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Sample records for identified hiv-1 infections

  1. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eric M.; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Study design Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd-or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Results Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. Conclusions The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. PMID:24342468

  2. A Generalized Entropy Measure of Within-Host Viral Diversity for Identifying Recent HIV-1 Infections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Julia Wei; Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Novitsky, Vladimir; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for incidence assays that accurately estimate HIV incidence based on cross-sectional specimens. Viral diversity-based assays have shown promises but are not particularly accurate. We hypothesize that certain viral genetic regions are more predictive of recent infection than others and aim to improve assay accuracy by using classification algorithms that focus on highly informative regions (HIRs).We analyzed HIV gag sequences from a cohort in Botswana. Forty-two subjects newly infected by HIV-1 Subtype C were followed through 500 days post-seroconversion. Using sliding window analysis, we screened for genetic regions within gag that best differentiate recent versus chronic infections. We used both nonparametric and parametric approaches to evaluate the discriminatory abilities of sequence regions. Segmented Shannon Entropy measures of HIRs were aggregated to develop generalized entropy measures to improve prediction of recency. Using logistic regression as the basis for our classification algorithm, we evaluated the predictive power of these novel biomarkers and compared them with recently reported viral diversity measures using area under the curve (AUC) analysis.Change of diversity over time varied across different sequence regions within gag. We identified the top 50% of the most informative regions by both nonparametric and parametric approaches. In both cases, HIRs were in more variable regions of gag and less likely in the p24 coding region. Entropy measures based on HIRs outperformed previously reported viral-diversity-based biomarkers. These methods are better suited for population-level estimation of HIV recency.The patterns of diversification of certain regions within the gag gene are more predictive of recency of infection than others. We expect this result to apply in other HIV genetic regions as well. Focusing on these informative regions, our generalized entropy measure of viral diversity demonstrates the potential for improving

  3. A Case of Seronegative HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, Adam M.; Brennan, Tim; O'Connell, Karen; Sydnor, Emily; Williams, Thomas M.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Gallant, Joel E.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV-1 typically seroconvert within weeks of primary infection. In rare cases, patients do not develop antibodies against HIV-1 despite demonstrable infection. We describe an HLA-B*5802 positive individual who presented with AIDS despite repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening tests. Phylogenetic analysis of env clones revealed little sequence diversity, and weak HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were present to Gag epitopes. The patient seroconverted after immune reconstitution on HAART. Lack of an antibody response to HIV-1 is rare and appears to be due to a defect in HIV-1-specific immunity rather than infection with attenuated virus. PMID:20039801

  4. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Talia H; Dubyak, George R; Chen, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 30 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV-1 have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV-1 pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here, we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26635799

  5. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Talia H.; Dubyak, George R.; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 30 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV-1 have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV-1 pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here, we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:26635799

  6. Comparison of Major and Minor Viral SNPs Identified through Single Template Sequencing and Pyrosequencing in Acute HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bouzek, Heather; Kim, Moon; Deng, Wenjie; Larsen, Brendan B.; Zhao, Hong; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Rolland, Morgane; Mullins, James I.

    2015-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies, such as 454-pyrosequencing, allow for the identification of variants in sequence populations at lower levels than consensus sequencing and most single-template Sanger sequencing experiments. We sought to determine if the greater depth of population sampling attainable using MPS technology would allow detection of minor variants in HIV founder virus populations very early in infection in instances where Sanger sequencing detects only a single variant. We compared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) during acute HIV-1 infection from 32 subjects using both single template Sanger and 454-pyrosequencing. Pyrosequences from a median of 2400 viral templates per subject and encompassing 40% of the HIV-1 genome, were compared to a median of five individually amplified near full-length viral genomes sequenced using Sanger technology. There was no difference in the consensus nucleotide sequences over the 3.6kb compared in 84% of the subjects infected with single founders and 33% of subjects infected with multiple founder variants: among the subjects with disagreements, mismatches were found in less than 1% of the sites evaluated (of a total of nearly 117,000 sites across all subjects). The majority of the SNPs observed only in pyrosequences were present at less than 2% of the subject’s viral sequence population. These results demonstrate the utility of the Sanger approach for study of early HIV infection and provide guidance regarding the design, utility and limitations of population sequencing from variable template sources, and emphasize parameters for improving the interpretation of massively parallel sequencing data to address important questions regarding target sequence evolution. PMID:26317928

  7. An empiric risk scoring tool for identifying high-risk heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples for targeted HIV-1 prevention

    PubMed Central

    KAHLE, Erin M.; HUGHES, James P.; LINGAPPA, Jairam R.; JOHN-STEWART, Grace; CELUM, Connie; NAKKU-JOLOBA, Edith; NJUGUNA, Stella; MUGO, Nelly; BUKUSI, Elizabeth; MANONGI, Rachel; BAETEN, Jared M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples are increasingly recognized as an important source of new HIV-1 infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A simple risk assessment tool could be useful for identifying couples at highest risk for HIV-1 transmission. Methods Using data from three prospective studies of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples from seven African countries and standard methods for development of clinical prediction rules, we derived and validated a risk scoring tool developed from multivariate modeling and composed of key predictors for HIV-1 risk that could be measured in standard research and clinical settings. Results The final risk score included age of the HIV-1 uninfected partner, married and/or cohabiting partnership, number of children, unprotected sex, uncircumcised male HIV-1 uninfected partner, and plasma HIV-1 RNA in the HIV-1 infected partner. The maximum risk score was 12, scores ≥5 were associated with an annual HIV-1 incidence of >3%, and couples with a score ≥6 accounted for only 28% of the population but 67% of HIV-1 transmissions. The area under the curve for predictive ability of the score was 0.74 (95% CI 0.70–0.78). Internal and external validation showed similar predictive ability of the risk score, even when plasma viral load was excluded from the risk score. Conclusions A discrete combination of clinical and behavioral characteristics defines highest-risk HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Discriminating highest-risk couples for HIV-1 prevention programs and clinical trials using a validated risk score could improve research efficiency and maximize the impact of prevention strategies for reducing HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23187945

  8. Identification of Siglec-1 null individuals infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; McLaren, Paul J; Erkizia, Itziar; Martin, Maureen P; Benet, Susana; Rotger, Margalida; Dalmau, Judith; Ouchi, Dan; Wolinsky, Steven M; Penugonda, Sudhir; Günthard, Huldrych F; Fellay, Jacques; Carrington, Mary; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Telenti, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    Siglec-1/CD169 is a myeloid-cell surface receptor critical for HIV-1 capture and infection of bystander target cells. To dissect the role of SIGLEC1 in natura, we scan a large population genetic database and identify a loss-of-function variant (Glu88Ter) that is found in ∼1% of healthy people. Exome analysis and direct genotyping of 4,233 HIV-1-infected individuals reveals two Glu88Ter homozygous and 97 heterozygous subjects, allowing the analysis of ex vivo and in vivo consequences of SIGLEC1 loss-of-function. Cells from these individuals are functionally null or haploinsufficient for Siglec-1 activity in HIV-1 capture and trans-infection ex vivo. However, Siglec-1 protein truncation does not have a measurable impact on HIV-1 acquisition or AIDS outcomes in vivo. This result contrasts with the known in vitro functional role of Siglec-1 in HIV-1 trans-infection. Thus, it provides evidence that the classical HIV-1 infectious routes may compensate for the lack of Siglec-1 in fuelling HIV-1 dissemination within infected individuals. PMID:27510803

  9. Identification of Siglec-1 null individuals infected with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; McLaren, Paul J.; Erkizia, Itziar; Martin, Maureen P.; Benet, Susana; Rotger, Margalida; Dalmau, Judith; Ouchi, Dan; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Penugonda, Sudhir; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Fellay, Jacques; Carrington, Mary; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Telenti, Amalio

    2016-01-01

    Siglec-1/CD169 is a myeloid-cell surface receptor critical for HIV-1 capture and infection of bystander target cells. To dissect the role of SIGLEC1 in natura, we scan a large population genetic database and identify a loss-of-function variant (Glu88Ter) that is found in ∼1% of healthy people. Exome analysis and direct genotyping of 4,233 HIV-1-infected individuals reveals two Glu88Ter homozygous and 97 heterozygous subjects, allowing the analysis of ex vivo and in vivo consequences of SIGLEC1 loss-of-function. Cells from these individuals are functionally null or haploinsufficient for Siglec-1 activity in HIV-1 capture and trans-infection ex vivo. However, Siglec-1 protein truncation does not have a measurable impact on HIV-1 acquisition or AIDS outcomes in vivo. This result contrasts with the known in vitro functional role of Siglec-1 in HIV-1 trans-infection. Thus, it provides evidence that the classical HIV-1 infectious routes may compensate for the lack of Siglec-1 in fuelling HIV-1 dissemination within infected individuals. PMID:27510803

  10. Identification of primary HIV-1C infection in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Novitsky, V; Woldegabriel, E; Wester, C; McDonald, E; Rossenkhan, R; Ketunuti, M; Makhema, J; Seage, G R; Essex, M

    2008-08-01

    Methods for identification of primary HIV infections seem increasingly important to understand pathogenesis, and to prevent transmission, which is particularly efficient during acute infection. Most current algorithms for HIV testing are based on detection of HIV antibodies and are unable to identify early infections before seroconversion. The efficiency of prospective cohorts, which is a standard approach for identifying primary HIV-1 infection, depends on a variety of epidemiological and cultural factors including HIV incidence and stigma and, not surprisingly, varies significantly in different geographical areas. We report a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)-based approach to identifying primary HIV-1C infection that was developed as part of a primary HIV-1 subtype C infection study in Botswana. The referral strategy was based on: (1) collaboration with VCT centers at city clinics operated by the Ministry of Health; (2) partnering with the busiest non-government VCT center; (3) educating healthcare workers and the community about primary HIV infection; and (4) pairing with diverse VCT providers, including NGOs and private-sector organizations. Acute HIV-1 infections were defined by a negative HIV-1 serology combined with a positive HIV-1 RT-PCR test. Recent HIV-1 infections were identified by detuned EIA testing according to the classic STARTH algorithm. The VCT-based referral strategy resulted in the successful identification of 57 cases of acute and early HIV infection. A referral strategy of expanded VCT with viral RNA (Ribonucleic acid) testing to a national program in Botswana may be a promising approach for identification of primary HIV infections on a countrywide level. The program should offer VCT with viral RNA testing to the general public, facilitate proper counseling and risk reduction, and allow initiation of early HAART, and may reduce new viral transmissions. PMID:18608056

  11. Evaluation of Immune Survival Factors in Pediatric HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    SHEARER, WILLIAM T.; EASLEY, KIRK A.; GOLDFARB, JOHANNA; JENSON, HAL B.; ROSENBLATT, HOWARD M.; KOVACS, ANDREA; MCINTOSH, KENNETH

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, CD19+/20+ B cells, and serum immunoglobulins (Igs) have been implicated as survival factors for pediatric HIV-1 infection. To determine which of these immune factors might be important in predicting survival, we studied HIV-1 vertically infected (HIV-1+) children over a 5-year period. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and Igs were measured in 298 HIV-1+ children, who were classified as survivors or nonsurvivors, and in 463 HIV-1 vertically exposed and noninfected (HIV-1–) children. Measurements of other possible survival factors were included in this study: albumin, hemoglobin, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and HIV-1 RNA levels. Survivors had significantly higher CD4+ T-cell, CD8+ T-cell, and CD19+/CD20+ B-cell counts and serum IgG levels, but lower serum IgA and IgM levels than nonsurvivors. Serum albumin and blood hemoglobin levels were higher, but serum LDH and HIV-1 RNA levels were lower in the survivors compared to non-survivors. In univariable analysis, factors affecting survival were baseline CD4+ T-cell and CD8+ T-cell counts, IgG, albumin, hemoglobin, LDH, and HIV-1 RNA (all p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, high baseline CD4+ T-cell count, IgG and albumin levels, and low baseline HIV-1 RNA load remained important factors for survival. Serum IgG level has been identified as an immune factor that independently predicts survival, in addition to the already established CD4+ T-cell count. The HIV-1 RNA and serum albumin levels also predicted survival. PMID:11144332

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-11-01

    A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1-infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy Fails to Restore Levels of HIV-1 Restriction miRNAs in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected MSM

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhao, Min; Kong, Wen-Hua; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Hong-Yan; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Tang, Li; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Zhou, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified to have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication. In this study, we examined the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on the expression of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Compared with male healthy donors, HIV-infected MSM had significantly lower levels of 9 HIV-1 restriction miRNAs. The treatment of HIV-1infected MSM with cART, however, failed to restore the levels of these miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that the suppression of the cellular restriction miRNAs by HIV-1 may attribute to the virus latency during cART. PMID:26579828

  14. Immunodominant HIV-1 Cd4+ T Cell Epitopes in Chronic Untreated Clade C HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ramduth, Danni; Day, Cheryl L.; Thobakgale, Christina F.; Mkhwanazi, Nompumelelo P.; de Pierres, Chantal; Reddy, Sharon; van der Stok, Mary; Mncube, Zenele; Nair, Kriebashne; Moodley, Eshia S.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Streeck, Hendrik; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Kiepiela, Photini; Goulder, Philip J. R.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Background A dominance of Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses is significantly associated with a lower viral load in individuals with chronic, untreated clade C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This association has not been investigated in terms of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses, nor have clade C HIV-1–specific CD4+ T cell epitopes, likely a vital component of an effective global HIV-1 vaccine, been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Intracellular cytokine staining was conducted on 373 subjects with chronic, untreated clade C infection to assess interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses by CD4+ T cells to pooled Gag peptides and to determine their association with viral load and CD4 count. Gag-specific IFN-γ–producing CD4+ T cell responses were detected in 261/373 (70%) subjects, with the Gag responders having a significantly lower viral load and higher CD4 count than those with no detectable Gag response (p<0.0001 for both parameters). To identify individual peptides targeted by HIV-1–specific CD4+ T cells, separate ELISPOT screening was conducted on CD8-depleted PBMCs from 32 chronically infected untreated subjects, using pools of overlapping peptides that spanned the entire HIV-1 clade C consensus sequence, and reconfirmed by flow cytometry to be CD4+ mediated. The ELISPOT screening identified 33 CD4+ peptides targeted by 18/32 patients (56%), with 27 of the 33 peptides located in the Gag region. Although the breadth of the CD4+ responses correlated inversely with viral load (p = 0.015), the magnitude of the response was not significantly associated with viral load. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that in chronic untreated clade C HIV-1 infection, IFN-γ–secreting Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses are immunodominant, directed at multiple distinct epitopes, and associated with viral control. PMID:19352428

  15. Neuropathology of early HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Gray, F; Scaravilli, F; Everall, I; Chretien, F; An, S; Boche, D; Adle-Biassette, H; Wingertsmann, L; Durigon, M; Hurtrel, B; Chiodi, F; Bell, J; Lantos, P

    1996-01-01

    Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system has been demonstrated by many cerebrospinal fluid studies; however, most HIV-1 carriers remain neurologically unimpaired during the so called "asymptomatic" period lasting from seroconversion to symptomatic AIDS. Therefore, neuropathological studies in the early pre-AIDS stages are very few, and the natural history of central nervous system changes in HIV-1 infection remains poorly understood. Examination of brains of asymptomatic HIV-1 positive individuals who died accidentally and of rare cases with acute fatal encephalopathy revealing HIV infection, and comparison with experimental simian immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections suggest that, invasion of the CNS by HIV-1 occurs at the time of primary infection and induces an immunological process in the central nervous system. This includes an inflammatory T-cell reaction with vasculitis and leptomeningitis, and immune activation of brain parenchyma with increased number of microglial cells, upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and local production of cytokines. Myelin pallor and gliosis of the white matter are usually found and are likely to be the consequence of opening of the blood brain barrier due to vasculitis; direct damage to oligodendrocytes by cytokines may also interfere. These white matter changes may explain, at least partly, the early cerebral atrophy observed, by magnetic resonance imaging, in asymptomatic HIV-1 carriers. In contrast, cortical damage seems to be a late event in the course of HIV-1 infection. There is no significant neuronal loss at the early stages of the disease, no accompanying increase in glial fibrillary acid protein staining in the cortex, and only exceptional neuronal apoptosis. Although HIV-1 proviral DNA may be demonstrated in a number of brains, viral replication remains very low during the asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection. This makes it likely that, although

  16. Immune reconstitution and vaccination outcome in HIV-1 infected children

    PubMed Central

    Cagigi, Alberto; Cotugno, Nicola; Giaquinto, Carlo; Nicolosi, Luciana; Bernardi, Stefania; Rossi, Paolo; Douagi, Iyadh; Palma, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Current evidence on routine immunization of HIV-1 infected children point out the need for a special vaccine schedule in this population. However, optimal strategies for identifying individuals susceptible to infections, and then offering them sustained protection through appropriate immunization schedule, both in terms of timing and number of vaccine doses, still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the degree of immune recovery after HAART initiation is important in guiding administration of routine vaccination in HIV-1 infected children. Although quantitative measures (e.g., CD4+ T-cell counts and immunoglobulin levels) are frequently performed to evaluate immune parameters, these measures do not fully mirror functional immune recovery. Here, we will review the status of single mandatory and recommended vaccines for HIV-1 infected children in relation to immune recovery after HAART initiation with the aim of identifying new means to help design personalized vaccine schedules for this population. PMID:22906931

  17. The HPA axis in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahendra; Kumar, Adarsh M; Waldrop, Drenna; Antoni, Michael H; Schneiderman, Neil; Eisdorfer, Carl

    2002-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroendocrine abnormalities in general and HPA axis activity in particular occur in both HIV-1 infection and individuals engaging in chronic drug use. For instance, our studies showing attenuated norepinephrine as well as ACTH and cortisol responses to a cold pressor challenge in asymptomatic HIV-1 persons support such a concept. Furthermore, our data on investigations on mirror-star tracing and speech challenges also support the finding that neuroendocrine responses are compromised in HIV-1 infection. Although the mechanisms leading to adverse effects on HPA axis activity in HIV infection are not fully understood, several lines of evidence suggest that a number of mechanisms may be involved, including homologies in molecular structures of various mediators of neuroendocrine activity and HIV-related structures, HIV as a chronic stress model, and virus-induced toxic factors. This article reviews our recent findings in this area and also presents research hypotheses needed for testing and understanding the mechanisms involved in the development of neuroendocrine abnormalities in HIV-1-infected injection drug users. PMID:12394788

  18. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. PMID:26774171

  19. Knockdown of the cellular protein LRPPRC attenuates HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Cameron J; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J; Donnellan, Meghan R; Cerny, Ronald L; Belshan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 exploits numerous host cellular pathways for productive infection. To identify novel factors involved in HIV-1 replication, HIV-1 integrase and matrix protein complexes were captured at 4 hours post infection for proteomic analysis using an affinity purification system. Leucine-rich PPR-motif containing (LRPPRC) protein, a cellular protein involved in mitochondrial function, cell metabolism, and cell-cycle progression was identified as one of the candidate HIV-1 factors. Co-immunoprecipitation RT-PCR experiments confirmed that LRPPRC associated with HIV-1 nucleic acids during the early steps of virus infection. To establish if LRPPRC was critical for HIV-1 infection, three independent LRPPRC knockdown cell lines were constructed (2.7, 3.6, and 4.1). Subcellular fractionation of these cell lines revealed differential knockdown of LRPPRC in subcellular compartments. LRPPRC was knocked down in the insoluble/cytoskeletal fractions of all three cell lines, but the 3.6 and 4.1 cells also showed a reduction in nuclear LRPPRC. Additionally, several cellular factors were downregulated and/or disrupted by loss of LRPPRC. HIV-1 infection was reduced in all three cell lines, but virus production and RNA encapsidation were unaffected, suggesting that LRPPRC was critical for the afferent stage of virus replication. Two of the three cell lines (3.6, 4.1) were refractory for murine leukemia virus infection, a virus dependent on cellular proliferation for productive infection. Consistent with this, these two cell lines exhibited reduced cellular growth with no loss of cellular viability or change in cell cycle phenotype. The early steps of virus infection were also differentially affected among the cell lines. A reduced level of preintegration complex formation was observed in all three cell lines, but viral DNA nuclear import was reduced only in the 3.6 and 4.1 cells. Combined, these data identify LRPPRC as a HIV-1 factor that is involved in HIV-1 replication through more

  20. Molecular epidemiology of recent HIV-1 infections in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Rosińska, Magdalena; Kruszyński, Piotr; Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Jolanta; Janiec, Janusz; Beniowski, Marek; Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Szetela, Bartosz; Porter, Kholoud; Wąsik, Tomasz J

    2012-12-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) offers an opportunity to track the development of the epidemic across different populations. Viral pol gene fragments from 55 individuals of Polish origin with recent HIV-1 infection identified in 2008-2010 in four Polish cities were analyzed. Viral sequences were compared with sequences from 100 individuals (reference group) infected before 2004. Viral spread among groups with different HIV transmission categories was compared using a phylogenetic approach. The majority of sequences from individuals with recent infection were subtype B (93%) within which four transmission clusters (18% of samples) were detected. Samples from men infected through sex between men and from persons infected through injecting drugs were broadly separated (P < 0.0001), while samples from individuals infected by heterosexual contacts were dispersed uniformly within phylogenetic tree (P = 0.244) inferred from viral sequences derived from individuals infected recently and the reference group. The percentage of samples from persons infected by heterosexual contacts which clustered with samples from men infected through sex between men was not significantly higher for those with recent infection (47%), compared to the reference group (36%). In conclusion, men infected by sex between men and individuals infected through injecting drugs appear to form separate HIV transmission networks in Poland. The recent spread of HIV-1 among persons infected with subtype B by heterosexual contacts appears to be linked to both these groups. PMID:23080488

  1. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-01-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFNγ-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFNγ or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV+ groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFNγ production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2–4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy. PMID:25844718

  2. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Flavonoid Myricetin on HIV-1 Infection in a Dual-Chamber In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Pasetto, Silvana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01–100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic), H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic), and the dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research. PMID:25546350

  3. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C. Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit. PMID:26426037

  4. HIV-1 infections with multiple founders are associated with higher viral loads than infections with single founders.

    PubMed

    Janes, Holly; Herbeck, Joshua T; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Thomas, Rasmi; Frahm, Nicole; Duerr, Ann; Hural, John; Corey, Lawrence; Self, Steve G; Buchbinder, Susan P; McElrath, M Juliana; O'Connell, Robert J; Paris, Robert M; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B; Rolland, Morgane

    2015-10-01

    Given the variation in the HIV-1 viral load (VL) set point across subjects, as opposed to a fairly stable VL over time within an infected individual, it is important to identify the characteristics of the host and virus that affect VL set point. Although recently infected individuals with multiple phylogenetically linked HIV-1 founder variants represent a minority of HIV-1 infections, we found--n two different cohorts--hat more diverse HIV-1 populations in early infection were associated with significantly higher VL 1 year after HIV-1 diagnosis. PMID:26322580

  5. HIV-1 infections with multiple founders are associated with higher viral loads than infections with single founders

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Holly; Herbeck, Joshua T.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Thomas, Rasmi; Frahm, Nicole; Duerr, Ann; Hural, John; Corey, Lawrence; Self, Steve G.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; McElrath, M. Juliana; O'Connell, Robert J.; Paris, Robert M.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttihum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Mullins, James I.; Kim, Jerome H.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Rolland, Morgane

    2015-01-01

    Given the wide differences in HIV-1 viral load (VL) setpoint across subjects as opposed to fairly stable VL over time within an infected individual, it is important to identify host and viral characteristics that affect VL setpoint. While recently-infected individuals with multiple phylogenetically-linked HIV-1 founder variants represent a minority of HIV-1 infections, we found in two different cohorts that more diverse HIV-1 populations in early infection were associated with significantly higher VL one year after HIV-1 diagnosis. PMID:26322580

  6. Drug-Induced Reactivation of Apoptosis Abrogates HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D.; Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; Gandolfi, Darlene D'Alliessi; Heller, Debra S.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Cone, Richard A.; Holland, Bart; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal

  7. HIV-1 RNA quantification in CRF02_AG HIV-1 infection: too easy to make mistakes.

    PubMed

    Tatarelli, Paola; Taramasso, Lucia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Sticchi, Laura; Nigro, Nicola; Barresi, Renata; Viscoli, Claudio; Bruzzone, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients newly infected by HIV-1 non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) is increasing worldwide, including in the western countries. We report on a primary HIV-1 infection in a Caucasian patient. A routine quantitative assay (Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 2.0, BioMérieux SA) showed 6,700 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. A combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) consistent with low baseline HIV-1 RNA was started. Few days later, the analysis performed with REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool - Version 3.0 attributed the HIV-1 sequence to the CRF02_AG recombinant form. Therefore, a second real-time PCR assay was performed, using the Versant HIV-1 RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics) which revealed a HIV-1 RNA of 230,000 copies/ml. Consequently, the ongoing cART was potentiated. This case suggests that the wide genetic variability of HIV-1 subtypes may affect the capability of the commonly used assays to detect and accurately quantify HIV-1 RNA in non-B subtypes and CRFs. In presence of CRFs different commercial HIV-1 RNA tests should be performed to find the most reliable for viral load quantification at the diagnosis, because it influences the choice of cART, and during the follow-up. Indeed, international guidelines for HIV-1 infection management suggest to monitor patient' HIV-RNA with the same assay over the course of treatment. As different commercial tests can be performed in the same laboratory with considerable difficulty, the laboratory should select an assay that is suitable not only for the more prevalent strain, but also for less frequent ones that, nevertheless, can occur. Then, knowing and investigating the spread of non-B strains has essential clinical and laboratory implications. PMID:27196556

  8. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  9. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  10. Toll-interacting protein inhibits HIV-1 infection and regulates viral latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Kuang, Wen-Dong; Qu, Di; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-06-24

    HIV-1 latency is mainly characterized by a reversible silencing of long-terminal repeat (LTR)-driven transcription of provirus. The existing of repressive factors has been described to contribute to transcription silencing of HIV-1. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) has been identified as a repressor of Toll like receptors (TLR)-mediated signaling. Our previous study has found that Tollip inhibited NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 promoter LTR-driven transcription, indicating the potential role of Tollip in governing viral latency. In this study, by using HIV-1 latently infected Jurkat T-cell and central memory CD4(+) T-cells, we demonstrate the role of Tollip in regulating HIV-1 latency, as the knock-down of Tollip promoted HIV-1 reactivation from both HIV-1 latently infected Jurkat CD4(+) T cells and primary central memory T cells (TCM). Moreover, we found that the activities of LTRs derived from multiple HIV-1 subtypes could be repressed by Tollip; Knock-down of Tollip promoted HIV-1 transcription and infection in CD4(+) T cells. Our data indicate a key role of Tollip in suppressing HIV-1 infection and regulating viral latency, which provides a potential host target for combating HIV-1 infection and latency. PMID:27181351

  11. N(6)-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression.

    PubMed

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m(6)A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1-3) bind to m(6)A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1-3 proteins recognize m(6)A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4(+) T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1-3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1-3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m(6)A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m(6)A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m(6)A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. PMID:27371828

  12. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  13. Treatment of helminth co-infection in HIV-1 infected individuals in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. These areas often also have high prevalence of other infectious diseases, such as helminth infections. It is important to determine if helminth infection affects the progression of HIV-1 in these co-infected individuals. There are biologically plausible reasons for possible effects of helminth infection in HIV-1 infected individuals and findings from some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate the available evidence from published and unpublished studies to determine if treatment of helminth infection in HIV-1 co-infected individuals impacts HIV-1 progression. Objectives Our objective was to determine if treating helminth infection in individuals with HIV-1 can reduce the progression of HIV-1 as determined by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression (including mortality). Search strategy We searched online for published and unpublished studies in The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), AIDSEARCH (August 2006). We also searched databases listing conference abstracts, scanned reference lists of articles, and contacted authors of included studies. Selection criteria We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared HIV-1 progression as measured by changes in CD4 count, viral load, or clinical disease progression in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-helminth therapy. Observational studies with relevant data were also included. Data collection and analysis Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality after treatment of helminth co-infection were extracted from the reports of the studies. Main results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which five were eligible for inclusion. In

  14. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  15. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  16. Glutamate metabolism in HIV-1 infected macrophages: Role of HIV-1 Vpr.

    PubMed

    Datta, Prasun K; Deshmane, Satish; Khalili, Kamel; Merali, Salim; Gordon, John C; Fecchio, Chiara; Barrero, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 infected macrophages play a significant role in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) not only facilitates HIV-1 infection but also contribute to long-lived persistence in macrophages. Our previous studies using SILAC-based proteomic analysis showed that the expression of critical metabolic enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were altered in response to Vpr expression in macrophages. We hypothesized that Vpr-induced modulation of glycolysis and TCA cycle regulates glutamate metabolism and release in HIV-1 infected macrophages. We assessed the amount of specific metabolites induced by Vpr and HIV-1 in macrophages at the intracellular and extracellular level in a time-dependent manner utilizing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) targeted metabolomics. In addition, stable isotope-labeled glucose and an MRM targeted metabolomics assay were used to evaluate the de novo synthesis and release of glutamate in Vpr overexpressing macrophages and HIV-1 infected macrophages, throughout the metabolic flux of glycolytic pathway and TCA cycle activation. The metabolic flux studies demonstrated an increase in glucose uptake, glutamate release and accumulation of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and glutamine in the extracellular milieu in Vpr expressing and HIV-1 infected macrophages. Interestingly, glutamate pools and other intracellular intermediates (glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), citrate, malate, α-KG, and glutamine) showed a decreased trend except for fumarate, in contrast to the glutamine accumulation observed in the extracellular space in Vpr overexpressing macrophages. Our studies demonstrate that dysregulation of mitochondrial glutamate metabolism induced by Vpr in HIV-1 infected macrophages commonly seen, may contribute to neurodegeneration via excitotoxic mechanisms in the context of NeuroAIDS. PMID:27245560

  17. High frequency of HIV-1 infections with multiple HIV-1 strains in men having sex with men (MSM) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Leye, Nafissatou; Vidal, Nicole; Ndiaye, Ousseynou; Diop-Ndiaye, Halimatou; Wade, Abdoulaye Sidibé; Mboup, Souleymane; Delaporte, Eric; Toure-Kane, Coumba; Peeters, Martine

    2013-12-01

    Circulating and unique recombinant HIV-1 strains continue to be identified and their number increases over time, suggesting that co-infection with multiple HIV-1 is frequent. In this study we analyzed to what extent dual infections with different HIV-1 variants occur in a population group with high risk behaviour, high HIV-1 prevalence and in an area where multiple HIV-1 subtypes and Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) co-circulate. We studied 69 MSM with our recently developed multi-region hybridization assay (MHA), based on fluorescent probe detection for eight common variants circulating in West and West Central Africa. At least 11 (15.9%) of the 69 patients were simultaneously infected with two different HIV-1 subtypes and/or CRFs. Among the 29 samples identified as subtype C by MHA in gag, 15 (57.7%) reacted with both C1 and C2 probes. Sequence analysis suggests that the majority of the samples reactive with C1 and C2 probes are most likely infected with two different subtype C clades. Single genome amplification and DNA dilutions confirmed dual infection with subtype D and C for MSM1193, triple infection with two different C subtype strains and one CRF02_AG strain in MSM1157 and showed that MSM3017 is at least co-infected with CRF06_cpx and CRF02_AG and another strain that could not be classified. Comparison of all subtype C sequences from the MSM population and from the general population from this and previous studies confirmed the intermixing of HIV-1 variants between low-risk women and high-risk men as shown by the intermixing of subtype C variants from MSM1157 and a female patient (02SN-HALD478). Comparison of dual infection rates between the general population and MSM in Senegal, show also clearly the importance of high HIV prevalence and high risk behavior in dual infections and subsequent intermixing of HIV-1 variants which can lead to emergence and spread of new recombinants (CRFs). PMID:24035811

  18. HIV-1 infection, microenvironment and endothelial cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mazzuca, Pietro; Caruso, Arnaldo; Caccuri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    HIV-1 promotes a generalized immune activation that involves the main targets of HIV-1 infection but also cells that are not sensitive to viral infection. ECs display major dysfunctions in HIV+ patients during long-standing viral infection that persist even in the current cART era, in which new-generation drugs have reduced dysmetabolic side effects and successfully impeded viral replication. In vivo studies have failed to demonstrate the presence of replicating virus in ECs suggesting that a direct role of the virus is unlikely, and implying that the mechanism accounting for vascular dysfunction may rely on the indirect action of molecules released in the microenvironment by HIV-1-infected cells. This article reviews the current understanding of how HIV-1 infection can contribute to vascular dysfunction. In particular, we discuss the emerging role played by different HIV-1 proteins in driving inflammation and EC dysregulation, and highlight the need to target them for therapeutic benefit. PMID:27602413

  19. Targeting TNF-Alpha in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Coquard, Laurie; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically extended the lifespan and quality of life of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HAART comprises of a cocktail of various pharmacological inhibitors which interfere with almost every stages of HIV-1 life cycle. However, constant application of drugs often results in the evolution of hostpathogen relationship resulting in the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. Drug resistant HIV-1 is a potent threat for the humankind. Therefore, there is a constant need to search for novel therapeutic molecules. HIV-1 infection results in the depletion of CD4+/CD8+T cells and alters the cytokine network in the infected individuals. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. HIV-1 utilizes the TNF-alpha signaling pathway for expanding its reservoir. Several HIV-1 proteins mimic and regulate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. TNF-alpha inhibitors have been used in several inflammatory pathologies with success to some extent. In the present mini review we will discuss the role of TNF-alpha in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Furthermore we will evaluate the TNF-alpha inhibitors as an additional therapeutic option for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26073859

  20. The role of human dendritic cells in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji; Piguet, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsets have multifaceted roles in the early stages of HIV-1 transmission and infection. DC studies have led to remarkable discoveries, including identification of restriction factors, cellular structures promoting viral transmission including the infectious synapse or the interplay of the C-type lectins, Langerin on Langerhans cells (LCs), and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin on other DC subsets, limiting or facilitating HIV transmission to CD4(+) T cells, respectively. LCs/DCs are also exposed to encountering HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections (herpes simplex virus-2, bacteria, fungi), which reprogram HIV-1 interaction with these cells. This review will summarize advances in the role of DCs during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25407434

  1. Multifarious immunotherapeutic approaches to cure HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Imami, Nesrina; Herasimtschuk, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy in the context of treated HIV-1 infection aims to improve immune responses to achieve better control of the virus. To date, multifaceted immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to reduce immune activation and increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, further to the effects of antiretroviral therapy alone, in addition to improving HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. While sterilizing cure of HIV-1 would involve elimination of all replication-competent virus, a functional cure in which the host has long-lasting control of viral replication may be more feasible. In this commentary, we discuss novel strategies aimed at targeting the latent viral reservoir with cure of HIV-1 infection being the ultimate goal, an achievement that would have considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. PMID:26048144

  2. Eradicating HIV-1 infection: seeking to clear a persistent pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Archin, Nancie M.; Sung, Julia Marsh; Garrido, Carolina; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) blunts viraemia, which enables HIV-1-infected individuals to control infection and live long, productive lives. However, HIV-1 infection remains incurable owing to the persistence of a viral reservoir that harbours integrated provirus within host cellular DNA. This latent infection is unaffected by ART and hidden from the immune system. Recent studies have focused on the development of therapies to disrupt latency. These efforts unmasked residual viral genomes and highlighted the need to enable the clearance of latently infected cells, perhaps via old and new strategies that improve the HIV-1-specific immune response. In this Review, we explore new approaches to eradicate established HIV-1 infection and avoid the burden of lifelong ART. PMID:25402363

  3. Sex and gender differences in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27389589

  4. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 entry into target lymphocytes requires the activity of actin adaptors that stabilize and reorganize cortical F-actin, like moesin and filamin-A. These alterations are necessary for the redistribution of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor interactions and that generates the tension at the plasma membrane necessary to potentiate fusion pore formation, thereby favouring early HIV-1 infection. However, it remains unclear whether the dynamic processing of F-actin and the amount of cortical actin available during the initial virus-cell contact are required to such events. Results Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. Remarkably, efficient HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and infection of permissive lymphocytes were impaired when gelsolin was either overexpressed or silenced, which led to a loss or gain of cortical actin, respectively. Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. These perturbed-actin events are responsible for the inhibition of early HIV-1 infection. Conclusions For the first time we provide evidence that through its severing of cortical actin, and by controlling the amount of actin available for reorganization during HIV-1 Env-mediated viral fusion, entry and infection, gelsolin can constitute a barrier that restricts HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes in a pre-fusion step. These findings provide important insights into the complex molecular and actin-associated dynamics events that underlie early viral infection. Thus, we propose that gelsolin is a new factor that can limit HIV-1 infection acting at a pre-fusion step

  5. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2. PMID:26821323

  6. Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bruel, Timothée; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Amraoui, Sonia; Malbec, Marine; Richard, Léa; Bourdic, Katia; Donahue, Daniel Aaron; Lorin, Valérie; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Mouquet, Hugo; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These antibodies target the CD4-binding site, the glycans/V3 and V1/V2 loops on gp120, or the gp41 moiety. The landscape of Env epitope exposure at the surface and the sensitivity of infected cells to ADCC vary considerably between viral strains. Efficient ADCC requires sustained cell surface binding of bNAbs to Env, and combining bNAbs allows a potent killing activity. Furthermore, reactivated infected cells from HIV-positive individuals expose heterogeneous Env epitope patterns, with levels that are often but not always sufficient to trigger killing by bNAbs. Our study delineates the parameters controlling ADCC activity of bNAbs, and supports the use of the most potent antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. PMID:26936020

  7. Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bruel, Timothée; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Amraoui, Sonia; Malbec, Marine; Richard, Léa; Bourdic, Katia; Donahue, Daniel Aaron; Lorin, Valérie; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Mouquet, Hugo; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These antibodies target the CD4-binding site, the glycans/V3 and V1/V2 loops on gp120, or the gp41 moiety. The landscape of Env epitope exposure at the surface and the sensitivity of infected cells to ADCC vary considerably between viral strains. Efficient ADCC requires sustained cell surface binding of bNAbs to Env, and combining bNAbs allows a potent killing activity. Furthermore, reactivated infected cells from HIV-positive individuals expose heterogeneous Env epitope patterns, with levels that are often but not always sufficient to trigger killing by bNAbs. Our study delineates the parameters controlling ADCC activity of bNAbs, and supports the use of the most potent antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. PMID:26936020

  8. Kinase Control of Latent HIV-1 Infection: PIM-1 Kinase as a Major Contributor to HIV-1 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C.; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases generated from these kinome profile data predicted PIM-1 kinase as a key switch involved in HIV-1 latency control. Using genetic and pharmacologic perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that PIM-1 activity is indeed required for HIV-1 reactivation in T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. The presented results thus confirm that kinases are key contributors to HIV-1 latency control. In addition, through mutational studies we link the inhibitory effect of PIM-1 inhibitor IV (PIMi IV) on HIV-1 reactivation to an AP-1 motif in the CD28-responsive element of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The results expand our conceptual understanding of the dynamic interactions of the host cell and the latent HIV-1 integration event and position kinome profiling as a research tool to reveal novel molecular mechanisms that can eventually be targeted to therapeutically trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:24155393

  9. Kinase control of latent HIV-1 infection: PIM-1 kinase as a major contributor to HIV-1 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q; Kutsch, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases generated from these kinome profile data predicted PIM-1 kinase as a key switch involved in HIV-1 latency control. Using genetic and pharmacologic perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that PIM-1 activity is indeed required for HIV-1 reactivation in T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. The presented results thus confirm that kinases are key contributors to HIV-1 latency control. In addition, through mutational studies we link the inhibitory effect of PIM-1 inhibitor IV (PIMi IV) on HIV-1 reactivation to an AP-1 motif in the CD28-responsive element of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The results expand our conceptual understanding of the dynamic interactions of the host cell and the latent HIV-1 integration event and position kinome profiling as a research tool to reveal novel molecular mechanisms that can eventually be targeted to therapeutically trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:24155393

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy and Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Price, Richard W.; Spudich, Serena

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection begins during primary viremia and continues throughout the course of untreated systemic infection. While frequently accompanied by local inflammatory reactions detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CNS HIV-1 infection is not usually clinically apparent. In a minority of patients, CNS HIV-1 infection evolves late in the course of systemic infection into encephalitis, which compromises brain function and presents clinically as AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a major impact on all aspects of HIV-1 CNS infection and disease. In those with asymptomatic infection, HAART usually effectively suppresses CSF HIV-1 and markedly reduces the incidence of symptomatic ADC. In those presenting with ADC, HAART characteristically prevents neurological progression and leads to variable, and at times substantial, recovery. Treatment has similarly reduced CNS opportunistic infections. With better control of these severe disorders, attention has turned to the possible consequences of chronic silent infection, and the issue of whether indolent, low-grade brain injury might require earlier treatment intervention. PMID:18447615

  11. Metabolomics of bronchoalveolar lavage differentiate healthy HIV-1-infected subjects from controls.

    PubMed

    Cribbs, Sushma K; Park, Youngja; Guidot, David M; Martin, Greg S; Brown, Lou Ann; Lennox, Jeffrey; Jones, Dean P

    2014-06-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy, pneumonias from pathogens such as pneumococcus continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected individuals. Respiratory infections occur despite high CD4 counts and low viral loads; therefore, better understanding of lung immunity and infection predictors is necessary. We tested whether metabolomics, an integrated biosystems approach to molecular fingerprinting, could differentiate such individual characteristics. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf ) was collected from otherwise healthy HIV-1-infected individuals and healthy controls. A liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry method was used to detect metabolites in BALf. Statistical and bioinformatic analyses used false discovery rate (FDR) and orthogonally corrected partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to identify groupwise discriminatory factors as the top 5% of metabolites contributing to 95% separation of HIV-1 and control. We enrolled 24 subjects with HIV-1 (median CD4=432) and 24 controls. A total of 115 accurate mass m/z features from C18 and AE analysis were significantly different between HIV-1 subjects and controls (FDR=0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed clusters of metabolites, which discriminated the samples according to HIV-1 status (FDR=0.05). Several of these did not match any metabolites in metabolomics databases; mass-to-charge 325.065 ([M+H](+)) was significantly higher (FDR=0.05) in the BAL of HIV-1-infected subjects and matched pyochelin, a siderophore-produced Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Metabolic profiles in BALf differentiated healthy HIV-1-infected subjects and controls. The lack of association with known human metabolites and inclusion of a match to a bacterial metabolite suggest that the differences could reflect the host's lung microbiome and/or be related to subclinical infection in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:24417396

  12. The Dual Role of Dendritic cells in the Immune Response to HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Ian B.; Bajaria, Seema H.; Fallert, Beth A.; Qin, Shulin; Reinhart, Todd A.; Kirschner, Denise E.

    2009-01-01

    Many aspects of the complex interaction between HIV-1 and the human immune system remain elusive. Our objective is to study these interactions, focusing on the specific roles of dendritic cells (DCs). DCs enhance HIV-1 infection processes as well as promote an anti-viral immune response. We explore the implications of these dual roles. We present and analyse a mathematical model describing the dynamics of HIV-1, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and DCs interacting in a human lymph node. We validate the behaviour of our model against non-human primate SIV experimental data and published human HIV-1 data. Our model qualitatively and quantitatively recapitulates clinical HIV-1 infection dynamics. We perform sensitivity analyses on the model to determine which mechanisms strongly affect infection dynamics. Sensitivity analysis identifies system interactions that contribute to infection progression, including DC-related mechanisms. We compare DC-dependent and DC-independent routes of CD4+ T-cell infection. The model predicts that simultaneous priming and infection of T cells by DCs drives early infection dynamics when activated T-helper cell numbers are low. Further, our model predicts that, while direct failure of DC function and an indirect failure due to loss of CD4+ T-cell help are both significant contributors to infection dynamics, our results support the hypothesis that the former has a more significant impact on HIV-1 immunopathogenesis. PMID:18753232

  13. Constructing the Average Natural History of HIV-1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diambra, L.; Capurro, A.; Malta, C. P.

    2007-05-01

    Many aspects of the natural course of the HIV-1 infection remains unclear, despite important efforts towards understanding its long-term dynamics. Using a scaling approach that places progression markers (viral load, CD4+, CD8+) of many individuals on a single average natural course of disease progression, we introduce the concept of inter-individual scaling and time scaling. Our quantitative assessment of the natural course of HIV-1 infection indicates that the dynamics of the evolution for the individual that developed AIDS (opportunistic infections) is different from that of the individual that did not develop AIDS. This means that the rate of progression is not relevant for the infection evolution.

  14. Antiviral activity of CYC202 in HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Agbottah, Emmanuel; de La Fuente, Cynthia; Nekhai, Sergie; Barnett, Anna; Gianella-Borradori, Athos; Pumfery, Anne; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2005-01-28

    There are currently 40 million individuals in the world infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant reduction in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, up to 25% of patients discontinue their initial HAART regimen. Current HIV-1 inhibitors target the fusion of the virus to the cell and two viral proteins, reverse transcriptase and protease. Here, we examined whether other targets, such as an activated transcription factor, could be targeted to block HIV-1 replication. We specifically asked whether we could target a cellular kinase needed for HIV-1 transcription using CYC202 (R-roscovitine), a pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. We targeted the cdk2-cyclin E complex in HIV-1-infected cells because both cdk2 and cyclin E are nonessential during mammalian development and are likely replaced by other kinases. We found that CYC202 effectively inhibits wild type and resistant HIV-1 mutants in T-cells, monocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at a low IC(50) and sensitizes these cells to enhanced apoptosis resulting in a dramatic drop in viral titers. Interestingly, the effect of CYC202 is independent of cell cycle stage and more specific for the cdk2-cyclin E complex. Finally, we show that cdk2-cyclin E is loaded onto the HIV-1 genome in vivo and that CYC202 is able to inhibit the uploading of this cdk-cyclin complex onto HIV-1 DNA. Therefore, targeting cellular enzymes necessary for HIV-1 transcription, which are not needed for cell survival, is a compelling strategy to inhibit wild type and mutant HIV-1 strains. PMID:15531588

  15. Selected Drugs with Reported Secondary Cell-Differentiating Capacity Prime Latent HIV-1 Infection for Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Takao; Wolschendorf, Frank; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Kappes, John; Jones, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Reactivation of latent HIV-1 infection is considered our best therapeutic means to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Past therapeutic attempts to systemically trigger HIV-1 reactivation using single drugs were unsuccessful. We thus sought to identify drug combinations consisting of one component that would lower the HIV-1 reactivation threshold and a synergistic activator. With aclacinomycin and dactinomycin, we initially identified two FDA-approved drugs that primed latent HIV-1 infection in T cell lines and in primary T cells for reactivation and facilitated complete reactivation at the population level. This effect was correlated not with the reported primary drug effects but with the cell-differentiating capacity of the drugs. We thus tested other cell-differentiating drugs/compounds such as cytarabine and aphidicolin and found that they also primed latent HIV-1 infection for reactivation. This finding extends the therapeutic promise of N′-N′-hexamethylene-bisacetamide (HMBA), another cell-differentiating agent that has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation, into the group of FDA-approved drugs. To this end, it is also noteworthy that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a polar compound that was initially developed as a second-generation cell-differentiating agent using HMBA as a structural template and which is now marketed as the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat, also has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. Our findings suggest that drugs with primary or secondary cell-differentiating capacity should be revisited as HIV-1-reactivating agents as some could potentially be repositioned as candidate drugs to be included in an induction therapy to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:22696646

  16. Selected drugs with reported secondary cell-differentiating capacity prime latent HIV-1 infection for reactivation.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Takao; Wolschendorf, Frank; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Kappes, John; Jones, Jennifer; Kutsch, Olaf

    2012-09-01

    Reactivation of latent HIV-1 infection is considered our best therapeutic means to eliminate the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Past therapeutic attempts to systemically trigger HIV-1 reactivation using single drugs were unsuccessful. We thus sought to identify drug combinations consisting of one component that would lower the HIV-1 reactivation threshold and a synergistic activator. With aclacinomycin and dactinomycin, we initially identified two FDA-approved drugs that primed latent HIV-1 infection in T cell lines and in primary T cells for reactivation and facilitated complete reactivation at the population level. This effect was correlated not with the reported primary drug effects but with the cell-differentiating capacity of the drugs. We thus tested other cell-differentiating drugs/compounds such as cytarabine and aphidicolin and found that they also primed latent HIV-1 infection for reactivation. This finding extends the therapeutic promise of N'-N'-hexamethylene-bisacetamide (HMBA), another cell-differentiating agent that has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation, into the group of FDA-approved drugs. To this end, it is also noteworthy that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a polar compound that was initially developed as a second-generation cell-differentiating agent using HMBA as a structural template and which is now marketed as the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor vorinostat, also has been reported to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. Our findings suggest that drugs with primary or secondary cell-differentiating capacity should be revisited as HIV-1-reactivating agents as some could potentially be repositioned as candidate drugs to be included in an induction therapy to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:22696646

  17. An effective tool for identifying HIV-1 subtypes B, C, CRF01_AE, their recombinant forms, and dual infections in Southeast Asia by the multi-region subtype specific PCR (MSSP) assay.

    PubMed

    Sakkhachornphop, Supachai; Kijak, Gustavo H; Beyrer, Chris; Razak, Myat Htoo; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon; Suriyanon, Vinai; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Celentano, David D; McCutchan, Francine E; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2015-06-01

    The RV144 Thai vaccine trial has been the only vaccine study to show efficacy in preventing HIV infection. Ongoing molecular surveillance of HIV-1 in Southeast Asia is vital for vaccine development and evaluation. In this study a novel tool, the multi-region subtype specific PCR (MSSP) assay, that was able to identify subtypes B, C, CRF01_AE for Thailand, other Southeast Asian countries, India and China is described. The MSSP assay is based on a nested PCR strategy and amplifies eight short regions distributed along the HIV-1 genome using subtype-specific primers. A panel of 41 clinical DNA samples obtained primarily from opiate users in northern Thailand was used to test the assay performance. The MSSP assay provided 73-100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the three subtypes in each genome region. The assay was then field-tested on 337 sera from HIV infected northern Thai drug users collected between 1999 and 2002. Subtype distribution was CRF01_AE 77.4% (n=261), subtype B 3.3% (n=11), CRF01_AE/B recombinant 12.2% (n=41), CRF01_AE/C recombinant 0.6% (n=2), and non-typeable 6.5% (n=22). The MSSP assay is a simple, cost-effective, and accurate genotyping tool for laboratory settings with limited resources and is sensitive enough to capture the recombinant genomes and dual infections. PMID:25725414

  18. Circulation of HIV-1 Multiple Complexity Recombinant Forms Among Female Sex Workers Recently Infected with HIV-1 in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saeng-Aroon, Siriphan; Loket, Ruangchai; Plipat, Tanarak; Lumyai, Suttiwat; Chu, Pei-Yu; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Nakayama, Emi E; Takeda, Naokazu; Shioda, Tatsuo; Motomura, Kazushi

    2016-07-01

    The circulating subtype distribution of HIV-1 has not been well characterized in female sex worker (FSW) populations in Thailand. To understand the mechanisms and interrelationships of epidemics involving FSWs in Thailand, we performed a large molecular epidemiological study of FSWs aged 25 years with recently acquired HIV-1 infections. The samples were collected in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 in 38 provinces, representing every region of Thailand. After gag (p24), pol (pro-RT), and env (C2/V3) were sequenced, comprehensive genome analysis was performed. Genetic subtypes were determined in 159 plasma samples. The percentage of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) CRF01_AE (90.6%) predominated, while subtype B (1.3%), other CRFs (1.9%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (6.2%) were identified as minor populations. Interestingly, the unique recombinant nature of these HIV-1 strains was verified in 10 specimens, indicating the presence of new forms of HIV-1 intersubtypes G/A, C/B, AE/B/C, and AE/B with different recombination breakpoints. Subtype B has contributed to these new generations of unique CRF01/B recombinants, especially in the pol (RT) gene, in which the template switching of the RT genomes occurred during reverse transcription. These results imply that the several unique recombinant viruses circulating in Thailand were probably generated in the population or introduced from neighboring countries. Our study helps clarify the patterns of viral transmission and define transmission pathways in Thailand. PMID:26892382

  19. Moyamoya Syndrome in South African Children With HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Charles K; Shapson-Coe, Alexander; Govender, Rajeshree; van Toorn, Ronald; Ndondo, Alvin; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Eley, Brian; Mubaiwa, Lawrence; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2016-07-01

    A national multicenter study identified 17 South African children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection and HIV-associated vasculopathy. Five of the children (all indigenous African ancestry) had progressive vascular disease, consistent with moyamoya syndrome. Median presentation age 5.8 years (range 2.2-11). The children with moyamoya syndrome presented with abnormal CD4 counts and raised viral loads. Clinical features included motor deficits, neuroregression, and intellectual disability. Neuroimaging supported progressive vascular disease with preceding clinically silent disease course. Neurologic recovery occurred in 1 patient with improved CD4 counts. Four of the 5 children presented during the era when access to antiretroviral therapy was limited, suggesting that with improved management of HIV-1, progressive vasculopathy is less prevalent. However the insidious disease course illustrated indicates that the syndrome can progress "silently," and manifest with misleading phenotypes such as cognitive delay or regression. Sub-Saharan Africa has limited access to neuroimaging and affected children may be underdiagnosed. PMID:26961262

  20. Flail arm–like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Nalini, A.; Desai, Anita; Mahato, Simendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years' duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ‘flail arm–like syndrome.’ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen. PMID:20142861

  1. Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.

    1996-11-01

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

  2. Defining the HLA class I-associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV-1-infected human cells.

    PubMed

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas; Llano, Anuska; Cedeño, Samandhy; Fischer, Roman; Charles, Philip D; Dudek, Nadine L; Mothe, Beatriz; Crespo, Manuel; Fischer, William M; Korber, Bette T M; Nielsen, Morten; Borrow, Persephone; Purcell, Anthony W; Brander, Christian; Dorrell, Lucy; Kessler, Benedikt M; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High-throughput definition of HLA class I-associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding of the induction of T-cell responses against pathogens such as HIV-1. We utilized a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflow including de novo-assisted database searching to define the HLA class I-associated immunopeptidome of HIV-1-infected human cells. We here report for the first time the identification of 75 HIV-1-derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV-1-infected human primary CD4(+) T cells and the C8166 human T-cell line. Importantly, one-third of eluted HIV-1 peptides had not been previously known to be presented by HLA class I. Over 82% of the identified sequences originated from viral protein regions for which T-cell responses have previously been reported but for which the precise HLA class I-binding sequences have not yet been defined. These results validate and expand the current knowledge of virus-specific antigenic peptide presentation during HIV-1 infection and provide novel targets for T-cell vaccine development. PMID:26467324

  3. Neurologic Complications in Treated HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nisha S; Chow, Felicia C

    2016-07-01

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, with HIV-infected individuals living longer and reaching older age. Neurological disease remains common in treated HIV, however, due in part to ongoing inflammation and immune activation that persist in chronic infection. In this review, we highlight recent developments in our understanding of several clinically relevant neurologic complications that can occur in HIV infection despite treatment, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, symptomatic CSF escape, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27170369

  4. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency-reversing drug combinations.

    PubMed

    Laird, Gregory M; Bullen, C Korin; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Martin, Alyssa R; Hill, Alison L; Durand, Christine M; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Reversal of HIV-1 latency by small molecules is a potential cure strategy. This approach will likely require effective drug combinations to achieve high levels of latency reversal. Using resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s) from infected individuals, we developed an experimental and theoretical framework to identify effective latency-reversing agent (LRA) combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of leading candidate LRAs and identified multiple combinations that effectively reverse latency. We showed that protein kinase C agonists in combination with bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or histone deacetylase inhibitors robustly induce HIV-1 transcription and virus production when directly compared with maximum reactivation by T cell activation. Using the Bliss independence model to quantitate combined drug effects, we demonstrated that these combinations synergize to induce HIV-1 transcription. This robust latency reversal occurred without release of proinflammatory cytokines by rCD4s. To extend the clinical utility of our findings, we applied a mathematical model that estimates in vivo changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from ex vivo measurements of virus production. Our study reconciles diverse findings from previous studies, establishes a quantitative experimental approach to evaluate combinatorial LRA efficacy, and presents a model to predict in vivo responses to LRAs. PMID:25822022

  5. HIV-1 integration landscape during latent and active infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Lillian; Silva, Israel T.; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Rosales, Rafael A.; Parrish, Erica H.; Learn, Gerald H.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Czartoski, Julie L.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Lehmann, Clara; Klein, Florian; Caskey, Marina; Walker, Bruce D.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Jankovic, Mila; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The barrier to curing HIV-1 is thought to reside primarily in CD4+ T cells containing silent proviruses. To characterize these latently infected cells, we studied the integration profile of HIV-1 in viremic progressors, individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy, and viremic controllers. Clonally expanded T cells represented the majority of all integrations and increased during therapy. However, none of the 75 expanded T cell clones assayed contained intact virus. In contrast, the cells bearing single integration events decreased in frequency over time on therapy, and the surviving cells were enriched for HIV-1 integration in silent regions of the genome. Finally, there was a strong preference for integration into, or in close proximity to Alu repeats, which were also enriched in local hotspots for integration. The data indicate that dividing clonally expanded T cells contain defective proviruses, and that the replication competent reservoir is primarily found in CD4+ T cells that remain relatively quiescent. PMID:25635456

  6. Rapid HIV-1 Disease Progression in Individuals Infected with a Virus Adapted to Its Host Population

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Akihisa; Zhu, Dayong; Han, Chungyong; Nakamura, Hitomi; Koga, Michiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Adachi, Eisuke; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Gao, George F.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 escape from CTL is predictable based on the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I alleles expressed by the host. As such, HIV-1 sequences circulating in a population of hosts will harbor escape mutations specific to the HLA alleles of that population. In theory, this should increase the frequency of escape mutation transmission to persons expressing the restricting HLA allele, thereby compromising host immunity to the incoming HIV-1 strain. However, the clinical impact of infection with HIV-1 containing immune escape mutations has not conclusively been demonstrated. Japan’s population features limited HLA diversity which is driving population-level HIV adaptation: for example, >60% of Japanese express HLA-A*24:02 and its associated Nef-Y135F escape mutation represents the population consensus. As such, Japan is an ideal population in which to examine this phenomenon. Here, we combine genetic and immunological analyses to identify A*24:02-positive individuals likely to have been infected with Y135F-containing HIV-1. Over a ~5 year follow-up, these individuals exhibited significantly lower CD4 counts compared to individuals inferred to have been infected with wild-type HIV-1. Our results support a significant negative clinical impact of pathogen adaptation to host pressures at the population level. PMID:26953793

  7. Alterations in the nuclear proteome of HIV-1 infected T-cells

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Jagadish, Teena; Haverland, Nicole A.; Madson, Christian J.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Belshan, Michael

    2014-11-15

    Virus infection of a cell involves the appropriation of host factors and the innate defensive response of the cell. The identification of proteins critical for virus replication may lead to the development of novel, cell-based inhibitors. In this study we mapped the changes in T-cell nuclei during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at 20 hpi. Using a stringent data threshold, a total of 13 and 38 unique proteins were identified in infected and uninfected cells, respectively, across all biological replicates. An additional 15 proteins were found to be differentially regulated between infected and control nuclei. STRING analysis identified four clusters of protein–protein interactions in the data set related to nuclear architecture, RNA regulation, cell division, and cell homeostasis. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the differential expression of several proteins in both C8166-45 and Jurkat E6-1 T-cells. These data provide a map of the response in host cell nuclei upon HIV-1 infection. - Highlights: • We identify changes in the expression of nuclear proteins during HIV-1 infection. • 163 nuclear proteins were found differentially regulated during HIV-1 infection. • Bioinformatic analysis identified several nuclear pathways altered by HIV infection. • Candidate factors were validated in two independent cell lines.

  8. Measuring glutathione redox potential of HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (E(GSH); Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in E(GSH) during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial E(GSH) (approximately -310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (E(GSH) more than -240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular E(GSH) between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ∼25 mV in E(GSH) is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular E(GSH). Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321

  9. Measuring Glutathione Redox Potential of HIV-1-infected Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (EGSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in EGSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial EGSH (approximately −310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (EGSH more than −240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular EGSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ∼25 mV in EGSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular EGSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321

  10. The phosphorylation of HIV-1 Gag by atypical protein kinase C facilitates viral infectivity by promoting Vpr incorporation into virions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is the main structural protein that mediates the assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) from an infected cell membrane. The Gag C-terminal p6 domain contains short sequence motifs that facilitate virus release from the plasma membrane and mediate incorporation of the viral Vpr protein. Gag p6 has also been found to be phosphorylated during HIV-1 infection and this event may affect virus replication. However, the kinase that directs the phosphorylation of Gag p6 toward virus replication remains to be identified. In our present study, we identified this kinase using a proteomic approach and further delineate its role in HIV-1 replication. Results A proteomic approach was designed to systematically identify human protein kinases that potently interact with HIV-1 Gag and successfully identified 22 candidates. Among this panel, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) was found to phosphorylate HIV-1 Gag p6. Subsequent LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting analysis with a phospho-specific antibody confirmed both in vitro and in vivo that aPKC phosphorylates HIV-1 Gag at Ser487. Computer-assisted structural modeling and a subsequent cell-based assay revealed that this phosphorylation event is necessary for the interaction between Gag and Vpr and results in the incorporation of Vpr into virions. Moreover, the inhibition of aPKC activity reduced the Vpr levels in virions and impaired HIV-1 infectivity of human primary macrophages. Conclusion Our current results indicate for the first time that HIV-1 Gag phosphorylation on Ser487 is mediated by aPKC and that this kinase may regulate the incorporation of Vpr into HIV-1 virions and thereby supports virus infectivity. Furthermore, aPKC inhibition efficiently suppresses HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages. aPKC may therefore be an intriguing therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection. PMID:24447338

  11. In vitro model of mycobacteria and HIV-1 co-infection for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Finney John, Sarah; Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Ferguson, Monique R; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Olaleye, Omonike; Endsley, Janice J

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has become a global health threat in the wake of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic and is the leading cause of death in people with HIV/AIDS. Treatment of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/HIV co-infection is complicated by drug interactions and toxicity that present huge challenges for clinical intervention. Discovery efforts to identify novel compounds with increased effectiveness and decreased drug-drug interactions against Mtb, HIV-1, or both, would be greatly aided by the use of a co-infection model for screening drug libraries. Currently, inhibitors of Mtb are screened independently in mycobacterial cell cultures or target based biochemical screens and less often in macrophages or peripheral blood leukocytes. Similarly, HIV-1 drugs are screened in vitro independently from anti-mycobacterial compounds. Here, we describe an in vitro model where primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocyte-derived macrophages are infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and HIV-1, and used to evaluate drug toxicity and activity in a co-infection setting. Our results with standard compounds (e.g. Azidothymidine, Rifampicin) demonstrate the utility of this in vitro model to evaluate drug effectiveness relevant to cellular toxicity, HIV-1 replication, and intracellular mycobacterial growth, through the use of ELISA, bacterial enumeration, and multi-variate flow cytometry. This model and associated assays have great value in accelerating the discovery of compounds for use in Mtb/HIV-1 co-infected patients. PMID:24388652

  12. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Sui, Yihan; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yaqun; Wang, Ningtao; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Yao; Goodenow, Maureen; Yin, Li; Wang, Zuoheng; Wu, Rongling

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients' genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system. PMID:23092371

  13. HSV-2- and HIV-1- permissive cell lines co-infected by HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-replicate HSV-2 and HIV-1 without production of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotype particles

    PubMed Central

    LeGoff, Jérôme; Bouhlal, Hicham; Lecerf, Maxime; Klein, Christophe; Hocini, Hakim; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Muggeridge, Martin; Bélec, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may interact at the cellular level by forming HIV-1 hybrid virions pseudotyped with HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins, as was previously reported for HSV type 1. Methods We evaluated in vitro the production of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotypes in mononuclear CEM cells and epithelial HT29 and P4P cells. We analyzed the incorporation into the HIV-1 membrane of HSV-2 gB and gD, two major HSV-2 glycoproteins required for HSV-2 fusion with the cell membrane, in co-infected cells and in HIV-1-infected P4P cells transfected by plasmids coding for gB or gD. Results We show that HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-replicated in dually infected cells, and gB and gD were co-localized with gp160. However, HIV-1 particles, produced in HIV-1-infected cells expressing gB or gD after transfection or HSV-2 superinfection, did not incorporate either gB or gD in the viral membrane, and did not have the capacity to infect cells normally non-permissive for HIV-1, such as epithelial cells. Conclusion Our results do not support the hypothesis of HSV-2/HIV-1 pseudotype formation and involvement in the synergistic genital interactions between HIV-1 and HSV-2. PMID:17207276

  14. Multiple T-cell responses are associated with better control of acute HIV-1 infection: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianping; Zhao, Yan; Peng, Yanchun; Han, Zhen; Liu, Guihai; Qin, Ling; Liu, Sai; Sun, Huanhuan; Wu, Hao; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Yonghong

    2016-07-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses play pivotal roles in controlling the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but the correlation between CTL responses and the progression of HIV-1 infection are controversial on account of HIV immune escape mutations driven by CTL pressure were reported.The acute HIV-1-infected patients from Beijing were incorporated into our study to investigate the effects of CTL response on the progression of HIV-1 infection.A longitudinal study was performed on acute HIV-1-infected patients to clarify the kinetic of T-cell responses, the dynamic of escape mutations, as well as the correlation between effective T-cell response and the progression of HIV infection.Seven human leukocyte antigen-B51+ (HLA-B51+) individuals were screened from 105 acute HIV-1 infectors. The detailed kinetic of HLA-B51-restricted CTL responses was described through blood sampling time points including seroconversion, 3 and 6 months after HIV-1 infection in the 7 HLA-B51+ individuals, by using 16 known HLA-B51 restricted epitopes. Pol743-751 (LPPVVAKEI, LI9), Pol283-289 (TAFTIPSI, TI8), and Gag327-3459 (NANPDCKTI, NI9) were identified as 3 dominant epitopes, and ranked as starting with LI9, followed by TI8 and NI9 in the ability to induce T-cell responses. The dynamics of escape mutations in the 3 epitopes were also found with the same order as T-cell response, by using sequencing for viral clones on blood sampling at seroconversion, 3 and 6 months after HIV-1 infection.We use solid evidence to demonstrate the correlation between T-cell response and HIV-1 mutation, and postulate that multiple T-cell responses might benefit the control of HIV-1 infection, especially in acute infection phase. PMID:27472741

  15. Short Communication: HIV-1 Infection Suppresses Circulating Viral Restriction microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Sun, Li; Wang, Xu; Liang, Hao; Ye, Li; Zhou, Li; Liang, Bing-Yu; Li, Jie-Liang; Liu, Man-Qing; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Gui, Xi-En; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in host innate immunity against HIV-1 infection. We examined the impact of HIV-1 infection on viral restriction miRNAs in plasma of HIV-1-infected subjects. HIV-1-infected subjects had significantly lower plasma levels of HIV-1 restriction miRNAs (miRs-29a, -29b, -125b, -223, -198, and -382) than control subjects. Further in vitro studies showed that HIV-1 infection of macrophages suppressed production of the extracellular miRs-29b, -125b, and -223. These data demonstrate the compelling evidence that HIV-1 infection impairs host innate immunity by inhibiting antiviral miRNAs, which provide a possible mechanism for HIV-1 persistence in the host. PMID:26607272

  16. HIV-1 infected astrocytes and the microglial proteome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Gong, Nan; Liu, Jianuo; Kadiu, Irena; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D; Schlautman, Joshua D; Ciborowski, Pawel; Volsky, David J; Gendelman, Howard E

    2008-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invades the central nervous system early after viral exposure but causes progressive cognitive, behavior, and motor impairments years later with the onset of immune deficiency. Although in the brain, HIV preferentially replicates productively in cells of mononuclear phagocyte (MP; blood borne macrophage and microglia), astrocytes also can be infected, at low and variable frequency, particularly in patients with encephalitis. Among their many functions, astrocytes network with microglia to provide the first line of defense against microbial infection; however, very little is known about its consequences on MP. Here, we addressed this question using co-culture systems of HIV infected mouse astrocytes and microglia. Pseudotyped vesicular stomatis virus/HIV was used to circumvent absence of viral receptors and ensure cell genotypic uniformity for studies of intercellular communication. The study demonstrated that infected astrocytes show modest changes in protein elements as compared to uninfected cells. In contrast, infected astrocytes induce robust changes in the proteome of HIV-1 infected microglia. Accelerated cell death and redox proteins, amongst others, were produced in abundance. The observations confirmed the potential of astrocytes to influence the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection by specifically altering the neurotoxic potential of infected microglia and in this manner, disease progression. PMID:18587649

  17. Proteomic Modeling for HIV-1 Infected Microglia-Astrocyte Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Gong, Nan; Liu, Jianuo; Kadiu, Irena; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D.; Mosley, R. Lee; Volsky, David J.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV-1-infected and immune competent brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages and microglia) secrete cellular and viral toxins that affect neuronal damage during advanced disease. In contrast, astrocytes can affect disease by modulating the nervous system's microenvironment. Interestingly, little is known how astrocytes communicate with MP to influence disease. Methods and Findings MP-astrocyte crosstalk was investigated by a proteomic platform analysis using vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped HIV infected murine microglia. The microglial-astrocyte dialogue was significant and affected microglial cytoskeleton by modulation of cell death and migratory pathways. These were mediated, in part, through F-actin polymerization and filament formation. Astrocyte secretions attenuated HIV-1 infected microglia neurotoxicity and viral growth linked to the regulation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions These observations provide unique insights into glial crosstalk during disease by supporting astrocyte-mediated regulation of microglial function and its influence on the onset and progression of neuroAIDS. The results open new insights into previously undisclosed pathogenic mechanisms and open the potential for biomarker discovery and therapeutics that may influence the course of HIV-1-mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:18575609

  18. Impaired Phenotype and Function of T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1-Infected Children Receiving ART.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Yonas; Amu, Sylvie; Bobosha, Kidist; Lantto, Rebecka; Nilsson, Anna; Endale, Birtukan; Gebre, Meseret; Aseffa, Abraham; Rethi, Bence; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca

    2015-07-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important components in development of specific humoral immune responses; whether the number and biology of Tfh cells is impaired in HIV-1-infected children is not yet studied.The frequency, phenotype, and function of Tfh cells and B cells were determined in blood of HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and age-matched controls. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the frequency of Tfh cells and B cell subsets. Cytokine expression was measured after in vitro activation of Tfh cells.A reduced frequency of memory Tfh cells (P < 0.001) was identified in HIV-1-infected children and, on these cells, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Upon activation, the capacity of Tfh cells to express IL-4, an important cytokine for B cell function, was impaired in HIV-1-infected children.B cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected children displayed significant differences from the control group: the frequency of resting memory (RM) B cells was reduced (P < 0.01) whereas the frequency of exhausted memory B cells increased (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the decline of RM cells correlated with the reduction of memory Tfh cells (P = 0.02).Our study shows that function and phenotype of Tfh cells, pivotal cells for establishment of adaptive B cell responses, are impaired during HIV-1 infection in children. A consistent reduction of memory Tfh cells is associated with declined frequencies of RM B cells, creating a novel link between dysfunctional features of these cell types, major players in establishment of humoral immunity. PMID:26166114

  19. Impaired Phenotype and Function of T Follicular Helper Cells in HIV-1-Infected Children Receiving ART

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Yonas; Amu, Sylvie; Bobosha, Kidist; Lantto, Rebecka; Nilsson, Anna; Endale, Birtukan; Gebre, Meseret; Aseffa, Abraham; Rethi, Bence; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important components in development of specific humoral immune responses; whether the number and biology of Tfh cells is impaired in HIV-1-infected children is not yet studied. The frequency, phenotype, and function of Tfh cells and B cells were determined in blood of HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and age-matched controls. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the frequency of Tfh cells and B cell subsets. Cytokine expression was measured after in vitro activation of Tfh cells. A reduced frequency of memory Tfh cells (P < 0.001) was identified in HIV-1-infected children and, on these cells, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Upon activation, the capacity of Tfh cells to express IL-4, an important cytokine for B cell function, was impaired in HIV-1-infected children. B cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected children displayed significant differences from the control group: the frequency of resting memory (RM) B cells was reduced (P < 0.01) whereas the frequency of exhausted memory B cells increased (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the decline of RM cells correlated with the reduction of memory Tfh cells (P = 0.02). Our study shows that function and phenotype of Tfh cells, pivotal cells for establishment of adaptive B cell responses, are impaired during HIV-1 infection in children. A consistent reduction of memory Tfh cells is associated with declined frequencies of RM B cells, creating a novel link between dysfunctional features of these cell types, major players in establishment of humoral immunity. PMID:26166114

  20. Cardiovascular status of infants and children of women infected with HIV-1 (P2C2 HIV): a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lipshultz, Steven E; Easley, Kirk A; Orav, E John; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J; Bricker, J Timothy; Lai, Wyman W; Moodie, Douglas S; Sopko, George; Schluchter, Mark D; Colan, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Data from cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies have suggested that children infected with HIV-1 might have cardiovascular abnormalities. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a long-term cohort study. Methods We measured cardiovascular function every 4–6 months for up to 5 years in a birth cohort of 600 infants born to women infected with HIV-1. We included 93 infants infected with HIV-1 and 463 uninfected infants (internal controls) from the same cohort. We also included a cross-sectionally measured comparison group of 195 healthy children born to mothers who were not infected with HIV-1 (external controls). Findings Children infected with HIV-1 had a significantly higher heart rate at all ages (mean difference 10 bpm, 95% CI 8–13) than internal controls. At birth, both cohort groups of children had similar low left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening. At 8 months, fractional shortening was similar in internal and external controls, whereas in children infected with HIV-1, fractional shortening remained significantly lower than in controls for the first 20 months of life (mean difference from internal controls at 8 months 3·7%, 2·3–5·1). LV mass was similar at birth in both cohort groups, but became significantly higher in children with HIV-1 from 4–30 months (mean difference 2·4 g at 8 months, 0·9–3·9). Conclusions Vertically-transmitted HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent cardiovascular abnormalities identifiable shortly after birth. Irrespective of their HIV-1 status, infants born to women infected with HIV-1 have significantly worse cardiac function than other infants, suggesting that the uterine environment has an important role in postnatal cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:12241776

  1. Acceleration of age-associated methylation patterns in HIV-1-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Rickabaugh, Tammy M; Baxter, Ruth M; Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hultin, Patricia M; Hultin, Lance E; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x 10(-200) and 0.47, p<1 x 10(-200). Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: βage=0.007088, p=2.08 x 10(-9); βHIV=0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: βage=0.008762, p=1.27 x 10(-5); βHIV=0.128649, p=0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10(-6), odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are

  2. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  3. Improved guanide compounds which bind the CXCR4 co-receptor and inhibit HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Royce A.; Pincus, Seth H.; Song, Kejing; Shepard, Joyce B.; Weaver, Alan J.; Labib, Mohamed E.; Teintze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4 is a co-receptor for HIV-1 infection and is involved in signaling cell migration and proliferation. In a previous study of non-peptide, guanide-based CXCR4-binding compounds, spermine and spermidine phenylguanides inhibited HIV-1 entry at low micromolar concentrations. Subsequently, crystal structures of CXCR4 were used to dock a series of naphthylguanide derivatives of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Synthesis and evaluation of the naphthylguanide compounds identified our best compound, spermine tris-1-naphthylguanide, which bound CXCR4 with an IC50 of 40nM and inhibited the infection of TZM-bl cells with X4, but not R5, strains of HIV-1 with an IC50 of 50–100nM. PMID:23434419

  4. Cumulative mechanisms of lymphoid tissue fibrosis and T cell depletion in HIV-1 and SIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Smith, Anthony J.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Southern, Peter J.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Reilly, Cavan S.; Estes, Jacob D.; Burton, Gregory F.; Silvestri, Guido; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Carlis, John V.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2011-01-01

    The hallmark of HIV-1 and SIV infections is CD4+ T cell depletion. Both direct cell killing and indirect mechanisms related to immune activation have been suggested to cause the depletion of T cells. We have now identified a mechanism by which immune activation-induced fibrosis of lymphoid tissues leads to depletion of naive T cells in HIV-1 infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The T regulatory cell response to immune activation increased procollagen production and subsequent deposition as fibrils via the TGF-β1 signaling pathway and chitinase 3-like-1 activity in fibroblasts in lymphoid tissues from patients infected with HIV-1. Collagen deposition restricted T cell access to the survival factor IL-7 on the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network, resulting in apoptosis and depletion of T cells, which, in turn, removed a major source of lymphotoxin-β, a survival factor for FRCs during SIV infection in rhesus macaques. The resulting loss of FRCs and the loss of IL-7 produced by FRCs may thus perpetuate a vicious cycle of depletion of T cells and the FRC network. Because this process is cumulative, early treatment and antifibrotic therapies may offer approaches to moderate T cell depletion and improve immune reconstitution during HIV-1 infection. PMID:21393864

  5. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-ĸB), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways. PMID:26848681

  6. Genome-wide analysis of histone modifications in latently HIV-1 infected T cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jihwan; Lim, Chae Hyun; Ham, Seokjin; Kim, Sung Soon; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Roh, Tae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The transcriptional silencing of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) provirus in latently infected cells is a major hurdle on the pathway to HIV-1 elimination. The epigenetic mechanisms established by histone modifications may affect the transcriptional silencing of HIV-1 and viral latency. A systematic epigenome profiling could be applicable to develop new epigenetic diagnostic markers for detecting HIV-1 latency. Design: The HIV-1 latency cell lines (NCHA1, NCHA2 and ACH2] were compared with CD4+ T-cell line (A3.01). Methods: The histone modification profiles obtained from chromatin immunoprecipiation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) for histone H3K4me3 and H3K9ac were systematically examined and differential gene expression patterns along with levels of histone modifications were used for network analysis. Results: The HIV-1 latency gave rise to downregulation of histone H3K4me3 and H3K9ac levels in 387 and 493 regions and upregulation in 451 and 962 sites, respectively. By network analysis, five gene clusters were associated with downregulated histone modifications and six gene clusters came up with upregulated histone modifications. Integration of gene expression with epigenetic information revealed that the cell cycle regulatory genes such as CDKN1A (p21) and cyclin D2 (CCND2) identified by differentially modified histones might play an important role in maintaining the HIV-1 latency. Conclusion: The transcriptional regulation by epigenetic memory should play a key role in the evolution and maintenance of HIV-1 latency accompanied by modulation of signalling molecules in the host cells. PMID:24762674

  7. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W.

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. HIV-1 diversity in infected individuals in Suzhou and Suqian, China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chenhao; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Weiguang; Hao, Fangyuan; Gu, Aiping; Fen, Ping; Zhu, Xueming; Du, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Jiangsu is one province with severe HIV-1 epidemic in China. However, the molecular epidemiological characterizations of HIV-1 in many cities of Jiangsu remain unclear. A molecular epidemiological investigation was performed based on 38 HIV-positive samples collected from Suzhou and Suqian during 2011-2013. Five HIV-1 genomic fragments, p17, pol, vif-vpr, vpr-env, and C2V3 were amplified and sequenced from these samples. HIV-1 group M subtype of each sample was determined by phylogenetic analyses with the standard reference sequences. Among these infected individuals, 81.6 % (31/38) self-reported to be infected via sexual contacts, including 50.0 % (19/38) via heterosexual contact and 31.6 % (12/38) via homosexual contact. Among 34 samples with available pol or vif-env sequence, 19 (55.9 %) CRF01_AE, 7 (20.6 %) CRF07_BC, 3 (8.8 %) CRF08_BC, and 5 (14.7 %) inter-subtype recombinants were identified. No pure B, B' and C subtypes were found in this cohort. The five recombinants contain one B/C, three CRF01/B and one CRF01/B/C recombinants. These results suggest that CRF01_AE was the most predominant HIV-1 group M subtype and CRF01_AE-involved recombinants were the major recombinant forms. Comparison showed that there was no obvious difference in HIV-1 group M subtype distribution between Jiangsu (including Suzhou and Suqian) and the surrounding provinces (e.g., Shanghai, Anhui, and Shandong). CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC were the top two predominant HIV-1 genotypes in Jiangsu, and less and/or no pure subtype B and C was currently circulating here. We predicted that more CRF01/CRF07 recombinants, but fewer B/C recombinants will be generated in Jiangsu in future. PMID:27386334

  9. HIV-1 Nef promotes infection by excluding SERINC5 from virion incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Annachiara; Chande, Ajit; Ziglio, Serena; Sanctis, Veronica De; Bertorelli, Roberto; Goh, Shih Lin; McCauley, Sean M.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Luban, Jeremy; Santoni, Federico Andrea; Pizzato, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef, a protein important for the development of AIDS, has well-characterized effects on host membrane trafficking and receptor downregulation. By an unidentified mechanism, Nef increases the intrinsic infectivity of HIV-1 virions in a host-cell-dependent manner. Here we identify the host transmembrane protein SERINC5, and to a lesser extent SERINC3, as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity that is counteracted by Nef. SERINC5 localizes to the plasma membrane, where it is efficiently incorporated into budding HIV-1 virions and impairs subsequent virion penetration of susceptible target cells. Nef redirects SERINC5 to a Rab7-positive endosomal compartment and thereby excludes it from HIV-1 particles. The ability to counteract SERINC5 was conserved in Nef encoded by diverse primate immunodeficiency viruses, as well as in the structurally unrelated glycosylated Gag from murine leukaemia virus. These examples of functional conservation and convergent evolution emphasize the fundamental importance of SERINC5 as a potent anti-retroviral factor. PMID:26416734

  10. IL-8 Alterations in HIV-1 Infected Children With Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pananghat, Ambili Nair; Aggarwal, Heena; Prakash, Somi Sankaran; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Singh, Ravinder; Lodha, Rakesh; Ali, Shakir; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Disease progression in HIV-1 infected children is faster than in adults. Less than 5% of the infected children maintain stable CD4 counts beyond 7 years of infection and are termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Delineating the host immune response in antiretroviral naïve (ART) and treated HIV-1 infected children at different disease stages will help in understanding the immunopathogenesis of the disease. A total of 79 asymptomatic, perinatally HIV-1 infected children (50 ART naïve and 29 ART treated) and 8 seronegative donors were recruited in this study. T- and B-cell activation PCR arrays were performed from the cDNA, using total RNA extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 14 HIV-1 infected children at different stages of the disease. The differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for the (interleukin-8) IL-8 gene and its transcriptional mediators, that is, SHP2, GRB2, and IL-8R (IL-8 receptor/CXCR1). Plasma levels of IL-8 were measured by flow cytometry. Gene array data revealed a higher expression of IL-8 in the ART naïve HIV-1 infected progressors and in ART nonresponders than LTNPs and ART responders, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a significant higher expression of IL-8 (P < 0.001), its receptor CXCR1 (P = 0.03) and the upstream signaling molecule SHP2 (P = 0.04) in the progressors versus LTNPs. Plasma levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in progressors versus LTNPs (P < 0.001), and ART nonresponders versus ART responders (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation of plasma levels of IL-8 with CD4 counts (cells/μL) was observed in HIV-1 infected ART naïve subjects (r = −0.488; P < 0.001), while the IL-8 levels positively correlated with viral load in the ART treated children (r = 0.5494; P < 0.001). ART naïve progressors on follow up demonstrated a significant reduction in the mRNA expression (P = 0

  11. Analysis of Suppressor and Non-Suppressor FOXP3+ T Cells in HIV-1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arruvito, Lourdes; Baz, Plácida; Billordo, Luis A.; Lasala, Maria B.; Salomón, Horacio; Geffner, Jorge; Fainboim, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that peripheral blood FOXP3+CD4+ T cells are composed of three phenotypic and functionally distinct subpopulations. Two of them having in vitro suppressive effects were characterized as resting Treg cells (rTregs) and activated Treg cells (aTregs). A third subset, identified as FOXP3+ non-Tregs, does not display any suppressor activity and produce high levels of Th1 and Th17 cytokines upon stimulation. In the present study we focus on the characteristics of these three subsets of FOXP3+CD4+ T cells in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. We found that the absolute counts of rTregs, aTregs and FOXP3+ non-Tregs were reduced in HIV-1 patients compared with healthy donors. The relative frequency of rTregs and aTregs was similar in HIV-1 patients and healthy donors, while the frequency of FOXP3+ non-Tregs was significantly higher in HIV-1 patients, reaching a maximum in those patients with the lower values of CD4 counts. Contrasting with the observations made in FOXP3- CD4+ T cells, we did not find a negative correlation between the number of rTregs, aTregs or FOXP3+ non-Tregs and virus load. Studies performed with either whole PBMCs or sorted aTregs and FOXP3+ non-Tregs cells showed that these two populations of FOXP3+ T cells were highly permissive to HIV-1 infection. Upon infection, FOXP3+ non-Tregs markedly down-regulates its capacity to produce Th1 and Th17 cytokines, however, they retain the ability to produce substantial amounts of Th2 cytokines. This suggests that FOXP3+ non-Tregs might contribute to the polarization of CD4+ T cells into a Th2 profile, predictive of a poor outcome of HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:23285102

  12. Cell-specific RNA aptamer against human CCR5 specifically targets HIV-1 susceptible and inhibits HIV-1 infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiehua; Satheesan, Sangeetha; Li, Haitang; Weinberg, Marc S.; Morris, Kevin V.; Burnett, John; Rossi, John

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a receptor expressed by T-cells and macrophages that serves as a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Loss of CCR5 is associated with resistance to HIV-1. Here we combine the live cell-based SELEX with high throughput sequencing technology to generate CCR5 RNA aptamers capable of specifically targeting HIV-1 susceptible cells (as siRNA delivery agent) and inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity (as antiviral agent) via block of the CCR5 required for HIV-1 to enter cells. One of the best candidates, G-3, efficiently bound and was internalized into human CCR5 expressing cells. The G-3 specifically neutralized R5 virus infection in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in vivo generated human CD4+ T cells with a nanomolar IC50. G-3 was also capable of transferring functional siRNAs to CCR5 expressing cells. Collectively, the cell-specific, internalizing, CCR5-targeted aptamers and aptamer-siRNA conjugates offer promise for overcoming some of the current challenges of drug resistance in HIV-1 by providing cell-type- or tissue-specific delivery of various therapeutic moieties. PMID:25754473

  13. Role of cellular iron and oxygen in the regulation of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Nekhai, Sergei; Kumari, Namita; Dhawan, Subhash

    2013-03-01

    Despite efficient antiretroviral therapy, eradication of HIV-1 infection is challenging and requires novel biological insights and therapeutic strategies. Among other physiological and environmental factors, intracellular iron greatly affects HIV-1 replication. Higher iron stores were shown to be associated with faster progression of HIV-1 infection and to inversely correlate with the survival of HIV-1 infected patients. Iron is required for several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle, including reverse transcription, HIV-1 gene expression and capsid assembly. Here, the authors present a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms involved in iron- and oxygen-mediated regulation of HIV-1 replication. We also propose key intracellular pathways that may be involved in regulating HIV-1 replication, via protein kinase complexes, CDK9/cyclin T1 and CDK 2/cyclin E, protein phosphatase-1 and other host factors. PMID:23678366

  14. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  15. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J; Ramirez, Teresa J; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM's) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM's in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM's during STI. PMID:26807922

  16. Macrophage Infection via Selective Capture of HIV-1-Infected CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Amy E.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Moore, Michael D.; Willberg, Christian B.; Pablos, Jose L.; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo. PMID:25467409

  17. HIV-1-Specific CD8 T Cells Exhibit Limited Cross-Reactivity during Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Du, Victor Y; Bansal, Anju; Carlson, Jonathan; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F; Salazar, Maria G; Ladell, Kristin; Gras, Stephanie; Josephs, Tracy M; Heath, Sonya L; Price, David A; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hunter, Eric; Goepfert, Paul A

    2016-04-15

    Prior work has demonstrated that HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can cross-recognize variant epitopes. However, most of these studies were performed in the context of chronic infection, where the presence of viral quasispecies makes it difficult to ascertain the true nature of the original antigenic stimulus. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated the extent of CD8 T cell cross-reactivity in patients with acute HIV-1 clade B infection. In each case, we determined the transmitted founder virus sequence to identify the autologous epitopes restricted by individual HLA class I molecules. Our data show that cross-reactive CD8 T cells are infrequent during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in the uncommon instances where cross-reactive responses were detected, the variant epitopes were poorly recognized in cytotoxicity assays. Molecular analysis revealed that similar antigenic structures could be cross-recognized by identical CD8 T cell clonotypes mobilized in vivo, yet even subtle differences in a single TCR-accessible peptide residue were sufficient to disrupt variant-specific reactivity. These findings demonstrate that CD8 T cells are highly specific for autologous epitopes during acute HIV-1 infection. Polyvalent vaccines may therefore be required to provide optimal immune cover against this genetically labile pathogen. PMID:26983786

  18. Polymorphisms in the IFNγ, IL-10, and TGFβ Genes May Be Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bonfim Freitas, Felipe; Souza Lima, Sandra; Feitosa, Rosimar Neris Martins; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Ishak, Marluísa de O. Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study investigated possible associations between the TNFα-308G/A, IFN+874A/T, IL-6-174C/G, IL-10-1082A/G, and TGFβ-509C/T polymorphisms with HIV-1 infection, in addition to correlation of the polymorphisms with clinical markers of AIDS progression, such as levels of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and plasma viral load. Methods. A total of 216 individuals who were infected with HIV-1 and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 294 individuals from the uninfected control group were analyzed. Results. All individuals evaluated were negative for total anti-HBc, anti-HCV, anti-T. pallidum, and anti-HTLV-1/2. The polymorphisms were identified by PCR-RFLP. Individuals presenting the IFN+874A allele as well as the AA genotype were more frequent in the HIV-1 infected group compared to the control group (P < 0.05), in addition to having lower levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes. The CD8+ T lymphocytes count was significantly lower in individuals with the IL-10-1082 GG genotype. The TGFβ-509TT genotype was associated with higher plasma viral load. Conclusions. The results suggest that the presence of the IFN+874A allele confers susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, the genotype associated with high serum levels of TGFβ may be associated with an increase in plasma viral load. PMID:25802474

  19. Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Resistance Identified by Ultra-Deep Sequencing in HIV-1 Infected Children under Structured Interruptions of HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C.; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Garcia-Campos, Jorge; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Paredes, Roger; Vielma-Ramirez, Herlinda J.; Ramirez, Teresa J.; Chavez-Garcia, Marcelino; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Briones-Lara, Evangelina; Sanchez-Sanchez, Luz M.; Vazquez-Martinez, Carlos A.; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Although Structured Treatment Interruptions (STI) are currently not considered an alternative strategy for antiretroviral treatment, their true benefits and limitations have not been fully established. Some studies suggest the possibility of improving the quality of life of patients with this strategy; however, the information that has been obtained corresponds mostly to studies conducted in adults, with a lack of knowledge about its impact on children. Furthermore, mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance could be selected due to sub-therapeutic levels of HAART at each interruption period. Genotyping methods to determine the resistance profiles of the infecting viruses have become increasingly important for the management of patients under STI, thus low-abundance antiretroviral drug-resistant mutations (DRM’s) at levels under limit of detection of conventional genotyping (<20% of quasispecies) could increase the risk of virologic failure. In this work, we analyzed the protease and reverse transcriptase regions of the pol gene by ultra-deep sequencing in pediatric patients under STI with the aim of determining the presence of high- and low-abundance DRM’s in the viral rebounds generated by the STI. High-abundance mutations in protease and high- and low-abundance mutations in reverse transcriptase were detected but no one of these are directly associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs. The results could suggest that the evaluated STI program is virologically safe, but strict and carefully planned studies, with greater numbers of patients and interruption/restart cycles, are still needed to evaluate the selection of DRM’s during STI. PMID:26807922

  20. Cutting edge: An antibody recognizing ancestral endogenous virus glycoproteins mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity on HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Henri-Alexandre; SenGupta, Devi; de Mulder, Miguel; Deeks, Steven G; Martin, Jeffrey N; Kobie, James J; Sacha, Jonah B; Nixon, Douglas F

    2014-08-15

    The failure of antiviral vaccines is often associated with rapid viral escape from specific immune responses. In the past, conserved epitope or algorithmic epitope selections, such as mosaic vaccines, have been designed to diversify immunity and to circumvent potential viral escape. An alternative approach is to identify conserved stable non-HIV-1 self-epitopes present exclusively in HIV-1-infected cells. We showed previously that human endogenous retroviral (HERV) mRNA transcripts and protein are found in cells of HIV-1-infected patients and that HERV-K (HML-2)-specific T cells can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In this article, we demonstrate that a human anti-HERV-K (HML-2) transmembrane protein Ab binds specifically to HIV-1-infected cells and eliminates them through an Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism in vitro. Thus, Abs directed against epitopes other than HIV-1 proteins may have a role in eliminating HIV-1-infected cells and could be targeted in novel vaccine approaches or immunotherapeutic modalities. PMID:25024383

  1. T-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Derived V3 Loop Peptides Directly Bind to CXCR-4 and Inhibit T-Tropic HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakaida, Hitoshi; Hori, Toshiyuki; Yonezawa, Akihito; Sato, Akihiko; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshie, Osamu; Hattori, Toshio; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Certain types of chemokine receptors have been identified as coreceptors for HIV-1 infection. The process of viral entry is initiated by the interaction between an envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1, CD4, and one of the relevant coreceptors. To understand the precise mechanism of the Env-mediated fusion and entry of HIV-1, we examined whether the V3 region of gp120 of T-cell line tropic (T-tropic) virus directly interacts with the coreceptor, CXCR-4, by using five synthetic V3 peptides: two cyclized V3 peptides (V3-BH10 and V3-ELI) which correspond to the V3 regions of the T-tropic HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 ELI strains, respectively, a linear V3 peptide (CTR36) corresponding to that of HIV-1 IIIB strain; and cyclized V3 peptides corresponding to that of the macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 ADA strain (V3-ADA) or the dualtropic HIV-1 89.6 strain (V3-89.6). FACScan analysis with a CXCR-4+ human B-cell line, JY, showed that V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6 but not CTR36 or V3-ADA blocked the binding of IVR7, an anti-CXCR-4 monoclonal antibody (MAb), to CXCR-4 with different magnitudes in a dose-dependent manner, while none of the V3 peptides influenced binding of an anti-CD19 MAb at all. Next, the effects of the V3 peptides on SDF-1β-induced transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ were investigated. Three V3 peptides (V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6) prevented Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, the three peptides inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by an MTT assay and a reverse transcriptase assay, while the other peptides had no effects. These results present direct evidence that the V3 loop of gp120 of T-tropic HIV-1 can interact with its coreceptor CXCR-4 independently of the V1/V2 regions of gp120 or cellular CD4. PMID:9811711

  2. Microplate-Based Assay for Identifying Small Molecules That Bind a Specific Intersubunit Interface within the Assembled HIV-1 Capsid

    PubMed Central

    Halambage, Upul D.; Wong, Jason P.; Melancon, Bruce J.; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the availability of >30 effective drugs for managing HIV-1 infection, no current therapy is curative, and long-term management is challenging owing to the emergence and spread of drug-resistant mutants. Identification of drugs against novel HIV-1 targets would expand the current treatment options and help to control resistance. The highly conserved HIV-1 capsid protein represents an attractive target because of its multiple roles in replication of the virus. However, the low antiviral potencies of the reported HIV-1 capsid–targeting inhibitors render them unattractive for therapeutic development. To facilitate the identification of more-potent HIV-1 capsid inhibitors, we developed a scintillation proximity assay to screen for small molecules that target a biologically active and specific intersubunit interface in the HIV-1 capsid. The assay, which is based on competitive displacement of a known capsid-binding small-molecule inhibitor, exhibited a signal-to-noise ratio of >9 and a Z factor of >0.8. In a pilot screen of a chemical library containing 2,400 druglike compounds, we obtained a hit rate of 1.8%. This assay has properties that are suitable for screening large compound libraries to identify novel HIV-1 capsid ligands with antiviral activity. PMID:26077250

  3. Microplate-based assay for identifying small molecules that bind a specific intersubunit interface within the assembled HIV-1 capsid.

    PubMed

    Halambage, Upul D; Wong, Jason P; Melancon, Bruce J; Lindsley, Craig W; Aiken, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Despite the availability of >30 effective drugs for managing HIV-1 infection, no current therapy is curative, and long-term management is challenging owing to the emergence and spread of drug-resistant mutants. Identification of drugs against novel HIV-1 targets would expand the current treatment options and help to control resistance. The highly conserved HIV-1 capsid protein represents an attractive target because of its multiple roles in replication of the virus. However, the low antiviral potencies of the reported HIV-1 capsid-targeting inhibitors render them unattractive for therapeutic development. To facilitate the identification of more-potent HIV-1 capsid inhibitors, we developed a scintillation proximity assay to screen for small molecules that target a biologically active and specific intersubunit interface in the HIV-1 capsid. The assay, which is based on competitive displacement of a known capsid-binding small-molecule inhibitor, exhibited a signal-to-noise ratio of >9 and a Z factor of >0.8. In a pilot screen of a chemical library containing 2,400 druglike compounds, we obtained a hit rate of 1.8%. This assay has properties that are suitable for screening large compound libraries to identify novel HIV-1 capsid ligands with antiviral activity. PMID:26077250

  4. Oligomerization Requirements for MX2-Mediated Suppression of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Matthew D. J.; Goujon, Caroline; Pollpeter, Darja; Betancor, Gilberto; Apolonia, Luis; Bergeron, Julien R. C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2/MXB) is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) and was recently identified as a late postentry suppressor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, inhibiting the nuclear accumulation of viral cDNAs. Although the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein is believed to be the viral determinant of MX2-mediated inhibition, the precise mechanism of antiviral action remains unclear. The MX family of dynamin-like GTPases also includes MX1/MXA, a well-studied inhibitor of a range of RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A virus (FLUAV) and hepatitis B virus but not retroviruses. MX1 and MX2 are closely related and share similar domain architectures and structures. However, MX2 possesses an extended N terminus that is essential for antiviral function and confers anti-HIV-1 activity on MX1 [MX1(NMX2)]. Higher-order oligomerization is required for the antiviral activity of MX1 against FLUAV, with current models proposing that MX1 forms ring structures that constrict around viral nucleoprotein complexes. Here, we performed structure-function studies to investigate the requirements for oligomerization of both MX2 and chimeric MX1(NMX2) for the inhibition of HIV-1 infection. The oligomerization state of mutated proteins with amino acid substitutions at multiple putative oligomerization interfaces was assessed using a combination of covalent cross-linking and coimmunoprecipitation. We show that while monomeric MX2 and MX1(NMX2) mutants are not antiviral, higher-order oligomerization does not appear to be required for full antiviral activity of either protein. We propose that lower-order oligomerization of MX2 is sufficient for the effective inhibition of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Interferon plays an important role in the control of virus replication during acute infection in vivo. Recently, cultured cell experiments identified human MX2 as a key effector in the interferon-mediated postentry block to HIV-1 infection. MX2 is a member of a family

  5. Dynamics of the human and viral m(6)A RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Lichinchi, Gianluigi; Gao, Shang; Saletore, Yogesh; Gonzalez, Gwendolyn Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Wang, Yinsheng; Mason, Christopher E; Rana, Tariq M

    2016-01-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Very little is known of the function of m(6)A in the immune system or its role in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we investigate the topology, dynamics and bidirectional influences of the viral-host RNA methylomes during HIV-1 infection of human CD4 T cells. We show that viral infection triggers a massive increase in m(6)A in both host and viral mRNAs. In HIV-1 mRNA, we identified 14 methylation peaks in coding and noncoding regions, splicing junctions and splicing regulatory sequences. We also identified a set of 56 human gene transcripts that were uniquely methylated in HIV-1-infected T cells and were enriched for functions in viral gene expression. The functional relevance of m(6)A for viral replication was demonstrated by silencing of the m(6)A writer or the eraser enzymes, which decreased or increased HIV-1 replication, respectively. Furthermore, methylation of two conserved adenosines in the stem loop II region of HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA enhanced binding of HIV-1 Rev protein to the RRE in vivo and influenced nuclear export of RNA. Our results identify a new mechanism for the control of HIV-1 replication and its interaction with the host immune system. PMID:27572442

  6. Selective elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by Env-directed, HIV-1-based virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Peretti, Silvia; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pugliese, Katherina; Federico, Maurizio . E-mail: federico@iss.it

    2006-02-05

    We recently showed that both replicating and resting cells cultivated with ganciclovir (GCV) were killed when challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped HIV-1-based virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the Nef7 (i.e., an HIV-1 Nef mutant incorporating in virions at high levels)/herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fusion product. On this basis, a novel anti-HIV therapeutic approach based on Nef7/TK VLPs expressing X4 or R5 HIV cell receptor complexes has been attempted. We here report that (CD4-CXCR4) and (CD4-CCR5) Nef7-based VLPs efficiently enter cells infected by X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. Importantly, the delivery of the VLP-associated Nef7/TK led to cell death upon GCV treatment. Of interest, VLPs were effective also against non-replicating, HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV-targeted VLPs represent a promising candidate for the treatment of persistently HIV-1-infected cells that are part of virus reservoirs resistant to HAART therapies.

  7. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. PMID:26996307

  8. Tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptides inhibit HIV-1 infection via coreceptor mimicry.

    PubMed

    Cimbro, Raffaello; Peterson, Francis C; Liu, Qingbo; Guzzo, Christina; Zhang, Peng; Miao, Huiyi; Van Ryk, Donald; Ambroggio, Xavier; Hurt, Darrell E; De Gioia, Luca; Volkman, Brian F; Dolan, Michael A; Lusso, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. Unlike CCR5 N-terminal peptides, V2 mimics inhibit a broad range of HIV-1 strains irrespective of their coreceptor tropism, highlighting the overall structural conservation of the coreceptor-binding site in gp120. These results document the use of receptor mimicry by a retrovirus to occlude a key neutralization target site and provide leads for the design of therapeutic strategies against HIV-1. PMID:27389109

  9. Colorectal Mucus Binds DC-SIGN and Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection of CD4+ T-Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    van Montfort, Thijs; Sanders, Rogier W.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Dekker, Henk L.; Herrera, Carolina; Speijer, Dave; Pollakis, Georgios; Paxton, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily secretions, including breast milk and semen, contain factors that modulate HIV-1 infection. Since anal intercourse caries one of the highest risks for HIV-1 transmission, our aim was to determine whether colorectal mucus (CM) also contains factors interfering with HIV-1 infection and replication. CM from a number of individuals was collected and tested for the capacity to bind DC-SIGN and inhibit HIV-1 cis- or trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. To this end, a DC-SIGN binding ELISA, a gp140 trimer competition ELISA and HIV-1 capture/ transfer assays were utilized. Subsequently we aimed to identify the DC-SIGN binding component through biochemical characterization and mass spectrometry analysis. CM was shown to bind DC-SIGN and competes with HIV-1 gp140 trimer for binding. Pre-incubation of Raji-DC-SIGN cells or immature dendritic cells (iDCs) with CM potently inhibits DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4+ T-lymphocytes with CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains, while no effect on direct infection is observed. Preliminary biochemical characterization demonstrates that the component seems to be large (>100kDa), heat and proteinase K resistant, binds in a α1–3 mannose independent manner and is highly variant between individuals. Immunoprecipitation using DC-SIGN-Fc coated agarose beads followed by mass spectrometry indicated lactoferrin (fragments) and its receptor (intelectin-1) as candidates. Using ELISA we showed that lactoferrin levels within CM correlate with DC-SIGN binding capacity. In conclusion, CM can bind the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and block HIV-1 trans-infection of both CCR5 and CXCR4 using HIV-1 strains. Furthermore, our data indicate that lactoferrin is a DC-SIGN binding component of CM. These results indicate that CM has the potential to interfere with pathogen transmission and modulate immune responses at the colorectal mucosa. PMID:25793526

  10. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of p21 and TASK1 cellular restriction factors enhances HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Farberov, Luba; Herzig, Eytan; Modai, Shira; Isakov, Ofer; Hizi, Amnon; Shomron, Noam

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that play a central role in the regulation of gene expression by binding to target mRNAs. Several studies have revealed alterations in cellular miRNA profiles following HIV-1 infection, mostly for miRNAs involved in inhibiting viral infection. These miRNA expression modifications might also serve to block the innate HIV-1 inhibition mechanism. As a result, it is expected that during HIV-1 infection miRNAs target genes that hinder or prevent the progression of the HIV-1 replication cycle. One of the major sets of genes known to inhibit the progression of HIV-1 infection are cellular restriction factors. In this study, we identified a direct miRNA target gene that modulates viral spread in T-lymphocytes and HeLa-CCR5 cell lines. Following infection, let-7c, miR-34a or miR-124a were upregulated, and they targeted and downregulated p21 and TASK1 (also known as CDKN1A and KCNK3, respectively) cellular proteins. This eventually led to increased virion release and higher copy number of viral genome transcripts in infected cells. Conversely, by downregulating these miRNAs, we could suppress viral replication and spread. Our data suggest that HIV-1 exploits the host miRNA cellular systems in order to block the innate inhibition mechanism, allowing a more efficient infection process. PMID:25717002

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; Stewart, Barclay T.; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole therapy. Results Of 1,541 HIV-1 seropositive individuals screened, 298 (19.3%) had detectable helminth infections. Among individuals with helminth infection, hookworm species were the most prevalent (56.3%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.1%), Trichuris trichiura (8.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (7.1%), and Stongyloides stercoralis (1.3%). Infection with multiple species occurred in 9.4% of infections. After CD4 count was controlled for, rural residence (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.08–1.81), having no education (RR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.30), and higher CD4 count (RR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.07–1.73) remained independently associated with risk of helminth infection. Twelve weeks following treatment with albendazole, 32% of helminth-infected individuals had detectable helminths on examination. Residence, education, and CD4 count were not associated with persistent helminth infection. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive adults with CD4 counts above 250 cells/mm3 in Kenya, traditional risk factors for helminth infection, including rural residence and lack of education, were associated with co-infection, while lower CD4 counts were not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00130910 PMID:20361031

  12. Treatment of Helminth Co-Infection in Individuals with HIV-1: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Walson, Judd L.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The HIV-1 pandemic has disproportionately affected individuals in resource-constrained settings. It is important to determine if other prevalent infections affect the progression of HIV-1 in co-infected individuals in these settings. Some observational studies suggest that helminth infection may adversely affect HIV-1 progression. We sought to evaluate existing evidence on whether treatment of helminth infection impacts HIV-1 progression. Review Methods This review was conducted using the HIV/AIDS Cochrane Review Group (CRG) search strategy and guidelines. Published and unpublished studies were obtained from The Cochrane Library (Issue 3, 2006), MEDLINE (November 2006), EMBASE (November 2006), CENTRAL (July 2006), and AIDSEARCH (August 2006). Databases listing conference abstracts and scanned reference lists were searched, and authors of included studies were contacted. Data regarding changes in CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical staging and/or mortality were extracted and compared between helminth-treated and helminth-untreated or helminth-uninfected individuals. Results Of 6,384 abstracts identified, 15 met criteria for potential inclusion, of which 5 were eligible for inclusion. In the single randomized controlled trial (RCT) identified, HIV-1 and schistosomiasis co-infected individuals receiving treatment for schistosomiasis had a significantly lower change in plasma HIV-1 RNA over three months (−0.001 log10 copies/mL) compared to those receiving no treatment (+0.21 log10 copies/mL), (p = 0.03). Four observational studies met inclusion criteria, and all of these suggested a possible beneficial effect of helminth eradication on plasma HIV-1 RNA levels when compared to plasma HIV-1 RNA changes prior to helminth treatment or to helminth-uninfected or persistently helminth-infected individuals. The follow-up duration in these studies ranged from three to six months. The reported magnitude of effect on HIV-1 RNA was variable

  13. Assessment of Ambiguous Base Calls in HIV-1 pol Population Sequences as a Biomarker for Identification of Recent Infections in HIV-1 Incidence Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Yousef, Kaveh Pouran; Fiedler, Stefan; von Kleist, Max; Norley, Stephen; Somogyi, Sybille; Hamouda, Osamah; Bannert, Norbert; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Kücherer, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the proportion of ambiguous base calls in HIV-1 pol population sequences during the course of infection has been demonstrated in different study populations, and sequence ambiguity thresholds to classify infections as recent or nonrecent have been suggested. The aim of our study was to evaluate sequence ambiguities as a candidate biomarker for use in an HIV-1 incidence assay using samples from antiretroviral treatment-naive seroconverters with known durations of infection (German HIV-1 Seroconverter Study). We used 2,203 HIV-1 pol population sequences derived from 1,334 seroconverters to assess the sequence ambiguity method (SAM). We then compared the serological incidence BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) with the SAM for a subset of 723 samples from 495 seroconverters and evaluated a multianalyte algorithm that includes BED-CEIA results, SAM results, viral loads, and CD4 cell counts for 453 samples from 325 seroconverters. We observed a significant increase in the proportion of sequence ambiguities with the duration of infection. A sequence ambiguity threshold of 0.5% best identified recent infections with 76.7% accuracy. The mean duration of recency was determined to be 208 (95% confidence interval, 196 to 221) days. In the subset analysis, BED-CEIA achieved a significantly higher accuracy than the SAM (84.6 versus 75.5%, P < 0.001) and results were concordant for 64.2% (464/723) of the samples. Also, the multianalyte algorithm did not show better accuracy than the BED-CEIA (83.4 versus 84.3%, P = 0.786). In conclusion, the SAM and the multianalyte algorithm including SAM were inferior to the BED-CEIA, and the proportion of sequence ambiguities is therefore not a preferable biomarker for HIV-1 incidence testing. PMID:24920768

  14. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dharan, Adarsh; Talley, Sarah; Tripathi, Abhishek; Mamede, João I.; Majetschak, Matthias; Campbell, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D) or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A) is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6), but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection. PMID:27327622

  15. KIF5B and Nup358 Cooperatively Mediate the Nuclear Import of HIV-1 during Infection.

    PubMed

    Dharan, Adarsh; Talley, Sarah; Tripathi, Abhishek; Mamede, João I; Majetschak, Matthias; Hope, Thomas J; Campbell, Edward M

    2016-06-01

    Following envelope mediated fusion, the HIV-1 core is released into the cytoplasm of the target cell and undergoes a series of trafficking and replicative steps that result in the nuclear import of the viral genome, which ultimately leads to the integration of the proviral DNA into the host cell genome. Previous studies have found that disruption of microtubules, or depletion of dynein or kinesin motors, perturb the normal uncoating and trafficking of the viral genome. Here, we show that the Kinesin-1 motor, KIF5B, induces a relocalization of the nuclear pore component Nup358 into the cytoplasm during HIV-1 infection. This relocalization of NUP358 is dependent on HIV-1 capsid, and NUP358 directly associates with viral cores following cytoplasmic translocation. This interaction between NUP358 and the HIV-1 core is dependent on multiple capsid binding surfaces, as this association is not observed following infection with capsid mutants in which a conserved hydrophobic binding pocket (N74D) or the cyclophilin A binding loop (P90A) is disrupted. KIF5B knockdown also prevents the nuclear entry and infection by HIV-1, but does not exert a similar effect on the N74D or P90A capsid mutants which do not rely on Nup358 for nuclear import. Finally, we observe that the relocalization of Nup358 in response to CA is dependent on cleavage protein and polyadenylation factor 6 (CPSF6), but independent of cyclophilin A. Collectively, these observations identify a previously unappreciated role for KIF5B in mediating the Nup358 dependent nuclear import of the viral genome during infection. PMID:27327622

  16. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion.

    PubMed

    Smeulders, Liesbet; Bunkens, Lieve; Vereycken, Inge; Van Acker, Koen; Holemans, Pascale; Gustin, Emmanuel; Van Loock, Marnix; Dams, Géry

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiates infection through sequential interactions with CD4 and chemokine coreceptors unmasking the gp41 subunit of the viral envelope protein. Consequently, the N-terminal heptad repeats of gp41 form a trimeric coiled-coil groove in which the C-terminal heptad repeats collapse, generating a stable six-helix bundle. This brings the viral and cell membrane in close proximity enabling fusion and the release of viral genome in the cytosol of the host cell. In this chapter, we describe a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion, based on the ability of soluble peptides, derived from the N- and C-terminal domains of gp41, to form a stable six-helix bundle in vitro. Labeling of the peptides with allophycocyanin and the lanthanide europium results in a Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal upon formation of the six-helix bundle. Compounds interfering with the six-helix bundle formation inhibit the HIV-1 fusion process and suppress the FRET signal. PMID:23821256

  17. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.

    PubMed

    Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2015-03-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  18. The progression of untreated HIV-1 infection prior to AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, D R; Saah, A; Bacellar, H; Murphy, R; Visscher, B; Metz, S; Anderson, R; Kaslow, R A

    1992-01-01

    Using a case-control study of untreated men, we investigated the physical, mental, and economic effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection prior to the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Beginning 2 to 2.5 years prior to AIDS, case subjects reported more of 12 HIV-1 related symptoms and during the year prior to AIDS, at least 30.6 extra days of these symptoms than did control subjects. Within the 6 months preceding AIDS, case subjects' unemployment rose to 9% (P < or = .05) and depression to 34.2% (P < or = .001). At 6 to 12 months and within 6 months before AIDS, 17.1% and 31.5%, respectively, were anemic, while 37.7% and 64.7% had CD4+ counts less than 200 x 10(6)/L. Diagnosing AIDS at CD4+ counts less than 200 x 10(6)/L could significantly reduce pre-AIDS morbidity. Other implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1359801

  19. Hit-and-Run Stimulation: a Novel Concept To Reactivate Latent HIV-1 Infection without Cytokine Gene Induction▿

    PubMed Central

    Wolschendorf, Frank; Duverger, Alexandra; Jones, Jennifer; Wagner, Frederic H.; Huff, Jason; Benjamin, William H.; Saag, Michael S.; Niederweis, Michael; Kutsch, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficiently controls HIV-1 replication but fails to eradicate the virus. Even after years of successful ART, HIV-1 can conceal itself in a latent state in long-lived CD4+ memory T cells. From this latent reservoir, HIV-1 rebounds during treatment interruptions. Attempts to therapeutically eradicate this viral reservoir have yielded disappointing results. A major problem with previously utilized activating agents is that at the concentrations required for efficient HIV-1 reactivation, these stimuli trigger high-level cytokine gene expression (hypercytokinemia). Therapeutically relevant HIV-1-reactivating agents will have to trigger HIV-1 reactivation without the induction of cytokine expression. We present here a proof-of-principle study showing that this is a possibility. In a high-throughput screening effort, we identified an HIV-1-reactivating protein factor (HRF) secreted by the nonpathogenic bacterium Massilia timonae. In primary T cells and T-cell lines, HRF triggered a high but nonsustained peak of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. While this short NF-κB peak potently reactivated latent HIV-1 infection, it failed to induce gene expression of several proinflammatory NF-κB-dependent cellular genes, such as those for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Dissociation of cellular and viral gene induction was achievable, as minimum amounts of Tat protein, synthesized following application of a short NF-κB pulse, triggered HIV-1 transactivation and subsequent self-perpetuated HIV-1 expression. In the absence of such a positive feedback mechanism, cellular gene expression was not sustained, suggesting that strategies modulating the NF-κB activity profile could be used to selectively trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:20538859

  20. Hit-and-run stimulation: a novel concept to reactivate latent HIV-1 infection without cytokine gene induction.

    PubMed

    Wolschendorf, Frank; Duverger, Alexandra; Jones, Jennifer; Wagner, Frederic H; Huff, Jason; Benjamin, William H; Saag, Michael S; Niederweis, Michael; Kutsch, Olaf

    2010-09-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficiently controls HIV-1 replication but fails to eradicate the virus. Even after years of successful ART, HIV-1 can conceal itself in a latent state in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells. From this latent reservoir, HIV-1 rebounds during treatment interruptions. Attempts to therapeutically eradicate this viral reservoir have yielded disappointing results. A major problem with previously utilized activating agents is that at the concentrations required for efficient HIV-1 reactivation, these stimuli trigger high-level cytokine gene expression (hypercytokinemia). Therapeutically relevant HIV-1-reactivating agents will have to trigger HIV-1 reactivation without the induction of cytokine expression. We present here a proof-of-principle study showing that this is a possibility. In a high-throughput screening effort, we identified an HIV-1-reactivating protein factor (HRF) secreted by the nonpathogenic bacterium Massilia timonae. In primary T cells and T-cell lines, HRF triggered a high but nonsustained peak of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activity. While this short NF-kappaB peak potently reactivated latent HIV-1 infection, it failed to induce gene expression of several proinflammatory NF-kappaB-dependent cellular genes, such as those for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). Dissociation of cellular and viral gene induction was achievable, as minimum amounts of Tat protein, synthesized following application of a short NF-kappaB pulse, triggered HIV-1 transactivation and subsequent self-perpetuated HIV-1 expression. In the absence of such a positive feedback mechanism, cellular gene expression was not sustained, suggesting that strategies modulating the NF-kappaB activity profile could be used to selectively trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:20538859

  1. HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon from 2006 to 2013: Prevalence, genetic diversity, evolution and public health challenges

    PubMed Central

    Villabona-Arenas, Christian Julian; Domyeum, Jenny; Mouacha, Fatima; Butel, Christelle; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, is characterized by a tremendously high genetic diversity, leading to the currently known circulating HIV types, groups, subtypes, and recombinant forms. HIV-1 group O is one of the most diverse forms of HIV-1 and has been so far related to Cameroon or individuals originating from Cameroon. In this study, we investigated in Cameroon, the evolution of this viral group from 2006 to 2013, in terms of prevalence, genetic diversity and public health implications. Our results confirmed the predominance of HIV-1 group M (98.5%), a very low prevalence (<0.02%) for HIV-1 group N and P, and HIV-2 in this country. HIV-1 group O was found at around 0.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.4–0.8%), indicating that the frequency of this virus in Cameroon has remained stable over the last decades. However, we found an extensive high genetic diversity within this HIV-1 group, that resulted from previous steady increase on the effective number of HIV-1 group O infections through time, and the current distribution of the circulating viral strains still does not allow classification as subtypes. The frequency of dual infections with HIV-1 group M and group O was 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.6–1.0%), but we found no recombinant forms in co-infected patients. Natural resistance to integrase inhibitors was not identified, although we found several mutations considered as natural polymorphisms. Our study shows that infections with HIV-1 group O can be adequately managed in countries where the virus circulates, but this complex virus still represents a challenge for diagnostics and monitoring strategies. PMID:26371064

  2. Diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection by in-house PCR.

    PubMed

    Vongsheree, S; Ruchusatsawat, N; Saguanwongse, S; Warachit, P

    1997-12-01

    A study on how to apply PCR as a diagnostic test for the infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers is described. All steps including clinical care, blood sampling, specimen processing and PCR analysis were carried out using native facilities and personnel. An open cohort of 130 children was evaluated at birth, 1, 6, 9, 15, and 18 months of age. Definite infection status was assessed by clinical and serological data during an 18 months of follow up period. PCR results were reported as positive or negative when at least 2 concordant data were denoted. This in-house PCR, compared to known infection status, gave 100% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity within 6 months after birth. On the other hand, clinical diagnosis could identify only the infected infants at 9 months of age. The HIV-1 transmission rate from mother to infant was 23.2%. Though this PCR was not at an optimal level of specificity, it was still beneficial to identify uninfected infants in the first year of their lives and avoid unnecessary medical care. Here, we report an in-house PCR that offers good performance at low cost for the diagnosis of HIV-1 vertical transmission. PMID:9579613

  3. Co-infections and transmission networks of HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV among people who inject drugs

    PubMed Central

    Tien Ng, Kim; Takebe, Yutaka; Bee Chook, Jack; Zhen Chow, Wei; Gan Chan, Kok; Abed Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Keng Tee, Kok

    2015-01-01

    Co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human pegivirus (HPgV) are common in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals. However, analysis on the evolutionary dynamics and transmission network profiles of these viruses among individuals with multiple infections remains limited. A total of 228 injecting drug users (IDUs), either HCV- and/or HIV-1-infected, were recruited in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genes were sequenced, with epidemic growth rates assessed by the Bayesian coalescent method. Based on the sequence data, mono-, dual- and triple-infection were detected in 38.8%, 40.6% and 20.6% of the subjects, respectively. Fifteen transmission networks involving HCV (subtype 1a, 1b, 3a and 3b), HIV-1 (CRF33_01B) and HPgV (genotype 2) were identified and characterized. Genealogical estimates indicated that the predominant HCV, HIV-1 and HPgV genotypes were introduced into the IDUs population through multiple sub-epidemics that emerged as early as 1950s (HCV), 1980s (HIV-1) and 1990s (HPgV). By determining the difference in divergence times between viral lineages (ΔtMRCA), we also showed that the frequency of viral co-transmission is low among these IDUs. Despite increased access to therapy and other harm reduction interventions, the continuous emergence and coexistence of new transmission networks suggest persistent multiple viral transmissions among IDUs. PMID:26459957

  4. Dynamics of immunoglobulin sequence diversity in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoehn, Kenneth B; Gall, Astrid; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Fidler, S J; Kaye, S; Weber, J N; McClure, M O; Kellam, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-09-01

    Advances in immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing technology are leading to new perspectives on immune system dynamics. Much research in this nascent field has focused on resolving immune responses to viral infection. However, the dynamics of B-cell diversity in early HIV infection, and in response to anti-retroviral therapy, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate these dynamics through bulk Ig sequencing of samples collected over 2 years from a group of eight HIV-1 infected patients, five of whom received anti-retroviral therapy during the first half of the study period. We applied previously published methods for visualizing and quantifying B-cell sequence diversity, including the Gini index, and compared their efficacy to alternative measures. While we found significantly greater clonal structure in HIV-infected patients versus healthy controls, within HIV patients, we observed no significant relationships between statistics of B-cell clonal expansion and clinical variables such as viral load and CD4(+) count. Although there are many potential explanations for this, we suggest that important factors include poor sampling resolution and complex B-cell dynamics that are difficult to summarize using simple summary statistics. Importantly, we find a significant association between observed Gini indices and sequencing read depth, and we conclude that more robust analytical methods and a closer integration of experimental and theoretical work is needed to further our understanding of B-cell repertoire diversity during viral infection. PMID:26194755

  5. Dynamics of immunoglobulin sequence diversity in HIV-1 infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Kenneth B.; Gall, Astrid; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Fidler, S. J.; Kaye, S.; Weber, J. N.; McClure, M. O.; Kellam, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing technology are leading to new perspectives on immune system dynamics. Much research in this nascent field has focused on resolving immune responses to viral infection. However, the dynamics of B-cell diversity in early HIV infection, and in response to anti-retroviral therapy, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate these dynamics through bulk Ig sequencing of samples collected over 2 years from a group of eight HIV-1 infected patients, five of whom received anti-retroviral therapy during the first half of the study period. We applied previously published methods for visualizing and quantifying B-cell sequence diversity, including the Gini index, and compared their efficacy to alternative measures. While we found significantly greater clonal structure in HIV-infected patients versus healthy controls, within HIV patients, we observed no significant relationships between statistics of B-cell clonal expansion and clinical variables such as viral load and CD4+ count. Although there are many potential explanations for this, we suggest that important factors include poor sampling resolution and complex B-cell dynamics that are difficult to summarize using simple summary statistics. Importantly, we find a significant association between observed Gini indices and sequencing read depth, and we conclude that more robust analytical methods and a closer integration of experimental and theoretical work is needed to further our understanding of B-cell repertoire diversity during viral infection. PMID:26194755

  6. Optimal combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prevention and treatments of HIV-1 clade C infection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan Scott; et al

    2016-03-30

    In this study, the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and themore » gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.« less

  7. Optimal Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Clade C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K.; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R.; Barouch, Dan H.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Mascola, John R.; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C.; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27028935

  8. Factors secreted by human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected cells can enhance or inhibit replication of HIV-1 in HTLV-I-uninfected cells: implications for in vivo coinfection with HTLV-I and HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, H; Moriuchi, M; Fauci, A S

    1998-05-18

    It remains controversial whether human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) coinfection leads to more rapid progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in dually infected individuals. To investigate whether HTLV-I infection of certain cells can modulate HIV-1 infection of surrounding cells, primary CD4(+) T cells were treated with cell-free supernatants from HTLV-I-infected MT-2 cell cultures. The primary CD4+ T cells became resistant to macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1 but highly susceptible to T cell (T)-tropic HIV-1. The CC chemokines RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, and MIP-1beta in the MT-2 cell supernatants were identified as the major suppressive factors for M-tropic HIV-1 as well as the enhancers of T-tropic HIV-1 infection, whereas soluble Tax protein increased susceptibility to both M- and T-tropic HIV-1. The effect of Tax or CC chemokines on T-tropic HIV-1 was mediated, at least in part, by increasing HIV Env-mediated fusogenicity. Our data suggest that the net effect of HTLV-I coinfection in HIV-infected individuals favors the transition from M- to T-tropic HIV phenotype, which is generally indicative of progressive HIV disease. PMID:9584147

  9. [HIV-1 infection up-regulating expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 in cell lines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-mei; Sun, Jun; Meng, Zhe-feng; Zhang, Xiao-yan; Xu, Jian-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether HIV-1 infection affects expression of interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and determine the antiviral effect of ISG15 in vitro, ISG15 expression at transcription and protein level and supernatant p24 of HIV-1 was detected in various HIV-1 infected or transfected cell lines, respec tively. HIV-1 molecular clone pNL4-3 was used to transfect 293T, TZM-bl and HeLa cells while HIV-1 pseudo-typed virus was used to infect Jurkat, MT-1 and THP-1 cells. After twenty-four hours post infection or transfection, cells were harvested for extraction of total RNAs and subsequently used in real time PCR for quantification of ISG15 transcriptional expression. After forty-eight hours post infection or transfection, cells were harvested for extraction of total proteins to detect ISG15 protein expression. A significant up-regulation of ISG15 at transcription level was observed in HIV-1 infected or transfected cell lines, particulaly in THP-1 and TZM-bl cells. Up-regulation of ISG15 protein was observed only in TZM-bl cell. Cotransfection of ISG15 and HIV-1 indicated that ISG15 inhibited production of HIV-1 progeny virus in a dose and time depend manner in 293T cell but not TZM-bl cell. These results revealed upregulating ISG15 expression in transcriptional level and potential antagonistic mechanism against ISG15 by HIV-1 infection, simultanelusly. PMID:24386835

  10. High Resolution Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Allele Frequencies and HIV-1 Infection Associations in Chinese Han and Uyghur Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanhou; Zhao, Zhongfang; Li, Tianyi; Liao, Qi; Kushner, Nicholas; Touzjian, Neal Y.; Shao, Yiming; Sun, Yongtao; Strong, Amie J.; Lu, Yichen

    2012-01-01

    Background Host immunogenetic factors such as HLA class I polymorphism are important to HIV-1 infection risk and AIDS progression. Previous studies using high-resolution HLA class I profile data of Chinese populations appeared insufficient to provide information for HIV-1 vaccine development and clinical trial design. Here we reported HLA class I association with HIV-1 susceptibility in a Chinese Han and a Chinese Uyghur cohort. Methodology/Principal Findings Our cohort included 327 Han and 161 Uyghur ethnic individuals. Each cohort included HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative subjects. Four-digit HLA class I typing was performed by sequencing-based typing and high-resolution PCR-sequence specific primer. We compared the HLA class I allele and inferred haplotype frequencies between HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative groups. A neighbor-joining tree between our cohorts and other populations was constructed based on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci. We identified 58 HLA-A, 75 HLA-B, and 32 HLA-Cw distinct alleles from our cohort and no novel alleles. The frequency of HLA-B*5201 and A*0301 was significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The frequency of HLA-B*5101 was significantly higher in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group. We observed statistically significant increases in expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm predicted haplotype frequencies of HLA-A*0201-B*5101 in the Uyghur HIV-1 negative group, and of Cw*0304-B*4001 in the Han HIV-1 negative group. The B62s supertype frequency was found to be significantly higher in the Han HIV-1 negative group than in the Han HIV-1 positive group. Conclusions At the four-digit level, several HLA class I alleles and haplotypes were associated with lower HIV-1 susceptibility. Homogeneity of HLA class I and Bw4/Bw6 heterozygosity were not associated with HIV-1 susceptibility in our cohort. These observations contribute to the Chinese HLA database and could prove useful in the development of HIV-1 vaccine

  11. HIV-1 subtype characteristics of infected persons living in southwestern Greece

    PubMed Central

    Davanos, Nikolaos; Panos, George; Gogos, Charalambos A; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid replication rate of HIV-1, coupled with a high mutation rate and recombination, is the underlying force driving its genetic diversity. In the infected individual, a population of highly related but nonidentical strains exists. At the population level, multiple subtypes often cocirculate, leading to the generation of intersubtype recombinant forms. As a result, the geographic distribution of subtypes and recombinant forms is complex and uneven. Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 isolates has been shown to be helpful for understanding the genetic evolution, the worldwide spread of the virus, and the evaluation of drug resistance. Materials and methods We determined the genetic heterogeneity of HIV-1 group M in southwestern Greece. Protease and partial reverse-transcriptase sequences were generated from 150 HIV-1-infected individuals attending the Division of Infectious Diseases of Patras University Hospital, Greece, from 2006 to 2012, and analyzed using online subtyping tools and phylogenetic methods. Results The majority of the infected individuals were male (77%). HIV-1 subtype A1 was responsible for 51.3% of infections, followed by subtypes B (34%), G (4%), F1 (2%), and the circulating recombinant forms 02_AG (2.7%), 14_BG (1.3%), 35_AD (1.3%), and 01_AE (0.7%). Additionally, we identified three cases with a recombinant B/CRF02_AG strain (2%) and one with a recombinant G/GRF_AG strain. Sexual transmission was responsible for 96.3% of cases. Heterosexual transmission was responsible for 70.2% of subtype-A1 infections, whereas subtype B was transmitted by men who have sex with men in 75.5% of cases. Protease substitutions I13V, E35D, M36I, R57K, H69K, and L89M, which serve as drug-resistance support mutations in subtype B, were present in the majority of subtype-A1 sequences of the population. Conclusion HIV-1 infection in southwestern Greece is sexually transmitted and highly heterogeneous. Subtype A1 has surpassed subtype B, and is the most prevalent

  12. IL-21 induces antiviral microRNA-29 in CD4 T cells to limit HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Adoro, Stanley; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Chen, Xi; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Song, Minkyung; Park, Suna; Murooka, Thomas T; Dudek, Timothy E; Luster, Andrew D; Tager, Andrew M; Streeck, Hendrik; Bowman, Brittany; Walker, Bruce D; Kwon, Douglas S; Lazarevic, Vanja; Glimcher, Laurie H

    2015-01-01

    Initial events after exposure determine HIV-1 disease progression, underscoring a critical need to understand host mechanisms that interfere with initial viral replication. Although associated with chronic HIV-1 control, it is not known whether interleukin-21 (IL-21) contributes to early HIV-1 immunity. Here we take advantage of tractable primary human lymphoid organ aggregate cultures to show that IL-21 directly suppresses HIV-1 replication, and identify microRNA-29 (miR-29) as an antiviral factor induced by IL-21 in CD4 T cells. IL-21 promotes transcription of all miR-29 species through STAT3, whose binding to putative regulatory regions within the MIR29 gene is enriched by IL-21 signalling. Notably, exogenous IL-21 limits early HIV-1 infection in humanized mice, and lower viremia in vivo is associated with higher miR-29 expression. Together, these findings reveal a novel antiviral IL-21-miR-29 axis that promotes CD4 T-cell-intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection, and suggest a role for IL-21 in initial HIV-1 control in vivo. PMID:26108174

  13. Defective HIV-1 proviruses produce novel protein-coding RNA species in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamichi, Hiromi; Dewar, Robin L; Adelsberger, Joseph W; Rehm, Catherine A; O'Doherty, Una; Paxinos, Ellen E; Fauci, Anthony S; Lane, H Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Despite years of plasma HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the majority of HIV-infected patients exhibit persistent seropositivity to HIV-1 and evidence of immune activation. These patients also show persistence of proviruses of HIV-1 in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many of these proviruses have been characterized as defective and thus thought to contribute little to HIV-1 pathogenesis. By combining 5'LTR-to-3'LTR single-genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing, we have identified the presence of "defective" proviruses capable of transcribing novel unspliced HIV-RNA (usHIV-RNA) species in patients at all stages of HIV-1 infection. Although these novel usHIV-RNA transcripts had exon structures that were different from those of the known spliced HIV-RNA variants, they maintained translationally competent ORFs, involving elements of gag, pol, env, rev, and nef to encode a series of novel HIV-1 chimeric proteins. These novel usHIV-RNAs were detected in five of five patients, including four of four patients with prolonged viral suppression of HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter for more than 6 y. Our findings suggest that the persistent defective proviruses of HIV-1 are not "silent," but rather may contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by stimulating host-defense pathways that target foreign nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:27432972

  14. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  15. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death. PMID:27144577

  16. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death. PMID:27144577

  17. Distinct Characteristics of Endometrial and Decidual Macrophages and Regulation of Their Permissivity to HIV-1 Infection by SAMHD1

    PubMed Central

    Quillay, Héloïse; El Costa, Hicham; Marlin, Romain; Duriez, Marion; Cannou, Claude; Chrétien, Fabrice; Fernandez, Hervé; Lebreton, Anne; Ighil, Julien; Schwartz, Olivier; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to develop strategies to prevent HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transmission, it is crucial to better characterize HIV-1 target cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosae and to identify effective innate responses. Control of HIV-1 infection in the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) can serve as a model to study natural mucosal protection. Macrophages are the main HIV-1 target cells in the decidua. Here we report that in vitro, macrophages and T cells are the main HIV-1 targets in the endometrium in nonpregnant women. As reported for decidual macrophages (dM), endometrial macrophages (eM) were found to have an M2-like phenotype (CD68+ CD163+ CD206+ IL-10high). However, eM and dM may belong to different subpopulations, as they differently express certain markers and secrete different amounts of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed strong expression of the SAMHD1 restriction factor and weak expression of its inactive form (pSAMHD1, phosphorylated at residue Thr592) in both eM and dM. Infection of macrophages from both tissues was enhanced in the presence of the viral protein Vpx, suggesting a role for SAMHD1 in the restriction of HIV-1 infection. This study and further comparisons of the decidua with FRT mucosae in nonpregnant women should help to identify mechanisms of mucosal protection against HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE The female reproductive tract mucosae are major portals of HIV-1 entry into the body. The decidua (uterine mucosa during pregnancy) can serve as a model for studying natural mucosal protection against HIV-1 transmission. A comparison of target cells and innate responses in the decidua versus the endometrium in nonpregnant women could help to identify protective mechanisms. Here, we report for the first time that macrophages are one of the main HIV-1 target cells in the endometrium and that infection of macrophages from both the endometrium and the decidua is restricted by

  18. Amebiasis in HIV-1-infected Japanese men: clinical features and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Escueta-de Cadiz, Aleyla; Tanuma, Junko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Shinichi

    2011-09-01

    Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of invasive amebiasis was similar to that described in the normal host. High fever, leukocytosis and high CRP were associated with extraluminal amebic diseases. Two cases died from amebic colitis (resulting in intestinal perforation in one and gastrointestinal bleeding in one), and three cases died from causes unrelated to amebiasis. Treatment with metronidazole or tinidazole was successful in the other 165 cases. Luminal treatment was provided to 83 patients following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment. However, amebiasis recurred in 6 of these, a frequency similar to that seen in patients who did not receive luminal treatment. Recurrence was more frequent in HCV-antibody positive individuals and those who acquired syphilis during the follow-up period. Various genotypes of E. histolytica were identified in 14 patients but there was no correlation between genotype and clinical features. The outcome of metronidazole and tinidazole treatment of uncomplicated amebiasis was excellent even in HIV-1-infected individuals. Luminal treatment following metronidazole or tinidazole treatment does not reduce recurrence of amebiasis in high risk populations probably due to amebic re-infection. PMID:21931875

  19. Escherichia coli surface display of single-chain antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Xu; Mellon, Michael; Bowder, Dane; Quinn, Meghan; Shea, Danielle; Wood, Charles; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2015-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and infection occur mainly via the mucosal surfaces. The commensal bacteria residing in these surfaces can potentially be employed as a vehicle for delivering inhibitors to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have employed a bacteria-based strategy to display a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, which could potentially be used to prevent HIV-1 infection. The VRC01 antibody mimics CD4-binding to gp120 and has broadly neutralization activities against HIV-1. We have designed a construct that can express the fusion peptide of the scFv-VRC01 antibody together with the autotransporter β-barrel domain of IgAP gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which enabled surface display of the antibody molecule. Our results indicate that the scFv-VRC01 antibody molecule was displayed on the surface of the bacteria as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered bacteria can capture HIV-1 particles via surface-binding and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell culture. - Highlights: • Designed single-chain VRC01 antibody was demonstrated to bind HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Single-chain VRC01 antibody was successfully displayed on the surface of E. coli. • Engineered bacteria can absorb HIV-1 particles and prevent HIV-1 infection in cell culture.

  20. Evaluation of the Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay for HIV-1 RNA viral load detection and quantitation in plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals: A comparison with Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Alessandra; Pisciotta, Maria; Aleo, Loredana; Ferraioli, Valeria; Angeletti, Claudio; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-09-01

    The Hologic Aptima(®) HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) is a real-time transcription-mediated amplification method CE-approved for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 infection. The analytical performance of this new assay was compared to the FDA-approved Abbott RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime). The evaluation was performed using 220 clinical plasma samples, the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard, and the QCMD HIV-1 RNA EQA. Concordance on qualitative results, correlation between quantitative results, accuracy, and reproducibility of viral load data were analyzed. The ability to measure HIV-1 subtypes was assessed on the second WHO International Reference Preparation Panel for HIV-1 Subtypes. With clinical samples, inter-assay agreement for qualitative results was high (91.8%) with Cohen's kappa statistic equal to 0.836. For samples with quantitative results in both assays (n = 93), Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.980 (P < 0.0001) and mean differences of measurement, conducted according to Bland-Altman method, was low (0.115 log10  copies/ml). The Aptima HIV quantified the WHO 3rd HIV-1 International Standard diluted from 2000 to 31 cp/ml (5,700-88 IU/ml) at expected values with excellent linearity (R(2)  > 0.970) and showed higher sensitivity compared to RealTime being able to detect HIV-1 RNA in 10 out of 10 replicates containing down to 7 cp/ml (20 IU/ml). Reproducibility was very high, even at low HIV-1 RNA values. The Aptima HIV was able to detect and accurately quantify all the main HIV-1 subtypes in both reference panels and clinical samples. Besides excellent performance, Aptima HIV shows full automation, ease of use, and improved workflow compared to RealTime. J. Med. Virol. 88:1535-1544, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864171

  1. Differential activity of candidate microbicides against early steps of HIV-1 infection upon complement virus opsonization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 in genital secretions may be opsonized by several molecules including complement components. Opsonized HIV-1 by complement enhances the infection of various mucosal target cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and epithelial cells. Results We herein evaluated the effect of HIV-1 complement opsonization on microbicide candidates' activity, by using three in vitro mucosal models: CCR5-tropic HIV-1JR-CSF transcytosis through epithelial cells, HIV-1JR-CSF attachment on immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDC), and infectivity of iMDDC by CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1NDK. A panel of 10 microbicide candidates [T20, CADA, lectines HHA & GNA, PVAS, human lactoferrin, and monoclonal antibodies IgG1B12, 12G5, 2G12 and 2F5], were investigated using cell-free unopsonized or opsonized HIV-1 by complements. Only HHA and PVAS were able to inhibit HIV trancytosis. Upon opsonization, transcytosis was affected only by HHA, HIV-1 adsorption on iMDDC by four molecules (lactoferrin, IgG1B12, IgG2G5, IgG2G12), and replication in iMDDC of HIV-1BaL by five molecules (lactoferrin, CADA, T20, IgG1B12, IgG2F5) and of HIV-1NDK by two molecules (lactoferrin, IgG12G5). Conclusion These observations demonstrate that HIV-1 opsonization by complements may modulate in vitro the efficiency of candidate microbicides to inhibit HIV-1 infection of mucosal target cells, as well as its crossing through mucosa. PMID:20546571

  2. Akt inhibitors as an HIV-1 infected macrophage-specific anti-viral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Pauline; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Monteiro-Filho, Carlos MR; Planelles, Vicente; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Dewhurst, Stephen; Kim, Baek

    2008-01-01

    Background Unlike CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 infected macrophages exhibit extended life span even upon stress, consistent with their in vivo role as long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs. Results Here, we demonstrate that PI3K/Akt inhibitors, including clinically available Miltefosine, dramatically reduced HIV-1 production from long-living virus-infected macrophages. These PI3K/Akt inhibitors hyper-sensitize infected macrophages to extracellular stresses that they are normally exposed to, and eventually lead to cell death of infected macrophages without harming uninfected cells. Based on the data from these Akt inhibitors, we were able to further investigate how HIV-1 infection utilizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to establish the cytoprotective effect of HIV-1 infection, which extends the lifespan of infected macrophages, a key viral reservoir. First, we found that HIV-1 infection activates the well characterized pro-survival PI3K/Akt pathway in primary human macrophages, as reflected by decreased PTEN protein expression and increased Akt kinase activity. Interestingly, the expression of HIV-1 or SIV Tat is sufficient to mediate this cytoprotective effect, which is dependent on the basic domain of Tat – a region that has previously been shown to bind p53. Next, we observed that this interaction appears to contribute to the downregulation of PTEN expression, since HIV-1 Tat was found to compete with PTEN for p53 binding; this is known to result in p53 destabilization, with a consequent reduction in PTEN protein production. Conclusion Since HIV-1 infected macrophages display highly elevated Akt activity, our results collectively show that PI3K/Akt inhibitors may be a novel therapy for interfering with the establishment of long-living HIV-1 infected reservoirs. PMID:18237430

  3. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and infection in neonatal target cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs mainly at three stages, including prepartum, intrapartum and postpartum. Several maternal factors, including low CD4+ lymphocyte counts, high viral load, immune response, advanced disease status, smoking and abusing drugs have been implicated in an increased risk of HIV-1 MTCT. While use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has significantly reduced the rate of MTCT, selective transmission of ART resistant mutants has been reported. Based on HIV-1 sequence comparison, the maternal HIV-1 minor genotypes with R5 phenotypes are predominantly transmitted to their infants and initially maintained in the infants with the same properties. Several HIV-1 structural, regulatory and accessory genes were highly conserved following MTCT. In addition, HIV-1 sequences from non-transmitting mothers are less heterogeneous compared with transmitting mothers, suggesting that a higher level of viral heterogeneity influences MTCT. Analysis of the immunologically relevant epitopes showed that variants evolved to escape the immune response that influenced HIV-1 MTCT. Several cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were identified in various HIV-1 genes that were conserved in HIV-1 mother-infant sequences, suggesting a role in MTCT. We have shown that HIV-1 replicates more efficiently in neonatal T-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages compared with adult cells, and this differential replication is influenced at the level of HIV-1 gene expression, which was due to differential expression of host factors, including transcriptional activators, signal transducers and cytokines in neonatal than adult cells. In addition, HIV-1 integration occurs in more actively transcribed genes in neonatal compared with adult cells, which may influence HIV-1 gene expression. The increased HIV-1 gene expression and replication in neonatal target cells contribute to a higher viral load and more rapid disease progression in neonates/infants than adults

  4. The Scaffolding Protein Dlg1 Is a Negative Regulator of Cell-Free Virus Infectivity but Not of Cell-to-Cell HIV-1 Transmission in T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nzounza, Patrycja; Chazal, Maxime; Guedj, Chloé; Schmitt, Alain; Massé, Jean-Marc; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Pique, Claudine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell-to-cell virus transmission of Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is predominantly mediated by cellular structures such as the virological synapse (VS). The VS formed between an HIV-1-infected T cell and a target T cell shares features with the immunological synapse (IS). We have previously identified the human homologue of the Drosophila Discs Large (Dlg1) protein as a new cellular partner for the HIV-1 Gag protein and a negative regulator of HIV-1 infectivity. Dlg1, a scaffolding protein plays a key role in clustering protein complexes in the plasma membrane at cellular contacts. It is implicated in IS formation and T cell signaling, but its role in HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission was not studied before. Methodology/Principal Findings Kinetics of HIV-1 infection in Dlg1-depleted Jurkat T cells show that Dlg1 modulates the replication of HIV-1. Single-cycle infectivity tests show that this modulation does not take place during early steps of the HIV-1 life cycle. Immunofluorescence studies of Dlg1-depleted Jurkat T cells show that while Dlg1 depletion affects IS formation, it does not affect HIV-1-induced VS formation. Co-culture assays and quantitative cell-to-cell HIV-1 transfer analyses show that Dlg1 depletion does not modify transfer of HIV-1 material from infected to target T cells, or HIV-1 transmission leading to productive infection via cell contact. Dlg1 depletion results in increased virus yield and infectivity of the viral particles produced. Particles with increased infectivity present an increase in their cholesterol content and during the first hours of T cell infection these particles induce higher accumulation of total HIV-1 DNA. Conclusion Despite its role in the IS formation, Dlg1 does not affect the VS and cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1, but plays a role in HIV-1 cell-free virus transmission. We propose that the effect of Dlg1 on HIV-1 infectivity is at the stage of virus entry. PMID:22272285

  5. Cytomegalovirus infection in gastrointestinal tracts of patients infected with HIV-1 or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Francis, N D; Boylston, A W; Roberts, A H; Parkin, J M; Pinching, A J

    1989-01-01

    All gastrointestinal tract biopsy specimens from 190 patients positive for HIV-1 or with AIDS were reviewed to assess the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, morphology of infected cells, and the associated histopathological features. Eighteen patients (10 (7.7%) of 129 HIV antibody positive and eight (13.1%) of 61 with AIDS) had CMV identified in 35 biopsy specimens from the following sites: oesophagus (n = 3); stomach (n = 6); small intestine (n = 4); colorectum (n = 18) and perianal area (n = 4). Eleven patients had CMV alone as the potential cause of symptoms and in seven there were coexistent pathogens or Kaposi's sarcoma. The appearance and type of infected cells at different sites was highly variable. Immunocytochemical techniques and electron microscopic examination were performed to confirm the presence of CMV antigen and CMV virus particles and to exclude the possibility of an adenovirus producing similar cytopathic changes. It is important to recognise the different morphological forms of infected cells, and the use of immunocytochemical techniques is recommended in patients at risk for CMV or in whom CMV infection is suspected. Images PMID:2555397

  6. APOBEC3H polymorphisms and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Taeko K; Sakurai, Daisuke; Ohtani, Hitoshi; Sharma, Gaurav; Sharma, Surendra K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Mehra, Narinder K; Kaur, Gurvinder; Kimura, Akinori

    2016-03-01

    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of APOBEC cytidine deaminase family intensively constraining the HIV-1 replication. A3H is known to be polymorphic with different protein stability and anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. We recently reported that A3H haplotypes composed of two functional polymorphisms, rs139292 (N15del) and rs139297 (G105R), were associated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Japanese. To confirm the association of A3H and HIV-1 infection in another ethnic group, a total of 241 HIV-1-infected Indian individuals and ethnic-matched 286 healthy controls were analyzed for the A3H polymorphisms. The frequency of 15del allele was high in the HIV-1-infected subjects as compared with the controls (0.477 vs 0.402, odds ratio (OR)=1.36, P=0.014). Haplotype analysis showed that the frequencies of 15del-105R was high (0.475 vs 0.400, OR=1.36, permutation P=0.037) in the HIV-1-infected subjects, confirming the association of A3H polymorphisms with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. PMID:26559750

  7. High-accuracy identification of incident HIV-1 infections using a sequence clustering based diversity measure.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xia-Yu; Ge, Meng; Hsi, Jenny H; He, Xiang; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Shao, Yi-Ming; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of HIV-1 incidence are essential for monitoring epidemic trends and evaluating intervention efforts. However, the long asymptomatic stage of HIV-1 infection makes it difficult to effectively distinguish incident infections from chronic ones. Current incidence assays based on serology or viral sequence diversity are both still lacking in accuracy. In the present work, a sequence clustering based diversity (SCBD) assay was devised by utilizing the fact that viral sequences derived from each transmitted/founder (T/F) strain tend to cluster together at early stage, and that only the intra-cluster diversity is correlated with the time since HIV-1 infection. The dot-matrix pairwise alignment was used to eliminate the disproportional impact of insertion/deletions (indels) and recombination events, and so was the proportion of clusterable sequences (Pc) as an index to identify late chronic infections with declined viral genetic diversity. Tested on a dataset containing 398 incident and 163 chronic infection cases collected from the Los Alamos HIV database (last modified 2/8/2012), our SCBD method achieved 99.5% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity, with an overall accuracy of 99.3%. Further analysis and evaluation also suggested its performance was not affected by host factors such as the viral subtypes and transmission routes. The SCBD method demonstrated the potential of sequencing based techniques to become useful for identifying incident infections. Its use may be most advantageous for settings with low to moderate incidence relative to available resources. The online service is available at http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn:8080/SCBD/index.jsp. PMID:24925130

  8. Identifying and Characterizing a Functional HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase-binding Site on Integrase*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Thomas A.; Januszyk, Kurt; Phillips, Martin L.; Tekeste, Shewit S.; Zhang, Min; Miller, Jennifer T.; Le Grice, Stuart F. J.; Clubb, Robert T.; Chow, Samson A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrase (IN) from human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) exerts pleiotropic effects in the viral replication cycle. Besides integration, IN mutations can impact nuclear import, viral maturation, and reverse transcription. IN and reverse transcriptase (RT) interact in vitro, and the IN C-terminal domain (CTD) is both necessary and sufficient for binding RT. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify a putative RT-binding surface on the IN CTD, and surface plasmon resonance to obtain kinetic parameters and the binding affinity for the IN-RT interaction. An IN K258A substitution that disrupts reverse transcription in infected cells is located at the putative RT-binding surface, and we found that this substitution substantially weakens IN CTD-RT interactions. We also identified two additional IN amino acid substitutions located at the putative RT-binding surface (W243E and V250E) that significantly impair viral replication in tissue culture. These results strengthen the notion that IN-RT interactions are biologically relevant during HIV-1 replication and also provide insights into this interaction at the molecular level. PMID:19150986

  9. Distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation during HIV-1, HBV, and HCV infections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Andrew E; Stacey, Andrea R; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Marshall, Elizabeth; Sturges, Pamela; Chatha, Kamaljit; Smith, Nicola M G; Huang, XiaoJie; Xu, XiaoNing; Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Li, Ning; Wu, Hao; Webster, Craig; Prentice, Andrew M; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Norris, Phillip J; Drakesmith, Hal; Borrow, Persephone

    2014-08-19

    During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia during the course of donations; HIV-1-positive individuals progressing from early to chronic infection; and chronically HIV-1-infected individuals (receiving antiretroviral therapy or untreated). Hepcidin increased and plasma iron decreased during acute HIV-1 infection, as viremia was initially detected. In patients transitioning from early to chronic HIV-1 infection, hepcidin in the first 60 d of infection positively correlated with the later plasma viral load set-point. Hepcidin remained elevated in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection and in subjects on ART. In contrast to HIV-1, there was no evidence of hepcidin up-regulation or hypoferremia during the primary viremic phases of HCV or HBV infection; serum iron marginally increased during acute HBV infection. In conclusion, hepcidin induction is part of the pathogenically important systemic inflammatory cascade triggered during HIV-1 infection and may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of viral set-point, which is a strong predictor of progression to AIDS and death. However, distinct patterns of hepcidin and iron regulation occur during different viral infections that have particular tissue tropisms and elicit different systemic inflammatory responses. The hypoferremia of acute infection is therefore a pathogen-specific, not universal, phenomenon. PMID:25092293

  10. An AP-1 binding site in the enhancer/core element of the HIV-1 promoter controls the ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Zhang, Mingce; Wagner, Fredric; Hatcher, Brandon; Jones, Jennifer; Cron, Randall Q; van der Sluis, Renee M; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Berkhout, Ben; Kutsch, Olaf

    2013-02-01

    Following integration, HIV-1 in most cases produces active infection events; however, in some rare instances, latent infection events are established. The latter have major clinical implications, as latent infection allows the virus to persist despite antiretroviral therapy. Both the cellular factors and the viral elements that potentially determine whether HIV-1 establishes active or latent infection events remain largely elusive. We detail here the contribution of different long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences for the establishment of latent HIV-1 infection. Using a panel of full-length replication-competent virus constructs that reflect naturally occurring differences of HIV-1 subtype-specific LTRs and targeted LTR mutants, we found the primary ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection in this system to be controlled by a four-nucleotide (nt) AP-1 element just upstream of the NF-κB element in the viral promoter. Deletion of this AP-1 site mostly deprived HIV-1 of the ability to establish latent HIV-1 infection. Extension of this site to a 7-nt AP-1 sequence massively promoted latency establishment, suggesting that this promoter region represents a latency establishment element (LEE). Given that these minimal changes in a transcription factor binding site affect latency establishment to such large extent, our data support the notion that HIV-1 latency is a transcription factor restriction phenomenon. PMID:23236059

  11. An AP-1 Binding Site in the Enhancer/Core Element of the HIV-1 Promoter Controls the Ability of HIV-1 To Establish Latent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Zhang, Mingce; Wagner, Fredric; Hatcher, Brandon; Jones, Jennifer; Cron, Randall Q.; van der Sluis, Renee M.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Following integration, HIV-1 in most cases produces active infection events; however, in some rare instances, latent infection events are established. The latter have major clinical implications, as latent infection allows the virus to persist despite antiretroviral therapy. Both the cellular factors and the viral elements that potentially determine whether HIV-1 establishes active or latent infection events remain largely elusive. We detail here the contribution of different long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences for the establishment of latent HIV-1 infection. Using a panel of full-length replication-competent virus constructs that reflect naturally occurring differences of HIV-1 subtype-specific LTRs and targeted LTR mutants, we found the primary ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection in this system to be controlled by a four-nucleotide (nt) AP-1 element just upstream of the NF-κB element in the viral promoter. Deletion of this AP-1 site mostly deprived HIV-1 of the ability to establish latent HIV-1 infection. Extension of this site to a 7-nt AP-1 sequence massively promoted latency establishment, suggesting that this promoter region represents a latency establishment element (LEE). Given that these minimal changes in a transcription factor binding site affect latency establishment to such large extent, our data support the notion that HIV-1 latency is a transcription factor restriction phenomenon. PMID:23236059

  12. IL-8 Alterations in HIV-1 Infected Children With Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Pananghat, Ambili Nair; Aggarwal, Heena; Prakash, Somi Sankaran; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Singh, Ravinder; Lodha, Rakesh; Ali, Shakir; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Disease progression in HIV-1 infected children is faster than in adults. Less than 5% of the infected children maintain stable CD4 counts beyond 7 years of infection and are termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Delineating the host immune response in antiretroviral naïve (ART) and treated HIV-1 infected children at different disease stages will help in understanding the immunopathogenesis of the disease.A total of 79 asymptomatic, perinatally HIV-1 infected children (50 ART naïve and 29 ART treated) and 8 seronegative donors were recruited in this study. T- and B-cell activation PCR arrays were performed from the cDNA, using total RNA extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 14 HIV-1 infected children at different stages of the disease. The differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for the (interleukin-8) IL-8 gene and its transcriptional mediators, that is, SHP2, GRB2, and IL-8R (IL-8 receptor/CXCR1). Plasma levels of IL-8 were measured by flow cytometry.Gene array data revealed a higher expression of IL-8 in the ART naïve HIV-1 infected progressors and in ART nonresponders than LTNPs and ART responders, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a significant higher expression of IL-8 (P < 0.001), its receptor CXCR1 (P = 0.03) and the upstream signaling molecule SHP2 (P = 0.04) in the progressors versus LTNPs. Plasma levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in progressors versus LTNPs (P < 0.001), and ART nonresponders versus ART responders (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation of plasma levels of IL-8 with CD4 counts (cells/μL) was observed in HIV-1 infected ART naïve subjects (r = -0.488; P < 0.001), while the IL-8 levels positively correlated with viral load in the ART treated children (r = 0.5494; P < 0.001). ART naïve progressors on follow up demonstrated a significant reduction in the mRNA expression (P = 0.05) and plasma

  13. Hybrid spreading mechanisms and T cell activation shape the dynamics of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M; Jolly, Clare

    2015-04-01

    HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments' influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25837979

  14. HIV-1 Infection and the PPARγ-Dependent Control of Adipose Tissue Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Giralt, Marta; Domingo, Pere; Villarroya, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    PPARγ is a ligand-dependent master transcription factor controlling adipocyte differentiation as well as multiple biological processes taking place in other cells present in adipose tissue depots such as macrophages. Recent research indicates that HIV-1 infection-related events may alter adipose tissue biology through several mechanisms involving PPARγ, ranging from direct effects of HIV-1-encoded proteins on adipocytes to the promotion of a proinflammatory environment that interferes with PPARγ actions. This effect of HIV-1 on adipose tissue cells can occur even in the absence of direct infection of adipocytes, as soluble HIV-1-encoded proteins such as Vpr may enter cells and inhibit PPARγ action. Moreover, repression of PPARγ actions may relieve inhibitory pathways of HIV-1 gene transcription, thus enhancing HIV-1 effects in infected cells. HIV-1 infection-mediated interference of PPARγ-dependent pathways in adipocytes and other cells inside adipose depots such as macrophages is likely to create an altered local environment that, after antiretroviral treatment, leads to lipodystrophy in HIV-1-infected and HAART-treated patients. PMID:19081837

  15. Signaling through Toll-like receptors triggers HIV-1 replication in latently infected mast cells.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, J Bruce; Little, Dawn M; Villinger, Francois; Ellis, Jane E; Ansari, Aftab A

    2004-04-01

    Evidence that human progenitor mast cells are susceptible to infection with CCR5-tropic strains of HIV-1 and that circulating HIV-1-infected FcepsilonRIalpha(+) cells with a similar progenitor phenotype have been isolated from AIDS patients has led to speculation that mast cells may serve as a potential reservoir for infectious HIV-1. In this study, progenitor mast cells, developed in vitro from CD34(+) cord blood stem cells, were experimentally infected with the CCR5-tropic strain HIV-1Bal after 28 days in culture as they reached their HIV-1-susceptible progenitor stage. HIV-1 p24 Ag levels were readily detectable by day 7 postinfection (PI), peaked at 2-3 wk PI as mature (tryptase/chymase-positive) HIV-1 infection-resistant mast cells emerged, and then steadily declined to below detectable limits by 10 wk PI, at which point integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA was confirmed by PCR quantitation in ( approximately 34% of) latently infected mast cells. Stimulation by ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR9 significantly enhanced viral replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both HIV-1-infected progenitor and latently infected mature mast cells, without promoting degranulation, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, or dysregulation of TLR agonist-induced cytokine production in infected mast cells. Limiting dilution analysis of TLR activated, latently infected mature mast cells indicated that one in four was capable of establishing productive infections in A301 sentinel cells. Taken together, these results indicate that mast cells may serve both as a viral reservoir and as a model for studying mechanisms of postintegration latency in HIV infection. PMID:15034054

  16. Enhanced Potency of a Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody In Vitro Improves Protection against Lentiviral Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Kwon, Young Do; Ko, Sung-Youl; Pegu, Amarendra; Louder, Mark K.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Chen, Xuejun; Shi, Wei; Yang, Zhi-yong; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Druz, Aliaksandr; Soto, Cinque; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhou, Tongqing; Todd, John-Paul; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Eudailey, Joshua; Roberts, Kyle E.; Donald, Bruce R.; Bailer, Robert T.; Ledgerwood, Julie; Mullikin, James C.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Koup, Richard A.; Graham, Barney S.; Nason, Martha C.; Connors, Mark; Haynes, Barton F.; Rao, Srinivas S.; Roederer, Mario; Kwong, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past 5 years, a new generation of highly potent and broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies has been identified. These antibodies can protect against lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs), suggesting that passive antibody transfer would prevent HIV-1 transmission in humans. To increase the protective efficacy of such monoclonal antibodies, we employed next-generation sequencing, computational bioinformatics, and structure-guided design to enhance the neutralization potency and breadth of VRC01, an antibody that targets the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope. One variant, VRC07-523, was 5- to 8-fold more potent than VRC01, neutralized 96% of viruses tested, and displayed minimal autoreactivity. To compare its protective efficacy to that of VRC01 in vivo, we performed a series of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge experiments in nonhuman primates and calculated the doses of VRC07-523 and VRC01 that provide 50% protection (EC50). VRC07-523 prevented infection in NHPs at a 5-fold lower concentration than VRC01. These results suggest that increased neutralization potency in vitro correlates with improved protection against infection in vivo, documenting the improved functional efficacy of VRC07-523 and its potential clinical relevance for protecting against HIV-1 infection in humans. IMPORTANCE In the absence of an effective HIV-1 vaccine, alternative strategies are needed to block HIV-1 transmission. Direct administration of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies may be able to prevent HIV-1 infections in humans. This approach could be especially useful in individuals at high risk for contracting HIV-1 and could be used together with antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection. To optimize the chance of success, such antibodies can be modified to improve their potency, breadth, and in vivo half-life. Here, knowledge of the structure of a potent neutralizing antibody, VRC01, that targets the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope

  17. Evolution of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in HIV-1-infected patients in Italy from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Colafigli, M; Torti, C; Trecarichi, E M; Albini, L; Rosi, A; Micheli, V; Manca, N; Penco, G; Bruzzone, B; Punzi, G; Corsi, P; Parruti, G; Bagnarelli, P; Monno, L; Gonnelli, A; Cauda, R; Di Giambenedetto, S

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence and predictors of transmitted drug resistance (TDR), defined as the presence of at least one WHO surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM), were investigated in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients, with a genotypic resistance test (GRT) performed ≤6 months before starting cART between 2000 and 2010. 3163 HIV-1 sequences were selected (69% subtype B). Overall, the prevalence of TDR was 12% (13.2% subtype B, 9% non-B). TDR significantly declined overall and for the single drug classes. Older age independently predicted increased odds of TDR, whereas a more recent GRT, a higher HIV-RNA and C vs. B subtype predicted lower odds of TDR. PMID:22536753

  18. Prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Ebonyi, Augustine O.; Oguche, Stephen; Ejeliogu, Emeka U.; Agbaji, Oche O.; Shehu, Nathan Y.; Abah, Isaac O.; Sagay, Atiene S.; Ugoagwu, Placid O.; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Idoko, John A.; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) among newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce and in Nigeria there is paucity of reported data. We determined the prevalence of and risk factors for pulmonary TB (PTB) in newly diagnosed (treatment-naïve) HIV-1 infected children at the pediatric HIV clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) in Nigeria. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 876 children, aged 2 months – 13 years, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between July 2005 and December 2012, of which 286 were diagnosed with PTB at presentation after TB screening. The study site was the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN)-supported Pediatric HIV clinic at JUTH, Jos. A multivariate forward logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection. Results The prevalence of PTB-HIV co-infection was 32% (286/876). Severe immunosuppression (SI) and World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical stage 3/4 were identified as independent risk factors for PTB-HIV co-infection in HIV infected children. The odds of PTB-HIV co-infection was increased two-fold in HIV-infected children with WHO clinical stage 3/4 compared to those with stage 1/2 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.76 [1.31-2.37], p<0.001) and 1.5-fold in children with SI compared to those without SI (AOR 1.52 [1.12-2.06], p=0.007). Conclusion In our setting, the burden of PTB was high among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children, and late WHO HIV clinical stage and severe immunosuppression were associated with PTB-HIV co-infection. Therefore there is a clear need to improve strategies for early diagnosis of both HIV and PTB to optimize clinical outcomes. PMID:27019829

  19. Recent Advances in Lentiviral Vaccines for HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Thomas D.; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective HIV vaccine to prevent and/or cure HIV remains a global health priority. Given their central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are being increasingly explored as immunotherapeutic strategies to enhance HIV-specific T cells in infected individuals and, thus, promote immune responses that may help facilitate a functional cure. HIV-1-based lentiviral (LV) vectors have inherent advantages as DC vaccine vectors due to their ability to transduce non-dividing cells and integrate into the target cell genomic DNA, allowing for expression of encoded antigens over the lifespan of the cell. Moreover, LV vectors may express additional immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory proteins that enhance DC function and direct antigen-specific T cells responses. Recent basic and clinical research efforts have broadened our understanding of LV vectors as DC-based vaccines. In this review, we provide an overview of the pre-clinical and clinical LV vector vaccine studies for treating HIV to date. We also discuss advances in LV vector designs that have enhanced DC transduction efficiency, target cell specificity, and immunogenicity, and address potential safety concerns regarding LV vector-based vaccines. PMID:27446074

  20. Interaction between Tat and Drugs of Abuse during HIV-1 Infection and Central Nervous System Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maubert, Monique E.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T.; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:26793168

  1. Depression does not influence basal ganglia-mediated psychomotor speed in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    von Giesen, H J; Bäcker, R; Hefter, H; Arendt, G

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of depressive mood (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [Ham-D]) on basal ganglia-mediated psychomotor speed (motor test battery) in 202 HIV-1 seropositive homosexual males with no prior history of antiretroviral treatment. HIV-1 seropositive patients showed a significant slowing of most rapid alternating movements (MRAM) and significantly prolonged contraction times (CT) compared with 66 HIV-1 seronegative male control subjects. Factor analysis of Ham-D scores isolated a factor containing the items depressed mood, suicide, and psychic and somatic anxiety. This factor did not correlate with MRAM or CT. Depression and psychomotor speed are independent in HIV-1infection. PMID:11207334

  2. MicroRNAs, Hepatitis C Virus, and HCV/HIV-1 Co-Infection: New Insights in Pathogenesis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Archana; Swaminathan, Gokul; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Navas-Martin, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can exert a profound effect on Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The interaction of HCV with the highly liver-enriched miRNA, miR-122 represents one such unique example of viruses having evolved mechanism(s) to usurp the host miRNA machinery to support viral life cycle. Furthermore, HCV infection can also trigger changes in the cellular miRNA profile, which may ultimately contribute to the outcome of viral infection. Accumulating knowledge on HCV-host miRNA interactions has ultimately influenced the design of therapeutic interventions against chronic HCV infection. The importance of microRNA modulation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) replication has been reported, albeit only in the context of HIV-1 mono-infection. The development of HCV infection is dramatically influenced during co-infection with HIV-1. Here, we review the current knowledge on miRNAs in HCV mono-infection. In addition, we discuss the potential role of some miRNAs, identified from the analyses of public data, in HCV/HIV-1 co-infection. PMID:23202492

  3. Significant contribution of subtype G to HIV-1 genetic complexity in Nigeria identified by a newly developed subtyping assay specific for subtype G and CRF02_AG.

    PubMed

    Heipertz, Richard A; Ayemoba, Ojor; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Poltavee, Kultida; Pham, Phuc; Kijak, Gustavo H; Lei, Esther; Bose, Meera; Howell, Shana; OʼSullivan, Anne Marie; Bates, Adam; Cervenka, Taylor; Kuroiwa, Janelle; Akintunde, Akindiran; Ibezim, Onyekachukwu; Alabi, Abraham; Okoye, Obumneke; Manak, Mark; Malia, Jennifer; Peel, Sheila; Maisaka, Mohammed; Singer, Darrell; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2016-08-01

    While abundant sequence information is available from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, B, C and CRF01_AE for HIV-1 vaccine design, sequences from West Africa are less represented. We sought to augment our understanding of HIV-1 variants circulating in 6 Nigerian cities as a step to subsequent HIV-1 vaccine development.The G/CRF02_AG multi-region hybridization assay (MHA) was developed to differentiate subtype G, CRF02_AG and their recombinants from other subtypes based on 7 HIV-1 segments. Plasma from 224 HIV-1 infected volunteers enrolled in a cohort examining HIV-1 prevalence, risk factor, and subtype from Makurdi (30), Abuja (18), Enugu (11), Kaduna (12), Tafa (95), and Ojo/Lagos (58) was analyzed using MHA. HIV-1 genomes from 42 samples were sequenced to validate the MHA and fully explore the recombinant structure of G and CRF02_AG variants.The sensitivity and specificity of MHA varied between 73-100% and 90-100%, respectively. The subtype distribution as identified by MHA among 224 samples revealed 38% CRF02_AG, 28% G, and 26% G/CRF02_AG recombinants while 8% remained nontypeable strains. In envelope (env) gp120, 38.84% of the samples reacted to a G probe while 31.25% reacted to a CRF02 (subtype A) probe. Full genome characterization of 42 sequences revealed the complexity of Nigerian HIV-1 variants.CRF02_AG, subtype G, and their recombinants were the major circulating HIV-1 variants in 6 Nigerian cities. High proportions of samples reacted to a G probe in env gp120 confirms that subtype G infections are abundant and should be considered in strategies for global HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:27512845

  4. Significant contribution of subtype G to HIV-1 genetic complexity in Nigeria identified by a newly developed subtyping assay specific for subtype G and CRF02_AG

    PubMed Central

    Heipertz, Richard A.; Ayemoba, Ojor; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Poltavee, Kultida; Pham, Phuc; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Lei, Esther; Bose, Meera; Howell, Shana; O'Sullivan, Anne Marie; Bates, Adam; Cervenka, Taylor; Kuroiwa, Janelle; Akintunde, Akindiran; Ibezim, Onyekachukwu; Alabi, Abraham; Okoye, Obumneke; Manak, Mark; Malia, Jennifer; Peel, Sheila; Maisaka, Mohammed; Singer, Darrell; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Tovanabutra, Sodsai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While abundant sequence information is available from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, B, C and CRF01_AE for HIV-1 vaccine design, sequences from West Africa are less represented. We sought to augment our understanding of HIV-1 variants circulating in 6 Nigerian cities as a step to subsequent HIV-1 vaccine development. The G/CRF02_AG multi-region hybridization assay (MHA) was developed to differentiate subtype G, CRF02_AG and their recombinants from other subtypes based on 7 HIV-1 segments. Plasma from 224 HIV-1 infected volunteers enrolled in a cohort examining HIV-1 prevalence, risk factor, and subtype from Makurdi (30), Abuja (18), Enugu (11), Kaduna (12), Tafa (95), and Ojo/Lagos (58) was analyzed using MHA. HIV-1 genomes from 42 samples were sequenced to validate the MHA and fully explore the recombinant structure of G and CRF02_AG variants. The sensitivity and specificity of MHA varied between 73–100% and 90–100%, respectively. The subtype distribution as identified by MHA among 224 samples revealed 38% CRF02_AG, 28% G, and 26% G/CRF02_AG recombinants while 8% remained nontypeable strains. In envelope (env) gp120, 38.84% of the samples reacted to a G probe while 31.25% reacted to a CRF02 (subtype A) probe. Full genome characterization of 42 sequences revealed the complexity of Nigerian HIV-1 variants. CRF02_AG, subtype G, and their recombinants were the major circulating HIV-1 variants in 6 Nigerian cities. High proportions of samples reacted to a G probe in env gp120 confirms that subtype G infections are abundant and should be considered in strategies for global HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:27512845

  5. Huwe1, a novel cellular interactor of Gag-Pol through integrase binding, negatively influences HIV-1 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Seiji P; Okawa, Katsuya; Nakano, Takashi; Sano, Kouichi; Ogawa, Kanako; Masuda, Takao; Morikawa, Yuko; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Suzuki, Youichi

    2011-04-01

    Integration, an indispensable step for retrovirus replication, is executed by integrase (IN), which is expressed as a part of a Gag-Pol precursor. Although mechanistic detail of the IN-catalyzed integration reaction is well defined, numerous evidence have demonstrated that IN is involved in multiple steps of retrovirus replication other than integration. In this study, Huwe1, a HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, was identified as a new cellular interactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN. The interaction was mediated through the catalytic core domain of IN and a wide-range region of Huwe1. Interestingly, although depletion of Huwe1 in target cells did not affect the early phase of HIV-1 infection in a human T cell line, we found that infectivity of HIV-1 released from the Huwe1 knockdown cells was significantly augmented more than that of virus produced from control cells. The increase in infectivity occurred in proviral DNA synthesis. Further analysis revealed that Huwe1 interacted with HIV-1 Gag-Pol precursor protein through an IN domain. Our results suggest that Huwe1 in HIV-1 producer cells has a negative impact on early post-entry events during the next round of virus infection via association with an IN region of Gag-Pol. PMID:21167302

  6. On the solution conformation and dynamics of the HIV-1 Viral Infectivity Factor

    PubMed Central

    Marcsisin, Sean R.; Narute, Purushottam S.; Emert-Sedlak, Lori A.; Kloczewiak, Marek; Smithgall, Thomas E.; Engen, John R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY HIV-1 has evolved a cunning mechanism to circumvent the antiviral activity of the APOBEC3 family of host-cell enzymes. The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor, one of several HIV accessory proteins, targets APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation and down-regulates their expression at the mRNA level. Despite the importance of Vif for HIV-1 infection, there is little conformational data on Vif alone or in complex with other cellular factors due to incompatibilities with many structural techniques and difficulties in producing suitable quantities of protein for biophysical analysis. As an alternative, we have turned to hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX MS), a conformational analysis method well suited for proteins that are difficult to study using X-ray crystallography and/or NMR. HX MS was used to probe the solution conformation of recombinant full-length HIV-1 Vif. Vif specifically interacted with the previously identified binding partner Hck and was able to cause kinase activation suggesting that the Vif studied by HX MS retained a biochemically competent conformation relevant to Hck interaction. HX MS analysis of Vif alone revealed low deuteration levels in the N-terminal portion indicating that this region contained structured or otherwise protected elements. In contrast, high deuteration levels in the C-terminal portion of Vif indicated that this region was likely unstructured in the absence of cellular interacting proteins. Several regions within Vif displayed conformational heterogeneity in solution including the APOBEC3G/F binding site and HCCH zinc finger. Taken together, these HX MS results provide new insights into the solution conformation of Vif. PMID:21763503

  7. Engineering T Cells to Functionally Cure HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leibman, Rachel S; Riley, James L

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ability of antiretroviral therapy to minimize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and increase the duration and quality of patients' lives, the health consequences and financial burden associated with the lifelong treatment regimen render a permanent cure highly attractive. Although T cells play an important role in controlling virus replication, they are themselves targets of HIV-mediated destruction. Direct genetic manipulation of T cells for adoptive cellular therapies could facilitate a functional cure by generating HIV-1–resistant cells, redirecting HIV-1–specific immune responses, or a combination of the two strategies. In contrast to a vaccine approach, which relies on the production and priming of HIV-1–specific lymphocytes within a patient's own body, adoptive T-cell therapy provides an opportunity to customize the therapeutic T cells prior to administration. However, at present, it is unclear how to best engineer T cells so that sustained control over HIV-1 replication can be achieved in the absence of antiretrovirals. This review focuses on T-cell gene-engineering and gene-editing strategies that have been performed in efforts to inhibit HIV-1 replication and highlights the requirements for a successful gene therapy–mediated functional cure. PMID:25896251

  8. Alterations in the nuclear proteome of HIV-1 infected T-cells.

    PubMed

    DeBoer, Jason; Jagadish, Teena; Haverland, Nicole A; Madson, Christian J; Ciborowski, Pawel; Belshan, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Virus infection of a cell involves the appropriation of host factors and the innate defensive response of the cell. The identification of proteins critical for virus replication may lead to the development of novel, cell-based inhibitors. In this study we mapped the changes in T-cell nuclei during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at 20 hpi. Using a stringent data threshold, a total of 13 and 38 unique proteins were identified in infected and uninfected cells, respectively, across all biological replicates. An additional 15 proteins were found to be differentially regulated between infected and control nuclei. STRING analysis identified four clusters of protein-protein interactions in the data set related to nuclear architecture, RNA regulation, cell division, and cell homeostasis. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the differential expression of several proteins in both C8166-45 and Jurkat E6-1 T-cells. These data provide a map of the response in host cell nuclei upon HIV-1 infection. PMID:25240327

  9. Alterations in the nuclear proteome of HIV-1 infected T-cells

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Jason; Jagadish, Teena; Haverland, Nicole A.; Madson, Christian J.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Belshan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Virus infection of a cell involves the appropriation of host factors and the innate defensive response of the cell. The identification of proteins critical for virus replication may lead to the development of novel, cell-based inhibitors. In this study we mapped the changes in T-cell nuclei during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) at 20 hpi. Using a stringent data threshold, a total of 13 and 38 unique proteins were identified in infected and uninfected cells, respectively, across all biological replicates. An additional 15 proteins were found to be differentially regulated between infected and control nuclei. StringDB analysis identified four clusters of protein-protein interactions in the data set related to nuclear architecture, RNA regulation, cell division, and cell homeostasis. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the differential expression of several proteins in both C8166-45 and Jurkat E6-1 T-cells. These data provide a map of the response in host cell nuclei upon HIV-1 infection. PMID:25240327

  10. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B.; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy). To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of ‘exhaustion’ or ‘immune checkpoint’ markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27415828

  11. Exhaustion of Activated CD8 T Cells Predicts Disease Progression in Primary HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Matthias; Pantazis, Nikos; Martin, Genevieve E; Hickling, Stephen; Hurst, Jacob; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Willberg, Christian B; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Nwokolo, Nneka; Fox, Julie; Fidler, Sarah; Phillips, Rodney; Frater, John

    2016-07-01

    The rate at which HIV-1 infected individuals progress to AIDS is highly variable and impacted by T cell immunity. CD8 T cell inhibitory molecules are up-regulated in HIV-1 infection and associate with immune dysfunction. We evaluated participants (n = 122) recruited to the SPARTAC randomised clinical trial to determine whether CD8 T cell exhaustion markers PD-1, Lag-3 and Tim-3 were associated with immune activation and disease progression. Expression of PD-1, Tim-3, Lag-3 and CD38 on CD8 T cells from the closest pre-therapy time-point to seroconversion was measured by flow cytometry, and correlated with surrogate markers of HIV-1 disease (HIV-1 plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 T cell count) and the trial endpoint (time to CD4 count <350 cells/μl or initiation of antiretroviral therapy). To explore the functional significance of these markers, co-expression of Eomes, T-bet and CD39 was assessed. Expression of PD-1 on CD8 and CD38 CD8 T cells correlated with pVL and CD4 count at baseline, and predicted time to the trial endpoint. Lag-3 expression was associated with pVL but not CD4 count. For all exhaustion markers, expression of CD38 on CD8 T cells increased the strength of associations. In Cox models, progression to the trial endpoint was most marked for PD-1/CD38 co-expressing cells, with evidence for a stronger effect within 12 weeks from confirmed diagnosis of PHI. The effect of PD-1 and Lag-3 expression on CD8 T cells retained statistical significance in Cox proportional hazards models including antiretroviral therapy and CD4 count, but not pVL as co-variants. Expression of 'exhaustion' or 'immune checkpoint' markers in early HIV-1 infection is associated with clinical progression and is impacted by immune activation and the duration of infection. New markers to identify exhausted T cells and novel interventions to reverse exhaustion may inform the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:27415828

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Cowó, Ángel E.; Chen, Marcelo; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hung, Chun-Po; Chen, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The number of men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 in Taiwan has increased rapidly in the past few years. The goal of this study was to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Taiwan to identify risk factors for intervention. Voluntary counseling program and anonymous testing were provided to patrons at 1 gay bar, 7 night clubs and 3 gay saunas in Taipei and New Taipei Cities in 2012. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using gag subtype-specific PCR and phylogenetic analysis by env sequences. Recent HIV-1 infection was determined using LAg-Avidity EIA. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were used to identify risk factors. The prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan were 4.38% (53/1,208) and 3.29 per 100 person-years, respectively. Of 49 cases genotyped, 48 (97.9%) were infected with subtype B and 1 with CRF01_AE (2%). Phylogenetic analysis of 46 HIV-1 strains showed that 25 (54.4%) subtype B strains formed 9 clusters with each other or with other local strains. The CRF01_AE case clustered with a reference strain from a Thai blood donor with bootstrap value of 99. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection included use of oil-based solution as lubricant (vs. saliva or water-based lubricants, OR= 4.23; p <0.001); exclusively receptive role (vs. insertive role, OR= 9.69; p <0.001); versatile role (vs. insertive role, OR= 6.45; p= 0.003); oral sex (vs. insertive role, OR= 11.93; p= 0.044); times of sexual contact per week (2-3 vs. zero per week, OR= 3.41; p= 0.021); illegal drug use (OR= 4.12; p <0.001); and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR= 3.65; p= 0.002). In conclusion, there was no new HIV-1 subtype or circulating recombinant form responsible for the increase of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan in 2012. Misuse of oil-based solution as lubricant is a new risk factor identified among MSM in Taiwan. The Taiwan’s Centers for Disease Control has

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection among Men who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Szu-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Cowó, Ángel E; Chen, Marcelo; Lin, Yu-Ting; Hung, Chun-Po; Chen, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Jyh-Yuan; Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The number of men who have sex with men (MSM) infected with HIV-1 in Taiwan has increased rapidly in the past few years. The goal of this study was to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 infection among MSM in Taiwan to identify risk factors for intervention. Voluntary counseling program and anonymous testing were provided to patrons at 1 gay bar, 7 night clubs and 3 gay saunas in Taipei and New Taipei Cities in 2012. HIV-1 subtypes were determined using gag subtype-specific PCR and phylogenetic analysis by env sequences. Recent HIV-1 infection was determined using LAg-Avidity EIA. In-depth interviews and questionnaires were used to identify risk factors. The prevalence and incidence of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan were 4.38% (53/1,208) and 3.29 per 100 person-years, respectively. Of 49 cases genotyped, 48 (97.9%) were infected with subtype B and 1 with CRF01_AE (2%). Phylogenetic analysis of 46 HIV-1 strains showed that 25 (54.4%) subtype B strains formed 9 clusters with each other or with other local strains. The CRF01_AE case clustered with a reference strain from a Thai blood donor with bootstrap value of 99. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that risk factors associated with HIV-1 infection included use of oil-based solution as lubricant (vs. saliva or water-based lubricants, OR= 4.23; p <0.001); exclusively receptive role (vs. insertive role, OR= 9.69; p <0.001); versatile role (vs. insertive role, OR= 6.45; p= 0.003); oral sex (vs. insertive role, OR= 11.93; p= 0.044); times of sexual contact per week (2-3 vs. zero per week, OR= 3.41; p= 0.021); illegal drug use (OR= 4.12; p <0.001); and history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR= 3.65; p= 0.002). In conclusion, there was no new HIV-1 subtype or circulating recombinant form responsible for the increase of HIV-1 among MSM in Taiwan in 2012. Misuse of oil-based solution as lubricant is a new risk factor identified among MSM in Taiwan. The Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control has

  14. Immunoglobulin E levels in relationship to HIV-1 disease, route of infection, and vitamin E status.

    PubMed

    Miguez-Burbano, M J; Shor-Posner, G; Fletcher, M A; Lu, Y; Moreno, J N; Carcamo, C; Page, B; Quesada, J; Sauberlich, H; Baum, M K

    1995-02-01

    Our recent studies have demonstrated that in early HIV-1 infection, elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels precedes the decline of CD4 cell count and is influenced by vitamin E status. In order to further investigate the role of IgE elevation in HIV-1 infection, we determined IgE levels in HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative intravenous drug users (IDUs) (n = 38), in relationship to cellular and humoral immune function, liver enzymes, and vitamin E status. To examine the possible impact of the route of HIV-1 infection on IgE levels, comparisons between the cohorts of the HIV-1-seropositive and -seronegative IDUs and homosexual men (n = 45) were also conducted. All HIV-1-seropositive participants had significantly higher (P = 0.003) IgE levels than the HIV-1-seronegative subjects. The HIV-1-seropositive IDUs, moreover, demonstrated significantly higher (P = 0.01) IgE levels than HIV-1-seropositive homosexual men, despite similar CD4 cell counts. Stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate the possible variables contributing to the IgE variation. HIV-1 status (P = 0.0009), intravenous drug use (P = 0.014), CD8 cell counts (P = 0.0001), plasma level of vitamin E (P = 0.006), and alcohol intake (P = 0.047) were significant, accounting for 71% of the IgE elevation. These findings suggest that IgE may serve as a sensitive marker to reflect the evolution of HIV-1 disease in individuals from different risk groups. PMID:7604939

  15. ACTG 5197: A Placebo Controlled Trial of Immunization of HIV-1 Infected Persons with a Replication Deficient Ad5 Vaccine Expressing the HIV-1 Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, Robert T.; Spritzler, John; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Havlir, Diane; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Pollard, Richard; Battaglia, Cathy; Robertson, Michael; Mehrotra, Devan; Casimiro, Danilo; Cox, Kara; Schock, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 specific cellular immunity contributes to control of HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 infected volunteers on antiretroviral therapy received a replication defective Ad5 HIV-1 gag vaccine in a randomized, blinded therapeutic vaccination study. Methods HIV-1-infected vaccine or placebo recipients underwent a 16-wk analytical treatment interruption (ATI). The log10 HIV-1 RNA at the ATI set point and time averaged area under the curve (TA-AUC) served as co-primary endpoints. Immune responses were measured by intracellular cytokine staining and CFSE dye dilution. Results Vaccine benefit trends were seen for both primary endpoints, but did not reach a pre-specified p ≤ 0.025 level of significance. The estimated shift in TA-AUC and set point were 0.24 (unadjusted p=0.04) and 0.26 (unadjusted p=0.07) log10 copies lower in the vaccine than in the placebo arm. HIV-1 gag-specific CD4+ interferon-γ producing cells were an immunologic correlate of viral control. Conclusion The vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated. Despite a trend favoring viral suppression among vaccine recipients, differences in HIV-1 RNA levels did not meet the pre-specified level of significance. Induction of HIV-1 gag-specific CD4 cells correlated with control of viral replication in vivo. Future immunogenicity studies should require a substantially higher immunogenicity threshold before an ATI is contemplated. PMID:20662716

  16. Multiple roles of the capsid protein in the early steps of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Fassati, Ariberto

    2012-12-01

    The early steps of HIV-1 infection starting after virus entry into cells up to integration of its genome into host chromosomes are poorly understood. From seminal work showing that HIV-1 and oncoretroviruses follow different steps in the early stages post-entry, significant advances have been made in recent years and an important role for the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein, the constituent of the viral core, has emerged. CA appears to orchestrate several events, such as virus uncoating, recognition by restriction factors and the innate immune system. It also plays a role in nuclear import and integration of HIV-1 and has become a novel target for antiretroviral drugs. Here we describe the different functions of CA and how they may be integrated into one or more coherent models that illuminate the early events in HIV-1 infection and their relations with the host cell. PMID:23041358

  17. SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Hanna-Mari; Pan, Xiaoyu; Erikson, Elina; Schmidt, Sarah; Daddacha, Waaqo; Burggraf, Manja; Schenkova, Kristina; Ambiel, Ina; Wabnitz, Guido; Gramberg, Thomas; Panitz, Sylvia; Flory, Egbert; Landau, Nathaniel R; Sertel, Serkan; Rutsch, Frank; Lasitschka, Felix; Kim, Baek; König, Renate; Fackler, Oliver T; Keppler, Oliver T

    2013-01-01

    Unlike activated CD4+ T cells, resting CD4+ T cells are highly resistant to productive HIV-1 infection1–8. Early after HIV-1 entry, a major block limits reverse transcription of incoming viral genomes. Here we show that the deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase SAMHD1 prevents reverse transcription of HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells. SAMHD1 is abundantly expressed in resting CD4+ T cells circulating in peripheral blood and residing in lymphoid organs. The early restriction to infection in unstimulated CD4+ T cells is overcome by HIV-1 or HIV-2 virions into which viral Vpx is artificially or naturally packaged, respectively, or by addition of exogenous deoxynucleosides. Vpx-mediated proteasomal degradation of SAMHD1 and elevation of intracellular deoxynucleotide pools precede successful infection by Vpx-carrying HIV. Resting CD4+ T cells from healthy donors following SAMHD1 silencing or from a patient with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome homozygous for a nonsense mutation in SAMHD1 were permissive for HIV-1 infection. Thus, SAMHD1 imposes an effective restriction to HIV-1 infection in the large pool of noncycling CD4+ T cells in vivo. Bypassing SAMHD1 was insufficient for the release of viral progeny, implicating other barriers at later stages of HIV replication. Together, these findings may unveil new ways to interfere with the immune evasion and T cell immunopathology of pandemic HIV-1. PMID:22972397

  18. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruizhong; Achenbach, Jenna; Shen, Yue; Palaia, Jana; Rahkola, Jeremy T; Nick, Heidi J; Smythies, Lesley E; McConnell, Michelle; Fowler, Mary G; Smith, Phillip D; Janoff, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs) and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process. PMID:26680219

  19. Mother-to-Child HIV-1 Transmission Events Are Differentially Impacted by Breast Milk and Its Components from HIV-1-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ruizhong; Achenbach, Jenna; Shen, Yue; Palaia, Jana; Rahkola, Jeremy T.; Nick, Heidi J.; Smythies, Lesley E.; McConnell, Michelle; Fowler, Mary G.; Smith, Phillip D.; Janoff, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is a vehicle of infection and source of protection in post-natal mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). Understanding the mechanism by which breast milk limits vertical transmission will provide critical insight into the design of preventive and therapeutic approaches to interrupt HIV-1 mucosal transmission. However, characterization of the inhibitory activity of breast milk in human intestinal mucosa, the portal of entry in postnatal MTCT, has been constrained by the limited availability of primary mucosal target cells and tissues to recapitulate mucosal transmission ex vivo. Here, we characterized the impact of skimmed breast milk, breast milk antibodies (Igs) and non-Ig components from HIV-1-infected Ugandan women on the major events of HIV-1 mucosal transmission using primary human intestinal cells and tissues. HIV-1-specific IgG antibodies and non-Ig components in breast milk inhibited the uptake of Ugandan HIV-1 isolates by primary human intestinal epithelial cells, viral replication in and transport of HIV-1- bearing dendritic cells through the human intestinal mucosa. Breast milk HIV-1-specific IgG and IgA, as well as innate factors, blocked the uptake and transport of HIV-1 through intestinal mucosa. Thus, breast milk components have distinct and complementary effects in reducing HIV-1 uptake, transport through and replication in the intestinal mucosa and, therefore, likely contribute to preventing postnatal HIV-1 transmission. Our data suggests that a successful preventive or therapeutic approach would require multiple immune factors acting at multiple steps in the HIV-1 mucosal transmission process. PMID:26680219

  20. Elevated Risk for HIV-1 Infection in Adolescents and Young Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Oliveira, Solange Maria; Verri Deienno, Marylei Casteldelli; Bortolato, Reginaldo; de Rezende, Heloíza Vilma; Arthur, Thaís; Tomiyama, Helena; Watkins, Colyn; Mesquita, Fabio; Abbate, Maria Cristina; Kallas, Esper Georges

    2008-01-01

    Background Recent studies have sought to describe HIV infection and transmission characteristics around the world. Identification of early HIV-1 infection is essential to proper surveillance and description of regional transmission trends. In this study we compare people recently infected (RI) with HIV-1, as defined by Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS), to those with chronic infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were identified from 2002–2004 at four testing sites in São Paulo. Of 485 HIV-1-positive subjects, 57 (12%) were defined as RI. Of the participants, 165 (34.0%) were aware of their serostatus at the time of HIV-1 testing. This proportion was statistically larger (p<0.001) among the individuals without recent infection (n = 158, 95.8%) compared to 7 individuals (4.2%) with recently acquired HIV-1 infection. In the univariate analysis, RI was more frequent in <25 and >59 years-old age strata (p<0.001). The majority of study participants were male (78.4%), 25 to 45 years-old (65.8%), white (63.2%), single (61.7%), with family income of four or more times the minimum wage (41.0%), but with an equally distributed educational level. Of those individuals infected with HIV-1, the predominant route of infection was sexual contact (89.4%), with both hetero (47.5%) and homosexual (34.5%) exposure. Regarding sexual activity in these individuals, 43.9% reported possible HIV-1 exposure through a seropositive partner, and 49.4% reported multiple partners, with 47% having 2 to 10 partners and 37.4% 11 or more; 53.4% of infected individuals reported condom use sometimes; 34.2% reported non-injecting, recreational drug use and 23.6% were reactive for syphilis by VDRL. Subjects younger than 25 years of age were most vulnerable according to the multivariate analysis. Conclusions/Significance In this study, we evaluated RI individuals and discovered that HIV-1 has been spreading among younger individuals in São Paulo and

  1. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Bon, Abdul Hamid; Keating, Sheila; Anderios, Fread; Halim, Hazwan Abdul; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Busch, Michael P.; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90.5% male, median age: 27.0 years old). Recent or long-term infection status at the time of donation was determined using a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA). HIV-1 gag-pol genes were amplified and sequenced from residual plasma for 149 cases followed by genotype determination using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Transmitted antiretroviral resistance mutations were not observed among the blood donors, among which 22.7% were classified as recent or incident infections. Major circulating HIV-1 genotypes determined by neighbour-joining phylogenetic inference included CRF01_AE at 40.9% (61/149), CRF33_01B at 21.5% (32/149), and subtype B at 10.1% (15/149). Newly-described CRFs including CRF54_01B circulated at 4.0%, CRF74_01B at 2.0%, and CRF53_01B and CRF48_01B at 0.7% each. Interestingly, unique HIV-1 genotypes including African subtype G (8.7%), CRF45_cpx (1.3%), CRF02_AG (0.7%) and CRF07_BC (0.7%) from China were detected for the first time in the country. A cluster of subtype G sequences formed a distinct founder sub-lineage within the African strains. In addition, 8.7% (13/149) of HIV-infected donors had unique recombinant forms (URFs) including CRF01_AE/B' (4.7%), B'/C (2.7%) and B'/G (1.3%) recombinants. Detailed analysis identified similar recombinant structures with shared parental strains among the B'/C and B'/G URFs, some of which

  2. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Bon, Abdul Hamid; Keating, Sheila; Anderios, Fread; Halim, Hazwan Abdul; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Busch, Michael P; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90.5% male, median age: 27.0 years old). Recent or long-term infection status at the time of donation was determined using a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA). HIV-1 gag-pol genes were amplified and sequenced from residual plasma for 149 cases followed by genotype determination using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Transmitted antiretroviral resistance mutations were not observed among the blood donors, among which 22.7% were classified as recent or incident infections. Major circulating HIV-1 genotypes determined by neighbour-joining phylogenetic inference included CRF01_AE at 40.9% (61/149), CRF33_01B at 21.5% (32/149), and subtype B at 10.1% (15/149). Newly-described CRFs including CRF54_01B circulated at 4.0%, CRF74_01B at 2.0%, and CRF53_01B and CRF48_01B at 0.7% each. Interestingly, unique HIV-1 genotypes including African subtype G (8.7%), CRF45_cpx (1.3%), CRF02_AG (0.7%) and CRF07_BC (0.7%) from China were detected for the first time in the country. A cluster of subtype G sequences formed a distinct founder sub-lineage within the African strains. In addition, 8.7% (13/149) of HIV-infected donors had unique recombinant forms (URFs) including CRF01_AE/B' (4.7%), B'/C (2.7%) and B'/G (1.3%) recombinants. Detailed analysis identified similar recombinant structures with shared parental strains among the B'/C and B'/G URFs, some of which

  3. Pharmacotherapy of HIV-1 Infection: Focus on CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Olga; Kuruppu, Janaki; Davis, Charles; Le, Nhut; Heredia, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of HIV-1, the goal of antiretroviral therapy, is often impeded by the emergence of viral drug resistance. For patients infected with HIV-1 resistant to conventional drugs from the viral reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor classes, the recently approved entry and integration inhibitors effectively suppress HIV-1 and offer additional therapeutic options. Entry inhibitors are particularly attractive because, unlike conventional antiretrovirals, they target HIV-1 extracellularly, thereby sparing cells from both viral- and drug-induced toxicities. The fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc are the first entry inhibitors licensed for patients with drug-resistant HIV-1, with maraviroc restricted to those infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 (R5 HIV-1) only. Vicriviroc (another CCR5 antagonist) is in Phase III clinical trials, whereas the CCR5 antibodies PRO 140 and HGS 004 are in early stages of clinical development. Potent antiviral synergy between maraviroc and CCR5 antibodies, coupled with distinct patterns of resistance, suggest their combinations might be particularly effective in patients. In addition, given that oral administration of maraviroc achieves high drug levels in cervicovaginal fluid, combinations of maraviroc and other CCR5 inhibitors could be effective in preventing HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, since CCR5 antagonists prevent rejection of transplanted organs, maraviroc could both suppress HIV-1 and prolong organ survival for the growing number of HIV-1 patients with kidney or liver failure necessitating organ transplantation. Thus, maraviroc offers an important treatment option for patients with drug-resistant R5 HIV-1, who presently account for >50% of drug-resistance cases. PMID:19920876

  4. Monocyte activation by circulating fibronectin fragments in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Trial, JoAnn; Rubio, Jose A; Birdsall, Holly H; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Rossen, Roger D

    2004-08-01

    To identify signals that can alter leukocyte function in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we analyzed single blood samples from 74 HIV-1-infected patients and additional blood was collected at 90-day intervals from 51 HIV-1-infected patients over a 516 +/- 172 (mean +/- SD) day interval. Despite the absence of circulating immune complexes and normalization of phagocytic function, compared with controls, the fraction of patients' monocytes expressing CD49e and CD62L was decreased and expression of CD11b and CD86 increased. Plasma from 63% of patients but none from normal controls contained 110-120 kDa fibronectin fragments (FNf). Presence of FNf did not reflect poor adherence to therapy. Addition of FNf to normal donor blood in vitro replicated changes in monocyte CD49e, CD62L, CD11b, and CD86 seen in vivo. FNf also induced monocytes to release a serine proteinase, nominally identified as proteinase-3, that hydrolyzed cell surface CD49e. alpha(1)-Antitrypsin blocked FNf-induced shedding of CD49e in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma with a normal frequency of CD49e(+) monocytes contained antiproteases that partially blocked FNf-induced monocyte CD49e shedding, whereas plasma from patients with a low frequency of CD49e(+) monocytes did not block this effect of FNf. Electrophoretic analyses of plasma from the latter group of patients suggested that a significant fraction of their alpha(1)-antitrypsin was tied up in high molecular mass complexes. These results suggest that monocyte behavior in HIV-1-infected patients may be influenced by FNf and the ratio of protease and antiproteases in the cells' microenvironment. PMID:15265957

  5. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  6. The X awakens: multifactorial ramifications of sex-specific differences in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Sven; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Sex-specific differences have been described for a variety of infectious and autoimmune diseases. In HIV-1 infection women present with significantly lower viral loads during early infection, but during chronic infection women progress faster to AIDS for the same amount of viral replication. Recent studies have shown that sex differences during HIV-1 infection might also include the size of the latent viral reservoir, which represents a major obstacle towards a cure for HIV-1. Here we review different immunological and virological aspects that can be influenced by sex hormones and sex-specific genetic factors and their contribution to viral replication, as well as the creation and maintenance of the HIV-1 reservoir. PMID:27482439

  7. The Role of Cationic Polypeptides in Modulating HIV-1 Infection of the Cervicovaginal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Amy Liese; Cole, Alexander M.

    2014-01-01

    The mucosa and overlying fluid of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are portals for the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. Toward the ongoing development of topically applied microbicides and mucosal vaccines against HIV-1, it is evermore important to understand how the dynamic FRT mucosa is involved in controlling transmission and infection of HIV-1. Cationic peptides and proteins are the principal innate immune effector molecules of mucosal surfaces, and interact in a combinatorial fashion to modulate HIV-1 infection of the cervix and vagina. While cationic peptides and proteins have historically been categorized as antimicrobial or have other host-benefitting roles, an increasing number of these molecules have been found to augment HIV-1 infection and potentially antagonize host defense. Complex environmental factors such as hormonal fluctuations and/or bacterial and viral co-infections provide additional challenges to both experimentation and interpretation of results. In the context of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, this review explores how various cationic peptides and proteins participate in modulating host defense against HIV-1 of the cervicovaginal mucosa. PMID:27025760

  8. Metabolic profiling during HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Montero, Catherine; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Munger, Joshua; Kim, Baek

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated cellular metabolism profiles of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). First, HIV-2 GL-AN displays faster production kinetics and greater amounts of virus as compared to HIV-1s: YU-2, 89.6 and JR-CSF. Second, quantitative LC–MS/MS metabolomics analysis demonstrates very similar metabolic profiles in glycolysis and TCA cycle metabolic intermediates between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected macrophages, with a few notable exceptions. The most striking metabolic change in MDMs infected with HIV-2 relative to HIV-1-infected MDMs was the increased levels of quinolinate, a metabolite in the tryptophan catabolism pathway that has been linked to HIV/AIDS pathogenesis. Third, both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected MDMs showed elevated levels of ribose-5-phosphate, a key metabolic component in nucleotide biosynthesis. Finally, HIV-2 infected MDMs display increased dNTP concentrations as predicted by Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation. Collectively, these data show differential metabolic changes during HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection of macrophages. PMID:26895248

  9. Dendritic Cells in HIV-1 and HCV Infection: Can They Help Win the Battle?

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Mohit; Khan, Zafar K; Talal, Andrew H; Jain, Pooja

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infections with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As sentinels of our immune system, dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in initiating and regulating a potent antiviral immune response. Recent advances in our understanding of the role of DCs during HIV-1 and HCV infection have provided crucial insights into the mechanisms employed by these viruses to impair DC functions in order to evade an effective immune response against them. Modulation of the immunological synapse between DC and T-cell, as well as dysregulation of the crosstalk between DCs and natural killer (NK) cells, are emerging as two crucial mechanisms. This review focuses on understanding the interaction of HIV-1 and HCV with DCs not only to understand the immunopathogenesis of chronic HIV-1 and HCV infection, but also to explore the possibilities of DC-based immunotherapeutic approaches against them. Host genetic makeup is known to play major roles in infection outcome and rate of disease progression, as well as response to anti-viral therapy in both HIV-1 and HCV-infected individuals. Therefore, we highlight the genetic variations that can potentially affect DC functions, especially in the setting of chronic viral infection. Altogether, we address if DCs' potential as critical effectors of antiviral immune response could indeed be utilized to combat chronic infection with HIV-1 and HCV. PMID:25512691

  10. Regulatory T cells and chronic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Freguja, R; Gianesin, K; Mosconi, I; Zanchetta, M; Carmona, F; Rampon, O; Giaquinto, C; De Rossi, A

    2011-01-01

    The function of CD4+ T cells with regulatory activity (Tregs) is the down-regulation of immune responses. This suppressive activity may limit the magnitude of effector responses, resulting in failure to control human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but may also suppress chronic immune activation, a characteristic feature of HIV-1 disease. We evaluated the correlation between viral load, immune activation and Tregs in HIV-1-infected children. Eighty-nine HIV-1-infected children (aged 6–14 years) were included in the study and analysed for HIV-1 plasmaviraemia, HIV-1 DNA load, CD4 and CD8 cell subsets. Treg cells [CD4+ CD25highCD127lowforkhead box P3 (FoxP3high)] and CD8-activated T cells (CD8+CD38+) were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the number of activated CD8+CD38+ T cells increased in relation to HIV-1 RNA plasmaviraemia (r = 0·403, P < 0·0001). The proportion of Tregs also correlated positively with HIV-1 plasmaviraemia (r = 0·323, P = 0·002), but correlated inversely with CD4+ cells (r = −0·312, P = 0·004), thus suggesting a selective expansion along with increased viraemia and CD4+ depletion. Interestingly, a positive correlation was found between the levels of Tregs and CD8+CD38+ T cells (r = 0·305, P = 0·005), and the percentage of Tregs tended to correlate with HIV-1 DNA load (r = 0·224, P = 0·062). Overall, these findings suggest that immune activation contributes to the expansion of Treg cells. In turn, the suppressive activity of Tregs may impair effector responses against HIV-1, but appears to be ineffective in limiting immune activation. PMID:21438872

  11. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-2-Infected Patients Is Less Affected by Antiretroviral Treatment-sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 Dually Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Hønge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; Møller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during follow-up without antiretroviral therapy (ART). At follow-up on ART, median sCD163 levels were decreased for HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.001), but not among HIV-2 (P = 0.093) or HIV-1/2 dually infected patients (P = 0.145). The larger decrease in sCD163 levels among HIV-1-infected patients during ART may indicate an HIV type-dependent differential effect of ART on macrophage activation during HIV infection. PMID:26825178

  12. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Lens Epithelium-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF/p75) with HIV-1 Infection Outcomes in Brazilian HIV-1+ Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Diogo Gama; Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes Maia; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Veloso, Valdilea Gonçalves; Babic, Dunja Z.; Stevenson, Mario; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), coded by the PSIP1 gene, is an important host co-factor that interacts with HIV-1 integrase to target integration of viral cDNA into active genes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs in the PSIP1 gene with disease outcome in HIV-1 infected patients. We performed a genetic association study in a cohort of 171 HIV-1 seropositive Brazilian individuals classified as rapid progressors (RP, n = 69), typical progressors (TP, n = 79) and long-term nonprogressors (LTNP, n = 23). The exonic SNP rs61744944 and 9 tag SNPs were genotyped. A group of 192 healthy subjects was analyzed to determine the frequency of SNPs and haplotypes in the general population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses indicated that the SNPs analyzed were not in high LD (r2<0.8). Logistic regression models suggested that patients carrying the T allele rs61744944 (472L) were more likely to develop a LTNP phenotype (OR = 4.98; p = 0.05) as compared to TP group. The same trend was observed when LTNPs were compared to the RP group (OR = 3.26). Results of haplotype analyses reinforced this association, since the OR values obtained for the haplotype carrying allele T at rs61744944 also reflected an association with LTNP status (OR = 6.05; p = 0.08 and OR = 3.44; p = 0.12 for comparisons to TP and RP, respectively). The rare missense variations Ile436Ser and Thr473Ile were not identified in the patients enrolled in this study. Gene expression analyses showed lower LEDGF/p75 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from HIV-1 infected individuals. However, these levels were not influenced by any of the SNPs investigated. In spite of the limited number of LTNPs, these data suggest that the PSIP1 gene could be associated with the outcome of HIV-1 infection. Further analyses of this gene may guide the identification of causative variants to help predict disease course

  13. Quantifying the Turnover of Transcriptional Subclasses of HIV-1-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Althaus, Christian L.; Joos, Beda; Perelson, Alan S.; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected cells in peripheral blood can be grouped into different transcriptional subclasses. Quantifying the turnover of these cellular subclasses can provide important insights into the viral life cycle and the generation and maintenance of latently infected cells. We used previously published data from five patients chronically infected with HIV-1 that initiated combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Patient-matched PCR for unspliced and multiply spliced viral RNAs combined with limiting dilution analysis provided measurements of transcriptional profiles at the single cell level. Furthermore, measurement of intracellular transcripts and extracellular virion-enclosed HIV-1 RNA allowed us to distinguish productive from non-productive cells. We developed a mathematical model describing the dynamics of plasma virus and the transcriptional subclasses of HIV-1-infected cells. Fitting the model to the data allowed us to better understand the phenotype of different transcriptional subclasses and their contribution to the overall turnover of HIV-1 before and during cART. The average number of virus-producing cells in peripheral blood is small during chronic infection. We find that a substantial fraction of cells can become defectively infected. Assuming that the infection is homogenous throughout the body, we estimate an average in vivo viral burst size on the order of 104 virions per cell. Our study provides novel quantitative insights into the turnover and development of different subclasses of HIV-1-infected cells, and indicates that cells containing solely unspliced viral RNA are a good marker for viral latency. The model illustrates how the pool of latently infected cells becomes rapidly established during the first months of acute infection and continues to increase slowly during the first years of chronic infection. Having a detailed understanding of this process will be useful for the evaluation of viral eradication strategies that aim to deplete the

  14. Nef Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity via Association with the Virus Assembly Complex

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingli; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle. PMID:18191978

  15. Nef enhances HIV-1 infectivity via association with the virus assembly complex

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Mingli; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-04-10

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle.

  16. Estimating the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate APOBEC3G for suppression of productive HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Pulari U.; Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.

    2014-01-20

    The contest between the host factor APOBEC3G (A3G) and the HIV-1 protein Vif presents an attractive target of intervention. The extent to which the A3G–Vif interaction must be suppressed to tilt the balance in favor of A3G remains unknown. We employed stochastic simulations and mathematical modeling of the within-host dynamics and evolution of HIV-1 to estimate the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate A3G to render productive infection unsustainable. Using three different approaches, we found consistently that a transition from sustained infection to suppression of productive infection occurred when the latter fraction exceeded ∼0.8. The transition was triggered by A3G-induced hypermutations that led to premature stop codons compromising viral production and was consistent with driving the basic reproductive number, R{sub 0}, below unity. The fraction identified may serve as a quantitative guideline for strategies targeting the A3G–Vif axis. - Highlights: • We perform simulations and mathematical modeling of the role of APOBEC3G in suppressing HIV-1 infection. • In three distinct ways, we estimate that when over 80% of progeny virions carry APOBEC3G, productive HIV-1 infection would be suppressed. • Our estimate of this critical fraction presents quantitative guidelines for strategies targeting the APOBEC3G–Vif axis.

  17. Autophagy plays an important role in the containment of HIV-1 in nonprogressor-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Nardacci, Roberta; Amendola, Alessandra; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Corazzari, Marco; Esposito, Valentina; Vlassi, Chrysoula; Taibi, Chiara; Fimia, Gian Maria; Del Nonno, Franca; Ippolito, Giuseppe; D’Offizi, Gianpiero; Piacentini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have suggested that autophagy may play a role in both HIV-1 replication and disease progression. In this study we investigated whether autophagy protects the small proportion of HIV-1 infected individuals who remain clinically stable for years in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, these named long-term nonprogressors (LTNP) and elite controllers (EC). We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the HIV-1 controllers present a significantly higher amount of autophagic vesicles associated with an increased expression of autophagic markers with respect to normal progressors. Of note, ex vivo treatment of PBMC from the HIV-1 controllers with the MTOR inhibitor rapamycin results in a more efficient autophagic response, leading to a reduced viral production. These data lead us to propose that autophagy contributes to limiting viral pathogenesis in HIV-1 controllers by targeting viral components for degradation. PMID:24813622

  18. Evaluating the potential of IL-27 as a novel therapeutic agent in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sanjay; Dai, Lue; Lane, H. Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is an immunomodulatory cytokine with important roles in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In the last five years, the addition of exogenous IL-27 to primary cell cultures has been demonstrated to decrease HIV-1 replication in a number of cell types including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. These in-vitro findings suggest that IL-27 may have therapeutic value in the setting of HIV-1 infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the biology of IL-27, its effects primarily on HIV-1 replication but also in other viral infections and explore its potential role as a therapeutic cytokine for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23962745

  19. Exploring the benefits of antibody immune response in HIV-1 infection using a discrete model.

    PubMed

    Showa, S P; Nyabadza, F; Hove-Musekwa, S D; Magombedze, G

    2016-06-01

    The role of antibodies in HIV-1 infection is investigated using a discrete-time mathematical model that considers cell-free and cell-associated transmission of the virus. Model analysis shows that the effect of each type of antibody is dependent on the stage of the infection. Neutralizing antibodies are efficient in controlling the viral levels in the early days after seroconversion and antibodies that coat HIV-1-infected cells and recruit effector cells to either kill the HIV-1-infected cells or inhibit viral replication are efficient when the infection becomes established. Model simulations show that antibodies that inhibit viral replication are more effective in controlling the infection than those that recruit Natural Killer T cells after infection establishment. The model was fitted to subjects of the Tsedimoso study conducted in Botswana and conclusions similar to elasticity analysis results were obtained. Model fitting results predicted that neutralizing antibodies are more efficient in controlling the viral levels than antibodies that coat HIV-1-infected cells and recruit effector cells to either kill the HIV-1-infected cells or inhibit viral replication in the early days after seroconversion. PMID:25899531

  20. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J.; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologically but DNA polymerase chain reaction positive were considered AI. In all, 26 women were classified AI and 192 EI, with 654 HIV-negative controls. Primary HIV infection (AI and EI) was associated with unexplained fever (P <.01), weight loss (P <.01), fatigue (P <.01), inguinal adenopathy (P <.01), and cervical friability (P =.01). More women with subtype C infection had unexplained fever, fatigue, and abnormal vaginal discharge compared to subtype A or D infection. Inguinal adenopathy occurred less often in women with subtype A infection than those with subtype C or D infection. PMID:24106054

  1. SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Wu, Yuanfei; Göttlinger, Heinrich G

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated mouse leukaemia virus glycosylated Gag (glycoGag) strongly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions produced in certain cell types in a clathrin-dependent manner. Here we show that Nef and glycoGag prevent the incorporation of the multipass transmembrane proteins serine incorporator 3 (SERINC3) and SERINC5 into HIV-1 virions to an extent that correlates with infectivity enhancement. Silencing of both SERINC3 and SERINC5 precisely phenocopied the effects of Nef and glycoGag on HIV-1 infectivity. The infectivity of nef-deficient virions increased more than 100-fold when produced in double-knockout human CD4(+) T cells that lack both SERINC3 and SERINC5, and re-expression experiments confirmed that the absence of SERINC3 and SERINC5 accounted for the infectivity enhancement. Furthermore, SERINC3 and SERINC5 together restricted HIV-1 replication, and this restriction was evaded by Nef. SERINC3 and SERINC5 are highly expressed in primary human HIV-1 target cells, and inhibiting their downregulation by Nef is a potential strategy to combat HIV/AIDS. PMID:26416733

  2. SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Yoshiko; Wu, Yuanfei; Göttlinger, Heinrich G.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycoGag strongly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions produced in certain cell types in a clathrin-dependent manner. Here we show that Nef and glycoGag prevent the incorporation of the multipass transmembrane proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 into HIV-1 virions to an extent that correlates with infectivity enhancement. Silencing of SERINC3 together with SERINC5 precisely phenocopied the effects of Nef and glycoGag on HIV-1 infectivities. The infectivity of nef-deficient virions increased more than 100-fold when produced in double-knockout human CD4+ T cells that lack both SERINC3 and SERINC5, and re-expression experiments confirmed that the absence of SERINC3 and SERINC5 accounted for the infectivity enhancement. Furthermore, SERINC3 and SERINC5 together restricted HIV-1 replication, and this restriction was evaded by Nef. SERINC3 and SERINC5 are highly expressed in primary human HIV-1 target cells, and inhibiting their downregulation by Nef is a potential strategy to combat HIV/AIDS. PMID:26416733

  3. Humoral Immune Responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Setting of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lumin; Li, Zihai; Wan, Zhuang; Kilby, Andrew; Kilby, J Michael; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) remains one of the most commonly identified causes of bacterial infection in the general population, and the risk is 30-100 fold higher in HIV-infected individuals. Both innate and adaptive host immune responses to pneumococcal infection are important against pathogen invasion. Pneumococcal-specific IgA antibody (Ab) is key to control infection at the mucosal sites. Ab responses against pneumococcal infection by B cells can be generated through T cell-dependent or T cell-independent pathways. Depletion of CD4+ T cells is a hallmark of immunodeficiency in HIV infection and this defect also contributes to B cell dysfunction, which predisposes to infections such as the pneumococcus. Two pneumococcal vaccines have been demonstrated to have potential benefits for HIV-infected patients. One is a T cell dependent 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13); the other is a T cell independent 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23). However, many questions remain unknown regarding these two vaccines in the clinical setting in HIV disease. Here we review the latest research regarding B cell immune responses against pneumococcal antigens, whether derived from potentially invading pathogens or vaccinations, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26141012

  4. AIDS dementia is associated with massive, activated HIV-1 infection and concomitant expression of several cytokines.

    PubMed Central

    Nuovo, G. J.; Alfieri, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently showed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia is associated with activated infection of microglia, neurons, and astrocytes by HIV-1. However, it is doubtful whether infection per se is responsible for the dramatic symptoms associated with AIDS dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine the histologic distribution of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of several cytokines that have been implicated in AIDS pathogenesis and to correlate this expression pattern with the in situ localization of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in the central nervous system (CNS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: HIV-1 DNA was detected by PCR in situ hybridization. HIV-1 RNA and cytokine expression, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), and macrophage inflammatory protein alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta mRNA were detected by reverse transcriptase (RT) in situ PCR. RESULTS: Amplified viral DNA was detected in each of the seven HIV-1-positive cases and in none of the five negative controls. In people with AIDS dementia, many HIV-1 DNA-positive cells were detected in regions of the CNS that corresponded to clinical symptomatology. In AIDS patients with minimal CNS involvement, rare HIV-1-infected microglial cells were noted. Viral RNA was detected primarily in cases of AIDS dementia. TNF, iNOS, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta expression localized to tissues from AIDS dementia cases where HIV-1 infected cells were plentiful. Colocalization experiments showed that these cytokines were transcribed mostly by viral-negative cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that two key elements in AIDS dementia are massive productive viral infection, involving microglia, neurons, and astrocytes, and concomitant stimulation of cytokine transcription in the neighboring uninfected cells. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:8784788

  5. Monitoring of the lactonase activity of paraoxonase-1 enzyme in HIV-1-infection

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clara; Marinho, Aline; Morello, Judit; Almeida, Gabriela; Caixas, Umbelina; Soto, Karina; Monteiro, Emilia; Pereira, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    associated with uncontrolled HIV-1-infection, particularly with non-suppressed viraemia, despite of cART. This data seems to point to LACase role in HIV-infection, probably reflecting an increased formation of HcyTL deleterious species. A better knowledge of the LACase and its role in HcyTL pathophysiology might identify new therapeutic targets in HIV-1-infected patients. Acknowledgements EXPL/DTP-FTO/0204/2012; EXPL/DTP-PIC/1758/2013. PMID:25397432

  6. Escherichia coli Surface Display of Single-Chain Antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Xu; Mellon, Michael; Bowder, Dane; Quinn, Meghan; Shea, Danielle; Wood, Charles; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and infection occur mainly via the mucosal surfaces. The commensal bacteria residing in these surfaces can potentially be employed as a vehicle for delivering inhibitors to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have employed a bacteria-based strategy to display a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, which could potentially be used to prevent HIV-1 infection. The VRC01 antibody mimics CD4-binding to gp120 and has broadly neutralization activities against HIV-1. We have designed a construct that can express the fusion peptide of the scFv-VRC01 antibody together with the autotransporter β-barrel domain of IgAP gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which enabled surface display of the antibody molecule. Our results indicate that the scFv-VRC01 antibody molecule was displayed on the surface of the bacteria as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered bacteria can capture HIV-1 particles via surface-binding and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell culture. PMID:25482819

  7. TRIM5 and the Regulation of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Luban, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an explosion of information concerning host restriction factors that inhibit the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Among these factors is TRIM5, an innate immune signaling molecule that recognizes the capsid lattice as soon as the retrovirion core is released into the cytoplasm of otherwise susceptible target cells. Recognition of the capsid lattice has several consequences that include multimerization of TRIM5 into a complementary lattice, premature uncoating of the virion core, and activation of TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Unattached, K63-linked ubiquitin chains are generated that activate the TAK1 kinase complex and downstream inflammatory mediators. Polymorphisms in the capsid recognition domain of TRIM5 explain the observed species-specific differences among orthologues and the relatively weak anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5. Better understanding of the complex interaction between TRIM5 and the retrovirus capsid lattice may someday lead to exploitation of this interaction for the development of potent HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:22701176

  8. Fine-mapping classical HLA variation associated with durable host control of HIV-1 infection in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Pelak, Kimberly; Weintrob, Amy C.; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; Jia, Xiaoming; Erlich, Rachel L.; Lennon, Niall J.; Kadie, Carl M.; Heckerman, David; Gupta, Namrata; Haas, David W.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.

    2012-01-01

    A small proportion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, suppress viral replication to very low levels in the absence of therapy. Genetic investigations of this phenotype have strongly implicated variation in the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region as key to HIV-1 control. We collected sequence-based classical class I HLA genotypes at 4-digit resolution in HIV-1-infected African American controllers and progressors (n = 1107), and tested them for association with host control using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data to account for population structure. Several classical alleles at HLA-B were associated with host control, including B*57:03 [odds ratio (OR) = 5.1; P= 3.4 × 10–18] and B*81:01 (OR = 4.8; P= 1.3 × 10−9). Analysis of variable amino acid positions demonstrates that HLA-B position 97 is the most significant association with host control in African Americans (omnibus P = 1.2 × 10−21) and explains the signal of several HLA-B alleles, including B*57:03. Within HLA-B, we also identified independent effects at position 116 (omnibus P= 2.8 × 10−15) in the canonical F pocket, position 63 in the B pocket (P= 1.5 × 10−3) and the non-pocket position 245 (P= 8.8 × 10−10), which is thought to influence CD8-binding kinetics. Adjusting for these HLA-B effects, there is evidence for residual association in the MHC region. These results underscore the key role of HLA-B in affecting HIV-1 replication, likely through the molecular interaction between HLA-B and viral peptides presented by infected cells, and suggest that sites outside the peptide-binding pocket also influence HIV-1 control. PMID:22718199

  9. Common neurologic complications of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Newton, H B

    1995-02-01

    Complications of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may involve any level of the central or peripheral nervous system. Acute encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy may occur early in the course of HIV infection, while dementia, central nervous system-related cancer, opportunistic infections and autonomic neuropathy typically present later. Headache and mental status changes are common early manifestations of central nervous system involvement. Most severe headaches are related to an identifiable cause, including a mass lesion, opportunistic cerebral infection and medication side effect. Memory deficits, concentration difficulties and abnormalities on mental status testing may represent early AIDS dementia complex (HIV encephalopathy), the most common neurologic complication. In patients with AIDs, the differential diagnosis of cerebral mass lesions on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging includes cerebral toxoplasmosis, tuberculous or fungal abscess, focal viral encephalitis, metastatic resonance imaging includes cerebral toxoplasmosis, tuberculous or fungal abscess, focal viral encephalitis, metastatic Kaposi's sarcoma and primary CNS lymphoma. Peripheral neuromuscular disease, including distal symmetric polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and HIV and chronic zidovudine myopathy, affects 15 to 40 percent of all persons with HIV infection or AIDS. PMID:7840035

  10. Asymptotic properties of a HIV-1 infection model with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Ma, Wanbiao

    2007-11-01

    Based on some important biological meanings, a class of more general HIV-1 infection models with time delay is proposed in the paper. In the HIV-1 infection model, time delay is used to describe the time between infection of uninfected target cells and the emission of viral particles on a cellular level as proposed by Herz et al. [A.V.M. Herz, S. Bonhoeffer, R.M. Anderson, R.M. May, M.A. Nowak, Viral dynamics in vivo: Limitations on estimates of intracellular delay and virus decay, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 7247-7251]. Then, the effect of time delay on stability of the equilibria of the HIV-1 infection model has been studied and sufficient criteria for local asymptotic stability of the infected equilibrium and global asymptotic stability of the viral free equilibrium are given.

  11. Unique and differential protein signatures within the mononuclear cells of HIV-1 and HCV mono-infected and co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathogenesis of liver damage in patients with HIV and HCV co-infection is complex and multifactorial. Although global awareness regarding HIV-1/HCV co-infection is increasing little is known about the pathophysiology that mediates the rapid progression to hepatic disease in the co-infected individuals. Results In this study, we investigated the proteome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1 mono-, HCV mono-, and HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients. The results of high-resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and PD quest software quantitative analysis revealed that several proteins were differentially expressed in HIV-1, HCV, and HIV-1/HCV co-infection. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and Mascot database matching (LC-MS/MS analysis) successfully identified 29 unique and differentially expressed proteins. These included cytoskeletal proteins (tropomyosin, gelsolin, DYPLSL3, DYPLSL4 and profilin-1), chaperones and co-chaperones (HSP90-beta and stress-induced phosphoprotein), metabolic and pre-apoptotic proteins (guanosine triphosphate [GTP]-binding nuclear protein Ran, the detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI), proteins involved in cell prosurvival mechanism, and those involved in matrix synthesis (collagen binding protein 2 [CBP2]). The six most significant and relevant proteins were further validated in a group of mono- and co-infected patients (n = 20) at the transcriptional levels. Conclusions The specific pro- and anti- apoptotic protein signatures revealed in this study could facilitate the understanding of apoptotic and protective immune-mediated mechanisms underlying HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and their implications on liver disease progression in co-infected patients. PMID:22958358

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  13. Galectin-1 promotes HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages through stabilization of viral adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Mercier, Simon; St-Pierre, Christian; Pelletier, Isabelle; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J. Sato, Sachiko

    2008-02-05

    Following primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), macrophages are thought to play an important role, as they are one of the first target cells the virus encounters and can also sustain a significant production of viruses over extended periods of time. While the interaction between the primary cellular receptor CD4 and the virus-encoded external envelope glycoprotein gp120 initiates the infection process, it has been suggested that various host factors are exploited by HIV-1 to facilitate adsorption onto the cell surface. Macrophages and other cells found at the infection site can secrete a soluble mammalian lectin, galectin-1, which binds to {beta}-galactoside residues through its carbohydrate recognition domain. Being a dimer, galectin-1 can cross-link ligands expressed on different constituents to mediate adhesion between cells or between cells and pathogens. We report here that galectin-1, but not galectin-3, increased HIV-1 infectivity in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). This phenomenon was likely due to an enhancement of virus adsorption kinetics, which facilitates HIV-1 entry. The fusion inhibitors T-20 and TAK779 remained effective at reducing infection even in the presence of galectin-1, indicating that the galectin-1-mediated effect is occurring at a step prior to fusion. Together, our data suggest that galectin-1 can facilitate HIV-1 infection in MDMs by promoting early events of the virus replicative cycle (i.e. adsorption)

  14. 3BNC117 a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Suppresses Viremia in HIV-1-Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, Marina; Klein, Florian; Lorenzi, Julio C. C.; Seaman, Michael S.; West, Anthony P.; Buckley, Noreen; Kremer, Gisela; Nogueira, Lilian; Braunschweig, Malte; Scheid, Johannes F.; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Shimeliovich, Irina; Ben Avraham-Shulman, Sivan; Witmer-Pack, Maggi; Platten, Martin; Lehmann, Clara; Burke, Leah A.; Hawthorne, Thomas; Gorelick, Robert J.; Walker, Bruce D.; Keler, Tibor; Gulick, Roy M.; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Schlesinger, Sarah J.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 immunotherapy with a combination of first generation monoclonal antibodies was largely ineffective in pre-clinical and clinical settings and was therefore abandoned1–3. However, recently developed single cell based antibody cloning methods have uncovered a new generation of far more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-14,5. These antibodies can prevent infection and suppress viremia in humanized mice (hu-mice) and nonhuman primates, but their potential for human HIV-1 immunotherapy has not been evaluated6–10. Here we report the results of a first-in-man dose escalation phase 1 clinical trial of 3BNC117, a potent human CD4 binding site antibody11, in uninfected and HIV-1-infected individuals. 3BNC117 infusion was well tolerated and demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetics. A single 30 mg/kg infusion of 3BNC117 reduced the viral load (VL) in HIV-1-infected individuals by 0.8 – 2.5 log10 and viremia remained significantly reduced for 28 days. Emergence of resistant viral strains was variable, with some individuals remaining sensitive to 3BNC117 for a period of 28 days. We conclude that as a single agent 3BNC117 is safe and effective in reducing HIV-1 viremia, and that immunotherapy should be explored as a new modality for HIV-1 prevention, therapy, and cure. PMID:25855300

  15. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  16. Dendritic Cells from HIV Controllers Have Low Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection In Vitro but High Capacity to Capture HIV-1 Particles.

    PubMed

    Hamimi, Chiraz; David, Annie; Versmisse, Pierre; Weiss, Laurence; Bruel, Timothée; Zucman, David; Appay, Victor; Moris, Arnaud; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Boufassa, Faroudy; Lambotte, Olivier; Pancino, Gianfranco; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2016-01-01

    HIV controllers (HICs), rare HIV-1 infected individuals able to control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy, are characterized by an efficient polyfunctional and cytolytic HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response. The mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of such response in many HICs despite controlled viremia are not clear. Dendritic cells play a crucial role in the generation and reactivation of T cell responses but scarce information is available on those cells in HICs. We found that monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) from HICs are less permissive to HIV-1 infection than cells from healthy donors. In contrast MDDCs from HICs are particularly efficient at capturing HIV-1 particles when compared to cells from healthy donors or HIV-1 patients with suppressed viral load on antiretroviral treatment. MDDCs from HICs expressed on their surface high levels of syndecan-3, DC-SIGN and MMR, which could cooperate to facilitate HIV-1 capture. The combination of low susceptibility to HIV-1 infection but enhanced capacity to capture particles might allow MDDCs from HICs to preserve their function from the deleterious effect of infection while facilitating induction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells by cross-presentation in a context of low viremia. PMID:27505169

  17. Dendritic Cells from HIV Controllers Have Low Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection In Vitro but High Capacity to Capture HIV-1 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Hamimi, Chiraz; David, Annie; Versmisse, Pierre; Weiss, Laurence; Bruel, Timothée; Zucman, David; Appay, Victor; Moris, Arnaud; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Muller-Trutwin, Michaela; Boufassa, Faroudy; Lambotte, Olivier; Pancino, Gianfranco; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2016-01-01

    HIV controllers (HICs), rare HIV-1 infected individuals able to control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy, are characterized by an efficient polyfunctional and cytolytic HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response. The mechanisms underlying the induction and maintenance of such response in many HICs despite controlled viremia are not clear. Dendritic cells play a crucial role in the generation and reactivation of T cell responses but scarce information is available on those cells in HICs. We found that monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) from HICs are less permissive to HIV-1 infection than cells from healthy donors. In contrast MDDCs from HICs are particularly efficient at capturing HIV-1 particles when compared to cells from healthy donors or HIV-1 patients with suppressed viral load on antiretroviral treatment. MDDCs from HICs expressed on their surface high levels of syndecan-3, DC-SIGN and MMR, which could cooperate to facilitate HIV-1 capture. The combination of low susceptibility to HIV-1 infection but enhanced capacity to capture particles might allow MDDCs from HICs to preserve their function from the deleterious effect of infection while facilitating induction of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells by cross-presentation in a context of low viremia. PMID:27505169

  18. Maturation and Diversity of the VRC01-Antibody Lineage over 15 Years of Chronic HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Zhenhai; Schramm, Chaim A; Joyce, M Gordon; Kwon, Young Do; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Zhang, Baoshan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Longo, Nancy S; Lynch, Rebecca M; Saunders, Kevin O; Soto, Cinque; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Bailer, Robert T; Louder, Mark K; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2015-04-23

    HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies develop in most HIV-1-infected individuals, although highly effective antibodies are generally observed only after years of chronic infection. Here, we characterize the rate of maturation and extent of diversity for the lineage that produced the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 through longitudinal sampling of peripheral B cell transcripts over 15 years and co-crystal structures of lineage members. Next-generation sequencing identified VRC01-lineage transcripts, which encompassed diverse antibodies organized into distinct phylogenetic clades. Prevalent clades maintained characteristic features of antigen recognition, though each evolved binding loops and disulfides that formed distinct recognition surfaces. Over the course of the study period, VRC01-lineage clades showed continuous evolution, with rates of ∼2 substitutions per 100 nucleotides per year, comparable to that of HIV-1 evolution. This high rate of antibody evolution provides a mechanism by which antibody lineages can achieve extraordinary diversity and, over years of chronic infection, develop effective HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25865483

  19. Is HIV-1 infection associated with endothelial dysfunction in a population of African ancestry in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Fourie, C; van Rooyen, J; Pieters, M; Conradie, K; Hoekstra, T; Schutte, A

    2011-01-01

    The chronic infection status suffered by HIV-infected individuals promotes chronic arterial inflammation and injury, which leads to dysfunction of the endothelium, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Although HIV-1 subtype C is prevalent in South Africa and accounts for almost a third of the infections worldwide, this subtype differs genetically from HIV-1 subtype B on which the majority of studies have been done. The objective of this study was to assess whether newly identified, never-treated, HIV-1-infected South African participants showed signs of endothelial dysfunction, accelerated atherosclerosis and increased blood coagulation. We compared 300 newly diagnosed (never antiretroviraltreated) HIV-infected participants to 300 age-, gender-, body mass index- and locality-matched uninfected controls. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and carotid radialis pulse wave velocity (cr-PWV) were determined. The HIV-infected participants showed lower HDL-C and higher IL-6, CRP, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels compared to the uninfected controls. No differences in fibrinogen and PAI-1 levels were detected. A continuous positive trend of increasing age with cr-PWV was detected in the HIV-infected group. Our findings suggest inflammatory injury of the endothelium, pointing to endothelial dysfunction of never-treated HIV-1-infected South Africans of African ancestry. Although no indication of a prothrombotic state could be detected, there was an indication of accelerated vascular aging and probable early atherosclerosis in the older HIV-infected participants. PMID:21713302

  20. Regulatory T Cells Expanded from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Maintain Phenotype, TCR Repertoire and Suppressive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Angin, Mathieu; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; King, Melanie; Sharma, Siddhartha M.; Moodley, Eshia S.; Rezai, Ashley; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Toth, Ildiko; Chan, Andrew T.; Goulder, Philip J.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kwon, Douglas S.; Addo, Marylyn M.

    2014-01-01

    While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection. PMID:24498287

  1. Regulatory T cells expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals maintain phenotype, TCR repertoire and suppressive capacity.

    PubMed

    Angin, Mathieu; Klarenbeek, Paul L; King, Melanie; Sharma, Siddhartha M; Moodley, Eshia S; Rezai, Ashley; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Toth, Ildiko; Chan, Andrew T; Goulder, Philip J; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kwon, Douglas S; Addo, Marylyn M

    2014-01-01

    While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4(+) Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection. PMID:24498287

  2. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs. PMID:26896646

  3. Elevated levels of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients and in HIV-1-infected cell cultures: a relevant role on viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Eduardo G.; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Morgado, Mariza M.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Bou-Habib, Dumith C.

    2011-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases, however its role in HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here we show that HIV-1-infected patients present elevated plasma levels of MIF, that HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) release a greater amount of MIF, and that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induces MIF secretion from uninfected PBMCs. The HIV-1 replication in PBMCs declines when these cells were treated with anti-MIF antibodies, or when treated with the ABC-transporter inhibitor probenecid, which also inhibited MIF secretion. The addition of recombinant MIF (rhMIF) to HIV-1-infected PBMCs enhances viral replication of CCR5- or CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 isolates. Using a T CD4+ cell lineage containing an HIV long terminal repeats (LTR)-Luciferase construct, we detected that rhMIF promotes transcription from HIV-1 LTR. Our results show that HIV-1 induces MIF secretion and suggest that MIF influences the HIV-1 biology through activation of HIV-1 LTR. PMID:20085845

  4. Genetic and immunological host factors associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, K A; Wilkinson, D A; Krowka, J F; Koup, R A; Padian, N S

    1998-01-01

    The probability of HIV transmission depends on the interplay of many different factors related to infectiousness of the HIV-infected partner, susceptibility of the HIV-uninfected partner, and biological characteristics of HIV strains. Here, we review recent studies of host immunological and genetic factors which may affect susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. These factors are summarized in Table 1. We propose how to explore biological correlates of susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in epidemiological studies, discuss the strengths and limitations of this research, and address the implications for public health. PMID:9632989

  5. APOBEC3G Variants and Protection against HIV-1 Infection in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Compaore, Tegwinde Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Tchelougou, Damehan; Maiga, Mamoudou; Assih, Maleki; Bisseye, Cyrille; Bakouan, Didier; Compaore, Issaka Pierre; Dembele, Augustine; Martinson, Jeremy; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of these three variants and their haplotypes on HIV-1 infection with Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs) present in Burkina Faso. This case control study involved 708 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Genotyping was done by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. Minor allele frequencies of rs6001417 (p<0.05), rs8177832 (P<0.05), and rs35228531 (P<0.001) were higher in seronegative subjects. The rs6001417 and rs8177832 SNPs were associated with HIV-1 infection in an additive model (P<0.01). Furthermore the SNP rs35228531 was also associated with HIV-1 infection in a dominant model (P<0.001). Odds ratio analysis of genotypes and alleles of the different APOBEC3G variants showed that there is a strong association between the minor genetic variants, genotype of the three SNPs, and HIV-1 status. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 are in linkage disequilibrium. The haplotype GGT from the rs6001417, rs8177832 and rs35228531 respectively has a protective effect OR = 0.54 [0.43-0.68] with P<0.001. There was also associations between the haplotypes GGC OR = 1.6 [1.1;-2.3] P<0.05, and CGC OR = 5.21 [2.4-11.3] P<0.001, which increase the risk of infection by HIV-1 from almost two (2) to five (5) fold. This study demonstrates an association of rs6001417, rs8177832, and rs35228531 of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 infection in a population from Burkina Faso. PMID:26741797

  6. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: multicenter evaluation of a newly developed anti-HIV 1 and 2 enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, G; Avillez, F; Lourenco, M H; D'Agostino, F; Cambie, G; Piot, P; Vercauteren, G; Michl, U; Melchior, W; Bayer, H

    1994-01-01

    A new anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (anti-HIV 1 and 2) test is described. It uses recombinant p24 and peptides covering gp32, gp41, and gp120 to identify HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. This test has been shown to be specific (99.5%) and sensitive (99.8%). In this respect, the assay was equal or superior to anti-HIV 1 and 2 tests run as references. The test was able to discriminate sera from patients with HIV infections from those from uninfected individuals with excellence; it also exerted high intra- and interassay precisions. The "modular" concept of the test allows the use of single components (gp32 or gp41) to separate between HIV-2 and HIV-1 infections, respectively. PMID:8150950

  7. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Individuals at Men Who Have Sex with Men Sentinel Surveillance Points in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng

    2015-10-01

    For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province. PMID:26200883

  8. High-avidity, high-IFNγ-producing CD8 T-cell responses following immune selection during HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Niamh M.; Roberts, Steven G.; Almeida, Coral-Ann M.; Krishnan, Tanya; Chopra, Abha; Demaine, Emma; Laird, Rebecca; Tschochner, Monika; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Mallal, Simon; Heckerman, David; James, Ian; John, Mina

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 mutations which reduce or abolish cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against virus-infected cells are frequently selected in acute and chronic HIV-infection. Among population HIV-1 sequences, immune selection is evident as HLA allele-associated substitutions of amino acids within or near CD8 T cell epitopes. In these cases, the non-adapted epitope is susceptible to immune recognition until an escape mutation renders the epitope less immunogenic. However, several population-based studies have independently identified HLA-associated viral changes which lead to formation of a new T cell epitope, suggesting that the immune responses which these variants or “neo-epitopes” elicit provide an evolutionary advantage to the virus rather than the host. Here, we examined functional characteristics of eight CD8 T cell responses that result from viral adaptation in 125 HLA-genotyped individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. Neo-epitopes included well-characterised immunodominant epitopes restricted by common HLA alleles and in most cases, the T cell responses against the neo-epitope exhibited significantly greater functional avidity and higher IFNγ production than T cells for non-adapted epitopes but were not more cytotoxic. Neo-epitope formation and emergence of the cognate T cell response co-incident with a rise in viral load was then observed in-vivo in an acutely infected individual. These findings demonstrate that HIV-1 adaptation not only abrogates immune recognition of early targeted epitopes, but may also increase immune recognition to other epitopes, which elicit immunodominant but non-protective T cell responses. These data have implications for immunodominance associated with polyvalent vaccines based on the diversity of chronic HIV-1 sequences. PMID:21577229

  9. Association between active GB virus-C (hepatitis G) infection and HIV-1 disease in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Yirrell, D L; Wright, E; Shafer, L A; Campbell, E; Van der Paal, L; Kaleebu, P; Grosskurth, H; Whitworth, J A

    2007-04-01

    Although not linked to a disease, GB virus-C viraemia has been associated with an improved prognosis in HIV-1-co-infected individuals. Most studies have been conducted on men (men who have sex with men or injection drug users) infected with HIV-1 subtype B, whereas here we report on both male and female subjects from rural Uganda, predominantly infected via the heterosexual route with HIV-1 subtypes A and D. In a longitudinal study of 272 participants, 47 were GBV-C positive and 181 negative, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in both of two plasma samples taken a median of 5.0 years apart. The remainder either acquired (25) or cleared (19) infection. Multilevel regression analyses and Cox survival analyses revealed that participants chronically infected with GBV-C had a slower decline in CD4(+) T cells (P<0.001) and increased survival time (P=0.041) compared with GBV-C RNA-negative, HIV-positive adults. We show that the association between active GBV-C co-infection and improved survival of HIV-1-infected adults is not restricted to HIV subtype B, but is also observed in both males and females infected with HIV subtypes A and D. PMID:17509174

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for Hepatitis C and HIV-1 infections among pregnant women in Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are a major burden to public health worldwide. Routine antenatal HIV-1 screening to prevent maternal-infant transmission is universally recommended. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of and potential risk factors for HCV and HIV infection among pregnant women who attended prenatal care under the coverage of public health in Central Brazil. Methods Screening and counselling for HIV and HCV infections was offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in the public health system, in Goiania city (~1.1 million inhabitants) during 2004–2005. Initial screening was performed on a dried blood spot collected onto standard filter paper; positive or indeterminate results were confirmed by a second blood sample. HCV infection was defined as a positive or indeterminate sample (EIA test) and confirmed HCV-RNA technique. HIV infection was defined according to standard criteria. Factors associated with HIV and HCV infections were identified with logistic regression. The number needed to screen (NNS) to prevent one case of infant HIV infection was calculated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Results A total of 28,561 pregnant women were screened for HCV and HIV-1 in ANC. Mean maternal age was 23.9 years (SD = 5.6), with 45% of the women experiencing their first pregnancy. Prevalence of HCV infection was 0.15% (95% CI 0.11%–0.20%), and the risk increased with age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of anti-HIV infection was 0.09% (95% CI 0.06%–0.14%). Black women had a 4.9-fold (95% CI 1.42–16.95) greater risk of HIV-1 infection compared to non-black women. NNS to prevent one case of infant HIV infection ranged from 4,141 to 13,928. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were low among pregnant women, with high acceptability rates in the opt-in strategy in primary care. Older maternal age was a risk factor for HCV and antenatal HCV testing

  11. HIV-1 cellular and tissue replication patterns in infected humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Araínga, Mariluz; Su, Hang; Poluektova, Larisa Y.; Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2016-01-01

    Humanized mice have emerged as a testing platform for HIV-1 pathobiology by reflecting natural human disease processes. Their use to study HIV-1 biology, virology, immunology, pathogenesis and therapeutic development has served as a robust alternative to more-well developed animal models for HIV/AIDS. A critical component in reflecting such human pathobiology rests in defining the tissue and cellular sites for HIV-1 infection. To this end, we examined the tissue sites for viral infection in bone marrow, blood, spleens, liver, gut, brain, kidney and lungs of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell engrafted virus-infected NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and sorted from species mixtures defined as CD34+ lineage negative progenitor cells, CD14+CD16+ monocyte-macrophages and central, stem cell and effector memory T cells. The cell distribution and viral life cycle were found dependent on the tissue compartment and time of infection. Cell subsets contained HIV-1 total and integrated DNA as well as multi-spliced and unspliced RNA in divergent proportions. The data support the idea that humanized mice can provide a means to examine the multifaceted sites of HIV-1 replication including, but not limited to progenitor cells and monocyte-macrophages previously possible only in macaques and human. PMID:26996968

  12. Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3 Alpha (MIP-3α)/CCL20 in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Najib; Detels, Roger; Chang, L Cindy; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uncontrolled HIV infection progresses to the depletion of systemic and mucosal CD4 and AIDS. Early HIV infection may be associated with increases in the concentration of MIP-3α in the blood and gut fluids. MIP-3α/CCL20 is the only chemokine known to interact with CCR6 receptors which are expressed on immature dendritic cells and both effector and memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. The role and prognostic value of blood levels of MIP-3α in HIV-infected individuals has yet to be described. Methods We determined the serum levels of MIP-3α, and IFN-γ, in 167 HIV-1-infected and 27 HIV-1-uninfected men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). The blood biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and the cell phenotypes using flow cytometry. Results Median serum levels of MIP-3α in HIV-1-infected and uninfected men was significantly different (p<0.0001) and were 21.3 pg/mL and 6.4 pg/mL respectively. The HIV-1-infected men with CD4+ T cell count <200 cells/μL showed the highest median serum MIP-3α (23.1 pg/mL). Serum levels of MIP-3α in HIV-1 infected (n=167) were negatively correlated with absolute number of CD4+ T cell (p=0.01) and were positively correlated with CD38 molecules on CD8+ T cells (p=0.0002) and with serum levels of IFN-γ (0.006). Conclusion Serum levels of MIP-3α concomitantly increase with plasma levels of IFN-γ, CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells, and decreased of absolute CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected men. A higher blood level of MIP-3α may be representation of locally high level of MIP-3α and more recruitment of immature dendritic cell at site of infection. Involvement of CCR6/CCL20 axis and epithelial cells at the recto-colonel level may enhance sexual transmission of HIV-1 in MSM and may be useful as a prognostic marker in HIV-1-infection and AIDS.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted protein therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine in subjects with HIV-1 infection: a randomised placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Thomas; Plettenberg, Andreas; Arastéh, Keikawus; Van Lunzen, Jan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Jaeger, Hans; Janssens, Michel; Burny, Wivine; Collard, Alix; Roman, François; Loeliger, Alfred; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Bourguignon, Patricia; Lavreys, Ludo; Voss, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate F4/AS01 has previously been shown to induce potent and persistent polyfunctional CD4(+) T-cell responses in HIV-1-seronegative volunteers. This placebo-controlled study evaluated two doses of F4/AS01 1-month apart in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced and ART-naïve HIV-1-infected subjects (1:1 randomisation in each cohort). Safety, HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses, absolute CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were monitored for 12 months post-vaccination. Reactogenicity was clinically acceptable and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The frequency of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells 2 weeks post-dose 2 was significantly higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group in both cohorts (p<0.05). Vaccine-induced HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells exhibited a polyfunctional phenotype, expressing at least CD40L and IL-2. No increase in HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T-cells or change in CD8(+) T-cell activation marker expression profile was detected. Absolute CD4(+) T-cell counts were variable over time in both cohorts. Viral load remained suppressed in ART-experienced subjects. In ART-naïve subjects, a transient reduction in viral load from baseline was observed 2 weeks after the second F4/AS01 dose, which was concurrent with a higher frequency of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cells expressing at least IL-2 in this cohort. In conclusion, F4/AS01 showed a clinically acceptable reactogenicity and safety profile, and induced polyfunctional HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses in ART-experienced and ART-naïve subjects. These findings support further clinical investigation of F4/AS01 as a potential HIV-1 vaccine for therapeutic use in individuals with HIV-1 infection. PMID:24144472

  14. Genetic and neutralization sensitivity of diverse HIV-1 env clones from chronically infected patients in China.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong; Han, Xiaoxu; Shi, Xuanling; Zuo, Teng; Goldin, Mark; Chen, Dan; Han, Bing; Sun, Wei; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Linqi

    2011-04-22

    As HIV-1 continues to spread in China from traditional high risk populations to the general public, its genetic makeup has become increasingly complex. However, the impact of these genetic changes on the biological and neutralization sensitivity of the virus is unknown. The current study aims to characterize the genetic, biological, and neutralization sensitivity of HIV-1 identified in China between 2004 and 2007. Based on a total of 107 full-length envelope genes obtained directly from the infected patients, we found that those viruses fell into three major genetic groups: CRF01_AE, subtype B', and subtype C/CRF07_BC/CRF08_BC/B'C. Pseudotyped viruses built upon the viable env genes have demonstrated their substantial variability in mediating viral entry and in sensitivity to neutralization by subtype-specific plasma pools and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAb). Many viruses are resistant to one or more bnmAb, including those known to have high potency against diverse viruses from outside China. Sequence and structural analysis has revealed several mechanisms by which these resistant viruses escape recognition from bnmAb. We believe that these results will help us to better understand the impact of genetic diversity on the neutralizing sensitivity of the viruses and to facilitate the design of immunogens capable of eliciting antibodies with potency and breadth similar to those of bnmAb. PMID:21325278

  15. The growth of human HIV-1 infected U937 cells in immune-deprived mice.

    PubMed

    Chernukhin, I V; Chepurnov, A A; Gaidul, K V

    1995-01-01

    We report in vivo growth of human promonocytic cells infected with HIV-1 presented in new mouse model. Cloned U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were grafted in (CBA*C57B1/6)F1 mice deprived of immunity by thymectomia and total body irradiation with subsequent marrow reconstitution. Nine weeks after cell inoculation, HIV-1-positive cells were found only in mice that received an additional single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg bw) prior to transplantation, whereas, in mice without further immune deprivation, the complete elimination of cells bearing viral antigen occurred already on the seventh day after transplantation. The approach described may be suitable for in vivo development of antiviral drugs against latent infection in macrophage-like cells which represent a serious problem in therapy of AIDS in humans. PMID:8562863

  16. Autophagy Restricts HIV-1 Infection by Selectively Degrading Tat in CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sagnier, Sophie; Daussy, Coralie F.; Borel, Sophie; Robert-Hebmann, Véronique; Faure, Mathias; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Beaumelle, Bruno; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a ubiquitous mechanism involved in the lysosomal-mediated degradation of cellular components when they are engulfed in vacuoles called autophagosomes. Autophagy is also recognized as an important regulator of the innate and adaptive immune responses against numerous pathogens, which have, therefore, developed strategies to block or use the autophagy machinery to their own benefit. Upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, viral envelope (Env) glycoproteins induce autophagy-dependent apoptosis of uninfected bystander CD4+ T lymphocytes, a mechanism likely contributing to the loss of CD4+ T cells. In contrast, in productively infected CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 is able to block Env-induced autophagy in order to avoid its antiviral effect. To date, nothing is known about how autophagy restricts HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we report that autophagy selectively degrades the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, a protein essential for viral transcription and virion production. We demonstrated that this selective autophagy-mediated degradation of Tat relies on its ubiquitin-independent interaction with the p62/SQSTM1 adaptor. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the anti-HIV effect of autophagy is specifically due to the degradation of the viral transactivator Tat but that this process is rapidly counteracted by the virus to favor its replication and spread. IMPORTANCE Autophagy is recognized as one of the most ancient and conserved mechanisms of cellular defense against invading pathogens. Cross talk between HIV-1 and autophagy has been demonstrated depending on the virally challenged cell type, and HIV-1 has evolved strategies to block this process to replicate efficiently. However, the mechanisms by which autophagy restricts HIV-1 infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, a protein essential for viral replication, is specifically degraded by autophagy in CD4+ T lymphocytes

  17. Contribution of immunological and virological factors to extremely severe primary HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Judith; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Azuara, Marta; Mariño, Ana; Frahm, Nicole; Mothe, Beatriz; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Buzón, Maria José; Paredes, Roger; Matas, Lourdes; Allen, Todd M.; Brander, Christian; Rodrigo, Carlos; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute HIV infection, high viral loads and the induction of host immune responses typically coincide with the onset of clinical symptoms. However, clinically severe presentations during acute HIV-1 infection, including AIDS-defining symptoms, are unusual. Methods Virus isolates were tested for clade, drug susceptibility, coreceptor usage, and growth rate for two cases of clinically severe sexual transmission. HLA genotype was determined, and HIV-1-specific CTL responses to an overlapping peptide set spanning the entire HIV clade A and clade B proteome were assayed. Results The virus isolated from the two unrelated cases of severe primary HIV-1 infection showed R5/X4 dual/mixed tropism, belonged to clade B and CRF02-AG, and were highly replicative in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture. Impaired humoral responses were paralleled by a profound absence of HIV-1-specific CTL responses to the entire viral proteome in the two study cases. One case for which the virus source was available, showed a remarkable HLA similarity between the transmission pair as all 4 HLA-A and -B alleles were HLA supertype-matched between the subjects involved in the transmission case. Conclusions The data suggest that concurrence of viral and host factors contribute to the clinical severity of primary HIV-1 infection and that subjects infected with highly replicative dual tropic viruses are more prone to develop AIDS-defining symptoms during acute infection if they are unable to mount humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses. Concordant HLA supertypes might facilitate the preferential transmission of HLA-adapted viral variants, further accelerating disease progression. PMID:19093810

  18. Early Antiretroviral Therapy in South African Children Reduces HIV-1-Infected Cells and Cell-Associated HIV-1 RNA in Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Gert U; Bedison, Margaret A; van Rensburg, Anita Janse; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark F; Mellors, John W

    2015-07-01

    We measured cell-associated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 DNA (CAD) and RNA (CAR) and plasma HIV-1 RNA in blood samples from 20 children in the Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral (CHER) cohort after 7-8 years of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Children who initiated cART early (<2 months; n = 12) had lower HIV-1 CAD (median, 48 vs 216; P < .01) and CAR (median, 5 vs 436; P < .01) per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells than children who started later (≥ 2 months; n = 8). Plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were not significantly lower in early-treated children (0.5 vs 1.2 copies/mL; P = .16). Early treatment at <2 months of age reduces the number of HIV-infected cells and HIV CAR. PMID:25538273

  19. Alterations in the Fecal Microbiota of Patients with HIV-1 Infection: An Observational Study in A Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Cheng, Yiwen; Li, Lanjuan; Wu, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that alterations in gut microbiota may be tightly linked to the increase in microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. We profiled the fecal microbiota as a proxy of gut microbiota by parallel barcoded 454-pyrosequencing in 67 HIV-1-infected patients (32 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] and 35 HAART naïve) and 16 healthy controls from a Chinese population. We showed that α-diversity indices did not differ significantly between the healthy control and HIV-1-infected patients. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes increased significantly in HIV-1-infected patients. Several key bacterial phylotypes, including Prevotella, were prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients; whereas Phascolarctobacterium, Clostridium XIVb, Dialister and Megamonas were significantly correlated with systemic inflammatory cytokines. After short-term, effective HAART, the viral loads of HIV-1 were reduced; however, the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota were not completely restored. and the dysbiosis remained among HIV-1-infected subjects undergoing HAART. Our detailed analysis demonstrated that dysbiosis of fecal microbiota might play an active role in HIV-1 infection. Thus, new insights may be provided into therapeutics that target the microbiota to attenuate the progression of HIV disease and to reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27477587

  20. Alterations in the Fecal Microbiota of Patients with HIV-1 Infection: An Observational Study in A Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zongxin; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Cheng, Yiwen; Li, Lanjuan; Wu, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that alterations in gut microbiota may be tightly linked to the increase in microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. We profiled the fecal microbiota as a proxy of gut microbiota by parallel barcoded 454-pyrosequencing in 67 HIV-1-infected patients (32 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] and 35 HAART naïve) and 16 healthy controls from a Chinese population. We showed that α-diversity indices did not differ significantly between the healthy control and HIV-1-infected patients. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes increased significantly in HIV-1-infected patients. Several key bacterial phylotypes, including Prevotella, were prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients; whereas Phascolarctobacterium, Clostridium XIVb, Dialister and Megamonas were significantly correlated with systemic inflammatory cytokines. After short-term, effective HAART, the viral loads of HIV-1 were reduced; however, the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota were not completely restored. and the dysbiosis remained among HIV-1-infected subjects undergoing HAART. Our detailed analysis demonstrated that dysbiosis of fecal microbiota might play an active role in HIV-1 infection. Thus, new insights may be provided into therapeutics that target the microbiota to attenuate the progression of HIV disease and to reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27477587

  1. Off-label use of maraviroc in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Claudia; Gómez, María Luisa Navarro; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Espiau, María; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; León-Leal, Juan Antonio; Méndez, María; Moreno-Pérez, David; Guasch, Claudia Fortuny; Sierra, Antoni Mur; Guruceta, Itziar Pocheville; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; Briz, Verónica

    2015-10-23

    Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs. PMID:26544580

  2. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:25771112

  3. SAMHD1 controls cell cycle status, apoptosis and HIV-1 infection in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Bonifati, Serena; Daly, Michele B; St Gelais, Corine; Kim, Sun Hee; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Shepard, Caitlin; Kennedy, Edward M; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek; Wu, Li

    2016-08-01

    SAMHD1 limits HIV-1 infection in non-dividing myeloid cells by decreasing intracellular dNTP pools. HIV-1 restriction by SAMHD1 in these cells likely prevents activation of antiviral immune responses and modulates viral pathogenesis, thus highlighting a critical role of SAMHD1 in HIV-1 physiopathology. Here, we explored the function of SAMHD1 in regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in monocytic THP-1 cells. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated THP-1 cells with stable SAMHD1 knockout. We found that silencing of SAMHD1 in cycling cells stimulates cell proliferation, redistributes cell cycle population in the G1/G0 phase and reduces apoptosis. These alterations correlated with increased dNTP levels and more efficient HIV-1 infection in dividing SAMHD1 knockout cells relative to control. Our results suggest that SAMHD1, through its dNTPase activity, affects cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, and emphasize a key role of SAMHD1 in the interplay between cell cycle regulation and HIV-1 infection. PMID:27183329

  4. Of Mice and Monkeys: Can Animal Models Be Utilized to Study Neurological Consequences of Pediatric HIV-1 Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Carryl, Heather; Swang, Melanie; Lawrence, Jerome; Curtis, Kimberly; Kamboj, Herman; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; De Paris, Kristina; Burke, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection remains a global health crisis. Children are much more susceptible to HIV-1 neurological impairments than adults, which can be exacerbated by coinfections. Neurological characteristics of pediatric HIV-1 infection suggest dysfunction in the frontal cortex as well as the hippocampus; limited MRI data indicate global cerebral atrophy, and pathological data suggest accelerated neuronal apoptosis in the cortex. An obstacle to pediatric HIV-1 research is a human representative model system. Host-species specificity of HIV-1 limits the ability to model neurological consequences of pediatric HIV-1 infection in animals. Several models have been proposed including neonatal intracranial injections of HIV-1 viral proteins in rats and perinatal simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant macaques. Nonhuman primate models recapitulate the complexity of pediatric HIV-1, neuropathogenesis while rodent models are able to elucidate the role specific viral proteins exert on neurodevelopment. Nonhuman primate models show similar behavioral and neuropathological characteristics to pediatric HIV-1 infection and offer a stage to investigate early viral mechanisms, latency reservoirs, and therapeutic interventions. Here we review the relative strengths and limitations of pediatric HIV-1 model systems. PMID:26034832

  5. The spread and effect of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Buvé, Anne; Bishikwabo-Nsarhaza, Kizito; Mutangadura, Gladys

    2002-06-01

    Africa is the continent most severely affected by the global HIV-1 epidemic, with east and southern Africa in general more severely affected than west and central Africa. Differences in the spread of the epidemic can be accounted for by a complex interplay of sexual behaviour and biological factors that affect the probability of HIV-1 transmission per sex act. Sexual behaviour patterns are determined by cultural and socioeconomic contexts. In sub-Saharan Africa, some traditions and socioeconomic developments have contributed to the extensive spread of HIV-1 infection, including the subordinate position of women, impoverishment and decline of social services, rapid urbanisation and modernisation, and wars and conflicts. Populations in many parts of Africa are becoming trapped in a vicious circle as the HIV-1 epidemic leads to high mortality rates in young and economically productive age groups, and thus leads to further impoverishment. Interventions to control HIV-1 should not only target individuals, but also aim to change those aspects of cultural and socioeconomic context that increase the vulnerability to HIV-1 of people and communities. PMID:12076570

  6. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection. PMID:27226574

  7. Exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells contain trans-activation response element RNA.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Das, Ravi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Santos, Steven; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Guendel, Irene; Sampey, Gavin; Dalby, Elizabeth; Iglesias-Ussel, Maria; Popratiloff, Anastas; Hakami, Ramin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Young, Mary; Subra, Caroline; Gilbert, Caroline; Bailey, Charles; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-07-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the trans-activation response element (TAR) miRNA. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of TAR RNA in exosomes from cell culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected cells and patient sera. TAR miRNA was not in Ago2 complexes outside the exosomes but enclosed within the exosomes. We detected the host miRNA machinery proteins Dicer and Drosha in exosomes from infected cells. We report that transport of TAR RNA from the nucleus into exosomes is a CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent active process. Prior exposure of naive cells to exosomes from infected cells increased susceptibility of the recipient cells to HIV-1 infection. Exosomal TAR RNA down-regulated apoptosis by lowering Bim and Cdk9 proteins in recipient cells. We found 10(4)-10(6) copies/ml TAR RNA in exosomes derived from infected culture supernatants and 10(3) copies/ml TAR RNA in the serum exosomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients or long term nonprogressors. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that HIV-1-infected cells produced exosomes that are uniquely characterized by their proteomic and RNA profiles that may contribute to disease pathology in AIDS. PMID:23661700

  8. Antibody and Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis Prevent Cervicovaginal HIV-1 Infection in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gruell, Henning; Bournazos, Stylianos; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Ploss, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine preventing HIV-1 infection remains elusive. Thus, the development of novel approaches capable of preventing HIV-1 transmission is of paramount importance. However, this is partly hindered by the lack of an easily accessible small-animal model to rapidly measure viral entry. Here, we report the generation of a human CD4- and human CCR5-expressing transgenic luciferase reporter mouse that facilitates measurement of peritoneal and genitomucosal HIV-1 pseudovirus entry in vivo. We show that antibodies and antiretrovirals mediate preexposure protection in this mouse model and that the serum antibody concentration required for protection from cervicovaginal infection is comparable to that required to protect macaques. Our results suggest that this system represents a model for the preclinical evaluation of prophylactic or vaccine candidates. It further supports the idea that broadly neutralizing antibodies should be evaluated for use as preexposure prophylaxis in clinical trials. PMID:23720722

  9. Molecular and pathologic insights from latent HIV-1 infection in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Smith, David; Adame, Anthony; Everall, Ian; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald; Cherner, Mariana; Grant, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate whether HIV latency in the CNS might have adverse molecular, pathologic, and clinical consequences. Methods: This was a case-control comparison of HIV-1 seropositive (HIV+) patients with clinical and neuropathologic examination. Based on the levels of HIV-1 DNA, RNA, and p24 in the brain, cases were classified as controls, latent HIV CNS infection, and HIV encephalitis (HIVE). Analysis of epigenetic markers including BCL11B, neurodegeneration, and neuroinflammation was performed utilizing immunoblot, confocal microscopy, immunochemistry/image analysis, and qPCR. Detailed antemortem neurocognitive data were available for 23 out of the 32 cases. Results: HIV+ controls (n = 12) had no detectable HIV-1 DNA, RNA, or p24 in the CNS; latent HIV+ cases (n = 10) showed high levels of HIV-1 DNA but no HIV RNA or p24; and HIVE cases (n = 10) had high levels of HIV-1 DNA, RNA, and p24. Compared to HIV+ controls, the HIV+ latent cases displayed moderate cognitive impairment with neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory alterations, although to a lesser extent than HIVE cases. Remarkably, HIV+ latent cases showed higher levels of BCL11B and other chromatin modifiers involved in silencing. Increased BCL11B was associated with deregulation of proinflammatory genes like interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor–α, and CD74. Conclusion: Persistence of latent HIV-1 infection in the CNS was associated with increased levels of chromatin modifiers, including BCL11B. Alteration of these epigenetic factors might result in abnormal transcriptomes, leading to inflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurocognitive impairment. BCL11B and other epigenetic factors involved in silencing might represent potential targets for HIV-1 involvement of the CNS. PMID:23486877

  10. Silibinin Inhibits HIV-1 Infection by Reducing Cellular Activation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Janela; Lovelace, Erica S.; Elahi, Shokrollah; Maurice, Nicholas J.; Wagoner, Jessica; Dragavon, Joan; Mittler, John E.; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonidis; Horton, Helen; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Coombs, Robert W.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purified silymarin-derived natural products from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) block hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. An intravenous formulation of silibinin (SIL), a major component of silymarin, displays anti-HCV effects in humans and also inhibits T-cell proliferation in vitro. We show that SIL inhibited replication of HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells, PBMCs, and CEM cells in vitro. SIL suppression of HIV-1 coincided with dose-dependent reductions in actively proliferating CD19+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells, resulting in fewer CD4+ T cells expressing the HIV-1 co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5. SIL inhibition of T-cell growth was not due to cytotoxicity measured by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or necrosis. SIL also blocked induction of the activation markers CD38, HLA-DR, Ki67, and CCR5 on CD4+ T cells. The data suggest that SIL attenuated cellular functions involved in T-cell activation, proliferation, and HIV-1 infection. Silymarin-derived compounds provide cytoprotection by suppressing virus infection, immune activation, and inflammation, and as such may be relevant for both HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects. PMID:22848626