlates with samples that contain moderately sorted populations containing angular blades and crystal aggregates associated with erosional interdunes. EM3 is associated with samples of moderately to poorly sorted fine-grained sand containing fine sand-sized gypsum needles collected from areas of vegetated interdunes, and EM4 is associated with moderately well sorted coarse- and very coarse-grained sands collected from granule ripples. These results suggest that downwind mixing of different populations and segregation by different depositional processes influence grain size distributions in the dune field, rather than by dune-scale or erg-scale transport and sorting.

  14. 3D MRI brain image segmentation based on region restricted EM algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Fan, Jianping

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm of 3D human brain tissue segmentation and classification in magnetic resonance image (MRI) based on region restricted EM algorithm (RREM). The RREM is a level set segmentation method while the evolution of the contours was driven by the force field composed by the probability density functions of the Gaussian models. Each tissue is modeled by one or more Gaussian models restricted by free shaped contour so that the Gaussian models are adaptive to the local intensities. The RREM is guaranteed to be convergency and achieving the local minimum. The segmentation avoids to be trapped in the local minimum by the split and merge operation. A fuzzy rule based classifier finally groups the regions belonging to the same tissue and forms the segmented 3D image of white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) which are of major interest in numerous applications. The presented method can be extended to segment brain images with tumor or the images having part of the brain removed with the adjusted classifier.

  15. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  16. Headphone localization of speech stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, three dimensional acoustic display systems have been developed that synthesize virtual sound sources over headphones based on filtering by Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs), the direction-dependent spectral changes caused primarily by the outer ears. Here, 11 inexperienced subjects judged the apparent spatial location of headphone-presented speech stimuli filtered with non-individualized HRTFs. About half of the subjects 'pulled' their judgements toward either the median or the lateral-vertical planes, and estimates were almost always elevated. Individual differences were pronounced for the distance judgements; 15 to 46 percent of stimuli were heard inside the head with the shortest estimates near the median plane. The results infer that most listeners can obtain useful azimuth information from speech stimuli filtered by nonindividualized RTFs. Measurements of localization error and reversal rates are comparable with a previous study that used broadband noise stimuli.

  17. Localized pustulosis induced by betalactams.

    PubMed

    Novalbos, A; Bombín, C; Figueredo, E; Lluch, M; Sastre, J

    2000-01-01

    Localized forms of pustular drug eruptions related to antibiotics are uncommon and their mechanism is still unknown. We describe herein a patient who developed numerous pin-head pustules without erythema in the peribuccal area after ingestion of ceftibuten and amoxicillin. The relationship with these drugs was confirmed by single-blind oral challenges. The following tests were performed: prick and intradermal tests with benzylpenicilloyl polylysine, minor determinant mixture, benzylpenicillin and amoxicillin; patch tests were also carried out with benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, cefazolin, ceftibuten and cefaclor. All cutaneous tests were negative. Controlled single-blind challenge tests were performed with amoxicillin, cefadroxil, ceftibuten, cefuroxime, cefaclor, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin. All betalactam antibiotics tested gave a positive reaction, with good tolerance of other antibiotics; this would appear to indicate a specific mechanism of hypersensitivity and not an unspecific reaction to wide spectrum antibiotics. PMID:10923595

  18. Anticipation of Local Epidemics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivy, Ivan

    2008-10-01

    Local epidemics are systems where temporary elements (infected ones) are distributed over a hexagonal or rectangular network of permanent elements (humans). Their relation of being neighbors is considered to be constant. The systems of this type can occur in rest homes, institutes of social care, nursery schools, summer camps, prisons, etc. The process of the infection propagation depends on the neighborhood relation and on the actual distance of the neighbors. It is influenced by delays during the transitive affecting the people and by random effects, the size of which can be diminished by the intervention of health care service. The anticipation of the health care intervention effects was supported by simulation models implemented by means of the object-oriented programming.

  19. String fluid in local equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubring, Daniel; Vanchurin, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    We study the solutions of string fluid equations under the assumption of a local equilibrium which was previously obtained in the context of the kinetic theory. We show that the fluid can be foliated into noninteracting submanifolds whose equations of motion are exactly that of the wiggly strings considered previously by Vilenkin and Carter. In a special case of negligible statistical variance in either the left- or the right-moving directions of microscopic strings, the submanifolds are described by the action of a null-current-carrying chiral string. When both variances vanish the submanifolds are described by the Nambu-Goto action and the string fluid reduces to the string dust introduced by Stachel.

  20. Local hadron calibration with ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, Paola; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    2011-04-01

    The method of Local Hadron Calibration is used in ATLAS as one of the two major calibration schemes for the reconstruction of jets and missing transverse energy. The method starts from noise suppressed clusters and corrects them for non-compensation effects and for losses due to noise threshold and dead material. Jets are reconstructed using the calibrated clusters and are then corrected for out of cone effects. The performance of the corrections applied to the calorimeter clusters is tested with detailed GEANT4 information. Results obtained with this procedure are discussed both for single pion simulations and for di-jet simulations. The calibration scheme is validated on data, by comparing the calibrated cluster energy in data with Mote Carlo simulations. Preliminary results obtained with GeV collision data are presented. The agreement between data and Monte Carlo is within 5% for the final cluster scale.

  1. Exploring Mars using local resources

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, S.; McKay, C.; Kaplan, D.; Rapp, D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper takes the reader on a {ital second} human expedition to Mars. Following confirmation that life once existed on Mars during the first human mission launched in 2018, crew members of our subsequent mission, assisted by robotic devices, spend two years on Mars pursuing three goals: (1) continue the search for further evidence of ancient life and what may still exist, (2) safely endure their extended stay on Mars, and (3) lay the foundation for the eventual human settlement of the planet. A cornerstone in achieving these three goals, as discussed in the paper, will be the utilization of local resources as we further learn to {open_quote}{open_quote}live off the land{close_quote}{close_quote}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Local fat treatments: classification proposal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as "fat reduction methods." A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, "reversibility," "membrane disruption or inflammation," and "action selectivity," have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  3. Local intensity adaptive image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of preprocessing for machine vision is to extract intrinsic target properties. The most important properties ordinarily are structure and reflectance. Illumination in space, however, is a significant problem as the extreme range of light intensity, stretching from deep shadow to highly reflective surfaces in direct sunlight, impairs the effectiveness of standard approaches to machine vision. To overcome this critical constraint, an image coding scheme is being investigated which combines local intensity adaptivity, image enhancement, and data compression. It is very effective under the highly variant illumination that can exist within a single frame or field of view, and it is very robust to noise at low illuminations. Some of the theory and salient features of the coding scheme are reviewed. Its performance is characterized in a simulated space application, the research and development activities are described.

  4. Multi-directional local search

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces multi-directional local search, a metaheuristic for multi-objective optimization. We first motivate the method and present an algorithmic framework for it. We then apply it to several known multi-objective problems such as the multi-objective multi-dimensional knapsack problem, the bi-objective set packing problem and the bi-objective orienteering problem. Experimental results show that our method systematically provides solution sets of comparable quality with state-of-the-art methods applied to benchmark instances of these problems, within reasonable CPU effort. We conclude that the proposed algorithmic framework is a viable option when solving multi-objective optimization problems. PMID:25140071

  5. Local fat treatments: classification proposal

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The poor understanding of the real, intimate action mechanisms behind any aesthetic procedures is a huge problem for many Aesthetic physicians. In addition, nomenclature of and regarding any procedure has become a true barrier when speaking about medical knowledge in the Aesthetic Medicine field since marketing and science often collide one another. Medical procedures for localized fat reduction are very different from each other and it is, at least, inaccurate to refer to all of them plainly as “fat reduction methods.” A specific classification has become urgent and its categories should be able to imply what each method entails. For this classification proposal, “reversibility,” “membrane disruption or inflammation,” and “action selectivity,” have been the selected criteria. PMID:27144093

  6. NASA EM Followup of LIGO-Virgo Candidate Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Lindy L.

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy for a follow-up of LIGO-Virgo candidate events using offline survey data from several NASA high-energy photon instruments aboard RXTE, Swift, and Fermi. Time and sky-location information provided by the GW trigger allows for a targeted search for prompt and afterglow EM signals. In doing so, we expect to be sensitive to signals which are too weak to be publicly reported as astrophysical EM events.

  7. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Ida Iacono, Maria; Angelone, Leonardo M; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-21

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria. PMID:27223274

  8. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Iacono, Maria Ida; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-01

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria.

  9. Localization of quantum Bernoulli noises

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Caishi; Zhang, Jihong

    2013-10-15

    The family (∂{sub k},∂{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} of annihilation and creation operators acting on square integrable functionals of a Bernoulli process Z= (Z{sub k}){sub k⩾0} can be interpreted as quantum Bernoulli noises. In this note we consider the operator family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0}, where ℓ{sub k}=∂{sub k}E{sub k} with E{sub k} being the conditional expectation (operator) given σ-field σ(Z{sub j}; 0 ⩽j⩽k). We show that ℓ{sub k} (resp. ℓ{sub k}{sup *}) is essentially a kind of localization of the annihilation operator ∂{sub k} (resp. creation operator ∂{sub k}{sup *}). We examine properties of the family (ℓ{sub k},ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} and prove, among other things, that ℓ{sub k} and ℓ{sub k}{sup *} satisfy a local canonical anti-communication relation and (ℓ{sub k}{sup *}){sub k≥0} forms a mutually orthogonal operator sequence although each ℓ{sub k} is not a projection operator. We find that the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} converges in the strong operator topology for each bounded operator X acting on square integrable functionals of Z. In particular we get an explicit sum of the operator series Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}ℓ{sub k}. A useful norm estimate on Σ{sub k=0}{sup ∞}ℓ{sub k}{sup *}Xℓ{sub k} is also obtained. Finally we show applications of our main results to quantum dynamical semigroups and quantum probability.

  10. Golgi Localization of Syne-1

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Lisa Lucio; Fan, Jun; Chu, Stephen; Winnick, Shawn; Beck, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously identified a Golgi-localized spectrin isoform by using an antibody to the β-subunit of erythrocyte spectrin. In this study, we show that a screen of a λgt11 expression library resulted in the isolation of an ∼5-kb partial cDNA from a Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line, which encoded a polypeptide of 1697 amino acids with low, but detectable, sequence homology to spectrin (37%). A blast search revealed that this clone overlaps with the 5′ end of a recently identified spectrin family member Syne-1B/Nesprin-1β, an alternately transcribed gene with muscle-specific forms that bind acetylcholine receptor and associate with the nuclear envelope. By comparing the sequence of the MDBK clone with sequence data from the human genome database, we have determined that this cDNA represents a central portion of a very large gene (∼500 kb), encoding an ∼25-kb transcript that we refer to as Syne-1. Syne-1 encodes a large polypeptide (8406 amino acids) with multiple spectrin repeats and a region at its amino terminus with high homology to the actin binding domains of conventional spectrins. Golgi localization for this spectrin-like protein was demonstrated by expression of epitope-tagged fragments in MDBK and COS cells, identifying two distinct Golgi binding sites, and by immunofluorescence microscopy by using several different antibody preparations. One of the Golgi binding domains on Syne-1 acts as a dominant negative inhibitor that alters the structure of the Golgi complex, which collapses into a condensed structure near the centrosome in transfected epithelial cells. We conclude that the Syne-1 gene is expressed in a variety of forms that are multifunctional and are capable of functioning at both the Golgi and the nuclear envelope, perhaps linking the two organelles during muscle differentiation. PMID:12808039

  11. Molecular insights into intracellular RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Localization of mRNAs to specific destinations within a cell or an embryo is important for local control of protein expression. mRNA localization is well-known to function in very large and polarized cells such as neurons, and to facilitate embryonic patterning during early development. However, recent genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA localization is more widely utilized than previously thought to control gene expression. Not only can transcripts be localized asymmetrically within the cytoplasm, they are often also localized to symmetrically-distributed organelles. Recent genetic, cytological, and biochemical studies have begun to provide molecular insight into how cells select RNAs for transport, move them to specific destinations, and control their translation. This review will summarize recent insights into the mechanisms and function of RNA localization with a specific emphasis on molecular insights into each step in the mRNA localization process. PMID:23351709

  12. Localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Wada, Kojiro; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Localized neurofibromas are rare in the orbit and, unlike the more common plexiform neurofibromas, are not typically associated with von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. We present a rare case of localized neurofibromas in the bilateral orbits. PMID:24426488

  13. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  14. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  15. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  16. Method for localizing heating in tumor tissue

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; McCabe, Charles W.

    1977-04-12

    A method for a localized tissue heating of tumors is disclosed. Localized radio frequency current fields are produced with specific electrode configurations. Several electrode configurations are disclosed, enabling variations in electrical and thermal properties of tissues to be exploited.

  17. 32 CFR 1657.2 - Local boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... President. The Director shall prescribe the geographic jurisdiction of each board, and designate or... PROCESSING § 1657.2 Local boards. The Director shall establish local boards with jurisdiction to...

  18. Climate adaptation: Cultural knowledge and local risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    A focus on African American communities on the Eastern Shore of Maryland highlights the ways that local cultural knowledge differs from place to place, developing understanding of local climate risks and resources for adaptation.

  19. Think Globally, Act Locally (Focus on Teaching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesper, Joan F.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a project, carried out jointly between a business communication class and a local chamber of commerce, that brings students into partnership with international merchants in the local community. (SR)

  20. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Littlewood, David John; Silling, Stewart A.; Mitchell, John A.; Seleson, Pablo D.; Bond, Stephen D.; Parks, Michael L.; Turner, Daniel Z.; Burnett, Damon J.; Ostien, Jakob; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-09-01

    Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for

  1. EM Telemetry Tool for Deep Well Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Gabelmann

    2005-11-15

    This final report discusses the successful development and testing of a deep operational electromagnetic (EM) telemetry system, produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. This new electromagnetic telemetry system provides a wireless communication link between sensors deployed deep within oil and gas wells and data acquisition equipment located on the earth's surface. EM based wireless telemetry is a highly appropriate technology for oil and gas exploration in that it avoids the need for thousands of feet of wired connections. In order to achieve the project performance objectives, significant improvements over existing EM telemetry systems were made. These improvements included the development of new technologies that have improved the reliability of the communications link while extending operational depth. A key element of the new design is the incorporation of a data-fusion methodology which enhances the communication receiver's ability to extract very weak signals from large amounts of ambient environmental noise. This innovative data-fusion receiver based system adapts advanced technologies, not normally associated with low-frequency communications, and makes them work within the harsh drilling environments associated with the energy exploration market. Every element of a traditional EM telemetry system design, from power efficiency to reliability, has been addressed. The data fusion based EM telemetry system developed during this project is anticipated to provide an EM tool capability that will impact both onshore and offshore oil and gas exploration operations, for conventional and underbalanced drilling applications.

  2. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  3. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  4. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  5. 33 CFR 238.9 - Local cooperation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local cooperation. 238.9 Section 238.9 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Local cooperation. (a) Cost sharing and other provisions of local cooperation shall be in...

  6. 34 CFR 200.30 - Local review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Local review. 200.30 Section 200.30 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.30 Local review. (a) Each... described in § 200.2 to review annually the progress of each school served under subpart A of this part...

  7. Closed locally minimal nets on tetrahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Strelkova, Nataliya P

    2011-01-31

    Closed locally minimal networks are in a sense a generalization of closed geodesics. A complete classification is known of closed locally minimal networks on regular (and generally any equihedral) tetrahedra. In the present paper certain necessary and certain sufficient conditions are given for at least one closed locally minimal network to exist on a given non-equihedral tetrahedron. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  8. 50 CFR 216.86 - Local regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Local regulations. 216.86 Section 216.86 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.86 Local regulations. Local regulations will be published from...

  9. 46 CFR 172.205 - Local damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Local damage. 172.205 Section 172.205 Shipping COAST... Subchapter O of This Chapter § 172.205 Local damage. (a) Each tankship must be shown by design calculations... operation assuming that local damage extending 30 inches (76 cm) normal to the hull shell is applied at...

  10. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  11. Local Government Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The local government cable access channel is essentially a television station completely controlled by the local government. It differs from a local broadcast television station by being able to reach only those places which are connected to the cable system, having much less programming distribution costs, and having the capacity to deliver…

  12. Gaussianity and localization of N -qubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaeta, M.; Muñoz, C.; Klimov, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze collective properties of N -qubit states. In particular, we exhaustively discuss the localization aspect of distributions in the measurement space and introduce the concept of Gaussian states in the macroscopic limit. The effect of local shifts on the localization and Gaussianity is analyzed.

  13. Localism: The Changing Picture for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing picture on localism and the government's focus on local economic growth have significant implications for adult learning and skills providers in England. Government now sees a sense of place as key to economic growth and recognises the need for a renewed debate on how business and state interact with localities. There is a…

  14. Local Service Learning in Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2016-01-01

    The local knowledge is simply integrated in education and learning process. This study aims to promote local knowledge in school through service learning. The learning process is employed herbal plants to reinforce students learn how to sustain local knowledge with modern life and 21st century classroom. Participants consisted of 42 pre-service…

  15. Diverse Local Literacies and Standardizing Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomer, Randy; Maloch, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The authors challenge educators to speculate on how to address local issues in a world that is increasingly diverse and global. This Research and Policy section emphasizes the seemingly paradoxical importance of both local and global literacy, illuminating the tension between the preservation of local literacy and a global standardization of…

  16. Localization: A Career for the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope J.

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 2000, the Localization Generalist Certificate Program at Austin Community College (ACC) was the recipient of the 2004 ClientSide Excellence Award in the category of Localization Educational Services. It is the only community college program of its kind and one of only a handful of programs worldwide. What is localization and why is it…

  17. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  18. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means a: (a... district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of governments, whether or...

  19. 2 CFR 200.64 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Local government. 200.64 Section 200.64... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.64 Local government. Local government means any unit of government within a state, including a: (a) County; (b) Borough; (c) Municipality;...

  20. 2 CFR 25.340 - Local government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local government. 25.340 Section 25.340... IDENTIFIER AND CENTRAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION Definitions § 25.340 Local government. Local government means...; (i) Special district; (j) School district; (k) Intrastate district; (l) Council of...

  1. Art and Place: The Local Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Stresses the importance of local arts, focusing on encouraging modern dance at the local level. Addresses issues such as audience participation, sense of ownership and community, and accessibility that accompanies local art. Considers the implications for K-12 modern dance education. (CMK)

  2. Colleges Chew on Local-Food Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Nationally, students have pushed hard for local-food programs, and the amount of local produce in the dining hall is sometimes used as a litmus test for a college's overall commitment to sustainability. Local food has been a hot topic in popular culture in recent years, thanks in part to books by Michael Pollan and Barbara Kingsolver, movies like…

  3. 10 CFR 440.13 - Local applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local applications. 440.13 Section 440.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.13 Local applications. (a) The Support Office Director shall give written notice to all local applicants throughout...

  4. 10 CFR 440.13 - Local applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local applications. 440.13 Section 440.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.13 Local applications. (a) The Support Office Director shall give written notice to all local applicants throughout...

  5. WE-A-17A-03: Catheter Digitization in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy with the Assistance of An Electromagnetic (EM) Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Damato, AL; Bhagwat, MS; Buzurovic, I; Devlin, PM; Friesen, S; Hansen, JL; Kapur, T; Lee, LJ; Mehrtash, A; Nguyen, PL; O'Farrell, D; Wang, W; Viswanathan, AN; Cormack, RA

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of a system using EM tracking, postprocessing and error-detection algorithms for measuring brachytherapy catheter locations and for detecting errors and resolving uncertainties in treatment-planning catheter digitization. Methods: An EM tracker was used to localize 13 catheters in a clinical surface applicator (A) and 15 catheters inserted into a phantom (B). Two pairs of catheters in (B) crossed paths at a distance <2 mm, producing an undistinguishable catheter artifact in that location. EM data was post-processed for noise reduction and reformatted to provide the dwell location configuration. CT-based digitization was automatically extracted from the brachytherapy plan DICOM files (CT). EM dwell digitization error was characterized in terms of the average and maximum distance between corresponding EM and CT dwells per catheter. The error detection rate (detected errors / all errors) was calculated for 3 types of errors: swap of two catheter numbers; incorrect catheter number identification superior to the closest position between two catheters (mix); and catheter-tip shift. Results: The averages ± 1 standard deviation of the average and maximum registration error per catheter were 1.9±0.7 mm and 3.0±1.1 mm for (A) and 1.6±0.6 mm and 2.7±0.8 mm for (B). The error detection rate was 100% (A and B) for swap errors, mix errors, and shift >4.5 mm (A) and >5.5 mm (B); errors were detected for shifts on average >2.0 mm (A) and >2.4 mm (B). Both mix errors associated with undistinguishable catheter artifacts were detected and at least one of the involved catheters was identified. Conclusion: We demonstrated the use of an EM tracking system for localization of brachytherapy catheters, detection of digitization errors and resolution of undistinguishable catheter artifacts. Automatic digitization may be possible with a registration between the imaging and the EM frame of reference. Research funded by the Kaye Family Award 2012.

  6. Analysis of EM dataset with several sensor configurations obtained by the loop-loop EM survey on magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI, J.; Yi, M. J.; Sasaki, Y.; Son, J.; Nam, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most of mineral mines in Korea are located in rugged mountain area embedding small-scale anomalies. Loop-loop EM survey system can be a better choice for exploring those mines because no ground contact is required and portable loops are freely positioned. Survey design is very important for detecting small amount of mineral deposits efficiently and spatial limits of survey lines should be considered. Along a same survey line, surveys with different separations between a transmitter and a receiver are applicable. EM responses are calculated in a layered-earth model embedding magnetic anomalies and analyses considering electric conductivity and magnetic permeability are made for the loop-loop EM survey data. Combining EM dataset with multi-frequency and multi-separation slightly enhanced a reconstructed image. Loop-loop EM survey using PROMOIS system was conducted on a small magnetite mine. Inversion with and without considering magnetic permeability was conducted for EM data with multi-frequency and multi-separation between a transmitter and a receiver.

  7. The local dark matter density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, J. I.

    2014-06-01

    I review current efforts to measure the mean density of dark matter near the Sun. This encodes valuable dynamical information about our Galaxy and is also of great importance for ‘direct detection’ dark matter experiments. I discuss theoretical expectations in our current cosmology; the theory behind mass modelling of the Galaxy; and I show how combining local and global measures probes the shape of the Milky Way dark matter halo and the possible presence of a ‘dark disc’. I stress the strengths and weaknesses of different methodologies and highlight the continuing need for detailed tests on mock data—particularly in the light of recently discovered evidence for disequilibria in the Milky Way disc. I collate the latest measurements of ρdm and show that, once the baryonic surface density contribution Σb is normalized across different groups, there is remarkably good agreement. Compiling data from the literature, I estimate Σb = 54.2 ± 4.9 M⊙pc-2, where the dominant source of uncertainty is in the H i gas contribution. Assuming this contribution from the baryons, I highlight several recent measurements of ρdm in order of increasing data complexity and prior, and, correspondingly, decreasing formal error bars. Comparing these measurements with spherical extrapolations from the Milky Way’s rotation curve, I show that the Milky Way is consistent with having a spherical dark matter halo at R0 ˜ 8 kpc. The very latest measures of ρdm based on ˜10 000 stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey appear to favour little halo flattening at R0, suggesting that the Galaxy has a rather weak dark matter disc, with a correspondingly quiescent merger history. I caution, however, that this result hinges on there being no large systematics that remain to be uncovered in the SDSS data, and on the local baryonic surface density being Σb ˜ 55 M⊙pc-2. I conclude by discussing how the new Gaia satellite will be transformative. We will obtain much tighter

  8. Atom localization with double-cascade configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, Maksim Yu; Efremova, Ekaterina A.; Rozhdestvensky, Yuri V.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) atom localization of a four-level system in a double-cascade configuration. We demonstrate the possibility of 1D localization in the field of a standing wave, 2D localization in the field of two standing waves and 2D localization only in the field of running waves by using different configurations of driven waves on transitions. In addition, for each configuration we reached a high-precision atom localization in one of the states at scales much smaller than the wavelength of the incident optical radiation.

  9. Texture classification by local rank correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, D.; Subbarao, M.; Davis, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to texture classification based on local rank correlation is proposed here. Its performance is compared with Laws' method which uses local convolution with feature masks. In the experiments, texture samples are classified based on their distribution of local statistics, either rank correlations or convolutions. The new method achieves generally optimal classification rates. It appears to be more robust because local order statistics are unaffected by local sample differences due to monotonic shifts of texture gray values and are less sensitive to noise.

  10. Increased localization precision by interference fringe analysis.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Carl G; Meiri, Amihai; Martineau, Jason; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gerton, Jordan M; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-06-21

    We report a novel optical single-emitter-localization methodology that uses the phase induced by path length differences in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to improve localization precision. Using information theory, we demonstrate that the localization capability of a modified Fourier domain signal generated by photon interference enables a more precise localization compared to a standard Gaussian intensity distribution of the corresponding point-spread function. The calculations were verified by numerical simulations and an exemplary experiment, where the centers of metal nanoparticles were localized to a precision of 3 nm. PMID:25999093

  11. DOE EM industry programs robotics development

    SciTech Connect

    Staubly, R.; Kothari, V.

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) manages an aggressive program for RD and D, as well as testing and evaluation for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental Management (EM) organization. The goal is to develop new and improved environmental restoration and waste management technologies to clean up the inventory of the DOE weapons complex faster, safer, and cheaper than is possible with currently available technologies. Robotic systems reduce worker exposure to the absolute minimum, while providing proven, cost-effective, and, for some applications, the only acceptable technique for addressing challenging problems. Development of robotic systems for remote operations occurs in three main categories: tank waste characterization and retrieval; decontamination and dismantlement; and characterization, mapping, and inspection systems. In addition, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has some other projects which fall under the heading of supporting R and D. The central objective of all FETC robotic projects is to make robotic systems more attractive by reducing costs and health risks associated with the deployment of robotic technologies in the cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. This will be accomplished through development of robots that are cheaper, faster, safer, and more reliable, as well as more straightforward to modify/adapt and more intuitive to operate with autonomous capabilities and intelligent controls that prevent accidents and optimize task execution.

  12. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  13. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. )

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  14. Active localization of virtual sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Hebert, C.; Cicinelli, J. G.

    1991-06-01

    We describe a virtual sound display built around a 12 MHz 80286 microcomputer and special purpose analog hardware. The display implements most of the primary cues for sound localization in the ear-level plane. Static information about direction is conveyed by interaural time differences and, for frequencies above 1800 Hz, by head sound shadow (interaural intensity differences) and pinna sound shadow. Static information about distance is conveyed by variation in sound pressure (first power law) for all frequencies, by additional attenuation in the higher frequencies (simulating atmospheric absorption), and by the proportion of direct to reverberant sound. When the user actively locomotes, the changing angular position of the source occasioned by head rotations provides further information about direction and the changing angular velocity produced by head translations (motion parallax) provides further information about distance. Judging both from informal observations by users and from objective data obtained in an experiment on homing to virtual and real sounds, we conclude that simple displays such as this are effective in creating the perception of external sounds to which subjects can home with accuracy and ease.

  15. Localized structures in gaseous combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Edgar; Lo Jacono, David; Bergeon, Alain

    2015-11-01

    We consider a flame between a pair of porous walls at x = +/- 1 that allow fuel and oxidizer to diffuse into the burn region from opposite sides. The burn process is described by a binary one-step process of Arrhenius type. The heat released is redistributed via radiation. Convection is ignored. In 1D the low and high temperature states are connected by an S-shaped branch with a fold at low Damköhler number below which extinction takes place. Various instabilities occur on the upper (flame) branch leading to different time-dependent but 1D flames. In 2D the situation is dramatically modified: near the extinction region the burn front breaks up into structures that are localized in the direction along the front, with multiple branches of such states bifurcating from the fold. These correspond to states with n = 1 , 2 , ⋯ identical and equispaced hotspots. Further bifurcations generate states in which the hotspots are nonidentical and separated by unequal distances. All these states are present in the same parameter interval, implying great sensitivity of the system to initial conditions.

  16. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  17. Improved Measure of Local Chirality

    SciTech Connect

    Terrence Draper; Andrei Alexandru; Ying Chen; Shao-Jing Dong; Ivan Horvath; Frank Lee; Nilmani Mathur; Harry B. Thacker; Sonali Tamhankar; Jianbo Zhang

    2004-06-01

    It is popular to probe the structure of the QCD vacuum indirectly by studying individual fermion eigenmodes, because this provides a natural way to filter out UV fluctuations. The double-peaking in the distribution of the local chiral orientation parameter (X) has been offered as evidence, by some, in support of a particular model of the vacuum. Here we caution that the X-distribution peaking varies significantly with various versions of the definition of X. Furthermore, each distribution varies little from that resulting from a random reshuffling of the left-handed (and independently the right-handed) fields, which destroys any QCD-induced left-right correlation; that is, the double-peaking is mostly a phase-space effect. We propose a new universal definition of the X parameter whose distribution is uniform for randomly reshuffled fields. Any deviations from uniformity for actual data can then be directly attributable to QCD-induced dynamics. We find that the familiar double peak disappears.

  18. Study of PTEN subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Bononi, Angela; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key regulator of a plethora of cellular processes that are crucial in cancer development. Through its lipid phosphatase activity PTEN suppresses the PI3K/AKT pathway to govern cell proliferation, growth, migration, energy metabolism and death. The repertoire of roles fulfilled by PTEN has recently been expanded to include crucial functions in the nucleus, where it favors genomic stability and restrains cell cycle progression, as well as protein phosphatase dependent activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where PTEN interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and regulates Ca2+ release from the ER and sensitivity to apoptosis. Indeed, PTEN is present in definite subcellular locations where it performs distinct functions acting on specific effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advantages in methods to study PTEN subcellular localization and the distinct biological functions of PTEN in different cellular compartments. A deeper understanding of PTEN’s compartmentalized-functions will guide the rational design of novel therapies. PMID:25312582

  19. Macroecology of local insect communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Oliver; McGavin, George C.

    2000-01-01

    The inter-relationships between animal body weight, range size, species richness and abundance are currently the basis of macroecology. Using 41 099 insects sampled from 31 Acacia tree canopies in north-east Tanzania, we first documented the basic macroecological patterns. The relationship between body weight and both species richness and abundance was polygonal with the highest insect species richness and abundance occurring at intermediate body weights. Across individual tree communities, the most statistically robust relationships were found between range size, abundance and species richness and they were all linear. In a second part, we focused on the positive abundance-range size relationship and we could test predictions of six of the eight proposed hypotheses to explain this widely documented pattern of community structure. The relationship is most likely explained by the metapopulation hypothesis stating that with more patches being occupied, local abundance in a given patch increases due to a higher rate of immigration from nearby patches. In addition, we found high slopes for the species-area relationship, typical of island systems and thus it seems reasonable to characterise Acacia trees in the savannah as habitat islands for insects.

  20. Coordinating locally 'owned' treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Collier, J; Picton, C; Littlejohns, P

    1994-01-01

    South West Thames Regional Health Authority established and commissioned a regional guidelines unit to coordinate the introduction of a set of treatment guidelines on the management of common medical emergencies into all the acute intaking National Health Service (NHS) hospitals throughout the region. All hospitals were offered a set of template guidelines to be used at their discretion for producing their own customised equivalent. They were also offered full typing and production facilities, together with printing costs if publication was achieved by a target deadline (1 August 1993). In 11 of the 14 NHS hospitals guidelines were available to hospital staff by the target deadline, and one set was produced for a non-NHS hospital. In two hospitals the target date was not met, and one other declined to take part. As part of the project the unit assessed the extent to which the published guidelines were adapted to meet the requirements of each individual hospital. The template offered guidelines on 34 topic titles. No hospital used all core titles of the original template; titles were omitted or replaced in some, and added in others. Where the original guideline titles were used, there was almost always some customisation--changes in sentence structure, names or contact numbers, alterations in drugs and doses or the addition or omission of entire sections. By using an established resource, sets of customised, locally determined treatment guidelines were introduced with relative ease into most of the acute hospitals in a UK health region. PMID:7884707

  1. Global versus local adsorption selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Françoise; Marloie, Gael; Markovits, Alexis; Ellinger, Yves

    2015-10-01

    The origin of the enantiomeric excess found in the amino acids present in the organic matter of carbonaceous meteorites is still unclear. Selective adsorption of one of the two enantiomers existing after a racemic formation could be part of the answer. Hereafter we report a comparative study of the adsorption of the R and S enantiomers of α-alanine and lactic acid on the hydroxylated { } chiral surface of α-quartz using numerical simulation techniques. Structurally different adsorption sites were found with opposite R versus S selectivity for the same molecule-surface couple, raising the problem of whether to consider adsorption as a local property or as a global response characteristic of the whole surface. To deal with the second term of this alternative, a statistical approach was designed, based on the occurrence of each adsorption site whose energy was calculated using first principle periodic density functional theory. It was found that R-alanine and S-lactic acid are the enantiomers preferentially adsorbed, even if the adsorption process on the quartz { } surface stays with a disappointingly poor enantio-selectivity. Nevertheless, it highlighted the important point that considering adsorption as a global property changes perspectives in the search for more efficient enantio-selective supports and more generally changes the way to apprehend adsorption processes in astro-chemistry/biology.

  2. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicolaï, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Protein dynamics is essential for proteins to function. Here we predicted the existence of rare, large nonlinear excitations, termed intrinsic localized modes (ILMs), of the main chain of proteins based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of two fast-folder proteins and of a rigid α/β protein at 300 K and at 380 K in solution. These nonlinear excitations arise from the anharmonicity of the protein dynamics. The ILMs were detected by computing the Shannon entropy of the protein main-chain fluctuations. In the non-native state (significantly explored at 380 K), the probability of their excitation was increased by a factor between 9 and 28 for the fast-folder proteins and by a factor 2 for the rigid protein. This enhancement in the non-native state was due to glycine, as demonstrated by simulations in which glycine was mutated to alanine. These ILMs might play a functional role in the flexible regions of proteins and in proteins in a non-native state (i.e. misfolded or unfolded states). PMID:26658321

  3. Active localization of virtual sounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Jack M.; Hebert, C.; Cicinelli, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a virtual sound display built around a 12 MHz 80286 microcomputer and special purpose analog hardware. The display implements most of the primary cues for sound localization in the ear-level plane. Static information about direction is conveyed by interaural time differences and, for frequencies above 1800 Hz, by head sound shadow (interaural intensity differences) and pinna sound shadow. Static information about distance is conveyed by variation in sound pressure (first power law) for all frequencies, by additional attenuation in the higher frequencies (simulating atmospheric absorption), and by the proportion of direct to reverberant sound. When the user actively locomotes, the changing angular position of the source occasioned by head rotations provides further information about direction and the changing angular velocity produced by head translations (motion parallax) provides further information about distance. Judging both from informal observations by users and from objective data obtained in an experiment on homing to virtual and real sounds, we conclude that simple displays such as this are effective in creating the perception of external sounds to which subjects can home with accuracy and ease.

  4. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice. PMID:8417270

  5. Local earthquake tomography of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, Richard; Baptie, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Scotland is a relatively aseismic region for the use of local earthquake tomography, but 40 yr of earthquakes recorded by a good and growing network make it possible. A careful selection is made from the earthquakes located by the British Geological Survey (BGS) over the last four decades to provide a data set maximising arrival time accuracy and ray path coverage of Scotland. A large number of 1-D velocity models with different layer geometries are considered and differentiated by employing quarry blasts as ground-truth events. Then, SIMULPS14 is used to produce a robust 3-D tomographic P-wave velocity model for Scotland. In areas of high resolution the model shows good agreement with previously published interpretations of seismic refraction and reflection experiments. However, the model shows relatively little lateral variation in seismic velocity except at shallow depths, where sedimentary basins such as the Midland Valley are apparent. At greater depths, higher velocities in the northwest parts of the model suggest that the thickness of crust increases towards the south and east. This observation is also in agreement with previous studies. Quarry blasts used as ground truth events and relocated with the preferred 3-D model are shown to be markedly more accurate than when located with the existing BGS 1-D velocity model.

  6. Local excision for selected colorectal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, M A; Goldberg, S M

    1989-07-01

    In summary, local excision is a useful tool in the management of selected colorectal carcinomas. The advent of the fibreoptic colonoscope has revised the concept of local excision when dealing with carcinoma-containing polyps of the colon. The clinician now has the means of locally excising certain carcinomas which would have required laparotomy in the not so distant past. In dealing with carcinoma of the rectum, local excision is not advocated for all rectal carcinomas. In fact, when the previously discussed tumour related factors are considered, local excision should be the ultimate procedure in less than 5% of operations performed for rectal carcinomas. However, when appropriately used, local excision provides a less morbid alternative to more radical procedures without compromising patient survival rates or local recurrence rates. PMID:2692739

  7. Control of Anther Cell Differentiation by the Small Protein Ligand TPD1 and Its Receptor EMS1 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; Linstroth, Lisa; Tillman, Zachary; Otegui, Marisa S; Owen, Heather A; Zhao, Dazhong

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental feature of sexual reproduction in plants and animals is the specification of reproductive cells that conduct meiosis to form gametes, and the associated somatic cells that provide nutrition and developmental cues to ensure successful gamete production. The anther, which is the male reproductive organ in seed plants, produces reproductive microsporocytes (pollen mother cells) and surrounding somatic cells. The microsporocytes yield pollen via meiosis, and the somatic cells, particularly the tapetum, are required for the normal development of pollen. It is not known how the reproductive cells affect the differentiation of these somatic cells, and vice versa. Here, we use molecular genetics, cell biological, and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) is a small secreted cysteine-rich protein ligand that interacts with the LRR (Leucine-Rich Repeat) domain of the EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) receptor kinase at two sites. Analyses of the expressions and localizations of TPD1 and EMS1, ectopic expression of TPD1, experimental missorting of TPD1, and ablation of microsporocytes yielded results suggesting that the precursors of microsporocyte/microsporocyte-derived TPD1 and pre-tapetal-cell-localized EMS1 initially promote the periclinal division of secondary parietal cells and then determine one of the two daughter cells as a functional tapetal cell. Our results also indicate that tapetal cells suppress microsporocyte proliferation. Collectively, our findings show that tapetal cell differentiation requires reproductive-cell-secreted TPD1, illuminating a novel mechanism whereby signals from reproductive cells determine somatic cell fate in plant sexual reproduction. PMID:27537183

  8. Hamiltonian structure of classical N-body systems of finite-size particles subject to EM interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschini, C.; Tessarotto, M.

    2012-01-01

    An open issue in classical relativistic mechanics is the consistent treatment of the dynamics of classical N-body systems of mutually interacting particles. This refers, in particular, to charged particles subject to EM interactions, including both binary interactions and self-interactions ( EM-interacting N- body systems). The correct solution to the question represents an overriding prerequisite for the consistency between classical and quantum mechanics. In this paper it is shown that such a description can be consistently obtained in the context of classical electrodynamics, for the case of a N-body system of classical finite-size charged particles. A variational formulation of the problem is presented, based on the N -body hybrid synchronous Hamilton variational principle. Covariant Lagrangian and Hamiltonian equations of motion for the dynamics of the interacting N-body system are derived, which are proved to be delay-type ODEs. Then, a representation in both standard Lagrangian and Hamiltonian forms is proved to hold, the latter expressed by means of classical Poisson Brackets. The theory developed retains both the covariance with respect to the Lorentz group and the exact Hamiltonian structure of the problem, which is shown to be intrinsically non-local. Different applications of the theory are investigated. The first one concerns the development of a suitable Hamiltonian approximation of the exact equations that retains finite delay-time effects characteristic of the binary interactions and self-EM-interactions. Second, basic consequences concerning the validity of Dirac generator formalism are pointed out, with particular reference to the instant-form representation of Poincaré generators. Finally, a discussion is presented both on the validity and possible extension of the Dirac generator formalism as well as the failure of the so-called Currie "no-interaction" theorem for the non-local Hamiltonian system considered here.

  9. Control of Anther Cell Differentiation by the Small Protein Ligand TPD1 and Its Receptor EMS1 in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tianyu; Linstroth, Lisa; Tillman, Zachary; Otegui, Marisa S.; Owen, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of sexual reproduction in plants and animals is the specification of reproductive cells that conduct meiosis to form gametes, and the associated somatic cells that provide nutrition and developmental cues to ensure successful gamete production. The anther, which is the male reproductive organ in seed plants, produces reproductive microsporocytes (pollen mother cells) and surrounding somatic cells. The microsporocytes yield pollen via meiosis, and the somatic cells, particularly the tapetum, are required for the normal development of pollen. It is not known how the reproductive cells affect the differentiation of these somatic cells, and vice versa. Here, we use molecular genetics, cell biological, and biochemical approaches to demonstrate that TPD1 (TAPETUM DETERMINANT1) is a small secreted cysteine-rich protein ligand that interacts with the LRR (Leucine-Rich Repeat) domain of the EMS1 (EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1) receptor kinase at two sites. Analyses of the expressions and localizations of TPD1 and EMS1, ectopic expression of TPD1, experimental missorting of TPD1, and ablation of microsporocytes yielded results suggesting that the precursors of microsporocyte/microsporocyte-derived TPD1 and pre-tapetal-cell-localized EMS1 initially promote the periclinal division of secondary parietal cells and then determine one of the two daughter cells as a functional tapetal cell. Our results also indicate that tapetal cells suppress microsporocyte proliferation. Collectively, our findings show that tapetal cell differentiation requires reproductive-cell-secreted TPD1, illuminating a novel mechanism whereby signals from reproductive cells determine somatic cell fate in plant sexual reproduction. PMID:27537183

  10. Emergency medical service (EMS): A unique flight environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay

    1993-01-01

    The EMS flight environment is unique in today's aviation. The pilots must respond quickly to emergency events and often fly to landing zones where they have never been before . The time from initially receiving a call to being airborne can be as little as two to three minutes. Often the EMS pilot is the only aviation professional on site, they have no operations people or other pilots to aid them in making decisons. Further, since they are often flying to accident scenes, not airports, there is often complete weather and condition information. Therefore, the initial decision that the pilot must make, accepting or declining a flight, can become very difficult. The accident rate of EMS helicopters has been relatively high over the past years. NASA-Ames research center has taken several steps in an attempt to aid EMS pilots in their decision making and situational awareness. A preflight risk assessment system (SAFE) was developed to aid pilots in their decision making, and was tested at an EMS service. The resutls of the study were promising and a second version incorporating the lessons learned is under development. A second line of research was the development of a low cost electronic chart display (ECD). This is a digital map display to help pilots maintain geographical orientation. Another thrust was undertaken in conjunction with the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). This involved publicizing the ASRS to EMS pilots and personnel, and calling each of the reporters back to gather additional information. This paper will discuss these efforts and how they may positively impact the safety of EMS operations.

  11. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  12. Colloidal Oatmeal <em>(Avena Sativa)em> Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    PubMed

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier.

    <em>J Drugs Dermatolem>. 2016;15(6):684-690. PMID:27272074

  13. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in tidal estuaries. An application to the Ems estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.; Möller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in a tidal estuary of arbitrary shape and bathymetry is presented. This model aims at bridging the gap between idealized and complex models. The vertical profiles of the velocities are obtained analytically in terms of the first-order and the second-order partial derivatives of surface elevation, which itself follows from an elliptic partial differential equation. The surface elevation is computed numerically using the finite element method and its partial derivatives are obtained using various methods. The newly developed semi-idealized model allows for a systematic investigation of the influence of geometry and bathymetry on the tidal motion which was not possible in previously developed idealized models. The new model also retains the flexibility and computational efficiency of previous idealized models, essential for sensitivity analysis. As a first step, the accuracy of the semi-idealized model is investigated. To this end, an extensive comparison is made between the model results of the semi-idealized model and two other idealized models: a width-averaged model and a three-dimensional idealized model. Finally, the semi-idealized model is used to understand the influence of local geometrical effects on the tidal motion in the Ems estuary. The model shows that local convergence and meandering effects can have a significant influence on the tidal motion. Finally, the model is applied to the Ems estuary. The model results agree well with observations and results from a complex numerical model.

  14. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B.; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.; Melo, Rossana C.N.

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  15. Learning when to Hold'em and When to Fold'em: ERS's Budget Hold'em Game Facilitates the Budget Development Process in Memphis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Resource Strategies, 2010

    2010-01-01

    If your school district is facing a budget issue, it might surprise you to learn that the solution might very well lie in a game of cards. That certainly was the case earlier this year for the city schools of Memphis, Tennessee. The game is called Budget Hold'em, and it was developed by Education Resource Strategies (ERS) of Watertown,…

  16. On the concept of Bell’s local causality in local classical and quantum theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor; Vecsernyés, Péter

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to implement Bell’s notion of local causality into a framework, called local physical theory. This framework, based on the axioms of algebraic field theory, is broad enough to integrate both probabilistic and spatiotemporal concepts and also classical and quantum theories. Bell’s original idea of local causality will arise as the classical case of our definition. Classifying local physical theories by whether they obey local primitive causality, a property rendering the dynamics of the theory causal, we then investigate what is needed for a local physical theory to be locally causal. Finally, comparing local causality with the common cause principles and relating both to the Bell inequalities we find a nice parallelism: Bell inequalities cannot be derived neither from local causality nor from a common cause unless the local physical theory is classical or the common cause is commuting, respectively.

  17. Development of an EMS-induced sesame mutant population for target induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated sesame is a diploid species (Sesame indicum L., 2n = 2x = 26) with a relatively small nuclear genome size (1C = ~360 x 106 bp) consisting of a considerably low proportion of repetitive sequences. Sesame has a relatively short lifecycle producing mature seeds within 80 days after planting....

  18. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to <em>P. acnesem> Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F

    2016-06-01

    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring <em>P. acnesem>- generated inflammation. <em>P. acnesem> biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the <em>P. acnesem> biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by <em>P. acnesem>. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the <em>P. acnesem> bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285).

    <em>J Drugs Dermatol. em>2016;15(6):677-683. PMID:27272073

  19. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  20. Active geophysical monitoring of hydrocarbon reservoirs using EM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribenko, A.; Black, N.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    Marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) technology has been successfully established as an effective tool for offshore hydrocarbon (HC) exploration. In this paper we consider another application of the MCSEM method for HC reservoir monitoring. We demonstrate that EM methods can be successfully used for the monitoring of producing wells in connection with the enhanced recovery of hydrocarbons. We have developed a new powerful EM modeling technique based on the integral equation method with an inhomogeneous background conductivity (IE IBC). This new method and the corresponding computer software make it possible to model the EM response over a realistic complex model of a sea-bottom HC reservoir. The numerical modeling results demonstrate that the MCSEM method has the ability to map changes in resistivity caused by the production of hydrocarbons over time. In addition, the EM data help to visualize the changes in the location of the oil-water contact within the reservoir. This result opens the possibility for practical application of the EM method in HC reservoir monitoring.

  1. Application of the EM algorithm to radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Brailean, J C; Little, D; Giger, M L; Chen, C T; Sullivan, B J

    1992-01-01

    The expectation maximization (EM) algorithm has received considerable attention in the area of positron emitted tomography (PET) as a restoration and reconstruction technique. In this paper, the restoration capabilities of the EM algorithm when applied to radiographic images is investigated. This application does not involve reconstruction. The performance of the EM algorithm is quantitatively evaluated using a "perceived" signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the image quality metric. This perceived SNR is based on statistical decision theory and includes both the observer's visual response function and a noise component internal to the eye-brain system. For a variety of processing parameters, the relative SNR (ratio of the processed SNR to the original SNR) is calculated and used as a metric to compare quantitatively the effects of the EM algorithm with two other image enhancement techniques: global contrast enhancement (windowing) and unsharp mask filtering. The results suggest that the EM algorithm's performance is superior when compared to unsharp mask filtering and global contrast enhancement for radiographic images which contain objects smaller than 4 mm. PMID:1435595

  2. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states. PMID:27238019

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  4. NMR local coil with adjustable spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Dembinski, G.T.

    1988-03-22

    A local coil assembly for use in NMR imaging is described which comprises: a base; a first local coil module mounted to the base and extending upward therefrom; sockets disposed in the base, each at a different distance from the first local coil module; a second local coil module having a connector therein which mates with each of the sockets to enable the second local coil module to be connected to the base at any one of the sockets; and a set of reactive components. The values of the respective reactive components are selected such that the second local oil module may be connected to any of the sockets without any substantial change in the resonant frequency of the assembly.

  5. Mobile Sensor Network Localization in Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenji, Harsha; Stoleru, Radu

    The node localization problem in mobile sensor networks has recently received significant attention. Particle filters, adapted from robotics, have produced good localization accuracies in conventional settings, but suffer significantly when used in challenging indoor and mobile environments characterized by a high degree of radio irregularity. We propose FuzLoc, a fuzzy logic-based approach for mobile node localization in challenging environments and formulate the localization problem as a fuzzy multilateration problem, with a fuzzy grid-prediction scheme for sparse networks. We demonstrate the performance and feasibility of our localization scheme through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept implementation on hardware, respectively. Simulation results augmented by data gathered from our 42 node indoor testbed demonstrate improvements in the localization accuracy from 20%-40% when the radio irregularity is high.

  6. How ambiguous is the local kinetic energy?

    PubMed

    Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez

    2010-08-26

    The local kinetic energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local kinetic energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local kinetic energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local kinetic energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467

  7. MOM3D/EM-ANIMATE - MOM3D WITH ANIMATION CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, J. F.

    1994-01-01

    MOM3D (LAR-15074) is a FORTRAN method-of-moments electromagnetic analysis algorithm for open or closed 3-D perfectly conducting or resistive surfaces. Radar cross section with plane wave illumination is the prime analysis emphasis; however, provision is also included for local port excitation for computing antenna gain patterns and input impedances. The Electric Field Integral Equation form of Maxwell's equations is solved using local triangle couple basis and testing functions with a resultant system impedance matrix. The analysis emphasis is not only for routine RCS pattern predictions, but also for phenomenological diagnostics: bistatic imaging, currents, and near scattered/total electric fields. The images, currents, and near fields are output in form suitable for animation. MOM3D computes the full backscatter and bistatic radar cross section polarization scattering matrix (amplitude and phase), body currents and near scattered and total fields for plane wave illumination. MOM3D also incorporates a new bistatic k space imaging algorithm for computing down range and down/cross range diagnostic images using only one matrix inversion. MOM3D has been made memory and cpu time efficient by using symmetric matrices, symmetric geometry, and partitioned fixed and variable geometries suitable for design iteration studies. MOM3D may be run interactively or in batch mode on 486 IBM PCs and compatibles, UNIX workstations or larger computers. A 486 PC with 16 megabytes of memory has the potential to solve a 30 square wavelength (containing 3000 unknowns) symmetric configuration. Geometries are described using a triangular mesh input in the form of a list of spatial vertex points and a triangle join connection list. The EM-ANIMATE (LAR-15075) program is a specialized visualization program that displays and animates the near-field and surface-current solutions obtained from an electromagnetics program, in particular, that from MOM3D. The EM-ANIMATE program is windows based and

  8. Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jianke

    2010-11-15

    We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

  9. Methods and strategies of object localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Lejun; Volz, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    An important property of an intelligent robot is to be able to determine the location of an object in 3-D space. A general object localization system structure is proposed, some important issues on localization discussed, and an overview given for current available object localization algorithms and systems. The algorithms reviewed are characterized by their feature extracting and matching strategies; the range finding methods; the types of locatable objects; and the mathematical formulating methods.

  10. A Local Approach to Hybrid Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, K.; Kleist, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    A hybrid system with the local formulation is developed where the prior probability density function (pdf) consists of both statistical and dynamic information of the uncertainty. The dynamic information is provided by the monte caro approach. The local formulation is solved at every grid as in the local ensemble transform Kalman filter. The formulation is flexible in that it allows not only Gaussian but other stable pdfs.

  11. Local quanta, unitary inequivalence, and vacuum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Vázquez, Matías R. Rey, Marco del Westman, Hans León, Juan

    2014-12-15

    In this work we develop a formalism for describing localised quanta for a real-valued Klein–Gordon field in a one-dimensional box [0,R]. We quantise the field using non-stationary local modes which, at some arbitrarily chosen initial time, are completely localised within the left or the right side of the box. In this concrete set-up we directly face the problems inherent to a notion of local field excitations, usually thought of as elementary particles. Specifically, by computing the Bogoliubov coefficients relating local and standard (global) quantisations, we show that the local quantisation yields a Fock representation of the Canonical Commutation Relations (CCR) which is unitarily inequivalent to the standard one. In spite of this, we find that the local creators and annihilators remain well defined in the global Fock space F{sup G}, and so do the local number operators associated to the left and right partitions of the box. We end up with a useful mathematical toolbox to analyse and characterise local features of quantum states in F{sup G}. Specifically, an analysis of the global vacuum state |0{sub G}〉∈F{sup G} in terms of local number operators shows, as expected, the existence of entanglement between the left and right regions of the box. The local vacuum |0{sub L}〉∈F{sup L}, on the contrary, has a very different character. It is neither cyclic (with respect to any local algebra of operators) nor separating and displays no entanglement between left and right partitions. Further analysis shows that the global vacuum also exhibits a distribution of local excitations reminiscent, in some respects, of a thermal bath. We discuss how the mathematical tools developed herein may open new ways for the analysis of fundamental problems in local quantum field theory.

  12. A Computerized Evaluation Methodology for Pre-Hospital EMS Cardiac Care

    PubMed Central

    Nagurney, Frank K.

    1980-01-01

    The computerized application of cardiac care protocols for pre-hospital EMS care is presented. The program logic is reviewed and an example of its application is provided. Uses of the results of the program in EMS management are suggested.

  13. THE LOCAL LIMIT OF GLOBAL GYROKINETIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    CANDY J; WALTZ RE; DORLAND W

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Global gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence include physical effects that are not retained in local flux-tube simulations. nevertheless, in the limit of sufficiently small {rho}* (gyroradius compared to system size) it is expected that a local simulation should agree with a global one (at the local simulation radius) since all effects that are dropped in the local simulations are expected to vanish as {rho}* {yields} 0. In this note, global simulations of a well-established test case are indeed shown to recover the flux-tube limit at each radius.

  14. Angular momentum in the Local Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.

    1994-04-01

    We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.

  15. Deconstructing spatiotemporal chaos using local symbolic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pethel, Shawn D; Corron, Ned J; Bollt, Erik

    2007-11-23

    We find that the global symbolic dynamics of a diffusively coupled map lattice is well approximated by a very small local model for weak to moderate coupling strengths. A local symbolic model is a truncation of the full symbolic model to one that considers only a single element and a few neighbors. Using interval analysis, we give rigorous results for a range of coupling strengths and different local model widths. Examples are presented of extracting a local symbolic model from data and of controlling spatiotemporal chaos. PMID:18233220

  16. Origin of Dynamical Quantum Non-locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachon, Cesar E.; Pachon, Leonardo A.

    2014-03-01

    Non-locality is one of the hallmarks of quantum mechanics and is responsible for paradigmatic features such as entanglement and the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Non-locality comes in two ``flavours'': a kinematic non-locality- arising from the structure of the Hilbert space- and a dynamical non-locality- arising from the quantum equations of motion-. Kinematic non-locality is unable to induce any change in the probability distributions, so that the ``action-at-a-distance'' cannot manifest. Conversely, dynamical non-locality does create explicit changes in probability, though in a ``causality-preserving'' manner. The origin of non-locality of quantum measurements and its relations to the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, such as the uncertainty principle, have been only recently elucidated. Here we trace the origin of dynamical non-locality to the superposition principle. This relation allows us to establish and identify how the uncertainty and the superposition principles determine the non-local character of the outcome of a quantum measurement. Being based on group theoretical and path integral formulations, our formulation admits immediate generalizations and extensions to to, e.g., quantum field theory. This work was supported by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion -COLCIENCIAS- of Colombia under the grant number 111556934912.

  17. Functional Localization of Genetic Network Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shinji; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu

    According to the knowledge of brain science, it is suggested that there exists cerebral functional localization, which means that a specific part of the cerebrum is activated depending on various kinds of information human receives. The aim of this paper is to build an artificial model to realize functional localization based on Genetic Network Programming (GNP), a new evolutionary computation method recently developed. GNP has a directed graph structure suitable for realizing functional localization. We studied the basic characteristics of the proposed system by making GNP work in a functionally localized way.

  18. Lipid Emulsion for Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ciechanowicz, Sarah; Patil, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    The accidental overdose of local anesthetics may prove fatal. The commonly used amide local anesthetics have varying adverse effects on the myocardium, and beyond a certain dose all are capable of causing death. Local anesthetics are the most frequently used drugs amongst anesthetists and although uncommon, local anaesthetic systemic toxicity accounts for a high proportion of mortality, with local anaesthetic-induced cardiac arrest particularly resistant to standard resuscitation methods. Over the last decade, there has been convincing evidence of intravenous lipid emulsions as a rescue in local anesthetic-cardiotoxicity, and anesthetic organisations, over the globe have developed guidelines on the use of this drug. Despite this, awareness amongst practitioners appears to be lacking. All who use local anesthetics in their practice should have an appreciation of patients at high risk of toxicity, early symptoms and signs of toxicity, preventative measures when using local anesthetics, and the initial management of systemic toxicity with intravenous lipid emulsion. In this paper we intend to discuss the pharmacology and pathophysiology of local anesthetics and toxicity, and the rationale for lipid emulsion therapy. PMID:21969824

  19. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. PMID:27040295

  20. Local and normal modes: A classical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffé, Charles; Brumer, Paul

    1980-12-01

    Normal and local mode behavior in molecular systems and the transition between them is explored using nonlinear mechanics techniques. Significant insight into this behavior and into the structure of phase space results from a generalized definition of local and normal modes and the associated identification of normal modes as a (1:1) resonance between local zeroth order oscillators. In addition to qualitative insight, this approach yields a simple formula [Eq. (28)] for the level of excitation at which local modes become possible. Applications to H2O and to the overtone spectroscopy of the dihalomethanes, benzene, and TMS are provided.

  1. When local isn't best

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain circumstances under which local may be or may not be best. Natural selection may lead to local adaptation (LA), or it may be constrained by gene flow, founder effects, small population size, genetic drift, and archetype. ‘Specialist’ species display greater LA than ‘generalist’ species. Local genotypes are to a certain extent transient, being a consequence of past historical genetic patterns. Two recent meta-analyses found that while local performance exceeded the performance of a randomly chosen nonlocal population in 71% of comparisons, general adaptation across environments was as frequent as LA. Genotypes for restoration are most likely to be effective if they are adapted to current site conditions. As environmental change accelerates, both globally and locally, exceptions to ‘local is best’ may increase. For these reasons, ‘local is best’ may be better thought of as a testable hypothesis rather than as a general assumption. While either local or nonlocal plant material may be most effective for restoration practice depending on individual circumstances, local material will continue to be the first choice for restoration practitioners whenever this option is feasible and effective. PMID:24187591

  2. Detection of edges using local geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtieri, J. A.; Manohar, M.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers described a new representation, the local geometry, for early visual processing which is motivated by results from biological vision. This representation is richer than is often used in image processing. It extracts more of the local structure available at each pixel in the image by using receptive fields that can be continuously rotated and that go to third order spatial variation. Early visual processing algorithms such as edge detectors and ridge detectors can be written in terms of various local geometries and are computationally tractable. For example, Canny's edge detector has been implemented in terms of a local geometry of order two, and a ridge detector in terms of a local geometry of order three. The edge detector in local geometry was applied to synthetic and real images and it was shown using simple interpolation schemes that sufficient information is available to locate edges with sub-pixel accuracy (to a resolution increase of at least a factor of five). This is reasonable even for noisy images because the local geometry fits a smooth surface - the Taylor series - to the discrete image data. Only local processing was used in the implementation so it can readily be implemented on parallel mesh machines such as the MPP. Researchers expect that other early visual algorithms, such as region growing, inflection point detection, and segmentation can also be implemented in terms of the local geometry and will provide sufficiently rich and robust representations for subsequent visual processing.

  3. EMS Stretcher “Misadventures” in a Large, Urban EMS System: A Descriptive Analysis of Contributing Factors and Resultant Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Goodloe, Jeffrey M.; Crowder, Christopher J.; Arthur, Annette O.; Thomas, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. There is a paucity of data regarding EMS stretcher-operation-related injuries. This study describes and analyzes characteristics associated with undesirable stretcher operations, with or without resultant injury in a large, urban EMS agency. Methods. In the study agency, all stretcher-related “misadventures” are required to be documented, regardless of whether injury results. All stretcher-related reports between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010 were queried in retrospective analysis, avoiding Hawthorne effect in stretcher operations. Results. During the year studied, 129,110 patients were transported. 23 stretcher incidents were reported (0.16 per 1,000 transports). No patient injury occurred. Four EMS providers sustained minor injuries. Among contributing aspects, the most common involved operations surrounding the stretcher-ambulance safety latch, 14/23 (60.9%). From a personnel injury prevention perspective, there exists a significant relationship between combative patients and crew injury related to stretcher operation, Fisher's exact test 0.048. Conclusions. In this large, urban EMS system, the incidence of injury related to stretcher operations in the one-year study period is markedly low, with few personnel injuries and no patient injuries incurred. Safety for EMS personnel and patients could be advanced by educational initiatives that highlight specific events and conditions contributing to stretcher-related adverse events. PMID:22606379

  4. Target localization and real-time tracking using the Calypso 4D localization system in patients with localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A. . E-mail: patrick.kupelian@orhs.org; Pouliot, Jean; Shinohara, Katsuto; Aubin, Michelle; Roach, Mack; Skrumeda, Lisa L.; Balter, James M.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; Hadley, Scott W.; Wei, John T.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: The Calypso 4D Localization System is being developed to provide accurate, precise, objective, and continuous target localization during radiotherapy. This study involves the first human use of the system, to evaluate the localization accuracy of this technique compared with radiographic localization and to assess its ability to obtain real-time prostate-motion information. Methods and Materials: Three transponders were implanted in each of 20 patients. Eleven eligible patients of the 20 patients participated in a study arm that compared radiographic triangulated transponder locations to electromagnetically recorded transponder locations. Transponders were tracked for 8-min periods. Results: The implantations were all successful, with no major complications. Intertransponder distances were largely stable. Comparison of the patient localization on the basis of transponder locations as per the Calypso system with the radiographic transponder localization showed an average ({+-}SD) 3D difference of 1.5 {+-} 0.9 mm. Upon tracking during 8 min, 2 of the 11 patients showed significant organ motion (>1 cm), with some motion lasting longer that 1 min. Conclusion: Calypso transponders can be used as magnetic intraprostatic fiducials. Clinical evaluation of this novel 4D nonionizing electromagnetic localization system with transponders indicates a comparable localization accuracy to isocenter (within 2 mm) compared with X-ray localiza0010ti.

  5. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  6. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  7. Localization Algorithms of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Han, Guangjie; Jiang, Jinfang; Shu, Lei; Xu, Yongjun; Wang, Feng

    2012-01-01

    In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), localization is one of most important technologies since it plays a critical role in many applications. Motivated by widespread adoption of localization, in this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of localization algorithms. First, we classify localization algorithms into three categories based on sensor nodes’ mobility: stationary localization algorithms, mobile localization algorithms and hybrid localization algorithms. Moreover, we compare the localization algorithms in detail and analyze future research directions of localization algorithms in UWSNs. PMID:22438752

  8. EM induction and magnetic surveys at large landfill sites using GPS for postitional control

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.B.; Kirkpatrick, T.M.; Holtzclaw, D.R.

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) induction and magnetic surveys were conducted at two large landfill sites, totaling 76 acres, using a global positioning system (GPS) as the positional control method. The surveys were conducted at Tinker AFB in Oklahoma, as part of a Phase II Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation. The objectives of the investigation were to delineate the boundaries of known landfill trenches and determine whether features seen in aerial photographs represented previously unidentified trenches. The GPS method of survey control was chosen rather than the conventional local grid approach because site conditions included extremely rugged surface topography, thick vegetation, and several swampy areas that precluded the establishment of precisely spaced, straight lines. The alternative would have required civil surveying and extensive vegetation removal. The GPS allowed local navigation and re-orientation to avoid obstacles and field hazards while continuing to collect valid, accurately located geophysical data. The use of differentially corrected GPS data for this investigation proved to be an excellent way to obtain geophysical survey control at a reduced level of effort; however, it added complexity to the surveys that had to be planned for both in the field and during data processing. Specialized processing techniques were developed to overcome minor satellite signal {open_quote}dropouts,{close_quote} and to allow for proper time-synchronization and merging of the geophysical and GPS data.

  9. Local cooling despite global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girihagama, Lakshika Nilmini Kumari

    How much warmer is the ocean surface than the atmosphere directly above it? Part 1 of the present study offers a means to quantify this temperature difference using a nonlinear one-dimensional global energy balance coupled ocean--atmosphere model ("Aqua Planet"). The significance of our model, which is of intermediate complexity, is its ability to obtain an analytical solution for the global average temperatures. Preliminary results show that, for the present climate, global mean ocean temperature is 291.1 K whereas surface atmospheric temperature is 287.4 K. Thus, the surface ocean is 3.7 K warmer than the atmosphere above it. Temporal perturbation of the global mean solution obtained for "Aqua Planet" showed a stable system. Oscillation amplitude of the atmospheric temperature anomaly is greater in magnitude to those found in the ocean. There is a phase shift (a lag in the ocean), which is caused by oceanic thermal inertia. Climate feedbacks due to selected climate parameters such as incoming radiation, cloud cover, and CO2 are discussed. Warming obtained with our model compares with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) estimations. Application of our model to local regions illuminates the importance of evaporative cooling in determining derived air-sea temperature offsets, where an increase in the latter increases the systems overall sensitivity to evaporative cooling. In part 2, we wish to answer the fairly complicated question of whether global warming and an increased freshwater flux cause Northern Hemispheric warming or cooling. Starting from the assumption of the ocean as the primary source of variability in the Northern hemispheric ocean--atmosphere coupled system, we employed a simple non--linear one--dimensional coupled ocean--atmosphere model similar to the "Aqua Planet" model but with additional advective heat transports. The simplicity of this model allows us to analytically predict the evolution of many dynamical variables of interest

  10. Geospatial Analysis of Pediatric EMS Run Density and Endotracheal Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Matthew; Loker, William; Warden, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The association between geographic factors, including transport distance, and pediatric emergency medical services (EMS) run clustering on out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if endotracheal intubation procedures are more likely to occur at greater distances from the hospital and near clusters of pediatric calls. Methods This was a retrospective observational study including all EMS runs for patients less than 18 years of age from 2008 to 2014 in a geographically large and diverse Oregon county that includes densely populated urban areas near Portland and remote rural areas. We geocoded scene addresses using the automated address locator created in the cloud-based mapping platform ArcGIS, supplemented with manual address geocoding for remaining cases. We then use the Getis-Ord Gi spatial statistic feature in ArcGIS to map statistically significant spatial clusters (hot spots) of pediatric EMS runs throughout the county. We then superimposed all intubation procedures performed during the study period on maps of pediatric EMS-run hot spots, pediatric population density, fire stations, and hospitals. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to determine if distance traveled to the hospital was associated with intubation after controlling for several confounding variables. Results We identified a total of 7,797 pediatric EMS runs during the study period and 38 endotracheal intubations. In univariate analysis we found that patients who were intubated were similar to those who were not in gender and whether or not they were transported to a children’s hospital. Intubated patients tended to be transported shorter distances and were older than non-intubated patients. Increased distance from the hospital was associated with reduced odds of intubation after controlling for age, sex, scene location, and trauma system entry status in a multivariate logistic regression. The

  11. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  12. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  13. Developments in the EM-CCD camera for OGRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutt, James H.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Miles, Drew M.; Zhang, William; Murray, Neil J.; Holland, Andrew D.; Cash, Webster; Rogers, Thomas; O'Dell, Steve; Gaskin, Jessica; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Evagora, Anthony M.; Holland, Karen; Colebrook, David

    2014-07-01

    The Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE) is a sub-orbital rocket payload designed to advance the development of several emerging technologies for use on space missions. The payload consists of a high resolution soft X-ray spectrometer based around an optic made from precision cut and ground, single crystal silicon mirrors, a module of off-plane gratings and a camera array based around Electron Multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) technology. This paper gives an overview of OGRE with emphasis on the detector array; specifically this paper will address the reasons that EM-CCDs are the detector of choice and the advantages and disadvantages that this technology offers.

  14. Item Parameter Estimation via Marginal Maximum Likelihood and an EM Algorithm: A Didactic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Bock and Aitkin Marginal Maximum Likelihood/EM (MML/EM) approach to item parameter estimation is an alternative to the classical joint maximum likelihood procedure of item response theory. This paper provides the essential mathematical details of a MML/EM solution and shows its use in obtaining consistent item parameter estimates. (TJH)

  15. Hormonal and Local Regulation of Bone Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canalis, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Reviews effects of hormones, systemic factors, and local regulators on bone formation. Identifies and explains the impact on bone growth of several hormones as well as the components of systemic and local systems. Concentrates on bone collagen and DNA synthesis. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  16. Localized surface instabilities of stressed solids

    SciTech Connect

    Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.; Junqua, N.

    1998-12-31

    Localized instabilities formation on the free surface of solids has been studied when sources of non-homogeneous stress such as dislocations or precipitates are present in the bulk. This formalism of localized perturbations has been used to describe the butterfly transformation of cubic precipitates in superalloys and the contraction of rectangular specimens under stress.

  17. Content Locality in Distributed Digital Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viles, Charles L.; French, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces content locality--the degree to which content-similar documents are colocated in a distributed collection--in distributed digital libraries. Proposes two metrics for measurement of content locality, one based on topic signatures and the other based on collection statistics. Provides derivations and analysis of both metrics and uses them…

  18. Federal Grants to State and Local Governments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…

  19. How State and Local Interagency Partnerships Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, Patricia, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue describes a state-local team partnership model for interagency transition efforts for young adults with deaf-blindness. Excepts from a presentation by Jane M. Everson identify key aspects and characteristics of effective state and local interagency partnerships. These include: (1) strategies for initiating and…

  20. Local Administrators Planning Handbook. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Dunlap, William S.

    As part of a project to develop a planning guide to assist local vocational education administrators in improving their planning efforts, a needs assessment questionnaire was developed to identify the degree of need for assistance in planning activities. Two hundred sixty-four Missouri local vocational administrators completed the pilot-tested…

  1. Engaging Senior Citizens in Local Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    During the past several years, school district personnel have faced an arduous task of convincing a local electorate--including those who are not directly associated with local schools--to increase its own tax rate. Convincing demographic groups that have a vital interest in improving school facilities can be an easier task. Parents who want to…

  2. Local and Global Thinking in Statistical Inference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Dave; Johnston-Wilder, Peter; Ainley, Janet; Mason, John

    2008-01-01

    In this reflective paper, we explore students' local and global thinking about informal statistical inference through our observations of 10- to 11-year-olds, challenged to infer the unknown configuration of a virtual die, but able to use the die to generate as much data as they felt necessary. We report how they tended to focus on local changes…

  3. How to be a local media celebrity.

    PubMed

    Trent, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Building relationships with the media in your region can turn you into a local "media darling. "As a PR-savvy doctor, there are certain techniques to get you the media attention you desire. This article will offer tips for getting local media on your side and working with media, and ways to mobilize your vendors to garner PR in your region. PMID:19455864

  4. 22 CFR 228.40 - Local procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Local procurement. 228.40 Section 228.40 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing Source and Nationality of Local...

  5. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  6. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  7. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  8. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  9. 44 CFR 60.26 - Local coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Flood-Related Erosion-Prone Areas § 60.26 Local coordination. (a) Local flood plain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and flood-related erosion area management, forecasting, emergency preparedness, and damage...., mudflow) and flood-related erosion regulations; (c) A community should notify adjacent communities...

  10. REL3.0 SW DAILY LOCAL

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-02

    ... Budget (SRB) Release 3.0 GEWEX Shortwave Daily Local Time Data in Native grid binary format   News:  GEWEX ... Temporal Resolution:  Daily from 3-hourly Local Sun time values File Format:  BINARY Tools:  ...

  11. When local isn't best

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local plant materials are often preferred for the practice of ecological restoration, and this is likely related to the preference for pristine lands for study by the scientific community. While the 'local-is-best' plant material paradigm may be appropriate for pristine lands, it may not be directl...

  12. Local Implementation and Land Use Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlasco, Chris; And Others

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference material, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Local Implementation. An audio tape is used with the materials. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but can be adapted to other localities. The material in this unit emphasizes the role of planning and zoning in…

  13. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  14. Engaging Students through Mapping Local History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Katharyne; Elwood, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the integration of local history and geography through collaborative digital mapping can lead to greater interest in civic participation by early adolescent learners. In the study, twenty-nine middle school students were asked to research, represent, and discuss local urban sites of historical significance on an…

  15. State and Local Revenue Potential 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quindry, Kenneth E.

    This publication presents numerous statistical tables that summarize 1975 data on state and local tax effort for the 50 states and the District of Columbia, with an eye toward identifying possible underutilization of specific taxes. The report consists of three separate parts. First, state and local tax collections are compiled by source and by…

  16. Secondary School Education and Local Governments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to aid city management's participation in improving education on local government. The need for such participation is evident from the lack of progress in the teaching of local government since a 1963 report on the topic. Difficulties, such as insufficient class time, inadequate resources, teachers unfamiliar with…

  17. State and Local Revenue Potential, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quindry, Kenneth E.

    This report provides an analysis of State-local tax structures in 50 States and the District of Columbia and is primarily an updating of tables in previous reports. The major purpose of the study is to indicate to State and local officials those tax areas in which their revenue effort is either below or above the average effort of the 50 States…

  18. Chemical Aspects of Local and Regional Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsvold, Robert; Ostercamp, Daryl L.

    2006-01-01

    The practical sides of local or regional anesthesia are explained by two applications of local anesthetics under moderately demanding circumstances. The examples illustrated are surgical repair of the severed lower tendon of the left index finger and the case of pregnant woman involving the delivery of a child in the early stages of cervical…

  19. State and Local Revenue Potential, 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quindry, Kenneth E.

    This report contains results of an extensive study into State and local tax revenue potentials for the 15 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) States and presents quantitative data on the 50 State-local tax systems. Data set forth in the 35 statistical tables enable the researcher to compare his State's total tax revenues with those of each of…

  20. Local History and Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieseman, Katherine C.; Cadwell, Doni

    2005-01-01

    The combination of students, local history, researching, and problem-based learning creates a powerful opportunity for learning to all involved. This article provides one example of how an elementary teacher and a teacher educator have used local resources and problem-based learning to teach a fourth grade unit about human communities and the…

  1. Natural geometric representation for electron local observables

    SciTech Connect

    Minogin, V.G.

    2014-03-15

    An existence of the quartic identities for the electron local observables that define orthogonality relations for the 3D quantities quadratic in the electron observables is found. It is shown that the joint solution of the quartic and bilinear identities for the electron observables defines a unique natural representation of the observables. In the natural representation the vector type electron local observables have well-defined fixed positions with respect to a local 3D orthogonal reference frame. It is shown that the natural representation of the electron local observables can be defined in six different forms depending on a choice of the orthogonal unit vectors. The natural representation is used to determine the functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the local observables valid for any shape of the electron wave packet. -- Highlights: •Quartic identities that define the orthogonality relations for the electron local observables are found. •Joint solution of quartic and bilinear identities defines a unique natural representation of the electron local observables. •Functional dependence of the electron wave functions on the electron local observables is determined.

  2. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  3. Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felt, Thomas E.

    The book provides practical guidelines for the layman who is interested in researching, writing, and publishing local history. Two standards considered to be essential to the writing of local history are ethics and competence. The three aspects of competence which are discussed focus on researching, writing, and publishing. Chapter I identifies…

  4. History of Schooling: Politics and Local Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, Carla, Ed.; Westberg, Johannes, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between education policy and local practices is at the core of research pertaining to the history of education. In this volume, the authors examine this issue from a multitude of perspectives, presenting a broad and comprehensive picture of schooling on international, national and local levels. Three issues of great significance,…

  5. Localizing Region-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Shawn; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models. PMID:18854247

  6. Developing Partnerships to Promote Local Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters-Bayer, Ann; van Veldhuizen, Laurens; Wettasinha, Chesha; Wongtschowski, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    Local innovation in agriculture and natural resource management is the process through which individuals or groups discover or develop new and better ways of managing resources, building on and expanding the boundaries of their existing knowledge. Prolinnova (Promoting Local Innovation) is a NGO-led global partnership programme that is being built…

  7. 34 CFR 200.30 - Local review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Lea and School Improvement § 200.30 Local review. (a) Each... described in § 200.2 to review annually the progress of each school served under subpart A of this part to determine whether the school is making AYP in accordance with § 200.20. (b)(1) In reviewing the progress...

  8. Local Control: Use It or Lose It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California School Boards Association, Sacramento.

    Two California laws have increased the autonomy of local school districts. As of January 1982, virtually all provisions of the California Education Code can be waived at the request of local school boards with the approval of the state board of education. Under Article 2 of Assembly Bill 777, Chapter 100, programs that may be waived include state…

  9. Promoting Creativity in Local Tourist Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perivoliotis-Chryssovergis, Margaret-Catherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an e-learning pilot study focusing on local tourist producers and businesses involved in the production of artefacts, mainly textiles. The project included research into the possibilities of incorporating the strengths of local cultural heritage as a vital starting point for design creativity, innovation, production and…

  10. LOCAL DECOUPLING IN THE LHC INTERACTION REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    PILAT,F.

    1999-09-07

    Local decoupling is a technique to correct coupling locally and operationally, that is, without a priori knowledge of the underlying skew quadrupole errors. The method is explained and applied to the correction of coupling in the interaction regions of the LHC at collision.

  11. Local form interference in biological motion perception.

    PubMed

    Kerr-Gaffney, Jess E; Hunt, Amelia R; Pilz, Karin S

    2016-07-01

    Replacing the local dots of point-light walkers with complex images leads to significant detriments to performance in biological motion detection and discrimination tasks. This detriment has previously been shown to be larger when the local elements match the global shape in object category and facing direction. In contrast, studies using Navon stimuli have demonstrated that local interference on global processing primarily occurs when local elements are dissimilar to the global form. In 3 experiments, we investigated this contradiction by replacing the local dots of a point-light walker with human images or stick figures. Participants were significantly faster and more accurate at discriminating the facing and walking direction of a walker when the local images were facing in the same direction as the global walker than when they were facing in the opposite direction. These results provide support for the idea that organization of biological motion depends on allocation of limited processing resources to the global motion information when the local elements are complex. However, there is more disruption to global form processing when the local elements and global form conflict in task-related properties. PMID:27016343

  12. Universal mechanism for Anderson and weak localization.

    PubMed

    Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

    2012-09-11

    Localization of stationary waves occurs in a large variety of vibrating systems, whether mechanical, acoustical, optical, or quantum. It is induced by the presence of an inhomogeneous medium, a complex geometry, or a quenched disorder. One of its most striking and famous manifestations is Anderson localization, responsible for instance for the metal-insulator transition in disordered alloys. Yet, despite an enormous body of related literature, a clear and unified picture of localization is still to be found, as well as the exact relationship between its many manifestations. In this paper, we demonstrate that both Anderson and weak localizations originate from the same universal mechanism, acting on any type of vibration, in any dimension, and for any domain shape. This mechanism partitions the system into weakly coupled subregions. The boundaries of these subregions correspond to the valleys of a hidden landscape that emerges from the interplay between the wave operator and the system geometry. The height of the landscape along its valleys determines the strength of the coupling between the subregions. The landscape and its impact on localization can be determined rigorously by solving one special boundary problem. This theory allows one to predict the localization properties, the confining regions, and to estimate the energy of the vibrational eigenmodes through the properties of one geometrical object. In particular, Anderson localization can be understood as a special case of weak localization in a very rough landscape. PMID:22927384

  13. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Local switching. 69.106 Section 69.106... Computation of Charges § 69.106 Local switching. (a) Except as provided in § 69.118, charges that are... switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. (b) The per minute...

  14. Anderson localization in metallic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Zhijie; Lin, Fang; Pang, Wei; Xu, Haitao; Tan, Suiyan; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao

    2016-06-01

    Anderson localization has been observed in various types of waves, such as matter waves, optical waves and acoustic waves. Here we reveal that the effect of Anderson localization can be also induced in metallic nonlinear nanoparticle arrays excited by a random electrically driving field. We find that the dipole-induced nonlinearity results in ballistic expansion of dipole intensity during evolution; while the randomness of the external driving field can suppress such an expansion. Increasing the strength of randomness above the threshold value, a localized pattern of dipole intensity can be generated in the metallic nanoparticle arrays. By means of statistics, the mean intensity distribution of the dipoles reveals the formation of Anderson localization. We further show that the generated Anderson localization is highly confined, with its size down to the scale of incident wavelength. The reported results might facilitate the manipulations of electromagnetic fields in the scale of wavelength.

  15. Protein localization with flexible DNA or RNA.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Localization of activity is ubiquitous in life, and also within sub-cellular compartments. Localization provides potential advantages as different proteins involved in the same cellular process may supplement each other on a fast timescale. It might also prevent proteins from being active in other regions of the cell. However localization is at odds with the spreading of unbound molecules by diffusion. We model the cost and gain for specific enzyme activity using localization strategies based on binding to sites of intermediate specificity. While such bindings in themselves decrease the activity of the protein on its target site, they may increase protein activity if stochastic motion allows the acting protein to touch both the intermediate binding site and the specific site simultaneously. We discuss this strategy in view of recent suggestions on long non-coding RNA as a facilitator of localized activity of chromatin modifiers. PMID:22347995

  16. Anderson localization in metallic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Mai, Zhijie; Lin, Fang; Pang, Wei; Xu, Haitao; Tan, Suiyan; Fu, Shenhe; Li, Yongyao

    2016-06-13

    Anderson localization has been observed in various types of waves, such as matter waves, optical waves and acoustic waves. Here we reveal that the effect of Anderson localization can be also induced in metallic nonlinear nanoparticle arrays excited by a random electrically driving field. We find that the dipole-induced nonlinearity results in ballistic expansion of dipole intensity during evolution; while the randomness of the external driving field can suppress such an expansion. Increasing the strength of randomness above the threshold value, a localized pattern of dipole intensity can be generated in the metallic nanoparticle arrays. By means of statistics, the mean intensity distribution of the dipoles reveals the formation of Anderson localization. We further show that the generated Anderson localization is highly confined, with its size down to the scale of incident wavelength. The reported results might facilitate the manipulations of electromagnetic fields in the scale of wavelength. PMID:27410338

  17. Collaborative Localization and Location Verification in WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chunyu; Dai, Guoyong; Ying, Kezhen; Chen, Qingzhang

    2015-01-01

    Localization is one of the most important technologies in wireless sensor networks. A lightweight distributed node localization scheme is proposed by considering the limited computational capacity of WSNs. The proposed scheme introduces the virtual force model to determine the location by incremental refinement. Aiming at solving the drifting problem and malicious anchor problem, a location verification algorithm based on the virtual force mode is presented. In addition, an anchor promotion algorithm using the localization reliability model is proposed to re-locate the drifted nodes. Extended simulation experiments indicate that the localization algorithm has relatively high precision and the location verification algorithm has relatively high accuracy. The communication overhead of these algorithms is relative low, and the whole set of reliable localization methods is practical as well as comprehensive. PMID:25954948

  18. Localized scleroderma: clinical spectrum and therapeutic update*

    PubMed Central

    Careta, Mariana Figueiroa; Romiti, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disease that is manifested by cutaneous sclerosis and variable systemic involvement. Two categories of scleroderma are known: systemic sclerosis, characterized by cutaneous sclerosis and visceral involvement, and localized scleroderma or morphea which classically presents benign and self-limited evolution and is confined to the skin and/or underlying tissues. Localized scleroderma is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies show that the localized form may affect internal organs and have variable morbidity. Treatment should be started very early, before complications occur due to the high morbidity of localized scleroderma. In this review, we report the most important aspects and particularities in the treatment of patients diagnosed with localized scleroderma. PMID:25672301

  19. Distillation of local purity from quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Devetak, I.

    2005-06-15

    Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

  20. Local-time representation of path integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jizba, Petr; Zatloukal, Václav

    2015-12-01

    We derive a local-time path-integral representation for a generic one-dimensional time-independent system. In particular, we show how to rephrase the matrix elements of the Bloch density matrix as a path integral over x -dependent local-time profiles. The latter quantify the time that the sample paths x (t ) in the Feynman path integral spend in the vicinity of an arbitrary point x . Generalization of the local-time representation that includes arbitrary functionals of the local time is also provided. We argue that the results obtained represent a powerful alternative to the traditional Feynman-Kac formula, particularly in the high- and low-temperature regimes. To illustrate this point, we apply our local-time representation to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the Bloch density matrix at low temperatures. Further salient issues, such as connections with the Sturm-Liouville theory and the Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, are also discussed.