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Sample records for identifies strain-specific diagnostic

  1. Metabolic reconstruction identifies strain-specific regulation of virulence in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Song, Carl; Chiasson, Melissa A; Nursimulu, Nirvana; Hung, Stacy S; Wasmuth, James; Grigg, Michael E; Parkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, metabolic potential is proving to be a critical determinant governing a pathogen's virulence as well as its capacity to expand its host range. To understand the potential contribution of metabolism to strain-specific infectivity differences, we present a constraint-based metabolic model of the opportunistic parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Dominated by three clonal strains (Type I, II, and III demonstrating distinct virulence profiles), T. gondii exhibits a remarkably broad host range. Integrating functional genomic data, our model (which we term as iCS382) reveals that observed strain-specific differences in growth rates are driven by altered capacities for energy production. We further predict strain-specific differences in drug susceptibilities and validate one of these predictions in a drug-based assay, with a Type I strain demonstrating resistance to inhibitors that are effective against a Type II strain. We propose that these observed differences reflect an evolutionary strategy that allows the parasite to extend its host range, as well as result in a subsequent partitioning into discrete strains that display altered virulence profiles across different hosts, different organs, and even cell types. PMID:24247825

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analyses of Avirulent, Virulent, and Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Identify Strain-specific Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Jhingan, Gagan Deep; Kumari, Sangeeta; Jamwal, Shilpa V.; Kalam, Haroon; Arora, Divya; Jain, Neharika; Kumaar, Lakshmi Krishna; Samal, Areejit; Rao, Kanury V. S.; Kumar, Dhiraj; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an adaptable intracellular pathogen, existing in both dormant as well as active disease-causing states. Here, we report systematic proteomic analyses of four strains, H37Ra, H37Rv, and clinical isolates BND and JAL, to determine the differences in protein expression patterns that contribute to their virulence and drug resistance. Resolution of lysates of the four strains by liquid chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, identified a total of 2161 protein groups covering ∼54% of the predicted M. tuberculosis proteome. Label-free quantification analysis of the data revealed 257 differentially expressed protein groups. The differentially expressed protein groups could be classified into seven K-means cluster bins, which broadly delineated strain-specific variations. Analysis of the data for possible mechanisms responsible for drug resistance phenotype of JAL suggested that it could be due to a combination of overexpression of proteins implicated in drug resistance and the other factors. Expression pattern analyses of transcription factors and their downstream targets demonstrated substantial differential modulation in JAL, suggesting a complex regulatory mechanism. Results showed distinct variations in the protein expression patterns of Esx and mce1 operon proteins in JAL and BND strains, respectively. Abrogating higher levels of ESAT6, an important Esx protein known to be critical for virulence, in the JAL strain diminished its virulence, although it had marginal impact on the other strains. Taken together, this study reveals that strain-specific variations in protein expression patterns have a meaningful impact on the biology of the pathogen. PMID:27151218

  3. Comparative genome-scale modelling of Staphylococcus aureus strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, Emanuele; Monk, Jonathan M.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Fondi, Marco; Nizet, Victor; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a preeminent bacterial pathogen capable of colonizing diverse ecological niches within its human host. We describe here the pangenome of S. aureus based on analysis of genome sequences from 64 strains of S. aureus spanning a range of ecological niches, host types, and antibiotic resistance profiles. Based on this set, S. aureus is expected to have an open pangenome composed of 7,411 genes and a core genome composed of 1,441 genes. Metabolism was highly conserved in this core genome; however, differences were identified in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways between the strains. Genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism were constructed for the 64 strains of S. aureus. These GEMs enabled a systems approach to characterizing the core metabolic and panmetabolic capabilities of the S. aureus species. All models were predicted to be auxotrophic for the vitamins niacin (vitamin B3) and thiamin (vitamin B1), whereas strain-specific auxotrophies were predicted for riboflavin (vitamin B2), guanosine, leucine, methionine, and cysteine, among others. GEMs were used to systematically analyze growth capabilities in more than 300 different growth-supporting environments. The results identified metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenic traits and virulence acquisitions. Such traits can be used to differentiate strains responsible for mild vs. severe infections and preference for hosts (e.g., animals vs. humans). Genome-scale analysis of multiple strains of a species can thus be used to identify metabolic determinants of virulence and increase our understanding of why certain strains of this deadly pathogen have spread rapidly throughout the world. PMID:27286824

  4. Comparative genome-scale modelling of Staphylococcus aureus strains identifies strain-specific metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bosi, Emanuele; Monk, Jonathan M; Aziz, Ramy K; Fondi, Marco; Nizet, Victor; Palsson, Bernhard Ø

    2016-06-28

    Staphylococcus aureus is a preeminent bacterial pathogen capable of colonizing diverse ecological niches within its human host. We describe here the pangenome of S. aureus based on analysis of genome sequences from 64 strains of S. aureus spanning a range of ecological niches, host types, and antibiotic resistance profiles. Based on this set, S. aureus is expected to have an open pangenome composed of 7,411 genes and a core genome composed of 1,441 genes. Metabolism was highly conserved in this core genome; however, differences were identified in amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis pathways between the strains. Genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism were constructed for the 64 strains of S. aureus These GEMs enabled a systems approach to characterizing the core metabolic and panmetabolic capabilities of the S. aureus species. All models were predicted to be auxotrophic for the vitamins niacin (vitamin B3) and thiamin (vitamin B1), whereas strain-specific auxotrophies were predicted for riboflavin (vitamin B2), guanosine, leucine, methionine, and cysteine, among others. GEMs were used to systematically analyze growth capabilities in more than 300 different growth-supporting environments. The results identified metabolic capabilities linked to pathogenic traits and virulence acquisitions. Such traits can be used to differentiate strains responsible for mild vs. severe infections and preference for hosts (e.g., animals vs. humans). Genome-scale analysis of multiple strains of a species can thus be used to identify metabolic determinants of virulence and increase our understanding of why certain strains of this deadly pathogen have spread rapidly throughout the world. PMID:27286824

  5. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  6. Integrated miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM cells) identifies strain-specific miRNA molecular signatures associated with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection.

    PubMed

    Cong, Peiqing; Xiao, Shuqi; Chen, Yaosheng; Wang, Liangliang; Gao, Jintao; Li, Ming; He, Zuyong; Guo, Yunxue; Zhao, Guangyin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Luxi; Mo, Delin; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-09-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant viral diseases in swine, which causes large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is considerable strain variation in PRRSV and two examples of this are the highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV) and the classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV), both with different pathogenesis. These differences may be due in part to genetic and phenotypic differences in virus replication, but also interaction with the host cell. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression and play vital roles in virus and host interactions. However, the regulation role of miRNAs during PRRSV infection has not been systematically investigated. In order to better understand the differential regulation roles of cellular miRNAs in the host response to PRRSV, miRNA expression and a global mRNA transcriptome profile was determined in primary cells infected with either H-PRRSV or N-PRRSV as multiple time points during the viral lifecycle. miRNA-mRNA interactome networks were constructed by integrating the differentially expressed miRNAs and inversely correlated target mRNAs. Using gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses, cellular pathways associated with deregulated miRNAs were identified, including immune response, phagosome, autophagy, lysosome, autolysis, apoptosis and cell cycle regulation. To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of strain-specific host miRNA molecular signatures associated with H- and N-PRRSV infection by integrating miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes and provides a new perspective on the contribution of miRNAs to the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. PMID:24962047

  7. Diagnostic tools to identify black aspergilli

    PubMed Central

    Samson, R.A.; Noonim, P.; Meijer, M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Varga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The present taxonomy of the black aspergilli reveals that there are 19 accepted taxa. However the identification of species of Aspergillus section Nigri is often problematic in spite of the existence of numerous methods proposed. An overview is provided of phenotypic and molecular methods to identify the accepted species of the black aspergilli. Colony morphology, conidial size and ornamentation of the ex type cultures is presented in a pictorial overview. The temperature range of all species is given and their growth characteristics on creatine agar and boscalid agar, a medium which was developed as a selective medium for the isolation of A. carbonarius are also shown. The extrolites produced by each species are listed while the response of the Ehrlich reaction is described. The literature on the various molecular methods to be used for species identification is reviewed and a critical evaluation of the usefulness of various techniques and genomic loci for species identification of black aspergilli is presented. PMID:18490945

  8. STRAIN-SPECIFIC MODIFIER GENES GOVERNING CRANIOFACIAL PHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Webb, Cynthia; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The presence of strain-specific modifier genes is known to modulate the phenotype and pathophysiology of mice harboring genetically engineered mutations. Thus, identification of genetic modifier genes is requisite to understanding control of phenotypic expression. c-Ski is a transcriptional regulator. Ski−/− mice on a C57BL6J (B6) background exhibit facial clefting, while Ski−/− mice on a 129P3 (129) background present with exencephaly. METHODS In the present study, oligonucleotide-based gene expression profiling was utilized to identify potential strain-specific modifier gene candidates present in wild-type mice of B6 and 129 genetic backgrounds. Changes in gene expression were verified by TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS Steady-state levels of 89 genes demonstrated a significantly higher level of expression, and those of 68 genes demonstrated a significantly lower level of expression in the developing neural tubes from E8.5, B6 embryos when compared to expression levels in neural tubes derived from E8.5, 129 embryos. CONCLUSIONS Based on the results from the current comparative microarray study, and taking into consideration a number of relevant published reports, several potential strain-specific gene candidates, likely to modify the craniofacial phenotypes in various knockout mouse models have been identified. PMID:22371338

  9. Strain-specific variations in Toxoplasma gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryati, S.; Sari, Y.; Prasetyo, A. A.; Sariyatun, R.

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis and identification of the genetic group of T. gondii (Toxoplasma gondii) are important to control better the T. gondii infection, particularly in immunocompromised people as HIV patients. This study aimed to identify strain-specific variations in T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 in order to help design such diagnostic tool to detect and characterize the parasite. Forty-three T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 sequences deposited in GenBank were aligned. A number of positions in the gene sequences were highly conserved. All GRA sequences had strain-specific positions, however, only GRA1, GRA5, and GRA6, which contained specific variations for each T. gondii lineage. In conclusion, T. gondii GRA1, GRA5, GRA6, GRA8, and GRA14 are predicted to contain highly conserved regions and positions with strain-specific variation, which might be useful for the design of diagnostic tools detecting and distinguishing T. gondiistrains.

  10. Identifying Prolonged Grief Reactions in Children: Dimensional and Diagnostic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Porta, Giovanna; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Children with prolonged grief reactions (PGR) have been found to be at increased risk for depression and functional impairment. Identifying and diagnosing PGR in children is challenging, as there are no available dimensional measures with established thresholds and no diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV. We examine thresholds for the Inventory for Complicated Grief–Revised for Children (ICG-RC) and compare this dimensional approach to the proposed DSM-5 criteria for Persistent Complex Bereavement-Related Disorder. We also identify a screening tool for PGR. Method Parentally bereaved children, 8–17 years of age, were assessed at 9, 21, and 33 months after parental death. Receiver Operator Characteristics were used to establish the “best threshold” that would identify children with PGR and evaluate the proposed DSM-5 criteria cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results A score of 68 or higher on the ICG-RC was found to have high sensitivity (0.942) and specificity (0.965) in differentiating cases with PGR from noncases at 9 months. We also identify a 6-item screening tool that consists of longing and yearning for the deceased, inability to accept the death, shock, disbelief, loneliness, and a changed world view. The proposed DSM-5 criteria only correctly identified 20% to 41.7% of cases with PGR at different timepoints. Conclusions For the identification of youth at risk for PGR, the dimensional approach outperformed the proposed categorical diagnostic criteria. We propose a brief screening scale that, if validated, can help clinicians identify bereaved children at risk for PGR, and guide the development of prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:23702449

  11. A Review and Comparison of Diagnostic Instruments to Identify Students' Misconceptions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2015-01-01

    Different diagnostic tools have been developed and used by researchers to identify students' conceptions. The present study aimed to provide an overview of the common diagnostic instruments in science to assess students' misconceptions. Also the study provides a brief comparison of these common diagnostic instruments with their strengths and…

  12. Statistical Diagnostics to Identify Galactic Foregrounds in B -Mode Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D.

    2014-11-01

    Recent developments in the search for inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background polarization motivate the search for new diagnostics to distinguish the Galactic foreground contribution to B modes from the cosmic signal. We show that B modes from these foregrounds should exhibit a local hexadecapolar departure in power from statistical isotropy (SI). We present a simple algorithm to search for a uniform SI violation of this sort, as may arise in a sufficiently small patch of sky. We then show how to search for these effects if the orientation of the SI violation varies across the survey region, as is more likely to occur in surveys with more sky coverage. If detected, these departures from Gaussianity would indicate some level of Galactic foreground contamination in the B -mode maps. Given uncertainties about foreground properties, though, caution should be exercised in attributing a null detection to an absence of foregrounds.

  13. Mapping and modeling of a strain-specific epitope in the Norwalk virus capsid inner shell.

    PubMed

    Parra, Gabriel I; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Abente, Eugenio J; Sandoval-Jaime, Carlos; Bok, Karin; Dolan, Michael A; Green, Kim Y

    2016-05-01

    Noroviruses are diverse positive-strand RNA viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis. Cross-reactive epitopes have been mapped primarily to conserved sequences in the capsid VP1 Shell (S) domain, and strain-specific epitopes to the highly variable Protruding (P) domain. In this work, we investigated a strain-specific linear epitope defined by MAb NV10 that was raised against prototype (Genogroup I.1) strain Norwalk virus (NV). Using peptide scanning and mutagenesis, the epitope was mapped to amino acids 21-32 (LVPEVNASDPLA) of the NV S domain, and its specificity was verified by epitope transfer and reactivity with a recombinant MAb NV10 single-chain variable fragment (scFv). Comparative structural modeling of the NV10 strain-specific and the broadly cross-reactive TV20 epitopes identified two internal non-overlapping sites in the NV shell, corresponding to variable and conserved amino acid sequences among strains, respectively. The S domain, like the P domain, contains strain-specific epitopes that contribute to the antigenic diversity among the noroviruses. PMID:26971245

  14. Association of Pathogen Strain-Specific Gene Transcription and Transmission Efficiency Phenotype of Anaplasma marginale▿

    PubMed Central

    Agnes, Joseph T.; Herndon, David; Ueti, Massaro W.; Ramabu, Solomon S.; Evans, Marc; Brayton, Kelly A.; Palmer, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. While the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. The St. Maries strain of Anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-efficiency strain that replicates to a high titer in the tick salivary gland and can be transmitted by <10 ticks. In contrast, A. marginale subsp. centrale (Israel vaccine strain) has an identical life cycle but replicates to a significantly lower level in the salivary gland, with transmission requiring >30-fold more ticks. We hypothesized that strain-specific genes expressed in the tick salivary gland at the time of transmission are linked to the differences in the transmission efficiency phenotype. Using both annotation-dependent and -independent analyses of the complete genome sequences, we identified 58 strain-specific genes. These genes most likely represent divergence from common ancestral genes in one or both strains based on analysis of synteny and lack of statistical support for acquisition as islands by lateral gene transfer. Twenty of the St. Maries strain-specific genes and 16 of the strain-specific genes in the Israel strain were transcribed in the tick salivary gland at the time of transmission. Although associated with the transmission phenotype, the expression levels of strain-specific genes were equal to or less than the expression levels in infected erythrocytes in the mammalian host, suggesting that function is not limited to salivary gland colonization. PMID:20308303

  15. Association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Agnes, Joseph T; Herndon, David; Ueti, Massaro W; Ramabu, Solomon S; Evans, Marc; Brayton, Kelly A; Palmer, Guy H

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. While the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. The St. Maries strain of Anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-efficiency strain that replicates to a high titer in the tick salivary gland and can be transmitted by <10 ticks. In contrast, A. marginale subsp. centrale (Israel vaccine strain) has an identical life cycle but replicates to a significantly lower level in the salivary gland, with transmission requiring >30-fold more ticks. We hypothesized that strain-specific genes expressed in the tick salivary gland at the time of transmission are linked to the differences in the transmission efficiency phenotype. Using both annotation-dependent and -independent analyses of the complete genome sequences, we identified 58 strain-specific genes. These genes most likely represent divergence from common ancestral genes in one or both strains based on analysis of synteny and lack of statistical support for acquisition as islands by lateral gene transfer. Twenty of the St. Maries strain-specific genes and 16 of the strain-specific genes in the Israel strain were transcribed in the tick salivary gland at the time of transmission. Although associated with the transmission phenotype, the expression levels of strain-specific genes were equal to or less than the expression levels in infected erythrocytes in the mammalian host, suggesting that function is not limited to salivary gland colonization. PMID:20308303

  16. A homozygous mutation in PEX16 identified by whole-exome sequencing ending a diagnostic odyssey

    PubMed Central

    Bacino, Carlos A.; Chao, Yu-Hsin; Seto, Elaine; Lotze, Tim; Xia, Fan; Jones, Richard O.; Moser, Ann; Wangler, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    We present a patient with a unique neurological phenotype with a progressive neurodegenerative. An 18-year diagnostic odyssey for the patient ended when exome sequencing identified a homozygous PEX16 mutation suggesting an atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD). Interestingly, the patient's peroxisomal biochemical abnormalities were subtle, such that plasma very-long-chain fatty acids initially failed to provide a diagnosis. This case suggests that next-generation sequencing may be diagnostic in some atypical peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. PMID:26644994

  17. MURINE PULMONARY RESPONSE TO CHRONIC HYPOXIA IS STRAIN SPECIFIC

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yuji; Laudi, Sven; Harral, Julie; Carr, Michelle; Ivester, Charles; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; Kuriyama, Takayuki; Nichols, William C.; West, James

    2013-01-01

    Information concerning the effects of genetic variation between different background strains on hemodynamic, morphometric, and gene expression response to hypoxia would be useful. Three strains of mice were kept in hypoxia and phenotyped followed by gene profiling analysis. Among the variables examined, hematocrit, right heart muscularization, and right ventricular systolic pressure showed a strain-specific effect. Increased gene expression of inflammatory, muscle, and angiogenesis genes were seen in all strains, though the specific genes changed varied among groups. These results suggest that different strains use different gene expression mechanisms to adapt to the challenge of chronic hypoxia, resulting in modified phenotypic changes. PMID:18600498

  18. Strain-specific virulence-associated antigen of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W A; Leong, J K; Hough, D M

    1975-01-01

    A strain-specific virulence-associated antigen has been found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain F-62. Using immunodiffusion in agar gel, it has been shown that the antigen is distinguishable from endotoxin and the virulence-associated toxic protein. It does not appear to be derived from pili. The antigen was not detected in T1 and/or T2 colony type cultures of 10 other isolates. It exhibited a possible partial immunological relationship with an antigen found in one additional strain. It was susceptible to digestion with Pronase and trypsin. Images PMID:804445

  19. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼107 CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. PMID:26187960

  20. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. PMID:26187960

  1. Identifying diagnostics for reservoir structure and CO2 plume migration from multilevel pressure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandli, Christin W.; Benson, Sally M.

    2013-06-01

    Important to large-scale implementation of Carbon Capture and Sequestration is the ability to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) that has been injected underground. The focus of this study is to understand how flow processes during CO2 injection impact the pressure observed at a nearby monitoring well. In particular, we are interested in how the reservoir structure (layering and anisotropy) and CO2 plume migration influence the pressure transients at different depths. For a multilayered geologic model, four basic combinations of homogeneity/heterogeneity and isotropy/anisotropy conditions are examined. Numerical simulations using TOUGH2 show different CO2 plume migration and large pressure buildups in the storage reservoir and the seal for each scenario. Pressure buildups normalized to the pressure buildup at the depth of injection are diagnostic of the approximate height of the CO2 plume and provide information on the reservoir structure. Vertical pressure gradients normalized to the initial hydrostatic pressure gradient are diagnostic of reservoir structure soon after the start of injection. Over time, they provide information on the height of the CO2 plume. The diagnostic features in the pressure response are evident long before the CO2 arrives at the monitoring well and can be attributed to buoyancy induced and gravity segregated aqueous flows caused by the advancing CO2 plume. The identified diagnostics will aid in the ultimate goal, which is to develop a monitoring technique based on multilevel pressure measurements.

  2. Strain-Specific Ureolytic Microbial Calcium Carbonate Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Hammes, Frederik; Boon, Nico; de Villiers, Johan; Verstraete, Willy; Siciliano, Steven Douglas

    2003-01-01

    During a study of ureolytic microbial calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation by bacterial isolates collected from different environmental samples, morphological differences were observed in the large CaCO3 crystal aggregates precipitated within bacterial colonies grown on agar. Based on these differences, 12 isolates were selected for further study. We hypothesized that the striking differences in crystal morphology were the result of different microbial species or, alternatively, differences in the functional attributes of the isolates selected. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that all of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to the Bacillus sphaericus group. Urease gene diversity among the isolates was examined by using a novel application of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This approach revealed significant differences between the isolates. Moreover, for several isolates, multiple bands appeared on the DGGE gels, suggesting the apparent presence of different urease genes in these isolates. The substrate affinities (Km) and maximum hydrolysis rates (Vmax) of crude enzyme extracts differed considerably for the different strains. For certain isolates, the urease activity increased up to 10-fold in the presence of 30 mM calcium, and apparently this contributed to the characteristic crystal formation by these isolates. We show that strain-specific calcification occurred during ureolytic microbial carbonate precipitation. The specificity was mainly due to differences in urease expression and the response to calcium. PMID:12902285

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  4. Multiple Serum Cytokine Profiling to Identify Combinational Diagnostic Biomarkers in Attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomohiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shuntaro; Umeda, Masataka; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yachie, Akihiro; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-04-01

    The precise cytokine networks in the serum of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that are associated with its pathogenesis have been unknown. Here, we attempted to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose or assess disease activity in FMF patients. We measured serum levels of 45 cytokines in 75 FMF patients and 40 age-matched controls by multisuspension cytokine array. FMF in "attack" or "remission" was classified by Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Cytokines were ranked by their importance by a multivariate classification algorithm. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine specific biomarkers for discriminating FMF patients in attack. To identify specific molecular networks, we performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine. Twenty-nine of the 45 cytokines were available for further analyses. Eight cytokines' serum levels were significantly elevated in the FMF attack versus healthy control group. Nine cytokines were increased in FMF attack compared to FMF remission. Multivariate classification algorithms followed by a logistic regression analysis revealed that the combined measurement of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 distinguished FMF patients in attack from the controls with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 95.5%). Among the FMF patients, the combined measurement of IL-6, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-12p40 discriminated febrile attack periods from remission periods with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 87.9%, and accuracy 84.0%). Our data identified combinational diagnostic biomarkers in FMF patients based on the measurement of multiple cytokines. These findings help to improve the diagnostic performance of FMF in daily practice and extend our understanding of the activation of the inflammasome leading to enhanced cytokine networks. PMID:27100444

  5. Multiple Serum Cytokine Profiling to Identify Combinational Diagnostic Biomarkers in Attacks of Familial Mediterranean Fever

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Tomohiro; Migita, Kiyoshi; Sato, Shuntaro; Umeda, Masataka; Nonaka, Fumiaki; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Iwamoto, Naoki; Ichinose, Kunihiro; Tamai, Mami; Nakamura, Hideki; Origuchi, Tomoki; Ueki, Yukitaka; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yachie, Akihiro; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Eguchi, Katsumi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The precise cytokine networks in the serum of individuals with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) that are associated with its pathogenesis have been unknown. Here, we attempted to identify specific biomarkers to diagnose or assess disease activity in FMF patients. We measured serum levels of 45 cytokines in 75 FMF patients and 40 age-matched controls by multisuspension cytokine array. FMF in “attack” or “remission” was classified by Japan College of Rheumatology-certified rheumatologists according to the Tel Hashomer criteria. Cytokines were ranked by their importance by a multivariate classification algorithm. We performed a logistic regression analysis to determine specific biomarkers for discriminating FMF patients in attack. To identify specific molecular networks, we performed a cluster analysis of each cytokine. Twenty-nine of the 45 cytokines were available for further analyses. Eight cytokines’ serum levels were significantly elevated in the FMF attack versus healthy control group. Nine cytokines were increased in FMF attack compared to FMF remission. Multivariate classification algorithms followed by a logistic regression analysis revealed that the combined measurement of IL-6, IL-18, and IL-17 distinguished FMF patients in attack from the controls with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 100%, and accuracy 95.5%). Among the FMF patients, the combined measurement of IL-6, G-CSF, IL-10, and IL-12p40 discriminated febrile attack periods from remission periods with the highest accuracy (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 87.9%, and accuracy 84.0%). Our data identified combinational diagnostic biomarkers in FMF patients based on the measurement of multiple cytokines. These findings help to improve the diagnostic performance of FMF in daily practice and extend our understanding of the activation of the inflammasome leading to enhanced cytokine networks. PMID:27100444

  6. A Microarray-Based Gene Expression Analysis to Identify Diagnostic Biomarkers for Unknown Primary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kurahashi, Issei; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Arao, Tokuzo; Kurata, Takayasu; Koh, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Koji; Tanioka, Maki; Takeda, Koji; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Tsuya, Asuka; Matsubara, Nobuaki; Mukai, Hirofumi; Minami, Hironobu; Chayahara, Naoko; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro; Miwa, Keisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Takahashi, Shunji; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Background The biological basis for cancer of unknown primary (CUP) at the molecular level remains largely unknown, with no evidence of whether a common biological entity exists. Here, we assessed the possibility of identifying a common diagnostic biomarker for CUP using a microarray gene expression analysis. Methods Tumor mRNA samples from 60 patients with CUP were analyzed using the Affymetrix U133A Plus 2.0 GeneChip and were normalized by asinh (hyperbolic arc sine) transformation to construct a mean gene-expression profile specific to CUP. A gene-expression profile specific to non-CUP group was constructed using publicly available raw microarray datasets. The t-tests were performed to compare the CUP with non-CUP groups and the top 59 CUP specific genes with the highest fold change were selected (p-value<0.001). Results Among the 44 genes that were up-regulated in the CUP group, 6 genes for ribosomal proteins were identified. Two of these genes (RPS7 and RPL11) are known to be involved in the Mdm2–p53 pathway. We also identified several genes related to metastasis and apoptosis, suggesting a biological attribute of CUP. Conclusions The protein products of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes identified in this study may be clinically useful as unique biomarkers for CUP. PMID:23671674

  7. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders. PMID:26638468

  8. Use of diagnostic bones to identify and estimate original lengths of ingested prey fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansel, H.C.; Duke, S.D.; Lofy, P.T.; Gray, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    We examined and measured cleithra, dentaries, opercles, and pharyngeal arches – bones found to persist during digestion of most prey fish – to identify 24 prey fish species and back-calculate their original fork length. Eighteen of the 24 species examined could be easily distinguished; however, for certain congenerics, identification was neither consistent nor reliable for all bones within the size ranges examined. Relations between bone length and fish length were linear for 14 species for which the sample sizes were adequate (N > 30); coefficients of determination (r 2) ranged from 0.79 to 0.99. Diagnostic characteristics and measurements of these bones provided reliable identification of genera and species and estimates of original fork lengths of partly digested prey fish from three predators. This method, compared with that of examining only prey fish in a measurable condition, greatly increased the amount of dietary information available from gut analysis.

  9. Non-invasive urinary metabolomic profiling identifies diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mathé, Ewy A.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Haznadar, Majda; Manna, Soumen K.; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Bowman, Elise D.; Shields, Peter G.; Idle, Jeffrey R.; Smith, Philip B.; Anami, Katsuhiro; Kazandjian, Dickran G.; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there is currently a lack of diagnostic noninvasive biomarkers that could guide treatment decisions. Small molecules (<1500 Da) were measured in urine collected from 469 lung cancer patients and 536 population controls using unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clinical putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers were validated by quantitation and normalized to creatinine levels at two different time points and further validated in an independent sample set, which comprises 80 cases and 78 population controls, with similar demographic and clinical characteristics when compared to the training set. Creatine riboside (IUPAC name: 2-{2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1-methylcarbamimidamido}acetic acid), a novel molecule identified in this study, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), were each significantly (P <0.00001) elevated in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with worse prognosis (hazard ratio (HR) =1.81 [P =0.0002], and 1.54 [P =0.025], respectively). Creatine riboside was the strongest classifier of lung cancer status in all and stage I–II cases, important for early detection, and also associated with worse prognosis in stage I–II lung cancer (HR =1.71, P =0.048). All measurements were highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 – 0.99. Both metabolites were significantly (P <0.03) enriched in tumor tissue compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue (N =48), thus revealing their direct association with tumor metabolism. Creatine riboside and NANA may be robust urinary clinical metabolomic markers that are elevated in tumor tissue and associated with early lung cancer diagnosis and worse prognosis. PMID:24736543

  10. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    PubMed Central

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-01-01

    We use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses for the latitudinal richness gradient and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The ecological limits hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal gradient arises from a gradient in speciation rates. (4) Finally, the tropical stability hypothesis argues that climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance (MRD) and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all produced phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between MRD and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. We found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios, with no relation expected under the ecological limits hypothesis, a negative relationship expected under the speciation rates hypothesis, and a positive relationship expected under the tropical stability hypothesis. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with multiple

  11. Noninvasive urinary metabolomic profiling identifies diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathé, Ewy A; Patterson, Andrew D; Haznadar, Majda; Manna, Soumen K; Krausz, Kristopher W; Bowman, Elise D; Shields, Peter G; Idle, Jeffrey R; Smith, Philip B; Anami, Katsuhiro; Kazandjian, Dickran G; Hatzakis, Emmanuel; Gonzalez, Frank J; Harris, Curtis C

    2014-06-15

    Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, yet there is currently a lack of diagnostic noninvasive biomarkers that could guide treatment decisions. Small molecules (<1,500 Da) were measured in urine collected from 469 patients with lung cancer and 536 population controls using unbiased liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Clinical putative diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers were validated by quantitation and normalized to creatinine levels at two different time points and further confirmed in an independent sample set, which comprises 80 cases and 78 population controls, with similar demographic and clinical characteristics when compared with the training set. Creatine riboside (IUPAC name: 2-{2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)-oxolan-2-yl]-1-methylcarbamimidamido}acetic acid), a novel molecule identified in this study, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were each significantly (P < 0.00001) elevated in non-small cell lung cancer and associated with worse prognosis [HR = 1.81 (P = 0.0002), and 1.54 (P = 0.025), respectively]. Creatine riboside was the strongest classifier of lung cancer status in all and stage I-II cases, important for early detection, and also associated with worse prognosis in stage I-II lung cancer (HR = 1.71, P = 0.048). All measurements were highly reproducible with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82 to 0.99. Both metabolites were significantly (P < 0.03) enriched in tumor tissue compared with adjacent nontumor tissue (N = 48), thus revealing their direct association with tumor metabolism. Creatine riboside and NANA may be robust urinary clinical metabolomic markers that are elevated in tumor tissue and associated with early lung cancer diagnosis and worse prognosis. PMID:24736543

  12. On the processes generating latitudinal richness gradients: identifying diagnostic patterns and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Hurlbert, Allen H.; Stegen, James C.

    2014-12-02

    Many processes have been put forward to explain the latitudinal gradient in species richness. Here, we use a simulation model to examine four of the most common hypotheses and identify patterns that might be diagnostic of those four hypotheses. The hypotheses examined include (1) tropical niche conservatism, or the idea that the tropics are more diverse because a tropical clade origin has allowed more time for diversification in the tropics and has resulted in few species adapted to extra-tropical climates. (2) The productivity, or energetic constraints, hypothesis suggests that species richness is limited by the amount of biologically available energy in a region. (3) The tropical stability hypothesis argues that major climatic fluctuations and glacial cycles in extratropical regions have led to greater extinction rates and less opportunity for specialization relative to the tropics. (4) Finally, the speciation rates hypothesis suggests that the latitudinal richness gradient arises from a parallel gradient in rates of speciation. We found that tropical niche conservatism can be distinguished from the other three scenarios by phylogenies which are more balanced than expected, no relationship between mean root distance and richness across regions, and a homogeneous rate of speciation across clades and through time. The energy gradient, speciation gradient, and disturbance gradient scenarios all exhibited phylogenies which were more imbalanced than expected, showed a negative relationship between mean root distance and richness, and diversity-dependence of speciation rate estimates through time. Using Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures on the simulated phylogenies, we found that the relationship between speciation rates and latitude could distinguish among these three scenarios. We emphasize the importance of considering multiple hypotheses and focusing on diagnostic predictions instead of predictions that are consistent with more than one hypothesis.

  13. A novel means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for detecting bacteria in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, V G; Munakata-Marr, J; Hopkins, G D; McCarty, P L; Tiedje, J M; Forney, L J

    1997-01-01

    A simple means to develop strain-specific DNA probes for use in monitoring the movement and survival of bacteria in natural and laboratory ecosystems was developed. The method employed amplification of genomic DNA via repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) using primers specific for repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) elements, followed by cloning of the amplified fragments. The cloned fragments were screened to identify those which were strain specific, and these were used as probes for total genomic DNA isolated from microbial communities and subjected to rep-PCR. To evaluate the utility of the approach, we developed probes specific for Burkholderia cepacia G4 and used them to determine the persistence of the strain in aquifer sediment microcosms following bioaugmentation. Two of four probes tested were found to specifically hybridize to DNA fragments of the expected sizes in the rep-PCR fingerprint of B. cepacia G4 but not to 64 genetically distinct bacteria previously isolated from the aquifer. One of these probes, a 650-bp fragment, produced a hybridization signal when as few as 10 CFU of B. cepacia G4 were present in a mixture with 10(6) CFU nontarget strains, indicating that the sensitivity of these probes was comparable to those of other PCR-based detection methods. The probes were used to discriminate groundwater and microcosm samples that contained B. cepacia G4 from those which did not. False-positive results were obtained with a few samples, but these were readily identified by using hybridization to the second probe as a confirmation step. The general applicability of the method was demonstrated by constructing probes specific to three other environmental isolates. PMID:9212434

  14. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas. PMID:27313496

  15. A Novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab Rapid Diagnostic Test Using a Differential Diagnostic Marker Identified by Network Biology

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Jin; Lee, Jihoo; Lee, Hyun Jae; Jo, Hyun-Young; Sinniah, Mangalam; Kim, Hak-Yong; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can detect anti-malaria antibodies in human blood. As they can detect parasite infection at the low parasite density, they are useful in endemic areas where light infection and/or re-infection of parasites are common. Thus, malaria antibody tests can be used for screening bloods in blood banks to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), an emerging problem in malaria endemic areas. However, only a few malaria antibody tests are available in the microwell-based assay format and these are not suitable for field application. A novel malaria antibody (Ab)-based RDT using a differential diagnostic marker for falciparum and vivax malaria was developed as a suitable high-throughput assay that is sensitive and practical for blood screening. The marker, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) was discovered by generation of a Plasmodium-specific network and the hierarchical organization of modularity in the network. Clinical evaluation revealed that the novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT shows improved sensitivity (98%) and specificity (99.7%) compared with the performance of a commercial kit, SD BioLine Malaria P.f/P.v (95.1% sensitivity and 99.1% specificity). The novel Malaria Pf/Pv Ab RDT has potential for use as a cost-effective blood-screening tool for malaria and in turn, reduces TTM risk in endemic areas. PMID:27313496

  16. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  17. [Usefulness of clinical data and rapid diagnostic tests to identify bacterial etiology in adult respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Toledano-Sierra, Pilar; Arriola-Hernández, Maite; Orueta-Sánchez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a common complaint and most of them, such as common cold and laryngitis, are viral in origin, so antibiotic use should be exceptional. However, there are other respiratory tract infections (sinusitis, pharyngitis, lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) where a bacterial etiology is responsible for a non-negligible percentage, and antibiotics are often empirically indicated. The aim of the study is to identify the strength of the data obtained from the symptoms, physical examination and rapid diagnostic methods in respiratory infections in which antibiotic use is frequently proposed in order to improve diagnosis and influence the decision to prescribe these drugs. The review concludes that history, physical examination and rapid tests are useful to guide the need for antibiotic treatment in diseases such as acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, exacerbation of lower respiratory tract infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, no isolated data is accurate enough by itself to confirm or rule out the need for antibiotics. Therefore, clinical prediction rules bring together history and physical examination, thereby improving the accuracy of the decision to indicate or not antibiotics. PMID:25646631

  18. Identifying features of 'pathological demand avoidance' using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO).

    PubMed

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Gould, Judith; Christie, Phil; Gillberg, Christopher; Viding, Essi; Happé, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    The term 'pathological demand avoidance' (PDA) was coined by Elizabeth Newson to describe children within the autism spectrum who exhibit obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests (Newson et al., Arch Dis Child 88:595-600, 2003). Clinical accounts describe avoidance strategies including apparently strategic use of distraction or socially shocking behaviour, and obsessive need for control, reflected in domineering behaviour to peers and adults. Educational and management approaches effective for PDA reportedly differ from those for 'typical' autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include novelty, humour and flexibility. Identification of PDA in individuals with ASD may have important implications for management (Eaton and Banting, J Learn Disabil Offending Behav 3:150-157, 2012). Despite increasing interest, no clinician-rated instrument for PDA has been developed. Here, items relevant to PDA were identified from the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorder (DISCO) (Wing et al., J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:307-325, 2002). The most PDA-specific subset of relevant DISCO items was selected, based on low endorsement in general across a sample of 153 individuals assessed for possible ASD using the DISCO. Having selected 11 DISCO PDA items for the measure, a subset of individuals with a high number of these features was identified (N = 27). Consistent with Newson's descriptions, this high scoring group was characterised by lack of co-operation, use of apparently manipulative behaviour, socially shocking behaviour, difficulties with other people, anxiety and sudden behavioural changes from loving to aggression. All but one case met criteria for an ASD. This study brings the field a step closer to a clinician-rated measure of PDA features and highlights the need for further elucidation of the PDA phenotype. PMID:26224583

  19. Development of a PCR assay for the strain-specific identification of probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Angelo; De Bellis, Palmira; Visconti, Angelo; Morelli, Lorenzo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2009-11-30

    Recent investigations clearly indicate that the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 can be incorporated into vegetables to obtain innovative probiotic foods whose marketing has been authorized by the Italian Ministry of Health. In this study, strain IMPC2.1 was characterized at a molecular level in order to define its taxonomic position and to develop a PCR test for strain-specific identification. Molecular methods, such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multiplex PCR, have provided evidence that strain IMPC2.1 indeed belongs to the L. paracasei species. In addition, a cluster analysis of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (f-AFLP) data strongly indicated that strain IMPC2.1 and nine other L. paracasei strains (including strain ATCC 334) belong to the same species and are definitely differentiated from the type strain L. casei ATCC 393. The f-AFLP technique was also used to identify a strain-specific DNA fragment of L. paracasei IMPC2.1 - encoding an amino acid sequence similar to a glycosyltransferase of probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 - which enabled us to develop a rapid PCR test for strain-specific identification. The strain-specificity of the PCR test was assessed by comparison with a total of 73 bacterial strains mainly isolated from vegetable products that did not produce any amplified fragment. These strains belonged to the L. paracasei species, to 6 additional species of Lactobacillus and to Weissella cibaria, W. confusa, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentosaceus. A method similar to the one used in this study can be adopted to develop easy, rapid detection techniques for monitoring other bacteria in complex microbiota. PMID:19833402

  20. A search strategy to identify studies on the prognosis of work disability: a diagnostic test framework

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Rob; Verbeek, Jos A H M; Faber, Babs; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hoving, Jan L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Searching the medical literature for evidence on prognosis is an important aspect of evidence-based disability evaluation. To facilitate this, we aimed to develop and evaluate a comprehensive and efficient search strategy in PubMed, to be used by either researchers or practitioners and that will identify articles on the prognosis of work disability. Methods We used a diagnostic test analytic framework. First, we created a reference set of 225 articles on the prognosis of work disability by screening a total of 65 692 titles and abstracts from10 journals in the period 2000–2009. Included studies had a minimum follow-up of 6 months, participants in the age of 18–64 with a minimum sick leave of 4 weeks or longer or having serious activity limitations in 50% of the cases and outcome measures that reflect impairments, activity limitations or participation restrictions. Using text mining methods, we extracted search terms from the reference set and, according to sensitivity and relative frequency, we combined these into search strings. Results Both the research and the practice search filter outperformed existing filters in occupational health, all combined with the Yale-prognostic filter. The Work Disability Prognosis filter for Research showed a comprehensiveness of 90% (95% CI 86 to 94) and efficiency expressed more user-friendly as Number Needed to Read=20 (95% CI 17 to 34). Conclusions The Work Disability Prognosis filter will help practitioners and researchers who want to find prognostic evidence in the area of work disability evaluation. However, further refining of this filter is possible and needed, especially for the practitioner for whom efficiency is especially important. PMID:25991444

  1. There is need for antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests to identify common acute tropical illnesses.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Henry; Suankratay, Chusana

    2007-01-01

    Enteric fever, typhus, leptospirosis, dengue, melioidosis, and tuberculous meningitis present urgent diagnostic problems that require experience and clinical judgment to make early evidence-based management decisions. Basic and applied research dealing with reliable antigen-based diagnostics has been published and confirmed for several of these infections. This should have initiated commercial production but has not. Established international firms see little profit in such diagnostic kits since they would be used in poor countries with little prospects for return of investment capital. We attempt to illustrate this issue, using common causes of acute febrile illnesses in the Southeast Asian region. We believe that rapid diagnostic technology could prevent significant delay in starting appropriate therapy, reduce hospital expenses, and even save lives. PMID:17617848

  2. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  3. The use of Diagnostic Imaging for Identifying Abnormal Gas Accumulations in Cetaceans and Pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Sophie; Fahlman, Andreas; Moore, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent dogma suggested that marine mammals are not at risk of decompression sickness due to a number of evolutionary adaptations. Several proposed adaptations exist. Lung compression and alveolar collapse that terminate gas-exchange before a depth is reached where supersaturation is significant and bradycardia with peripheral vasoconstriction affecting the distribution, and dynamics of blood and tissue nitrogen levels. Published accounts of gas and fat emboli and dysbaric osteonecrosis in marine mammals and theoretical modeling have challenged this view-point, suggesting that decompression-like symptoms may occur under certain circumstances, contrary to common belief. Diagnostic imaging modalities are invaluable tools for the non-invasive examination of animals for evidence of gas and have been used to demonstrate the presence of incidental decompression-related renal gas accumulations in some stranded cetaceans. Diagnostic imaging has also contributed to the recognition of clinically significant gas accumulations in live and dead cetaceans and pinnipeds. Understanding the appropriate application and limitations of the available imaging modalities is important for accurate interpretation of results. The presence of gas may be asymptomatic and must be interpreted cautiously alongside all other available data including clinical examination, clinical laboratory testing, gas analysis, necropsy examination, and histology results. PMID:22685439

  4. Statistical diagnostics to identify galactic foregrounds in B-mode maps.

    PubMed

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D

    2014-11-01

    Recent developments in the search for inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background polarization motivate the search for new diagnostics to distinguish the Galactic foreground contribution to B modes from the cosmic signal. We show that B modes from these foregrounds should exhibit a local hexadecapolar departure in power from statistical isotropy (SI). We present a simple algorithm to search for a uniform SI violation of this sort, as may arise in a sufficiently small patch of sky. We then show how to search for these effects if the orientation of the SI violation varies across the survey region, as is more likely to occur in surveys with more sky coverage. If detected, these departures from Gaussianity would indicate some level of Galactic foreground contamination in the B-mode maps. Given uncertainties about foreground properties, though, caution should be exercised in attributing a null detection to an absence of foregrounds. PMID:25415897

  5. Strain-specific parallel evolution drives short-term diversification during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Kerensa E; Hui, Janice G K; Woo, Jerry K K; Luk, Alison W S; Webb, Jeremy S; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-04-01

    Generation of genetic diversity is a prerequisite for bacterial evolution and adaptation. Short-term diversification and selection within populations is, however, largely uncharacterised, as existing studies typically focus on fixed substitutions. Here, we use whole-genome deep-sequencing to capture the spectrum of mutations arising during biofilm development for two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach identified single nucleotide variants with frequencies from 0.5% to 98.0% and showed that the clinical strain 18A exhibits greater genetic diversification than the type strain PA01, despite its lower per base mutation rate. Mutations were found to be strain specific: the mucoid strain 18A experienced mutations in alginate production genes and a c-di-GMP regulator gene; while PA01 acquired mutations in PilT and PilY1, possibly in response to a rapid expansion of a lytic Pf4 bacteriophage, which may use type IV pili for infection. The Pf4 population diversified with an evolutionary rate of 2.43 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per day, which is comparable to single-stranded RNA viruses. Extensive within-strain parallel evolution, often involving identical nucleotides, was also observed indicating that mutation supply is not limiting, which was contrasted by an almost complete lack of noncoding and synonymous mutations. Taken together, these results suggest that the majority of the P. aeruginosa genome is constrained by negative selection, with strong positive selection acting on an accessory subset of genes that facilitate adaptation to the biofilm lifecycle. Long-term bacterial evolution is known to proceed via few, nonsynonymous, positively selected mutations, and here we show that similar dynamics govern short-term, within-population bacterial diversification. PMID:24706926

  6. Strain-Specific Survival of Salmonella enterica in Peanut Oil, Peanut Shell, and Chia Seeds.

    PubMed

    Fong, Karen; Wang, Siyun

    2016-03-01

    In North America, outbreaks of Salmonella have been linked to low-water activity (aw) foods, such as nuts and seeds. These outbreaks have implicated an assortment of Salmonella serotypes. Some Salmonella serotypes (e.g., Enteritidis and Typhimurium) cause high proportions of salmonellosis. Nevertheless, there has recently been an emergence of uncommon Salmonella serotypes and strains (e.g., Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson) in low-aw foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival characteristics of Salmonella serotypes Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Tennessee, Hartford, and Thompson in three low-aw food ingredients with varying aw: peanut oil (aw = 0.521 ± 0.003), peanut shell (aw = 0.321 ± 0.20), and chia seeds (aw = 0.585 ± 0.003). The survival of individual Salmonella strains on each food matrix was monitored for a maximum of 150 days by spreading the bacterial cells onto Luria-Bertani and/or xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Overall, Salmonella survived for the longest periods of time in peanut oil (96 ± 8 days), followed by chia seeds (94 ± 46 days). The survival period was substantially reduced on the surface of peanut shell (42 ± 49 h), although PCR after 70 days of incubation revealed the presence of Salmonella cells. In addition, Salmonella exhibited a strain-specific response in the three low-aw foods tested. Salmonella Hartford was identified as highly persistent in all low-aw food matrices, whereas Salmonella Typhimurium was the least persistent. The current research emphasizes the adaptable nature of Salmonella to low-aw food ingredients. This may pose additional problems owing to the downstream production of various end products. Additionally, unique survival characteristics among Salmonella strains highlight the need for tailored mitigation strategies regarding high-risk Salmonella strains in the food industry. PMID:26939645

  7. Mouse strain specific gene expression differences for illumina microarray expression profiling in embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the field of mouse genetics the advent of technologies like microarray based expression profiling dramatically increased data availability and sensitivity, yet these advanced methods are often vulnerable to the unavoidable heterogeneity of in vivo material and might therefore reflect differentially expressed genes between mouse strains of no relevance to a targeted experiment. The aim of this study was not to elaborate on the usefulness of microarray analysis in general, but to expand our knowledge regarding this potential “background noise” for the widely used Illumina microarray platform surpassing existing data which focused primarily on the adult sensory and nervous system, by analyzing patterns of gene expression at different embryonic stages using wild type strains and modern transgenic models of often non-isogenic backgrounds. Results Wild type embryos of 11 mouse strains commonly used in transgenic and molecular genetic studies at three developmental time points were subjected to Illumina microarray expression profiling in a strain-by-strain comparison. Our data robustly reflects known gene expression patterns during mid-gestation development. Decreasing diversity of the input tissue and/or increasing strain diversity raised the sensitivity of the array towards the genetic background. Consistent strain sensitivity of some probes was attributed to genetic polymorphisms or probe design related artifacts. Conclusion Our study provides an extensive reference list of gene expression profiling background noise of value to anyone in the field of developmental biology and transgenic research performing microarray expression profiling with the widely used Illumina microarray platform. Probes identified as strain specific background noise further allow for microarray expression profiling on its own to be a valuable tool for establishing genealogies of mouse inbred strains. PMID:22583621

  8. Use of Plasma Metabolomics to Identify Diagnostic Biomarkers for Early Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lijun; Yin, Mingzhu; Ke, Chaofu; Ge, Tingting; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Wang; Zhou, Xiaohua; Lou, Ge; Li, Kang

    2016-01-01

    The early detection of ovarian carcinoma is difficult due to the absence of recognizable physical symptoms and a lack of sensitive screening methods. The currently available biomarkers (such as CA125 and HE4) are insufficiently reliable to distinguish early stage (I/II) epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from normal individuals because they possess a relatively poor sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the application of metabolomics to biomarker discovery in the early stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), plasma samples from 21 early stage EOC patients and 31 healthy controls were analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-Tof/MS) in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen metabolites, including lysophospholipids, 2-piperidone and MG (18:2), were found to be disturbed in early stage EOC with satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.920). These biomarkers were specifically validated in the EOC nude mouse model, and five of the biomarkers (lysophospholipids, adrenoyl ethanolamide et al.) were highly suspected of being associated with EOC because they were differentially expressed with the same tendency in the EOC nude mice versus normal controls. In conclusion, the selected metabolic biomarkers have considerable utility and significant potential for diagnosing early ovarian cancer and investigating its underlying mechanisms. PMID:27390602

  9. Identifying Strategy Use in Category Learning Tasks: A Case for More Diagnostic Data and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donkin, Chris; Newell, Ben R.; Kalish, Mike; Dunn, John C.; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The strength of conclusions about the adoption of different categorization strategies--and their implications for theories about the cognitive and neural bases of category learning--depend heavily on the techniques for identifying strategy use. We examine performance in an often-used "information-integration" category structure and…

  10. Diagnostic Implications of Bannatyne's Recategorized WISC-R Scores for Identifying Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Stephan A.; Wittman, Robert D.

    1981-01-01

    The study examined the use of A. Bannatyne's Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) subtest score recategorization hierarchy in identifying elementary students with learning disabilities (LD). The results indicated that Bannatyne's pattern was of little value in differentiating between LD students and nonLD students and, if…

  11. Strain-Specific Changes in Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish Elicited by Cholinergic Challenge

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some studies have compared the baseline behavior of different strains of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), but there is sparse information on strain-specific responses to chemical challenges. The following study examines both the basal activity and response to a pharmacological cha...

  12. Identifying diagnostic endocrine markers and changes in endometrial gene expressions during pyometra in cats.

    PubMed

    Jursza-Piotrowska, Ewelina; Siemieniuch, Marta J

    2016-06-01

    Pyometra is a significant reproductive problem in cats. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the immunological profile of queens by studying plasma concentrations of metabolites of prostacyclin I2 (6-keto-PGF1α), leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4); and (ii) the gene transcription profiles of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 (TLR2/4), PGE2-synthase (PGES), PGF2α-synthase (PGFS) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in the feline endometrium throughout the estrous cycle, after medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment and during pyometra. The concentration of plasma 6-keto-PGF1α in pyometra was increased in comparison to other groups studied (p<0.01). Endometrial mRNA coding for TLR2 was up-regulated in cats suffering from pyometra compared to other groups (p<0.001). Expression of mRNA for TLR4 was up-regulated in endometria originating from MPA-treated cats, pyometra and late diestrus cats, compared with tissues from cats during estrus and anestrus (p<0.05). As expected, endometrial mRNA for PTGS2 was up-regulated only in pyometra, compared with other groups (p<0.001). Similarly, endometrial mRNA for PGFS was up-regulated in pyometra, compared with endometria from anestrus, late diestrus and from MPA-treated cats (p<0.05), or from cats during estrus (p<0.01). Overall, these results indicate that plasma concentrations of LTB4 and LTC4 are not useful diagnostic markers since they were not increased in queens with pyometra, in contrast to 6-keto-PGF1α. In addition, treatment with MPA evoked neither endocrine nor molecular changes in endometria of cats. PMID:27288342

  13. Strain-Specific Protective Effect of the Immunity Induced by Live Malarial Sporozoites under Chloroquine Cover

    PubMed Central

    Wijayalath, Wathsala; Cheesman, Sandra; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Handunnetti, Shiroma; Carter, Richard; Pathirana, Sisira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of a whole-sporozoite malaria vaccine would partly be determined by the strain-specificity of the protective responses against malarial sporozoites and liver-stage parasites. Evidence from previous reports were inconsistent, where some studies have shown that the protective immunity induced by irradiated or live sporozoites in rodents or humans were cross-protective and in others strain-specific. In the present work, we have studied the strain-specificity of live sporozoite-induced immunity using two genetically and immunologically different strains of Plasmodium cynomolgi, Pc746 and PcCeylon, in toque monkeys. Two groups of monkeys were immunized against live sporozoites of either the Pc746 (n = 5), or the PcCeylon (n = 4) strain, by the bites of 2–4 sporozoite-infected Anopheles tessellates mosquitoes per monkey under concurrent treatments with chloroquine and primaquine to abrogate detectable blood infections. Subsequently, a group of non-immunized monkeys (n = 4), and the two groups of immunized monkeys were challenged with a mixture of sporozoites of the two strains by the bites of 2–5 infective mosquitoes from each strain per monkey. In order to determine the strain-specificity of the protective immunity, the proportions of parasites of the two strains in the challenge infections were quantified using an allele quantification assay, Pyrosequencing™, based on a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the parasites’ circumsporozoite protein gene. The Pyrosequencing™ data showed that a significant reduction of parasites of the immunizing strain in each group of strain-specifically immunized monkeys had occurred, indicating a stronger killing effect on parasites of the immunizing strain. Thus, the protective immunity developed following a single, live sporozoite/chloroquine immunization, acted specifically against the immunizing strain and was, therefore, strain-specific. As our experiment does not allow us to determine the

  14. Comparison of three diagnostic methods to identify subclinical endometritis in mares.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, W; Witte, T S; Heuwieser, W

    2011-04-15

    of CB was 0.42. A combination of a bacteriological and a cytological examination of a CB sample improved the diagnostic performance in subfertile mares. Based on these results, we can recommend the CB to improve the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in the mare compared to the US alone as currently used routine method. PMID:21251703

  15. Use of nasometry as a diagnostic tool for identifying patients with velopharyngeal impairment.

    PubMed

    Dalston, R M; Warren, D W; Dalston, E T

    1991-04-01

    A series of 117 patients were studied in an attempt to determine the extent to which acoustic assessments of speech made with a Kay Elemetrics Nasometer corresponded with aerodynamic estimates of velopharyngeal area and clinical judgments of hypernasality. Nasometer data were obtained while patients read or repeated a standardized passage with no nasal consonants. Pressure-flow data were obtained from 96 of these patients during repeated productions of the word "papa." Listener judgments were made in a clinical setting by the senior author using a 6-point equal-appearing interval scale. Nasometer and pressure-flow results were not known to the senior author when making listener assessments. With a cutoff nasalance score of 32, the sensitivity of Nasometer ratings in correctly identifying the presence or absence of velopharyngeal areas in excess of 0.10 cm2 was 0.78 and 0.79, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nasometry in correctly identifying subjects with more than mild hypernasality in their speech was 0.89 while the specificity was 0.95. The results suggest that the Nasometer is an appropriate instrument that can be of value in assessing patients suspected of having velopharyngeal impairment. PMID:2069975

  16. Metabolomics studies identify novel diagnostic and prognostic indicators in patients with alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ascha, Mona; Wang, Zeneng; Ascha, Mustafa S; Dweik, Raed; Zein, Nizar N; Grove, David; Brown, J Mark; Marshall, Stephanie; Lopez, Rocio; Hanouneh, Ibrahim A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify plasma analytes using metabolomics that correlate with the diagnosis and severity of liver disease in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with cirrhosis from AH (n = 23) and those with cirrhosis with acute decompensation (AD) from etiologies other than alcohol (n = 25). We used mass spectrometry to identify 29 metabolic compounds in plasma samples from fasted subjects. A receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to assess the utility of biomarkers in distinguishing acute AH from alcoholic cirrhosis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to build a predictive model for AH based on clinical characteristics. A survival analysis was used to construct Kaplan Meier curves evaluating transplant-free survival. RESULTS: A comparison of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-adjusted metabolomics levels between cirrhosis patients who had AD or AH showed that patients with AH had significantly higher levels of betaine, and lower creatinine, phenylalanine, homocitrulline, citrulline, tyrosine, octenoyl-carnitine, and symmetric dimethylarginine. When considering combined levels, betaine and citrulline were highly accurate predictors for differentiation between AH and AD (area under receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.84). The plasma levels of carnitine [0.54 (0.18, 0.91); P = 0.005], homocitrulline [0.66 (0.34, 0.99); P < 0.001] and pentanoyl-carnitine [0.53 (0.16, 0.90); P = 0.007] correlated with MELD scores in patients diagnosed with AH. Increased levels of many biomarkers (carnitine P = 0.005, butyrobetaine P = 0.32, homocitrulline P = 0.002, leucine P = 0.027, valine P = 0.024, phenylalanine P = 0.037, tyrosine P = 0.012, acetyl-carnitine P = 0.006, propionyl-carnitine P = 0.03, butyryl-carnitine P = 0.03, trimethyl-lisine P = 0.034, pentanoyl-carnitine P = 0.03, hexanoyl-carnitine P = 0.026) were associated with increased mortality in patients with AH. CONCLUSION

  17. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  18. A novel diagnostic protocol to identify patients suitable for discharge after a single high-sensitivity troponin

    PubMed Central

    Carlton, Edward W; Cullen, Louise; Than, Martin; Gamble, James; Khattab, Ahmed; Greaves, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish whether a novel accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP) for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) could successfully identify low-risk patients suitable for discharge after a single high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) taken at presentation to the emergency department. We also compared the diagnostic accuracy of this ADP with strategies using initial undetectable hs-cTnT. Methods This prospective observational study evaluated the ability of the Triage Rule-out Using high-Sensitivity Troponin (TRUST) ADP to identify low-risk patients with suspected ACS. The ADP incorporated a single presentation hs-cTnT of <14 ng/L, a non-ischaemic ECG and a modified Goldman risk score. Diagnostic performance of the ADP was compared with the detection limit cut-offs of hs-cTnT (<5 ng/L and <3 ng/L). The primary end point was fatal/non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) within 30 days. Results 960 participants were recruited, mean age 58.0 years, 80 (8.3%) had an AMI. The TRUST ADP classified 382 (39.8%) as low-risk with a sensitivity for identifying AMI of 98.8% (95% CI 92.5% to 99.9%). hs-cTnT detection limits (<5 ng/L and <3 ng/L) had a sensitivity of 100% (94.3 to 100) and 100% (94.4 to 100), respectively. The TRUST ADP identified more patients suitable for early discharge at 39.8% vs 29.3% (<5 ng/L) and 7.9% (<3 ng/L) (p<0.001) with a lower false-positive rate for AMI detection; specificity 43.3% (95% CI 42.7% to 43.4%) vs 32.0% (95% CI 31.5% to 32.0%) and 8.6% (95% CI 8.1% to 8.6%), respectively. Conclusions The TRUST ADP, which incorporates structured risk-assessment and a single presentation hs-cTnT blood draw, has potential to allow early discharge in 40% of patients with suspected ACS and has greater clinical utility than undetectable hs-cTnT strategies. Trial registration number ISRCTN No. 21109279. PMID:25691511

  19. Robertsonian Translocations: An Overview of 872 Robertsonian Translocations Identified in a Diagnostic Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fan; Jiang, Shuai; Su, Hui; Liang, Jianfen; Deng, Chunhua; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    Robertsonian translocations (ROBs) have an estimated incidence rate of 1/1000 births, making this type of rearrangement the most common structural chromosomal abnormalities seen in the general population. In this study, we reports 872 cases of ROBs from 205,001 specimens karyotyped postnatally in a single accredited laboratory in China, including 583 balanced ROBs, 264 unbalanced ROBs, 9 mosaic ROBs, and 18 complex ROBs. Ninety-three percent of the balanced ROBs observed were adults with infertility, miscarriage, or offspring(s) with known chromosomal abnormalities. Significant excess of females were found to be carriers of balanced ROBs with an adjusted male/female ratio of 0.77. Ninety-eight percent of the unbalanced ROBs observed were children with variable referral reasons. Almost all of the unbalanced ROBs involved chromosome 21 except a single ROB with [46,XX,der(13;14),+13] identified in a newborn girl with multiple congenital anomalies. Multiple novel ROB karyotypes were reported in this report. This study represents the largest collections of ROBs in Chinese population. PMID:25932913

  20. Diagnostic Strategy for Identifying Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Based on Four Patterns of Virulence Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Brigitte; Brée, Annie; Mora, Azucena; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Biet, François; Oswald, Eric; Mainil, Jacques; Blanco, Jorge; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the identification of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains, an extensive characterization of 1,491 E. coli isolates was conducted, based on serotyping, virulence genotyping, and experimental pathogenicity for chickens. The isolates originated from lesions of avian colibacillosis (n = 1,307) or from the intestines of healthy animals (n = 184) from France, Spain, and Belgium. A subset (460 isolates) of this collection was defined according to their virulence for chicks. Six serogroups (O1, O2, O5, O8, O18, and O78) accounted for 56.5% of the APEC isolates and 22.5% of the nonpathogenic isolates. Thirteen virulence genes were more frequently present in APEC isolates than in nonpathogenic isolates but, individually, none of them could allow the identification of an isolate as an APEC strain. In order to take into account the diversity of APEC strains, a statistical analysis based on a tree-modeling method was therefore conducted on the sample of 460 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. This resulted in the identification of four different associations of virulence genes that enables the identification of 70.2% of the pathogenic strains. Pathogenic strains were identified with an error margin of 4.3%. The reliability of the link between these four virulence patterns and pathogenicity for chickens was validated on a sample of 395 E. coli isolates from the collection. The genotyping method described here allowed the identification of more APEC isolates with greater reliability than the classical serotyping methods currently used in veterinary laboratories. PMID:22378905

  1. Tracking a Tuberculosis Outbreak Over 21 Years: Strain-Specific Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Typing Combined With Targeted Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Stucki, David; Ballif, Marie; Bodmer, Thomas; Coscolla, Mireia; Maurer, Anne-Marie; Droz, Sara; Butz, Christa; Borrell, Sonia; Längle, Christel; Feldmann, Julia; Furrer, Hansjakob; Mordasini, Carlo; Helbling, Peter; Rieder, Hans L.; Egger, Matthias; Gagneux, Sébastien; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly used in molecular-epidemiological investigations of bacterial pathogens, despite cost- and time-intensive analyses. We combined strain-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and targeted WGS to investigate a tuberculosis cluster spanning 21 years in Bern, Switzerland. Methods. On the basis of genome sequences of 3 historical outbreak Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, we developed a strain-specific SNP-typing assay to identify further cases. We screened 1642 patient isolates and performed WGS on all identified cluster isolates. We extracted SNPs to construct genomic networks. Clinical and social data were retrospectively collected. Results. We identified 68 patients associated with the outbreak strain. Most received a tuberculosis diagnosis in 1991–1995, but cases were observed until 2011. Two thirds were homeless and/or substance abusers. Targeted WGS revealed 133 variable SNP positions among outbreak isolates. Genomic network analyses suggested a single origin of the outbreak, with subsequent division into 3 subclusters. Isolates from patients with confirmed epidemiological links differed by 0–11 SNPs. Conclusions. Strain-specific SNP genotyping allowed rapid and inexpensive identification of M. tuberculosis outbreak isolates in a population-based strain collection. Subsequent targeted WGS provided detailed insights into transmission dynamics. This combined approach could be applied to track bacterial pathogens in real time and at high resolution. PMID:25362193

  2. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R.; Barany, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft3). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic system

  3. Modular microfluidic system fabricated in thermoplastics for the strain-specific detection of bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Hong; Hupert, Mateusz; Witek, Makgorzata; Dharmasiri, Udara; Pingle, Maneesh R; Barany, Francis; Soper, Steven A

    2012-09-21

    The recent outbreaks of a lethal E. coli strain in Germany have aroused renewed interest in developing rapid, specific and accurate systems for detecting and characterizing bacterial pathogens in suspected contaminated food and/or water supplies. To address this need, we have designed, fabricated and tested an integrated modular-based microfluidic system and the accompanying assay for the strain-specific identification of bacterial pathogens. The system can carry out the entire molecular processing pipeline in a single disposable fluidic cartridge and detect single nucleotide variations in selected genes to allow for the identification of the bacterial species, even its strain with high specificity. The unique aspect of this fluidic cartridge is its modular format with task-specific modules interconnected to a fluidic motherboard to permit the selection of the target material. In addition, to minimize the amount of finishing steps for assembling the fluidic cartridge, many of the functional components were produced during the polymer molding step used to create the fluidic network. The operation of the cartridge was provided by electronic, mechanical, optical and hydraulic controls located off-chip and packaged into a small footprint instrument (1 ft(3)). The fluidic cartridge was capable of performing cell enrichment, cell lysis, solid-phase extraction (SPE) of genomic DNA, continuous flow (CF) PCR, CF ligase detection reaction (LDR) and universal DNA array readout. The cartridge was comprised of modules situated on a fluidic motherboard; the motherboard was made from polycarbonate, PC, and used for cell lysis, SPE, CF PCR and CF LDR. The modules were task-specific units and performed universal zip-code array readout or affinity enrichment of the target cells with both made from poly(methylmethacrylate), PMMA. Two genes, uidA and sipB/C, were used to discriminate between E. coli and Salmonella, and evaluated as a model system. Results showed that the fluidic

  4. A Pilot Study Identifying a Set of microRNAs As Precise Diagnostic Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Fraile, Elia; Ramos, Edurne; Conde, Elisa; Rodríguez, Macarena; Martín-Gómez, Laura; Lietor, Aurora; Candela, Ángel; Ponte, Belen; Liaño, Fernando; García-Bermejo, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) diagnosis and therapy have not notably improved probably due to delay in the diagnosis, among other issues. Precocity and accuracy should be critical parameters in novel AKI biomarker discovery. microRNAs are key regulators of cell responses to many stimuli and they can be secreted to the extracellular environment. Therefore, they can be detected in body fluids and are emerging as novel disease biomarkers. We aimed to identify and validate serum miRNAs useful for AKI diagnosis and management. Using qRT-PCR arrays in serum samples, we determined miRNAs differentially expressed between AKI patients and healthy controls. Statistical and target prediction analysis allowed us to identify a panel of 10 serum miRNAs. This set was further validated, by qRT-PCR, in two independent cohorts of patients with relevant morbi-mortality related to AKI: Intensive Care Units (ICU) and Cardiac Surgery (CS). Statistical correlations with patient clinical parameter were performed. Our results demonstrated that the 10 selected miRNAs (miR-101-3p, miR-127-3p, miR-210-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-26b-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-27a-3p, miR-93-3p and miR-10a-5p) were diagnostic biomarkers of AKI in ICU patients, exhibiting areas under the curve close to 1 in ROC analysis. Outstandingly, serum miRNAs estimated before CS predicted AKI development later on, thus becoming biomarkers to predict AKI predisposition. Moreover, after surgery, the expression of the miRNAs was modulated days before serum creatinine increased, demonstrating early diagnostic value. In summary, we have identified a set of serum miRNAs as AKI biomarkers useful in clinical practice, since they demonstrate early detection and high diagnostic value and they recognize patients at risk. PMID:26079930

  5. Portable Diagnostic Devices for Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers: Considerations and Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunbai; Berger, Mark; Malhotra, Atul; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a syndrome defined by breathing abnormalities during sleep, can lead to fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. Identifying commercial motor vehicle operators with unrecognized OSA is a major public health priority. Portable monitors (PMs) are being actively marketed to trucking firms as potentially lower-cost and more accessible alternatives to the reference standard of in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) in the diagnosis of OSA among commercial motor vehicle operators. Several factors regarding PMs remain uncertain in this unique patient population: their sensitivity and specificity; the cost-benefit ratio of the PMs versus PSG; potential barriers from human factors; and evolving technologic advancement. Human factors that alter test accuracy are a major concern among commercial drivers motivated to gain/maintain employment. Current available data using PMs as a diagnostic tool among CMV operators indicate relatively high data loss and high loss to follow-up. Loss to follow-up has also been an issue using PSG in commercial motor vehicle operators. Furthermore, PM testing and PM results interpretation protocols may have no sleep specialist oversight, and sometimes minimal physician oversight and involvement. Additional studies comparing unattended and unmonitored PMs directly against full in-laboratory PSG are needed to provide evidence for their efficacy among commercial motor vehicle operators. Citation: Zhang C; Berger M; Malhotra A; Kales SN. Portable diagnostic devices for identifying obstructive sleep apnea among commercial motor vehicle drivers: considerations and unanswered questions. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1481-1489. PMID:23115397

  6. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  7. Epigenomic Analysis of Sézary Syndrome Defines Patterns of Aberrant DNA Methylation and Identifies Diagnostic Markers.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Remco; Slieker, Roderick C; Boonk, Stéphanie E; Zoutman, Willem H; Goeman, Jelle J; Bagot, Martine; Michel, Laurence; Tensen, Cornelis P; Willemze, Rein; Heijmans, Bas T; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2016-09-01

    Sézary syndrome (Sz) is a malignancy of skin-homing CD4(+) memory T cells that is clinically characterized by erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, and blood involvement. Distinction of Sz from erythroderma secondary to inflammatory skin diseases (erythrodermic inflammatory dermatosis [EID]) is often challenging. Recent studies identified recurrent mutations in epigenetic enzymes involved in DNA modification in Sz. Here we defined the DNA methylomes of purified CD4(+) T cells from patients with Sz, EID, and healthy control subjects. Sz showed extensive global DNA methylation alterations, with 7.8% of 473,921 interrogated autosomal CpG sites showing hypomethylation and 3.2% hypermethylation. Promoter CpG islands were markedly enriched for hypermethylation. The 126 genes with recurrent promoter hypermethylation in Sz included multiple candidate tumor suppressors that showed transcriptional repression, implicating aberrant methylation in the pathogenesis of Sz. Validation in an independent sample set showed promoter hypermethylation of CMTM2, C2orf40, G0S2, HSPB6, PROM1, and PAM in 94-100% of Sz samples but not in EID samples. Notably, promoter hypermethylation of a single gene, the chemokine-like factor CMTM2, was sufficient to accurately distinguish Sz from EID in all cases. This study shows that Sz is characterized by widespread yet distinct DNA methylation alterations, which can be used clinically as epigenetic diagnostic markers. PMID:27113428

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi strain-specific Osp C-mediated immunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Bockenstedt, L K; Hodzic, E; Feng, S; Bourrel, K W; de Silva, A; Montgomery, R R; Fikrig, E; Radolf, J D; Barthold, S W

    1997-11-01

    Antibodies to the outer surface proteins (Osps) A, B, and C of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi can prevent infection in animal models of Lyme borreliosis. We have previously demonstrated that immune serum from mice infected with B. burgdorferi N40 can also prevent challenge infection and induce disease regression in infected mice. The antigens targeted by protective and disease-modulating antibodies are presently unknown, but they do not include Osp A or Osp B. Because Osp C antibodies are present in immune mouse serum, we investigated the ability of hyperimmune serum to recombinant Osp C (N40) to protect mice against challenge infection with N40 spirochetes. In both active and passive immunization studies, Osp C (N40) antiserum failed to protect mice from challenge infection with cultured organisms. Mice actively immunized with recombinant Osp C (N40) were susceptible to tick-borne challenge infection, and nymphal ticks remained infected after feeding on Osp C-hyperimmunized mice. In contrast, similar immunization studies performed with Osp C (PKo) antiserum prevented challenge infection of mice with a clone of PKo spirochetes pathogenic for mice. Both Osp C (N40) and Osp C (PKo) antisera showed minimal in vitro borreliacidal activity, and immunofluorescence studies localized Osp C beneath the outer membrane of both N40 and PKo spirochetes. We conclude that Osp C antibody-mediated immunity is strain specific and propose that differences in Osp C surface expression by spirochetes in vivo may account for strain-specific immunity. PMID:9353047

  9. Strain-specific differences in pili formation and the interaction of Corynebacterium diphtheriae with host cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host. In this study, we investigated strain-specific differences in adhesion, invasion and intracellular survival and analyzed formation of pili in different isolates. Results Adhesion of different C. diphtheriae strains to epithelial cells and invasion of these cells are not strictly coupled processes. Using ultrastructure analyses by atomic force microscopy, significant differences in macromolecular surface structures were found between the investigated C. diphtheriae strains in respect to number and length of pili. Interestingly, adhesion and pili formation are not coupled processes and also no correlation between invasion and pili formation was found. Using RNA hybridization and Western blotting experiments, strain-specific pili expression patterns were observed. None of the studied C. diphtheriae strains had a dramatic detrimental effect on host cell viability as indicated by measurements of transepithelial resistance of Detroit 562 cell monolayers and fluorescence microscopy, leading to the assumption that C. diphtheriae strains might use epithelial cells as an environmental niche supplying protection against antibodies and macrophages. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that it is necessary to investigate various isolates on a molecular level to understand and to predict the colonization process of different C. diphtheriae strains. PMID:20942914

  10. Next-generation sequencing in routine brain tumor diagnostics enables an integrated diagnosis and identifies actionable targets.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Felix; Schrimpf, Daniel; Jones, David T W; Meyer, Jochen; Kratz, Annekathrin; Reuss, David; Capper, David; Koelsche, Christian; Korshunov, Andrey; Wiestler, Benedikt; Buchhalter, Ivo; Milde, Till; Selt, Florian; Sturm, Dominik; Kool, Marcel; Hummel, Manuela; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Mawrin, Christian; Schüller, Ulrich; Jungk, Christine; Wick, Antje; Witt, Olaf; Platten, Michael; Herold-Mende, Christel; Unterberg, Andreas; Pfister, Stefan M; Wick, Wolfgang; von Deimling, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    With the number of prognostic and predictive genetic markers in neuro-oncology steadily growing, the need for comprehensive molecular analysis of neuropathology samples has vastly increased. We therefore developed a customized enrichment/hybrid-capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) gene panel comprising the entire coding and selected intronic and promoter regions of 130 genes recurrently altered in brain tumors, allowing for the detection of single nucleotide variations, fusions, and copy number aberrations. Optimization of probe design, library generation and sequencing conditions on 150 samples resulted in a 5-workday routine workflow from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sample to neuropathological report. This protocol was applied to 79 retrospective cases with established molecular aberrations for validation and 71 prospective cases for discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Concordance of NGS compared to established, single biomarker methods was 98.0 %, with discrepancies resulting from one case where a TERT promoter mutation was not called by NGS and three ATRX mutations not being detected by Sanger sequencing. Importantly, in samples with low tumor cell content, NGS was able to identify mutant alleles that were not detectable by traditional methods. Information derived from NGS data identified potential targets for experimental therapy in 37/47 (79 %) glioblastomas, 9/10 (90 %) pilocytic astrocytomas, and 5/14 (36 %) medulloblastomas in the prospective target discovery cohort. In conclusion, we present the settings for high-throughput, adaptive next-generation sequencing in routine neuropathology diagnostics. Such an approach will likely become highly valuable in the near future for treatment decision making, as more therapeutic targets emerge and genetic information enters the classification of brain tumors. PMID:26671409

  11. Strain-Specific Identification of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus with Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Derived PCR Primers

    PubMed Central

    Tilsala-Timisjärvi, Anu; Alatossava, Tapani

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, strain-specific PCR primers for Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc 1/3 are described. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to produce potential strain-specific markers. They were screened for specificity by hybridization with DNA from 11 L. rhamnosus strains. A 613-bp RAPD marker found to be strain-specific was sequenced, and a primer pair specific to L. rhamnosus Lc 1/3 was constructed based on the sequence. The primer pair was tested with 11 Lactobacillus species and 11 L. rhamnosus strains and was found to be strain specific. The nucleotide sequence of the specific RAPD marker was found to contain part of a protein encoding region which showed significant similarity to several transposases for insertion sequence elements of various bacteria, including other lactic acid bacterium species. PMID:9835567

  12. Exploring the antigenic relatedness of influenza virus haemagglutinins with strain-specific polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    García-Barreno, Blanca; Delgado, Teresa; Benito, Sonia; Casas, Inmaculada; Pozo, Francisco; Melero, José A

    2014-10-01

    Alternative methods to the standard haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests to probe the antigenic properties of the influenza virus haemagglutinin (HA) were developed in this study. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing reference HAs were used to immunize rabbits from which polyclonal antibodies were obtained. These antibodies were subtype specific but showed limited intra-subtype strain specificity in ELISA. The discriminatory capacity of these antibodies was, however, markedly increased after adsorption to cells infected with heterologous influenza viruses, revealing antigenic differences that were otherwise undistinguishable by standard HI and neutralization tests. Furthermore, the unadsorbed antibodies could be used to select escape mutants of the reference strain, which after sequencing unveiled amino acid changes responsible of the noted antigenic differences. These procedures therefore provide alternative methods for the antigenic characterization of influenza HA and might be useful in studies of HA antigenic evolution. PMID:25000959

  13. Differential mouse-strain specific expression of Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-B in placental structures.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Ina Annelies; Mori, Mayumi; DeMayo, Francesco; Lydon, John; Arck, Petra Clara; Solano, Maria Emilia

    2016-03-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is involved in stabilization of interendothelial cell-cell contacts, formation of vascular tubes, homeostasis of stem cell niches and promotion of leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. In the human placenta, JAM-B protein is abundant and mRNA transcripts are enriched in first-trimester extravillous trophoblast in comparison to the villous trophoblast. We here aimed to elucidate the yet unexplored spatio-temporal expression of JAM-B in the mouse placenta. We investigated and semi-quantified JAM-B protein expression by immunohistochemistry in early post-implantation si tes and in mid- to late gestation placentae of various murine mating combinations. Surprisingly, the endothelium of the placental labyrinth was devoid of JAM-B expression. JAM-B was mainly present in spongiotrophoblast cells of the junctional zone, as well as in the fetal vessels of the chorionic plate, the umbilical cord and in maternal myometrial smooth muscle. We observed a strain-specific placental increase of JAM-B protein expression from mid- to late gestation in Balb/c-mated C57BL/6 females, which was absent in DBA/2J-mated Balb/c females. Due to the essential role of progesterone during gestation, we further assessed a possible modulation of JAM-B in mid-gestational placentae deficient in the progesterone receptor (Pgr(-/-)) and observed an increased expression of JAM-B in Pgr(-/-) placentae, compared to Pgr(+/+) tissue samples. We propose that JAM-B is an as yet underappreciated trophoblast lineage-specific protein, which is modulated via the progesterone receptor and shows unique strain-specific kinetics. Future work is needed to elucidate its possible contribution to placental processes necessary to ensuring its integrity, ultimately facilitating placental development and fetal growth. PMID:26914234

  14. Strain-specific vulnerability to alcohol exposure in utero via hippocampal parent-of-origin expression of deiodinase-III

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, Laura J.; Shukla, Pradeep K.; Herzing, Laura B. K.; Redei, Eva E.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is thought to be the most prevalent nongenetic cause of a wide range of neurodevelopmental deficits. Insufficient thyroid hormone levels are one mechanism that hampers development of the alcohol-exposed brain, and we hypothesized that altered dosage of the imprinted thyroid hormone-inactivating gene deiodinase-III (Dio3) is responsible. To follow parent-of-origin allelic expression of Dio3 in the fetal and adult offspring of alcohol-consuming and control dams, we reciprocally crossed 2 polymorphic rat strains. In the frontal cortex, prenatal alcohol exposure altered imprinting patterns and total expression of Dio3 in the fetus and produced a permanent hypothyroid milieu in the adult. In the hippocampus, alcohol affected the paternal and total expression of Dio3 in the fetus and in the adult male, where thyroid hormone levels were concomitantly increased. Hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits were identified exclusively in males, suggesting they are dependent on aberrant allelic Dio3 expression. None of these effects were observed in offspring of the reciprocal cross. Thus, genetic background and sex modify vulnerability to prenatal alcohol via brain region-specific expression of Dio3. This finding implies that phenotypic heterogeneity in human fetal alcohol spectrum disorder can be linked to genetic vulnerability in affected brain regions.—Sittig, L. J., Shukla, P. K., Herzing, L. B. K., Redei, E. E. Strain-specific vulnerability to alcohol exposure in utero via hippocampal parent-of-origin expression of deiodinase-III. PMID:21429942

  15. Elucidation of strain-specific interaction of a GII-4 norovirus with HBGA receptors by site-directed mutagenesis study

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Ming |; Xia Ming; Cao Sheng; Huang Pengwei; Farkas, Tibor |; Meller, Jarek |; Hegde, Rashmi S. |; Li Xuemei; Rao Zihe; Jiang Xi |

    2008-09-30

    Noroviruses interact with histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptors in a strain-specific manner probably detecting subtle structural differences in the carbohydrate receptors. The specific recognition of types A and B antigens by various norovirus strains is a typical example. The only difference between the types A and B antigens is the acetamide linked to the terminal galactose of the A but not to the B antigen. The crystal structure of the P dimer of a GII-4 norovirus (VA387) bound to types A and B trisaccharides has elucidated the A/B binding site on the capsid but did not explain the binding specificity of the two antigens. In this study, using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified three residues on the VA387 capsid that are sterically close to the acetamide and are required for binding to A but not B antigens, indicating that the acetamide determines the binding specificity between the A and B antigens. Further mutational analysis showed that a nearby open cavity may also be involved in binding specificity to HBGAs. In addition, a systematic mutational analysis of residues in and around the binding interface has identified a group of amino acids that are required for binding but do not have direct contact with the carbohydrate antigens, implying that these residues may be involved in the structural integrity of the receptor binding interface. Taken together, our study provides new insights into the carbohydrate/capsid interactions which are a valuable complement to the atomic structures in understanding the virus/host interaction and in the future design of antiviral agents.

  16. Strain-specific regulatory role of eukaryote-like serine/threonine phosphatase in pneumococcal adherence.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shivangi; Agarwal, Shivani; Pancholi, Preeti; Pancholi, Vijay

    2012-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae exploits a battery of virulence factors to colonize the host. Although the eukaryote-like Ser/Thr kinase of S. pneumoniae (StkP) has been implicated in physiology and virulence, the role of its cotranscribing phosphatase (PhpP) has remained elusive. The construction of nonpolar markerless phpP knockout mutants (ΔphpP) in two pathogenic strains, D39 (type 2) and 6A-EF3114 (type 6A), indicated that PhpP is not indispensable for pneumococcal survival. Further, PhpP also participates in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis/division, adherence, and biofilm formation in a strain-specific manner. Additionally, we provide hitherto-unknown in vitro and in vivo evidence of a physiologically relevant biochemical link between the StkP/PhpP-mediated cognate regulation and the two-component regulatory system TCS06 (RR06/HK06) that regulates the expression of the gene encoding an important pneumococcal surface adhesin, CbpA, which was found to be significantly upregulated in ΔphpP mutants. In particular, StkP (threonine)-phosphorylated RR06 bound to the cbpA promoter with high efficiency even in the absence of the HK06-responsive and catalytically active aspartate 51 residue. Together, our findings unravel the significant contributions of PhpP in pneumococcal physiology and adherence. PMID:22311926

  17. Strain-specific quantification of Wolbachia density in Aedes albopictus and effects of larval rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Dutton, T J; Sinkins, S P

    2004-06-01

    The density of the endosymbiont Wolbachia can influence the expression of the crossing sterilities known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and also its rate of maternal transmission. Aedes albopictus mosquitoes contain a superinfection with the Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB. A strain-specific real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed and used to quantify relative Wolbachia strain densities within individual mosquitoes. The wAlbB strain was consistently found to be at higher density than wAlbA, which can explain a slightly lower rate of maternal transmission reported for wAlbA. The effects of larval crowding and nutritional stress were also examined. Larval crowding always reduced adult size, but reduced the density of Wolbachia strains relative to uncrowded conditions only if crowding was accompanied by restricted nutrient availability. Crowded rearing conditions never resulted in strain segregation or in a reduction in the penetrance of CI, however. The rate of maternal transmission and the penetrance of CI are the two most important variables that determine relative Wolbachia population invasion dynamics, and both are considerably higher here than have been reported in the Drosophila simulans model system. PMID:15157232

  18. Strain-specific antibodies reduce co-feeding transmission of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Maxime; Durand, Jonas; Rais, Olivier; Voordouw, Maarten J

    2016-03-01

    Vector-borne pathogens use a diversity of strategies to evade the vertebrate immune system. Co-feeding transmission is a potential immune evasion strategy because the vector-borne pathogen minimizes the time spent in the vertebrate host. We tested whether the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia afzelii, can use co-feeding transmission to escape the acquired immune response in the vertebrate host. We induced a strain-specific, protective antibody response by immunizing mice with one of two variants of OspC (A3 and A10), the highly variable outer surface protein C of Borrelia pathogens. Immunized mice were challenged via tick bite with B. afzelii strains A3 or A10 and infested with larval ticks at days 2 and 34 post-infection to measure co-feeding and systemic transmission respectively. Antibodies against a particular OspC variant significantly reduced co-feeding transmission of the targeted (homologous) strain but not the non-targeted (heterologous) strain. Cross-immunity between OspC antigens had no effect in co-feeding ticks but reduced the spirochaete load twofold in ticks infected via systemic transmission. In summary, OspC-specific antibodies reduced co-feeding transmission of a homologous but not a heterologous strain of B. afzelii. Co-feeding transmission allowed B. afzelii to evade the negative consequences of cross-immunity on the tick spirochaete load. PMID:26411486

  19. Strain-specific regulation of intracellular Wolbachia density in multiply infected insects.

    PubMed

    Mouton, L; Henri, H; Bouletreau, M; Vavre, F

    2003-12-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts suffer a severe reduction in numbers when they pass through host generations, resulting in genetic homogeneity or even clonality of their populations. Wolbachia endosymbionts that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility in their hosts depart from this rule, because cytoplasmic incompatibility actively maintains multiple infection within hosts. Hosts and symbionts are thus probably under peculiar selective pressures that must shape the way intracellular bacterial populations are regulated. We studied the density and location of Wolbachia within adult Leptopilina heterotoma, a haplodiploid wasp that is parasitic on Drosophila and that is naturally infected with three Wolbachia strains, but for which we also obtained one simply infected and two doubly infected lines. Comparison of these four lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using a real-time detection system showed that total Wolbachia density varies according to the infection status of individuals, while the specific density of each Wolbachia strain remains constant regardless of the presence of other strains. This suggests that Wolbachia strains do not compete with one another within the same host individual, and that a strain-specific regulatory mechanism is operating. We discuss the regulatory mechanisms that are involved, and how this process might have evolved as a response to selective pressures acting on both partners. PMID:14629360

  20. Strain-specific protective immunity following vaccination against experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Haolla, Filipe A; Claser, Carla; de Alencar, Bruna C G; Tzelepis, Fanny; de Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Silvério, Jaline C; Machado, Alexandre V; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena B P; Rodrigues, Mauricio M

    2009-09-18

    Immunisation with Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (asp-2) and trans-sialidase (ts) genes induces protective immunity in highly susceptible A/Sn mice, against infection with parasites of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. Based on immunological and biological strain variations in T. cruzi parasites, our goal was to validate our vaccination results using different parasite strains. Due to the importance of the CD8(+) T cells in protective immunity, we initially determined which strains expressed the immunodominant H-2K(k)-restricted epitope TEWETGQI. We tested eight strains, four of which elicited immune responses to this epitope (Y, G, Colombian and Colombia). We selected the Colombian and Colombia strains for our studies. A/Sn mice were immunised with different regimens using both T. cruzi genes (asp-2 and ts) simultaneously and subsequently challenged with blood trypomastigotes. Immune responses before the challenge were confirmed by the presence of specific antibodies and peptide-specific T cells. Genetic vaccination did not confer protective immunity against acute infection with a lethal dose of the Colombian strain. In contrast, we observed a drastic reduction in parasitemia and a significant increase in survival, following challenge with an otherwise lethal dose of the Colombia strain. In many surviving animals with late-stage chronic infection, we observed alterations in the heart's electrical conductivity, compared to naive mice. In summary, we concluded that immunity against T. cruzi antigens, similar to viruses and bacteria, may be strain-specific and have a negative impact on vaccine development. PMID:19635607

  1. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p < 0.05). The present work showed that the probiotic characteristics were strain-specific and that the isolates L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties. PMID:23764216

  2. Pneumocystis Elicits a STAT6-Dependent, Strain-Specific Innate Immune Response and Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Nicole N.; Siemsen, Dan W.; McInnerney, Kate; Harmsen, Allen G.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that exposure to pathogens such as fungi can be an agent of comorbidity, such as exacerbation of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although many studies have examined allergic responses to fungi and their effects on pulmonary function, the possible pathologic implications of the early innate responses to fungal pathogens have not been explored. We examined early responses to the atypical fungus Pneumocystis in two common strains of mice in terms of overall immunological response and related pathology, such as cell damage and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We found a strong strain-specific response in BALB/c mice that included recruitment of neutrophils, NK, NKT, and CD4 T cells. This response was accompanied by elevated indicators of lung damage (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid albumin and LDH) and profound AHR. This early response was absent in C57BL/6 mice, although both strains exhibited a later response associated with the clearance of Pneumocystis. We found that this AHR could not be attributed exclusively to the presence of recruited neutrophils, NKT, NK, or CD4 cells or to the actions of IFN-γ or IL-4. However, in the absence of STAT6 signaling, AHR and inflammatory cell recruitment were virtually absent. Gene expression analysis indicated that this early response included activation of several transcription factors that could be involved in pulmonary remodeling. These results show that exposure to a fungus such as Pneumocystis can elicit pulmonary responses that may contribute to morbidity, even without prior sensitization, in the context of certain genetic backgrounds. PMID:21960549

  3. Strain-specific determinants of beet curly top geminivirus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Choi, I R; Stenger, D C

    1995-02-01

    The Logan and CFH strains of the geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) possess cis- and trans-DNA replication factors which exhibit specificity and are not functionally interchangeable. We demonstrate that the cis-acting replication specificity element is entirely contained within a 82- to 97-bp fragment which includes most of the viral DNA origin of replication. We also demonstrate that the strain-specific trans-acting replication determinant is located within amino acid residues 3-89 of the BCTV C1 replication protein. Transient replication assays indicated that chimeric BCTV genomes containing reciprocally exchanged regions of the CFH and Logan genomes were replication competent when the cis- and trans-replication specificity elements were derived from the same strain. Two reciprocal chimeric viral genomes with heterologous cis- and trans-replication elements were incapable of self-replication, yet could trans-replicate one another in a coinoculation experiment. Only chimeric genomes possessing the Logan trans-replication element were capable of mobilizing and amplifying a transgenic Logan derived DI-DNA. DI-DNA mobilization and amplification occurred in transient replication assays even when the helper virus genome was incapable of self-replication, providing that the trans-replication element was derived from the Logan strain. These results genetically define specific regions of the BCTV C1 replication protein determining viral DNA replication origin recognition and provide clear evidence that strains of BCTV have evolved specific cis- and trans-replication factors which functionally define the Logan and CFH strains as distinct viral agents. PMID:7856103

  4. Strain-Specific Interactions of Listeria monocytogenes with the Autophagy System in Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stöckli, Martina; Higgins, Darren E.; Brumell, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that can replicate in the cytosol of host cells. These bacteria undergo actin-based motility in the cytosol via expression of ActA, which recruits host actin-regulatory proteins to the bacterial surface. L. monocytogenes is thought to evade killing by autophagy using ActA-dependent mechanisms. ActA-independent mechanisms of autophagy evasion have also been proposed, but remain poorly understood. Here we examined autophagy of non-motile (ΔactA) mutants of L. monocytogenes strains 10403S and EGD-e, two commonly studied strains of this pathogen. The ΔactA mutants displayed accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and p62/SQSTM1 on their surface. However, only strain EGD-e ΔactA displayed colocalization with the autophagy marker LC3 at 8 hours post infection. A bacteriostatic agent (chloramphenicol) was required for LC3 recruitment to 10403S ΔactA, suggesting that these bacteria produce a factor for autophagy evasion. Internalin K was proposed to block autophagy of L. monocytogenes in the cytosol of host cells. However, deletion of inlK in either the wild-type or ΔactA background of strain 10403S had no impact on autophagy evasion by bacteria, indicating it does not play an essential role in evading autophagy. Replication of ΔactA mutants of strain EGD-e and 10403S was comparable to their parent wild-type strain in macrophages. Thus, ΔactA mutants of L. monocytogenes can block killing by autophagy at a step downstream of protein ubiquitination and, in the case of strain EGD-e, downstream of LC3 recruitment to bacteria. Our findings highlight the strain-specific differences in the mechanisms that L. monocytogenes uses to evade killing by autophagy in host cells. PMID:25970638

  5. Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti produce structurally conserved lipopolysaccharides and strain-specific K antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Reuhs, B.L.; Geller, D.P.; Kim, J.S.; Fox, J.E.; Kolli, V.S.K.; Pueppke, S.G.

    1998-12-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and capsular polysaccharides (K antigens) may influence the interaction of rhizobia with their specific hosts; therefore, the authors conducted a comparative analysis of Sinorhizobium fredii and Sinorhizobium meliloti, which are genetically related, yet symbiotically distinct, nitrogen-fixing microsymbionts of legumes. They found that both species typically produce strain-specific K antigens that consist of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (Kdo), or other 1-carboxy-2-keto-3-deoxy sugars (such as sialic acid), and hexoses. The K antigens of each strain are distinguished by glycosyl composition, anomeric configuration, acetylation, and molecular weight distribution. One consistent difference between the K antigens of S. fredii and those of S. meliloti is the presence of N-acetyl groups in the polysaccharides of the latter. In contrast to the K antigens, the LPS of Sinorhizobium spp. are major common antigens. Rough (R) LPS is the predominant form of LPS produced by cultured cells, and some strains release almost no detectable smooth (S) LPS upon extraction. Sinorhizobium spp. are delineated into two major RLPS core serogroups, which do not correspond to species. The O antigens of the SLPS, when present, have similar degrees of polymerization and appear to be structurally conserved throughout the genus. Interestingly, one strain was found to be distinct from all others: S. fredii HH303 produces a unique K antigen, which contains galacturonic acid and rhamnose, and the RLPS did not fall into either of the RLPS core serogroups. The results of this study indicate that the conserved S- and RLPS of Sinorhizobium spp. lack the structural information necessary to influence host specificity, whereas the variable K antigens may affect strain-cultivar interactions.

  6. Genome-scale reconstruction of Salinispora tropica CNB-440 metabolism to study strain-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Contador, C A; Rodríguez, V; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A

    2015-11-01

    The first manually curated genome-scale metabolic model for Salinispora tropica strain CNB-440 was constructed. The reconstruction enables characterization of the metabolic capabilities for understanding and modeling the cellular physiology of this actinobacterium. The iCC908 model was based on physiological and biochemical information of primary and specialised metabolism pathways. The reconstructed stoichiometric matrix consists of 1169 biochemical conversions, 204 transport reactions and 1317 metabolites. A total of 908 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were included in the reconstructed network. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to 20% of all characterized ORFs in the S. tropica genome. The genome-scale metabolic model was used to study strain-specific capabilities in defined minimal media. iCC908 was used to analyze growth capabilities in 41 different minimal growth-supporting environments. These nutrient sources were evaluated experimentally to assess the accuracy of in silico growth simulations. The model predicted no auxotrophies for essential amino acids, which was corroborated experimentally. The strain is able to use 21 different carbon sources, 8 nitrogen sources and 4 sulfur sources from the nutrient sources tested. Experimental observation suggests that the cells may be able to store sulfur. False predictions provided opportunities to gain new insights into the physiology of this species, and to gap fill the missing knowledge. The incorporation of modifications led to increased accuracy in predicting the outcome of growth/no growth experiments from 76 to 93%. iCC908 can thus be used to define the metabolic capabilities of S. tropica and guide and enhance the production of specialised metabolites. PMID:26459337

  7. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Materials and Methods Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Results Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Conclusion Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture. PMID:21977475

  8. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Christopher G; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P; Ilag, Leodevico L; Meeusen, Els N T; Veer, Michael J de

    2015-12-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11-12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  9. Generation of a Novel Bacteriophage Library Displaying scFv Antibody Fragments from the Natural Buffalo Host to Identify Antigens from Adult Schistosoma japonicum for Diagnostic Development

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Christopher G.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Driguez, Patrick; Piedrafita, David; Li, Yuesheng; McManus, Donald P.; Ilag, Leodevico L.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; de Veer, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective diagnostic tools will be essential in the continuing fight to reduce schistosome infection; however, the diagnostic tests available to date are generally laborious and difficult to implement in current parasite control strategies. We generated a series of single-chain antibody Fv domain (scFv) phage display libraries from the portal lymph node of field exposed water buffaloes, Bubalus bubalis, 11–12 days post challenge with Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. The selected scFv-phages showed clear enrichment towards adult schistosomes and excretory-secretory (ES) proteins by immunofluorescence, ELISA and western blot analysis. The enriched libraries were used to probe a schistosome specific protein microarray resulting in the recognition of a number of proteins, five of which were specific to schistosomes, with RNA expression predominantly in the adult life-stage based on interrogation of schistosome expressed sequence tags (EST). As the libraries were enriched by panning against ES products, these antigens may be excreted or secreted into the host vasculature and hence may make good targets for a diagnostic assay. Further selection of the scFv library against infected mouse sera identified five soluble scFv clones that could selectively recognise soluble whole adult preparations (SWAP) relative to an irrelevant protein control (ovalbumin). Furthermore, two of the identified scFv clones also selectively recognised SWAP proteins when spiked into naïve mouse sera. These host B-cell derived scFvs that specifically bind to schistosome protein preparations will be valuable reagents for further development of a cost effective point-of-care diagnostic test. PMID:26684756

  10. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies using quantitative real-time PCR and bacterial culture to identify contagious mastitis cases in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Murai, Kiyokazu; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Glenn, Kathy; Aly, Sharif S

    2014-03-01

    the 3 pathogens. A stochastic model was used to assess the effect of prevalence or herd size on the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies. In the current study, increasing the prevalence of mastitis did not alter the ranking of strategies by cost-effectiveness. However, larger herds could benefit from testing larger pools such as 50 or 100 samples to improve cost-effectiveness. Several diagnostic strategy options exist to identify contagious mastitis in herds, decisions should be based on cost and sensitivity of the strategies available. PMID:24485275

  11. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Agustín; Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82-0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  12. The Diagnostic Value of Serum C-Reactive Protein for Identifying Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Utrillo, Laia; Bielsa, Silvia; Falguera, Miquel; Porcel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical diagnosis of pneumonia is sometimes difficult since chest radiographs are often indeterminate. In this study, we aimed to assess whether serum C-reactive protein (CRP) could assist in identifying patients with pneumonia. Methods. For one winter, all consecutive patients with acute respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency ward of a single center were prospectively enrolled. In addition to chest radiographs, basic laboratory tests, and microbiology, serum levels of CRP were measured at entry. Results. A total of 923 (62.3%) of 1473 patients hospitalized for acute respiratory symptoms were included. Subjects with a final diagnosis of pneumonia had higher serum CRP levels (median 187 mg/L) than those with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (63 mg/L) or acute bronchitis (54 mg/L, p < 0.01). CRP was accurate in identifying pneumonia (area under the curve 0.84, 95% CI 0.82–0.87). The multilevel likelihood ratio (LR) for intervals of CRP provided useful information on the posttest probability of having pneumonia. CRP intervals above 200 mg/L were associated with LR+ > 5, for which pneumonia is likely, whereas CRP intervals below 75 mg/L were associated with LR < 0.2, for which pneumonia is unlikely. Conclusion. Serum CRP may be a useful addition for diagnosing pneumonia in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory symptoms. PMID:27610265

  13. Genomic Profiling of Collaborative Cross Founder Mice Infected with Respiratory Viruses Reveals Novel Transcripts and Infection-Related Strain-Specific Gene and Isoform Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hao; Morrison, Juliet; Ferris, Martin T.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Whitmore, Alan C.; Green, Richard; Thomas, Matthew J.; Tisoncik-Go, Jennifer; Schroth, Gary P.; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Baric, Ralph S.; Heise, Mark T.; Peng, Xinxia; Katze, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation between diverse mouse species is well-characterized, yet existing knowledge of the mouse transcriptome comes largely from one mouse strain (C57BL/6J). As such, it is unlikely to reflect the transcriptional complexity of the mouse species. Gene transcription is dynamic and condition-specific; therefore, to better understand the mouse transcriptional response to respiratory virus infection, we infected the eight founder strains of the Collaborative Cross with either influenza A virus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and sequenced lung RNA samples at 2 and 4 days after infection. We found numerous instances of transcripts that were not present in the C57BL/6J reference annotation, indicating that a nontrivial proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed but poorly annotated. Of these novel transcripts, 2150 could be aligned to human or rat genomes, but not to existing mouse genomes, suggesting functionally conserved sequences not yet recorded in mouse genomes. We also found that respiratory virus infection induced differential expression of 4287 splicing junctions, resulting in strain-specific isoform expression. Of these, 59 were influenced by strain-specific mutations within 2 base pairs of key intron–exon boundaries, suggesting cis-regulated expression. Our results reveal the complexity of the transcriptional response to viral infection, previously undocumented genomic elements, and extensive diversity in the response across mouse strains. These findings identify hitherto unexplored transcriptional patterns and undocumented transcripts in genetically diverse mice. Host genetic variation drives the complexity and diversity of the host response by eliciting starkly different transcriptional profiles in response to a viral infection. PMID:24902603

  14. Diagnostic Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Gene, EMILIN1, Associated with Autosomal‐Dominant Hereditary Connective Tissue Disease

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Alessandra; Bucciotti, Francesco; Farwell, Kelly D.; Tippin Davis, Brigette; Mroske, Cameron; Hulick, Peter J.; Weissman, Scott M.; Gao, Qingshen; Spessotto, Paola; Doliana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heritable connective tissue diseases are a highly heterogeneous family of over 200 disorders that affect the extracellular matrix. While the genetic basis of several disorders is established, the etiology has not been discovered for a large portion of patients, likely due to rare yet undiscovered disease genes. By performing trio‐exome sequencing of a 55‐year‐old male proband presenting with multiple symptoms indicative of a connective disorder, we identified a heterozygous missense alteration in exon 1 of the Elastin Microfibril Interfacer 1 (EMILIN1) gene, c.64G>A (p.A22T). The proband presented with ascending and descending aortic aneurysms, bilateral lower leg and foot sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, arthropathy, and increased skin elasticity. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the EMILIN1 alteration, which maps around the signal peptide cleavage site, segregated with disease in the affected proband, mother, and son. The impaired secretion of EMILIN‐1 in cells transfected with the mutant p.A22T coincided with abnormal protein accumulation within the endoplasmic reticulum. In skin biopsy of the proband, we detected less EMILIN‐1 with disorganized and abnormal coarse fibrils, aggregated deposits underneath the epidermis basal lamina, and dermal cells apoptosis. These findings collectively suggest that EMILIN1 may represent a new disease gene associated with an autosomal‐dominant connective tissue disorder. PMID:26462740

  15. Temperature diagnostic to identify high risk areas and optimize Legionella pneumophila surveillance in hot water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Emilie; Fey, Stéphanie; Charron, Dominique; Lalancette, Cindy; Cantin, Philippe; Dolcé, Patrick; Laferrière, Céline; Déziel, Eric; Prévost, Michèle

    2015-03-15

    Legionella pneumophila is frequently detected in hot water distribution systems and thermal control is a common measure implemented by health care facilities. A risk assessment based on water temperature profiling and temperature distribution within the network is proposed, to guide effective monitoring strategies and allow the identification of high risk areas. Temperature and heat loss at control points (water heater, recirculation, representative points-of-use) were monitored in various sections of five health care facilities hot water distribution systems and results used to develop a temperature-based risk assessment tool. Detailed investigations show that defective return valves in faucets can cause widespread temperature losses because of hot and cold water mixing. Systems in which water temperature coming out of the water heaters was kept consistently above 60 °C and maintained above 55 °C across the network were negative for Legionella by culture or qPCR. For systems not meeting these temperature criteria, risk areas for L. pneumophila were identified using temperature profiling and system's characterization; higher risk was confirmed by more frequent microbiological detection by culture and qPCR. Results confirmed that maintaining sufficiently high temperatures within hot water distribution systems suppressed L. pneumophila culturability. However, the risk remains as shown by the persistence of L. pneumophila by qPCR. PMID:25622002

  16. Serum microRNA microarray analysis identifies miR-4429 and miR-4689 are potential diagnostic biomarkers for biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rui; Shen, Zhen; Zheng, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Shan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pathogenesis and novel diagnostic biomarkers of biliary atresia (BA). Serum samples from infants with BA and non-BA neonatal cholestasis (NC) were collected for miRNA microarray analysis, and then differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR using an independent serum samples from infants with BA and NC. Diagnostic utility of validated miRNAs was further analyzed using serum samples by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Totally, 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified including 11 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated ones. Target genes of hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 were significantly involved in FoxO signaling pathway. Eight differentially expressed miRNAs were chosen for validation by qRT-PCR analysis, and four miRNAs (hsa-miR-150-3p, hsa-miR-4429, hsa-miR-4689 and hsa-miR-92a-3p) were differentially expressed. The area under the curve of hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 was 0.789 (sensitivity = 83.33%, specificity = 80.00%) and 0.722 (sensitivity = 66.67%, specificity = 80.00%), respectively. Differentially expressed miRNAs including hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 might play critical roles in BA by regulating their target genes, and these two miRNAs may have the potential to become diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:26879603

  17. Triage tests for identifying atrial fibrillation in primary care: a diagnostic accuracy study comparing single-lead ECG and modified BP monitors

    PubMed Central

    Kearley, Karen; Selwood, Mary; Van den Bruel, Ann; Thompson, Matthew; Mant, David; Hobbs, FD Richard; Fitzmaurice, David; Heneghan, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Objective New electronic devices offer an opportunity within routine primary care settings for improving the detection of atrial fibrillation (AF), which is a common cardiac arrhythmia and a modifiable risk factor for stroke. We aimed to assess the performance of a modified blood pressure (BP) monitor and two single-lead ECG devices, as diagnostic triage tests for the detection of AF. Setting 6 General Practices in the UK. Participants 1000 ambulatory patients aged 75 years and over. Primary and secondary outcome measures Comparative diagnostic accuracy of modified BP monitor and single-lead ECG devices, compared to reference standard of 12-lead ECG, independently interpreted by cardiologists. Results A total of 79 participants (7.9%) had AF diagnosed by 12-lead ECG. All three devices had a high sensitivity (93.9–98.7%) and are useful for ruling out AF. WatchBP is a better triage test than Omron autoanalysis because it is more specific—89.7% (95% CI 87.5% to 91.6%) compared to 78.3% (95% CI 73.0% to 82.9%), respectively. This would translate into a lower follow-on ECG rate of 17% to rule in/rule out AF compared to 29.7% with the Omron text message in the study population. The overall specificity of single-lead ECGs analysed by a cardiologist was 94.6% for Omron and 90.1% for Merlin. Conclusions WatchBP performs better as a triage test for identifying AF in primary care than the single-lead ECG monitors as it does not require expertise for interpretation and its diagnostic performance is comparable to single-lead ECG analysis by cardiologists. It could be used opportunistically to screen elderly patients for undiagnosed AF at regular intervals and/or during BP measurement. PMID:24793250

  18. Serum microRNA microarray analysis identifies miR-4429 and miR-4689 are potential diagnostic biomarkers for biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Rui; Shen, Zhen; Zheng, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Shan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pathogenesis and novel diagnostic biomarkers of biliary atresia (BA). Serum samples from infants with BA and non-BA neonatal cholestasis (NC) were collected for miRNA microarray analysis, and then differentially expressed miRNAs were screened. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR using an independent serum samples from infants with BA and NC. Diagnostic utility of validated miRNAs was further analyzed using serum samples by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Totally, 13 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified including 11 down-regulated and 2 up-regulated ones. Target genes of hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 were significantly involved in FoxO signaling pathway. Eight differentially expressed miRNAs were chosen for validation by qRT-PCR analysis, and four miRNAs (hsa-miR-150-3p, hsa-miR-4429, hsa-miR-4689 and hsa-miR-92a-3p) were differentially expressed. The area under the curve of hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 was 0.789 (sensitivity = 83.33%, specificity = 80.00%) and 0.722 (sensitivity = 66.67%, specificity = 80.00%), respectively. Differentially expressed miRNAs including hsa-miR-4429 and hsa-miR-4689 might play critical roles in BA by regulating their target genes, and these two miRNAs may have the potential to become diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:26879603

  19. The accuracy of pain drawing in identifying psychological distress in low back pain—systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies

    PubMed Central

    Bertozzi, Lucia; Rosso, Anna; Romeo, Antonio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Guccione, Andrew A.; Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the accuracy of qualitative pain drawings (PDs) in identifying psychological distress in subacute and chronic low back pain (LBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Data were obtained from searches of PubMed, EBSCO, Scopus, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science from their inception to July 2014. Quality assessments of bias and applicability were conducted using the Quality of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2). [Results] The summary estimates were: sensitivity=0.45 (95% CI 0.34, 0.61), specificity=0.66 (95% CI 0.53, 0.82), positive likelihood ratio=1.23 (95% CI 0.93, 1.62), negative likelihood ratio=0.84 (95% CI 0.70, 1.01), and diagnostic odds ratio=1.46 (95% CI 0.79, 2.68). The area under the curve was 78% (CI, 57 to 99%). [Conclusion] The results of this systematic review do not show broad and unqualified support for the accuracy of PDs in detecting psychological distress in subacute and chronic LBP. PMID:26644701

  20. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. PMID:26233443

  1. Comparative Proteomics of Dehalococcoides spp. Reveals Strain-Specific Peptides Associated with Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R. M.; Fung, J. M.; Rahm, B. G.; Zhang, S.; Freedman, D. L.; Zinder, S. H.; Richardson, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation by Dehalococcoides spp. is an ideal system for studying functional diversity of closely related strains of bacteria. In Dehalococcoides spp., reductive dehalogenases (RDases) are key respiratory enzymes involved in the anaerobic detoxification of halogenated compounds at contaminated sites globally. Although housekeeping genes sequenced from Dehalococcoides spp. are >85% identical at the amino acid level, different strains are capable of dehalogenating diverse ranges of compounds, depending largely on the suite of RDase genes that each strain harbors and expresses. We identified RDase proteins that corresponded to known functions in four characterized cultures and predicted functions in an uncharacterized Dehalococcoides-containing mixed culture. Homologues within RDase subclusters containing PceA, TceA, and VcrA were among the most frequently identified proteins. Several additional proteins, including a formate dehydrogenase-like protein (Fdh), had high coverage in all strains and under all growth conditions. PMID:17098919

  2. Tetherin Sensitivity of Influenza A Viruses Is Strain Specific: Role of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase

    PubMed Central

    Gnirß, Kerstin; Zmora, Pawel; Blazejewska, Paulina; Winkler, Michael; Lins, Anika; Nehlmeier, Inga; Gärtner, Sabine; Moldenhauer, Anna-Sophie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Wolff, Thorsten; Schindler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of the antiviral host cell factor tetherin is induced by interferon and can inhibit the release of enveloped viruses from infected cells. The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes the antiviral activity of tetherin, and tetherin antagonists with Vpu-like activity have been identified in other viruses. In contrast, it is incompletely understood whether tetherin inhibits influenza A virus (FLUAV) release and whether FLUAV encodes tetherin antagonists. Here, we show that release of several laboratory-adapted FLUAV strains and a seasonal FLUAV strain is inhibited by tetherin, while pandemic FLUAV A/Hamburg/4/2009 is resistant. Studies with a virus-like particle system and analysis of reassortant viruses provided evidence that the viral hemagglutinin (HA) is an important determinant of tetherin antagonism but requires the presence of its cognate neuraminidase (NA) to inhibit tetherin. Finally, tetherin antagonism by FLUAV was dependent on the virion context, since retrovirus release from tetherin-positive cells was not rescued, and correlated with an HA- and NA-dependent reduction in tetherin expression. In sum, our study identifies HA and NA proteins of certain pandemic FLUAV as tetherin antagonists, which has important implications for understanding FLUAV pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (FLUAV) infection is responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality, and understanding how the virus evades the immune defenses of the host may uncover novel targets for antiviral intervention. Tetherin is an antiviral effector molecule of the innate immune system which can contribute to control of viral invasion. However, it has been unclear whether FLUAV is inhibited by tetherin and whether these viruses encode tetherin-antagonizing proteins. Our observation that several pandemic FLUAV strains can counteract tetherin via their HA and NA proteins identifies these proteins as novel tetherin antagonists and indicates that HA

  3. Strain Specific Genotype−Environment Interactions and Evolutionary Potential for Body Mass in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Crespel, Amélie; Bernatchez, Louis; Audet, Céline; Garant, Dany

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating between genetic and environmental causes of phenotypic variation is an essential requirement for understanding the evolutionary potential of populations. However, the extent to which genetic variation differs among conspecific groups and environments during ontogeny has rarely been investigated. In this study, the genetic basis of body mass was measured in three divergent strains of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in different rearing environments and at different time periods. The results indicate that body mass was a heritable trait in all strains but that the level of heritability greatly differed among strains. Moreover, heritability estimates of each strain varied differently according to environmental rearing conditions, and cross-environments correlations were all significantly lower than unity, indicating strain-specific patterns of genotype–environment interactions. Heritability estimates also varied throughout ontogeny and decreased by 50% from 9 to 21 months of age. This study highlights the divergence in genetic architecture and evolutionary potential among these strains and emphasizes the importance of considering the strain-specific potential of the response to selection according to environmental variation. PMID:23450764

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Strain-Specific and Conserved Stemness Genes in Schmidtea mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Chien; Horowitz, Michael; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2012-01-01

    The planarian Schmidtea mediterranea is a powerful model organism for studying stem cell biology due to its extraordinary regenerative ability mediated by neoblasts, a population of adult somatic stem cells. Elucidation of the S. mediterranea transcriptome and the dynamics of transcript expression will increase our understanding of the gene regulatory programs that regulate stem cell function and differentiation. Here, we have used RNA-Seq to characterize the S. mediterranea transcriptome in sexual and asexual animals and in purified neoblast and differentiated cell populations. Our analysis identified many uncharacterized genes, transcripts, and alternatively spliced isoforms that are differentially expressed in a strain or cell type-specific manner. Transcriptome profiling of purified neoblasts and differentiated cells identified neoblast-enriched transcripts, many of which likely play important roles in regeneration and stem cell function. Strikingly, many of the neoblast-enriched genes are orthologs of genes whose expression is enriched in human embryonic stem cells, suggesting that a core set of genes that regulate stem cell function are conserved across metazoan species. PMID:22496805

  5. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Farhad; Shariatpanahi, Elnaz; Jahanshahi, Javane; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM) has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear. Results The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear – the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures – were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery. Conclusion According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology. PMID:26167935

  6. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480

  7. Multifaceted strain-specific effects in a mouse model of depression and of antidepressant reversal.

    PubMed

    Ibarguen-Vargas, Yadira; Surget, Alexandre; Touma, Chadi; Palme, Rupert; Belzung, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    Etiopathogenesis of depression and the cause of insensitivity to treatment remain poorly understood, although genetic makeup has been established as a contributing factor. The isogenicity of inbred mouse strains provides a useful tool for investigating the link between genes and behavior or drug response. Hence, our aim was to identify inbred mouse strains (among A/J, BALB/c, C3H, C57BL/6, CBA, DBA and FVB) sensitive to a 9-week period of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and, from the fifth week onward, to the reversal effect of an antidepressant (AD) (imipramine, 20mg/kg/day i.p.) on various depression-related changes: physical, behavioral and neuroendocrine states. UCMS induced a significant deterioration of the coat state (in all the strains), blunted emotional reactivity in the novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test (A/J, BALB/c, C57BL/6), and changes in the level of fecal corticosterone metabolites (BALB/c, C57BL/6, DBA, FVB). Imipramine treatment reversed the UCMS-induced alterations of the coat state (BALB/c, DBA), in the NSF test (A/J, BALB/c, C57BL/6) and in fecal corticosterone metabolites (BALB/c, C57BL/6). C3H, CBA and FVB mice were irresponsive to imipramine treatment. It is noteworthy that UCMS-induced physical or behavioral changes occurred without hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations in some strains (A/J, C3H, CBA), although the AD-induced reversal of these changes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 was associated with HPA axis normalization. Finally, UCMS is shown to discriminate various alterations and to replicate in a strain-dependent manner diverse profiles reminiscent of human disease subtypes. UCMS may thus enable the selection of strains suitable for investigating specific depression-related features and could be an appropriate model for identifying genetic factors associated with increased vulnerability, specific symptoms of affective disorders, and AD resistance. PMID:18790573

  8. Strain-Specific Virolysis Patterns of Human Noroviruses in Response to Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Woo; Collins, Nikail; Barclay, Leslie; Hu, Liya; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Vinjé, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are widely used to disinfect hands to prevent the spread of pathogens including noroviruses. Alcohols inactivate norovirus by destruction of the viral capsid, resulting in the leakage of viral RNA (virolysis). Since conflicting results have been reported on the susceptibility of human noroviruses against alcohols, we exposed a panel of 30 human norovirus strains (14 GI and 16 GII strains) to different concentrations (50%, 70%, 90%) of ethanol and isopropanol and tested the viral RNA titer by RT-qPCR. Viral RNA titers of 10 (71.4%), 14 (100%), 3 (21.4%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 GI strains were reduced by > 1 log10 RNA copies/ml after exposure to 70% and 90% ethanol, and 70% and 90% isopropanol, respectively. RNA titers of 6 of the 7 non-GII 4 strains remained unaffected after alcohol exposure. Compared to GII strains, GI strains were more susceptible to ethanol than to isopropanol. At 90%, both alcohols reduced RNA titers of 8 of the 9 GII.4 strains by ≥ 1 log10 RNA copies/ml. After exposure to 70% ethanol, RNA titers of GII.4 Den Haag and Sydney strains decreased by ≥ 1.9 log10, whereas RNA reductions for GII.4 New Orleans strains were < 0.5 log10. To explain these differences, we sequenced the complete capsid gene of the 9 GII.4 strains and identified 17 amino acid substitutions in the P2 region among the 3 GII.4 variant viruses. When comparing with an additional set of 200 GII.4 VP1 sequences, only S310 and P396 were present in all GII.4 New Orleans viruses but not in the ethanol-sensitive GII.4 Sydney and GII.4 Den Haag viruses Our data demonstrate that alcohol susceptibility patterns between different norovirus genotypes vary widely and that virolysis data for a single strain or genotype are not representative for all noroviruses. PMID:27337036

  9. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F.

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment–genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites. PMID:27371955

  10. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment-genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites. PMID:27371955

  11. Strain-specific Loss of Formyl Peptide Receptor 3 in the Murine Vomeronasal and Immune Systems.

    PubMed

    Stempel, Hendrik; Jung, Martin; Pérez-Gómez, Anabel; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Zufall, Frank; Bufe, Bernd

    2016-04-29

    Formyl peptide receptor 3 (Fpr3, also known as Fpr-rs1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in subsets of sensory neurons of the mouse vomeronasal organ, an olfactory substructure essential for social recognition. Fpr3 has been implicated in the sensing of infection-associated olfactory cues, but its expression pattern and function are incompletely understood. To facilitate visualization of Fpr3-expressing cells, we generated and validated two new anti-Fpr3 antibodies enabling us to analyze acute Fpr3 protein expression. Fpr3 is not only expressed in murine vomeronasal sensory neurons but also in bone marrow cells, the primary source for immune cell renewal, and in mature neutrophils. Consistent with the notion that Fpr3 functions as a pathogen sensor, Fpr3 expression in the immune system is up-regulated after stimulation with a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). These results strongly support a dual role for Fpr3 in both vomeronasal sensory neurons and immune cells. We also identify a large panel of mouse strains with severely altered expression and function of Fpr3, thus establishing the existence of natural Fpr3 knock-out strains. We attribute distinct Fpr3 expression in these strains to the presence or absence of a 12-nucleotide in-frame deletion (Fpr3Δ424-435). In vitro calcium imaging and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrate that the lack of four amino acids leads to an unstable, truncated, and non-functional receptor protein. The genome of at least 19 strains encodes a non-functional Fpr3 variant, whereas at least 13 other strains express an intact receptor. These results provide a foundation for understanding the in vivo function of Fpr3. PMID:26957543

  12. The Impact of Lactobacillus casei on the Composition of the Cecal Microbiota and Innate Immune System Is Strain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Busra; De Wolfe, Travis J.; Safdar, Nasia; Darien, Benjamin J.; Steele, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The probiotic function to impact human health is thought to be related to their ability to alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the human innate immune system. The ability to function as a probiotic is believed to be strain specific. Strains of Lactobacillus casei are commonly utilized as probiotics that when consumed alter the composition of the gut microbiota and modulate the host immune response. L. casei strains are known to differ significantly in gene content. The objective of this study was to investigate seven different L. casei strains for their ability to alter the murine gut microbiota and modulate the murine immune system. C57BL/6 mice were fed L. casei strains at a dose of 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and sacrificed 3.5h after the last administration. The cecal content and the ileum tissue were collected for microbiota analysis and immune profiling, respectively. While 5 of the L. casei strains altered the gut microbiota in a strain specific manner, two of the strains did not alter the overall cecal microbiota composition. The observed changes cluster into three groups containing between 1 and 2 strains. Two strains that did not affect the gut microbiota composition cluster together with the control in their impact on pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) expression, suggesting that the ability to alter the cecal microbiota correlates with the ability to alter PRR expression. They also cluster together in their impact on the expression of intestinal antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). This result suggests that a relationship exists between the capability of a L. casei strains to alter the composition of the gut microbiota, PRR regulation, and AMP regulation. PMID:27244133

  13. Strain-specific Plasmodium falciparum multifunctional CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression in Malian children immunized with the FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Graves, Shawna F; Kouriba, Bourema; Diarra, Issa; Daou, Modibo; Niangaly, Amadou; Coulibaly, Drissa; Keita, Yamoussa; Laurens, Matthew B; Berry, Andrea A; Vekemans, Johan; Ripley Ballou, W; Lanar, David E; Dutta, Sheetij; Gray Heppner, D; Soisson, Lorraine; Diggs, Carter L; Thera, Mahamadou A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Sztein, Marcelo B; Lyke, Kirsten E

    2016-05-17

    Based on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) from strain 3D7, the malaria vaccine candidate FMP2.1/AS02A showed strain-specific efficacy in a Phase 2 clinical trial in 400 Malian children randomized to 3 doses of the AMA1 vaccine candidate or control rabies vaccine on days 0, 30 and 60. A subset of 10 Pf(-) (i.e., no clinical malaria episodes) AMA1 recipients, 11 Pf(+) (clinical malaria episodes with parasites with 3D7 or Fab9-type AMA1 cluster 1 loop [c1L]) AMA1 recipients, and 10 controls were randomly chosen for analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated on days 0, 90 and 150 were stimulated with full-length 3D7 AMA1 and c1L from strains 3D7 (c3D7) and Fab9 (cFab9). Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and/or IL-17A was analyzed by flow cytometry. Among AMA1 recipients, 18/21 evaluable samples stimulated with AMA1 demonstrated increased IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 derived from CD4(+) T cells by day 150 compared to 0/10 in the control group (p<0.0001). Among AMA1 vaccines, CD4(+) cells expressing both TNF-α and IL-2 were increased in Pf(-) children compared to Pf(+) children. When PBMCs were stimulated with c3D7 and cFab9 separately, 4/18 AMA1 recipients with an AMA1-specific CD4(+) response had a significant response to one or both c1L. This suggests that recognition of the AMA1 antigen is not dependent upon c1L alone. In summary, AMA1-specific T cell responses were notably increased in children immunized with an AMA1-based vaccine candidate. The role of CD4(+)TNF-α(+)IL-2(+)-expressing T cells in vaccine-induced strain-specific protection against clinical malaria requires further exploration. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00460525. PMID:27087149

  14. Mouse Cyp4a isoforms: enzymatic properties, gender- and strain-specific expression, and role in renal 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid formation.

    PubMed

    Muller, Dominik N; Schmidt, Cosima; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Wellner, Maren; Gross, Volkmar; Hercule, Hantz; Markovic, Marija; Honeck, Horst; Luft, Friedrich C; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2007-04-01

    AA (arachidonic acid) hydroxylation to 20-HETE (20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) influences renal vascular and tubular function. To identify the CYP (cytochrome P450) isoforms catalysing this reaction in the mouse kidney, we analysed the substrate specificity of Cyp4a10, 4a12a, 4a12b and 4a14 and determined sex- and strain-specific expressions. All recombinant enzymes showed high lauric acid hydroxylase activities. Cyp4a12a and Cyp4a12b efficiently hydroxylated AA to 20-HETE with V(max) values of approx. 10 nmol x nmol(-1) x min(-1) and K(m) values of 20-40 microM. 20-Carboxyeicosatetraenoic acid occurred as a secondary metabolite. AA hydroxylase activities were approx. 25-75-fold lower with Cyp4a10 and not detectable with Cyp4a14. Cyp4a12a and Cyp4a12b also efficiently converted EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) into 19/20-OH- and 17,18-epoxy-EPA. In male mice, renal microsomal AA hydroxylase activities ranged between approx. 100 (NMRI), 45-55 (FVB/N, 129 Sv/J and Balb/c) and 25 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (C57BL/6). The activities correlated with differences in Cyp4a12a protein and mRNA levels. Treatment with 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone induced both 20-HETE production and Cyp4a12a expression more than 4-fold in male C57BL/6 mice. All female mice showed low AA hydroxylase activities (15-25 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1)) and very low Cyp4a12a mRNA and protein levels, but high Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 expression. Renal Cyp4a12b mRNA expression was almost undetectable in both sexes of all strains. Thus Cyp4a12a is the predominant 20-HETE synthase in the mouse kidney. Cyp4a12a expression determines the sex- and strain-specific differences in 20-HETE generation and may explain sex and strain differences in the susceptibility to hypertension and target organ damage. PMID:17112342

  15. Suppression subtractive hybridisation and real-time PCR for strain-specific quantification of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis BAN in broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Fibi, Silvia; Klose, Viviana; Mohnl, Michaela; Weber, Barbara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Sattler, Verity Ann

    2016-04-01

    To ensure quality management during the production processes of probiotics and for efficacy testing in vivo, accurate tools are needed for the identification and quantification of probiotic strains. In this study, a strain-specific qPCR assay based on Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation (SSH) for identifying unique sequences, was developed to quantify the strain Bifidobacterium animalis BAN in broiler feed. Seventy potential BAN specific sequences were obtained after SSH of the BAN genome, with a pool of closely related strain genomes and subsequent differential screening by dot blot hybridisation. Primers were designed for 30 sequences which showed no match with any sequence database entry, using BLAST and FASTA. Primer specificity was assessed by qPCR using 45 non-target strains and species in a stepwise approach. Primer T39_S2 was the only primer pair without any unspecific binding properties and it showed a PCR efficiency of 80% with a Cq value of 17.32 for 20 ng BAN DNA. Optimised feed-matrix dependent calibration curve for the quantification of BAN was generated, ranging from 6.28 × 10(3)cfu g(-1) to 1.61 × 10(6)cfu g(-1). Limit of detection of the qPCR assay was 2 × 10(1)cfu g(-1) BAN. Applicability of the strain-specific qPCR assay was confirmed in a spiking experiment which added BAN to the feed in two concentrations, 2 × 10(6)cfu g(-1) and 2 × 10(4)cfu g(-1). Results showed BAN mean recovery rates in feed of 1.44 × 10(6) ± 4.39 × 10(5)cfu g(-1) and 1.59 × 10(4) ± 1.69 × 10(4)cfu g(-1), respectively. The presented BAN-specific qPCR assay can be applied in animal feeding trials, in order to control the correct inclusion rates of the probiotic to the feed, and it could further be adapted, to monitor the uptake of the probiotic into the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. PMID:26883620

  16. Fast and low-cost decentralized surveillance of transmission of tuberculosis based on strain-specific PCRs tailored from whole genome sequencing data: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Lago, L; Martínez Lirola, M; Herranz, M; Comas, I; Bouza, E; García-de-Viedma, D

    2015-03-01

    Molecular epidemiology has transformed our knowledge of how tuberculosis (TB) is transmitted. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has reached unprecedented levels of accuracy. However, it has increased technical requirements and costs, and analysis of data delays results. Our objective was to find a way to reconcile speed and ease of implementation with the high resolution of WGS. The targeted regional allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR (TRAP) assay presented here is based on allele-specific PCR targeting strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms, identified from WGS, and makes it possible to track actively transmitted Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. A TRAP assay was optimized to track the most actively transmitted strains in a population in Almería, Southeast Spain, with high rates of TB. TRAP was transferred to the local laboratory where transmission was occurring. It performed well from cultured isolates and directly from sputa, enabling new secondary cases of infection from the actively transmitted strains to be detected. TRAP constitutes a fast, simple and low-cost tool that could modify surveillance of TB transmission. This pilot study could help to define a new model to survey TB transmission based on a decentralized multinodal network of local laboratories applying fast and low-cost TRAPs, which are developed by central reference centres, tailored to the specific demands of transmission at each local node. PMID:25614157

  17. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) or Its Shorter Versions More Useful to Identify Risky Drinkers in a Chinese Population? A Diagnostic Study

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Benjamin H. K.; Chung, Roger Y.; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Kim, Jean; Chan, Iris W. T.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C), in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table. Study design and Setting A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT) was used as a screening tool of risky drinking. Results Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959). Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15–30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167). The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5. Conclusion Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool. PMID:25756353

  18. Does ductal lavage assert its role as a noninvasive diagnostic modality to identify women at low risk of breast cancer development?

    PubMed Central

    Konstandiadou, Ioanna; Kotsilianou, Olympia; Karakitsos, Petros; Athanasas, George; Smyrniotis, Vasilios; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Objective Ductal lavage (DL) involves evaluation of the ductal system of the breast for detection of intra-ductal carcinomas and precursor lesions by collecting breast epithelial cells using a small-gauge catheter inserted into a ductal orifice on the nipple. The aim of this survey was to analyze cytologic features of samples obtained from low-risk women with DL and to elucidate the efficacy of this diagnostic modality in evaluating fluid production, cannulating and determining atypical breast epithelial cells. Methods Into this prospective study were consecutively registered 80 women between ages 28 to 67. Nipple aspiration was performed to identify all fluid-yielding ducts. According to the grading of specific features the interpretation of the sample included: normal/benign (category, 0), mild atypical (category, I), markedly atypical (category, II) or malignant (category, III) disorders. Results Ninety five percent (316/334) of the nipple aspirate fluid samples were classified as category 0, 4.8% (16/334) as category I and 0.2% (2/334) as category II changes. Category III disorders were not detected. Therefore, in 80% of the women examined results were within normal limits while 17.5% of the participants presented mild atypical and 2.5% markedly atypical rates. Conclusion DL collection procedure proved to be rapid as well as acceptable by the women studied. It retains the advantage over other methods of nipple aspirate fluid in that it is easy to perform, thereby removing most clinician variability. It also helped low risk women to discriminate those with breast disorders that require additional investigation, further follow-up or administration of preventive medication. PMID:22523627

  19. Strain-Specific T-Cell Suppression and Protective Immunity in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Kazushi; Kaplan, David E.; Ikeda, Fusao; Ding, Jin; Schwartz, Jonathan; Nunes, Frederick A.; Alter, Harvey J.; Chang, Kyong-Mi

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently persists with an apparently ineffective antiviral T-cell response. We hypothesized that some patients may be exposed to multiple HCV subtypes and that strain-specific T cells could contribute to the viral dynamics in this setting. To test this hypothesis, CD4 T-cell responses to three genotype 1a-derived HCV antigens and HCV antibody serotype were examined in chronically HCV infected (genotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 3, and 4) and spontaneously HCV recovered subjects. Consistent with multiple HCV exposure, 63% of patients infected with genotypes 2 to 4 (genotypes 2-4) and 36% of those infected with genotype 1b displayed CD4 T-cell responses to 1a-derived HCV antigens, while 29% of genotype 2-4-infected patients showed serotype responses to genotype 1. Detection of 1a-specific T cells in patients without active 1a infection suggested prior self-limited 1a infection with T-cell-mediated protection from 1a but not from non-1a viruses. Remarkably, CD4 T-cell responses to 1a-derived HCV antigens were weakest in patients with homologous 1a infection and greater in non-1a-infected patients: proportions of patients responding were 19% (1a), 36% (1b), and 63% (2-4) (P = 0.0006). Increased 1a-specific CD4 T-cell responsiveness in non-1a-infected patients was not due to increased immunogenicity or cross-reactivity of non-1a viruses but directly related to sequence divergence. We conclude that the T-cell response to the circulating virus is either suppressed or not induced in a strain-specific manner in chronically HCV infected patients and that, despite their ability to clear one HCV strain, patients may be reinfected with a heterologous strain that can then persist. These findings provide new insights into host-virus interactions in HCV infection that have implications for vaccine development. PMID:15890937

  20. Comparison of the Cowpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion Proteome: Analysis of the Species- and Strain-Specific Proteome.

    PubMed

    Doellinger, Joerg; Schaade, Lars; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus' zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown. This study focused on the comparative analysis of the VACV and CPXV MV proteome by label-free single-run proteomics using nano liquid chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The presented data reveal that the common VACV and CPXV MV proteome contains most of the known conserved and essential OPV proteins and is associated with cellular proteins known to be essential for viral replication. While the species-specific proteome could be linked mainly to less genetically-conserved gene products, the strain-specific protein abundance was found to be of high variance in proteins associated with entry, host-virus interaction and protein processing. PMID:26556597

  1. Comparison of the Cowpox Virus and Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion Proteome: Analysis of the Species- and Strain-Specific Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Doellinger, Joerg; Schaade, Lars; Nitsche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus’ zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown. This study focused on the comparative analysis of the VACV and CPXV MV proteome by label-free single-run proteomics using nano liquid chromatography and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). The presented data reveal that the common VACV and CPXV MV proteome contains most of the known conserved and essential OPV proteins and is associated with cellular proteins known to be essential for viral replication. While the species-specific proteome could be linked mainly to less genetically-conserved gene products, the strain-specific protein abundance was found to be of high variance in proteins associated with entry, host-virus interaction and protein processing. PMID:26556597

  2. Quaternary Structure of Pathological Prion Protein as a Determining Factor of Strain-Specific Prion Replication Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Jaumain, Emilie; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. They are essentially composed of PrPSc, an aggregated, misfolded conformer of the ubiquitously expressed host-encoded prion protein (PrPC). Stable variations in PrPSc conformation are assumed to encode the phenotypically tangible prion strains diversity. However the direct contribution of PrPSc quaternary structure to the strain biological information remains mostly unknown. Applying a sedimentation velocity fractionation technique to a panel of ovine prion strains, classified as fast and slow according to their incubation time in ovine PrP transgenic mice, has previously led to the observation that the relationship between prion infectivity and PrPSc quaternary structure was not univocal. For the fast strains specifically, infectivity sedimented slowly and segregated from the bulk of proteinase-K resistant PrPSc. To carefully separate the respective contributions of size and density to this hydrodynamic behavior, we performed sedimentation at the equilibrium and varied the solubilization conditions. The density profile of prion infectivity and proteinase-K resistant PrPSc tended to overlap whatever the strain, fast or slow, leaving only size as the main responsible factor for the specific velocity properties of the fast strain most infectious component. We further show that this velocity-isolable population of discrete assemblies perfectly resists limited proteolysis and that its templating activity, as assessed by protein misfolding cyclic amplification outcompetes by several orders of magnitude that of the bulk of larger size PrPSc aggregates. Together, the tight correlation between small size, conversion efficiency and duration of disease establishes PrPSc quaternary structure as a determining factor of prion replication dynamics. For certain strains, a subset of PrP assemblies appears to be the best template for prion replication. This has

  3. Kinetics and strain specificity of rhizosphere and endophytic colonization by enteric bacteria on seedlings of Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuemei; Iniguez, A Leonardo; Ahmer, Brian M M; Triplett, Eric W

    2003-03-01

    The presence of human-pathogenic, enteric bacteria on the surface and in the interior of raw produce is a significant health concern. Several aspects of the biology of the interaction between these bacteria and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seedlings are addressed here. A collection of enteric bacteria associated with alfalfa sprout contaminations, along with Escherichia coli K-12, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strain ATCC 14028, and an endophyte of maize, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, were labeled with green fluorescent protein, and their abilities to colonize the rhizosphere and the interior of the plant were compared. These strains differed widely in their endophytic colonization abilities, with K. pneumoniae 342 and E. coli K-12 being the best and worst colonizers, respectively. The abilities of the pathogens were between those of K. pneumoniae 342 and E. coli K-12. All Salmonella bacteria colonized the interiors of the seedlings in high numbers with an inoculum of 10(2) CFU, although infection characteristics were different for each strain. For most strains, a strong correlation between endophytic colonization and rhizosphere colonization was observed. These results show significant strain specificity for plant entry by these strains. Significant colonization of lateral root cracks was observed, suggesting that this may be the site of entry into the plant for these bacteria. At low inoculum levels, a symbiosis mutant of Medicago truncatula, dmi1, was colonized in higher numbers on the rhizosphere and in the interior by a Salmonella endophyte than was the wild-type host. Endophytic entry of M. truncatula appears to occur by a mechanism independent of the symbiotic infections by Sinorhizobium meliloti or mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:12620870

  4. Evaluation of Optical Coherence Tomography as a Means of Identifying Earlier Stage Basal Cell Carcinomas while Reducing the Use of Diagnostic Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michelle; Feldman, Eleanor; Bienenfeld, Amanda; Bieber, Amy K.; Ellis, Jeffery; Alapati, Usha; Lebwohl, Mark; Siegel, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography for basal cell carcinoma and the proportion of biopsies that could be avoided if optical coherence tomography is used to rule-in surgery. Design: Multicenter, prospective, observational study. Setting: Dermatology clinics. Participants: Consecutive patients with clinically challenging pink lesions suspicious for basal cell carcinoma. Measurements: Clinical, dermoscopic, and optical coherence tomography images were obtained for all subjects. At each stage, the clinician made a diagnosis (pathology + subtype if applicable), and assessed his/her own confidence in the diagnosis. Results: Optical coherence tomography significantly (p<0.01) improved sensitivity and specificity over clinical or dermoscopic evaluation. The percentage of correct diagnoses was 57.4 percent (clinical), 69.6 percent (dermoscopy), and 87.8 percent (optical coherence tomography). Optical coherence tomography significantly increased the certainty of diagnosis; clinicians indicated they were certain (>95% confident) in 17 percent of lesions examined clinically, in 38.6 percent examined with dermoscopy, and in 70 percent examined with optical coherence tomography. With the use of optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma, more than 1 in 3 patients could avoid a diagnostic biopsy. Conclusion: In a population of clinically challenging lesions, optical coherence tomography improved diagnostic certainty by a factor of four over clinical examination alone and improved diagnostic accuracy by 50 percent (57-88%). The addition of optical coherence tomography to other standard assessments can improve the false-positive rate and give a high degree of certainty for ruling in a positive diagnosis for basal cell carcinoma. A reduction of 36 percent in overall biopsies could be achieved by sending high certainty basal cell carcinoma positive optical coherence tomography diagnoses straight to surgery. PMID

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging to identify and characterize focal liver lesions: comparison between gadolinium and superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast media.

    PubMed

    Maurea, Simone; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Tambasco, Annamaria; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mollica, Carmine; Laccetti, Ettore; Camera, Luigi; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-06-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium (Gd) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast media for characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL), we retrospectively evaluated the results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 68 patients (40 M, 28 F, age from 22 to 81 yrs) of which 36 with diagnosis of colo-rectal cancer, 26 with hepatic cirrhosis and 6 with incidental imaging detection of FLL. MR (Gyroscan Intera 1.5 T, Philips Medical Systems) study was performed using T1 and T2 fast-field-echo (FFE) and T2 turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences in axial and coronal views. Dynamic multi-phases gadolinium Gd-enhanced T1-FFE-Bh images were obtained in arterial, portal and equilibrium phases, followed by SPIO-enhanced T2-FFE scans. A qualitative analysis of pre- and post-contrast MR images to classify FLL as benign or malignant was performed using a 3-point scoring system: 0= benign; 1= suspicious for malignancy; 2= malignant. A total of 118 lesions were evaluated. In particular, histology (n=18), cytology (n=14) or clinical-imaging follow-up data (n=86) demonstrated 4 adenomas, 29 cysts, 3 focal steatosis, 25 hemangiomas, 1 focal vascular abnormality, 5 fibrotic lesions as well as 13 regenerative nodules, 6 dysplastic, 14 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 17 metastasis and 1 cholangiocarcinoma. For MR imaging, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of Gd vs. SPIO images were respectively 83% vs. 92%, 79% vs. 74%, 85% vs. 99% (P=0.002), 68% vs. 96% (P=0.005) and 91% vs. 90%, respectively. The results suggest that SPIO-MR provides a diagnostic incremental value, as specificity and PPV, particularly to characterize FLL compared to Gd-MR; thus, we strongly recommend the use of SPIO when liver lesion characterization is requested and Gd images are uncertain. PMID:24914419

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of MR imaging to identify and characterize focal liver lesions: comparison between gadolinium and superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast media

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Tambasco, Annamaria; Imbriaco, Massimo; Mollica, Carmine; Laccetti, Ettore; Camera, Luigi; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium (Gd) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast media for characterization of focal liver lesions (FLL), we retrospectively evaluated the results of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 68 patients (40 M, 28 F, age from 22 to 81 yrs) of which 36 with diagnosis of colo-rectal cancer, 26 with hepatic cirrhosis and 6 with incidental imaging detection of FLL. MR (Gyroscan Intera 1.5 T, Philips Medical Systems) study was performed using T1 and T2 fast-field-echo (FFE) and T2 turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences in axial and coronal views. Dynamic multi-phases gadolinium Gd-enhanced T1-FFE-Bh images were obtained in arterial, portal and equilibrium phases, followed by SPIO-enhanced T2-FFE scans. A qualitative analysis of pre- and post-contrast MR images to classify FLL as benign or malignant was performed using a 3-point scoring system: 0= benign; 1= suspicious for malignancy; 2= malignant. A total of 118 lesions were evaluated. In particular, histology (n=18), cytology (n=14) or clinical-imaging follow-up data (n=86) demonstrated 4 adenomas, 29 cysts, 3 focal steatosis, 25 hemangiomas, 1 focal vascular abnormality, 5 fibrotic lesions as well as 13 regenerative nodules, 6 dysplastic, 14 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 17 metastasis and 1 cholangiocarcinoma. For MR imaging, diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of Gd vs. SPIO images were respectively 83% vs. 92%, 79% vs. 74%, 85% vs. 99% (P=0.002), 68% vs. 96% (P=0.005) and 91% vs. 90%, respectively. The results suggest that SPIO-MR provides a diagnostic incremental value, as specificity and PPV, particularly to characterize FLL compared to Gd-MR; thus, we strongly recommend the use of SPIO when liver lesion characterization is requested and Gd images are uncertain. PMID:24914419

  7. Heterosubtypic Antibodies to Influenza A Virus Have Limited Activity against Cell-Bound Virus but Are Not Impaired by Strain-Specific Serum Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wyrzucki, Arkadiusz; Bianchi, Matteo; Kohler, Ines; Steck, Marco

    2014-01-01

    irreversible and that efficient neutralization is possible only if stem-specific hMAbs bind to HA before the virus attaches to the cell surface. No interference between strain-specific human serum immunoglobulin and hMAbs was found, indicating that preexisting humoral immunity to influenza virus does not limit the efficacy of stem-reactive heterosubtypic antibodies. This knowledge supports the development of a pan-influenza virus vaccine. PMID:25552718

  8. Development of a Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region Marker-Targeted Quantitative PCR Assay for Strain-Specific Detection of Oenococcus oeni during Wine Malolactic Fermentation▿

    PubMed Central

    Solieri, Lisa; Giudici, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Control over malolactic fermentation (MLF) is a difficult goal in winemaking and needs rapid methods to monitor Oenococcus oeni malolactic starters (MLS) in a stressful environment such as wine. In this study, we describe a novel quantitative PCR (QPCR) assay enabling the detection of an O. oeni strain during MLF without culturing. O. oeni strain LB221 was used as a model to develop a strain-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker derived from a discriminatory OPA20-based randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) band. The 5′ and 3′ flanking regions and the copy number of the SCAR marker were characterized using inverse PCR and Southern blotting, respectively. Primer pairs targeting the SCAR sequence enabled strain-specific detection without cross amplification of other O. oeni strains or wine species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acetic acid bacteria (AAB), and yeasts. The SCAR-QPCR assay was linear over a range of cell concentrations (7 log units) and detected as few as 2.2 × 102 CFU per ml of red wine with good quantification effectiveness, as shown by the correlation of QPCR and plate counting results. Therefore, the cultivation-independent monitoring of a single O. oeni strain in wine based on a SCAR marker represents a rapid and effective strain-specific approach. This strategy can be adopted to develop easy and rapid detection techniques for monitoring the implantation of inoculated O. oeni MLS on the indigenous LAB population, reducing the risk of unsuccessful MLF. PMID:20935116

  9. Musculoskeletal Management of a Patient With a History of Chronic Ankle Sprains: Identifying Rupture of Peroneal Brevis and Peroneal Longus With Diagnostic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Bruin, Dick B.; von Piekartz, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the use of mobilization and eccentric exercise training for a patient with ankle pain and a history of chronic ankle sprains and discuss the course of diagnostic decision making when the patient did not respond to care. Clinical Features A 48-year-old police officer who had sustained multiple ankle sprains throughout his life presented with pain and restriction in his ability to walk, run, and work. The Global Rating of Change Scale score was − 6, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale score was 7/10, and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale score was − 33. Palpation of the peroneus longus and brevis muscles and inversion with overpressure reproduced the chief concern (Numeric Pain Rating Scale 7/10). The patient was initially diagnosed with chronic peroneal tendinopathy. Intervention and Outcome Treatment included lateral translation mobilization of the talocrural joint combined with eccentric exercise using an elastic band for the peroneal muscles. The patient reported improvement in pain and function during the course of intervention but not as rapidly as expected. Therefore, follow-up ultrasonographic imaging and radiography were performed. These studies revealed partial rupture of the peroneal brevis muscle and total rupture of the peroneal longus muscle. Conclusion A patient with long-term concerns of the foot complex with a diagnosis of peroneal tendinopathy showed slight improvement with eccentric exercises combined with manual therapy of the talocrural joint. After a course of treatment but minimal response, a diagnosis of tendon rupture was confirmed with diagnostic ultrasonography. Clinicians should be aware that when injuries do not improve with care, tendon rupture should be considered. PMID:25225470

  10. Neuropsychopharmacology and Neurogenetic Aspects of Executive Functioning: Should Reward Gene Polymorphisms Constitute a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Individuals at Risk for Impaired Judgment?

    PubMed Central

    Bowirrat, Abdalla; Chen, Thomas JH; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Madigan, Margaret; Chen, Amanda LH; Bailey, John A.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siohban; Downs, B. William; Waite, Roger L.; Fornari, Frank; Armaly, Zaher; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives innervations from different neurons associated with a number of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine (DA). Here we review findings on the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognitive and emotional behaviors. We suggest examination of multifactorial interactions of an individual’s genetic history, along with environmental risk factors, can assist in the characterization of executive functioning for that individual. Based upon the results of genetic studies we also propose genetic mapping as a probable diagnostic tool serving as a therapeutic adjunct for augmenting executive functioning capabilities. We conclude that preservation of the neurological underpinnings of executive functions requires the integrity of complex neural systems including the influence of specific genes and associated polymorphisms to provide adequate neurotransmission. PMID:22371275

  11. Genome-wide Long Non-coding RNA Analysis Identified Circulating LncRNAs as Novel Non-invasive Diagnostic Biomarkers for Gynecological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Tao; Sun, Yu-Meng; Huang, Wei; He, Bo; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Chen, Yue-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in human diseases. This study aimed to investigate the tissue and serum lncRNAs that are differentially expressed between patients with endometriosis, a gynecological disease, to evaluate the potential of these lncRNAs as non-invasive markers for the disease. The differentially expressed lncRNAs as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) were also analyzed to predict their functions in disease development. Genome-wide profiling of lncRNA expression patterns revealed that many lncRNAs were abnormally expressed between sera and tissuesof the patient samples. A set of aberrant differentially expressed lncRNAs were further validated in a validation cohort of 110 serum and 24 tissue samples. Functional analysis predicted that differentially expressed lncRNAs may participate in disease development through crosstalk between the ceRNAs of miRNAs and may be involved in a range of cellular pathways including steroid or hormone responses. We also found a unique set of lncRNAs that were associated with disease severity and progression, and their diagnostic values were also investigated. Our study demonstrated that lncRNAs could potentially serve as non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of endometriosis and as important regulators in the progression of this disease. PMID:26987697

  12. Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

  13. A comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of the AD8 and BCAT-SF in identifying dementia and mild cognitive impairment in long-term care residents.

    PubMed

    Mansbach, William E; Mace, Ryan A

    2016-09-01

    We compared the accuracy of the Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool-Short Form (BCAT-SF) and AD8 in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among long-term care residents. Psychometric analyses of 357 long-term care residents (n = 228, nursing home; n = 129, assisted living) in Maryland referred for neuropsychological evaluation evidenced robust internal consistency reliability and construct validity for the BCAT-SF. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated superior predictive validity for the BCAT-SF in identifying MCI and dementia relative to the AD8. In contrast, previously reported psychometric properties or cut scores for the AD8 could not be cross-validated in this long-term care sample. Based on these findings, the BCAT-SF appears to be a more reliable and valid screening instrument than the AD8 for rapidly identifying MCI and dementia in long-term care residents. PMID:26873431

  14. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Methods Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. Results 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system

  15. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010–2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections. PMID:25542013

  16. A comparative proteomic study of plasma in feline pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify diagnostic biomarkers: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Meachem, Melissa D.; Snead, Elisabeth R.; Kidney, Beverly A.; Jackson, Marion L.; Dickinson, Ryan; Larson, Victoria; Simko, Elemir

    2015-01-01

    While pancreatitis is now recognized as a common ailment in cats, the diagnosis remains challenging due to discordant results and suboptimal sensitivity of ultrasound and specific feline pancreatic lipase (Spec fPL) assay. Pancreatitis also shares similar clinical features with pancreatic carcinoma, a rare but aggressive disease with a grave prognosis. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the plasma proteomes of normal healthy cats (n = 6), cats with pancreatitis (n = 6), and cats with pancreatic carcinoma (n = 6) in order to identify potential new biomarkers of feline pancreatic disease. After plasma protein separation by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein spots were detected by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining and identified by mass spectrometry. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein-A1 precursor (Pre Apo-A1) appeared to be differentially expressed, which suggests the presence of a systemic acute-phase response and alteration of lipid metabolism in cats with pancreatic disease. Future studies involving greater case numbers are needed in order to assess the utility of these proteins as potential biomarkers. More sensitive proteomic techniques may also be helpful in detecting significant but low-abundance proteins. PMID:26130850

  17. Simultaneous use of camera and probe diagnostics to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of multiple underlying instabilities during the route to plasma turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, S. C. Tynan, G. R.; Brandt, C.; Cui, L.; Gosselin, J. J.; Light, A.

    2014-11-15

    We use multiple-tip Langmuir probes and fast imaging to unambiguously identify and study the dynamics of underlying instabilities during the controlled route to fully-developed plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized helicon plasma device. Langmuir probes measure radial profiles of electron temperature, plasma density and potential; from which we compute linear growth rates of instabilities, cross-phase between density and potential fluctuations, Reynold's stress, particle flux, vorticity, time-delay estimated velocity, etc. Fast imaging complements the 1D probe measurements by providing temporally and spatially resolved 2D details of plasma structures associated with the instabilities. We find that three radially separated plasma instabilities exist simultaneously. Density gradient driven resistive drift waves propagating in the electron diamagnetic drift direction separate the plasma into an edge region dominated by strong, velocity shear driven Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and a central core region which shows coherent Rayleigh-Taylor modes propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. The simultaneous, complementary use of both probes and camera was crucial to identify the instabilities and understand the details of the very rich plasma dynamics.

  18. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  19. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently. PMID:26176847

  20. Postnatal Identification of Trisomy 21: An Overview of 7,133 Postnatal Trisomy 21 Cases Identified in a Diagnostic Reference Laboratory in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Chen, Fan; Wu, Menghua; Jiang, Shuai; Wu, Binbin; Luo, Huali; Wen, Jingyi; Hu, Chaohui; Yu, Shihui

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the cytogenetic characteristics of 7,133 trisomy 21 (Tri21) identified from 247,818 consecutive postnatal cases karyotyped in a single reference laboratory in China for a period of 4 years. The average detection rate of Tri21 is 2.88% ranging from 3.39% in 2011 to 2.52% in 2014. The decreased detection rates over the years might reflect a possible impact of noninvasive prenatal testing applied rapidly in China and elective termination of affected pregnancies. 95.32% of the Tri21 karyotypes are standard Tri21, 4.53% are Robertsonian Tri21, and less than 1% are other Tri21 forms. There are more mosaic Tri21 in older children and adults, consistent with previous observations that clinical features in individuals with mosaic Tri21 are generally milder and easily missed during perinatal period. The male/female (M/F ratio) for the total 7,133 Tri21 cases and for the 6,671 cases with non-mosaic standard Tri21 are 1.50 and 1.53 respectively, significantly higher than the 0.93 for all the 247,818 cases we karyotyped, the 1.30 for the Down syndrome (DS) identified during perinatal period in China, and the 1.20 for the livebirth in Chinese population. In contrast, the mosaic standard Tri21 case has a significantly lower proportion of males when compared with the non-mosaic standard Tri21, indicating different underlying mechanisms leading to their formations. Opposite M/F ratios in different subtypes of ROB Tri21 were observed. A long list of rare or private karyotypes where Tri21 are concurrently present was identified. The large collection of Tri21 cases with a diversity of clinical findings and a wide age range allowed us to determine the frequency of the different karyotypes of Down syndrome in China, given the fact that this kind of national epidemiological data is lacking currently. PMID:26176847

  1. Identifying diagnostically-relevant resting state brain functional connectivity in the ventral posterior complex via genetic data mining in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Philip R; Curtis, Kaylah N; Patriquin, Michelle A; Wolf, Varina; Viswanath, Humsini; Shaw, Chad; Sakai, Yasunari; Salas, Ramiro

    2016-05-01

    Exome sequencing and copy number variation analyses continue to provide novel insight to the biological bases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing speed at which massive genetic data are produced causes serious lags in analysis and interpretation of the data. Thus, there is a need to develop systematic genetic data mining processes that facilitate efficient analysis of large datasets. We report a new genetic data mining system, ProcessGeneLists and integrated a list of ASD-related genes with currently available resources in gene expression and functional connectivity of the human brain. Our data-mining program successfully identified three primary regions of interest (ROIs) in the mouse brain: inferior colliculus, ventral posterior complex of the thalamus (VPC), and parafascicular nucleus (PFn). To understand its pathogenic relevance in ASD, we examined the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the homologous ROIs in human brain with other brain regions that were previously implicated in the neuro-psychiatric features of ASD. Among them, the RSFC of the VPC with the medial frontal gyrus (MFG) was significantly more anticorrelated, whereas the RSFC of the PN with the globus pallidus was significantly increased in children with ASD compared with healthy children. Moreover, greater values of RSFC between VPC and MFG were correlated with severity index and repetitive behaviors in children with ASD. No significant RSFC differences were detected in adults with ASD. Together, these data demonstrate the utility of our data-mining program through identifying the aberrant connectivity of thalamo-cortical circuits in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 553-562. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26451751

  2. Analysis of the Human Prostate-Specific Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling Identifies TMEM79 and ACOXL as Two Putative, Diagnostic Markers in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    O'Hurley, Gillian; Busch, Christer; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Stadler, Charlotte; Tolf, Anna; Lundberg, Emma; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Jirström, Karin; Bjartell, Anders; Gallagher, William M.; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    To better understand prostate function and disease, it is important to define and explore the molecular constituents that signify the prostate gland. The aim of this study was to define the prostate specific transcriptome and proteome, in comparison to 26 other human tissues. Deep sequencing of mRNA (RNA-seq) and immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling were combined to identify prostate specific gene expression patterns and to explore tissue biomarkers for potential clinical use in prostate cancer diagnostics. We identified 203 genes with elevated expression in the prostate, 22 of which showed more than five-fold higher expression levels compared to all other tissue types. In addition to previously well-known proteins we identified two poorly characterized proteins, TMEM79 and ACOXL, with potential to differentiate between benign and cancerous prostatic glands in tissue biopsies. In conclusion, we have applied a genome-wide analysis to identify the prostate specific proteome using transcriptomics and antibody-based protein profiling to identify genes with elevated expression in the prostate. Our data provides a starting point for further functional studies to explore the molecular repertoire of normal and diseased prostate including potential prostate cancer markers such as TMEM79 and ACOXL. PMID:26237329

  3. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580

  4. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse. PMID:27077039

  5. Identification of planctomycetes with order-, genus-, and strain-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes.

    PubMed

    Gade, D; Schlesner, H; Glöckner, F O; Amann, R; Pfeiffer, S; Thomm, M

    2004-04-01

    A specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe (PIR1223) for the genus Pirellula and a species-specific probe (RB454) for Pirellula sp. strain SH1 have been designed and optimized. Together with the already existing order-specific probe PLA886, the two newly designed probes were used to detect and identify planctomycetes, pirellulae, and close relatives of Pirellula sp. strain SH1 in different habitats. With the help of these probes for detection and identification, bacteria of the genus Pirellula were detected and cultivated from tissue of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba and from the water column of the Kiel Fjord. An unexpected result was the close phylogenetic relationship of the isolate from the sponge and the brackish water habitat Kiel Fjord as revealed by DNA/DNA hybridization. PMID:14994173

  6. Elucidation of the transcription network governing mammalian sex determination by exploiting strain-specific susceptibility to sex reversal

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Steven C.; Aylor, David L.; Syed, Haider Ali; Magwene, Paul M.; Threadgill, David W.; Capel, Blanche

    2009-01-01

    Despite the identification of some key genes that regulate sex determination, most cases of disorders of sexual development remain unexplained. Evidence suggests that the sexual fate decision in the developing gonad depends on a complex network of interacting factors that converge on a critical threshold. To elucidate the transcriptional network underlying sex determination, we took the first expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach in a developing organ. We identified reproducible differences in the transcriptome of the embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) XY gonad between C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (129S1), indicating that the reported sensitivity of B6 to sex reversal is consistent with a higher expression of a female-like transcriptome in B6. Gene expression is highly variable in F2 XY gonads from B6 and 129S1 intercrosses, yet strong correlations emerged. We estimated the F2 coexpression network and predicted roles for genes of unknown function based on their connectivity and position within the network. A genetic analysis of the F2 population detected autosomal regions that control the expression of many sex-related genes, including Sry (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome) and Sox9 (Sry-box containing gene 9), the key regulators of male sex determination. Our results reveal the complex transcription architecture underlying sex determination, and provide a mechanism by which individuals may be sensitized for sex reversal. PMID:19884258

  7. Taxonomic and strain-specific identification of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei group.

    PubMed

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-05-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  8. Taxonomic and Strain-Specific Identification of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 within the Lactobacillus casei Group▿

    PubMed Central

    Coudeyras, Sophie; Marchandin, Hélène; Fajon, Céline; Forestier, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria that are widespread in the environment, including the human diet and gastrointestinal tract. Some Lactobacillus strains are regarded as probiotics because they exhibit beneficial health effects on their host. In this study, the long-used probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus 35 was characterized at a molecular level and compared with seven reference strains from the Lactobacillus casei group. Analysis of rrn operon sequences confirmed that L. rhamnosus 35 indeed belongs to the L. rhamnosus species, and both temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis and ribotyping showed that it is closer to the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (also known as L. rhamnosus GG) than to the species type strain. In addition, L. casei ATCC 334 gathered in a coherent cluster with L. paracasei type strains, unlike L. casei ATCC 393, which was closer to L. zeae; this is evidence of the lack of relatedness between the two L. casei strains. Further characterization of the eight strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis repetitive DNA element-based PCR identified distinct patterns for each strain, whereas two isolates of L. rhamnosus 35 sampled 40 years apart could not be distinguished. By subtractive hybridization using the L. rhamnosus GG genome as a driver, we were able to isolate five L. rhamnosus 35-specific sequences, including two phage-related ones. The primer pairs designed to amplify these five regions allowed us to develop rapid and highly specific PCR-based identification methods for the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus 35. PMID:18326671

  9. Maternal immune activation and strain specific interactions in the development of autism-like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzer, J J; Careaga, M; Onore, C E; Rushakoff, J A; Berman, R F; Ashwood, P

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are due to both genetic and environmental factors. Animal studies provide important translational models for elucidating specific genetic or environmental factors that contribute to ASD-related behavioral deficits. For example, mouse research has demonstrated a link between maternal immune activation and the expression of ASD-like behaviors. Although these studies have provided insights into the potential causes of ASD, they are limited in their ability to model the important interactions between genetic variability and environmental insults. This is of particular concern given the broad spectrum of severity observed in the human population, suggesting that subpopulations may be more susceptible to the adverse effects of particular environmental insults. It is hypothesized that the severity of effects of maternal immune activation on ASD-like phenotypes is influenced by the genetic background in mice. To test this, pregnant dams of two inbred strains (that is, C57BL/6J and BTBR T+tf/J) were exposed to the viral mimic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C), and their offspring were tested for the presence and severity of ASD-like behaviors. To identify differences in immune system regulation, spleens were processed and measured for alterations in induced cytokine responses. Strain-treatment interactions were observed in social approach, ultrasonic vocalization, repetitive grooming and marble burying behaviors. Interestingly, persistent dysregulation of adaptive immune system function was only observed in BTBR mice. Data suggest that behavioral and immunological effects of maternal immune activation are strain-dependent in mice. PMID:23481627

  10. Diversity and Strain Specificity of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes Revealed by the Draft Genome of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1

    PubMed Central

    Berg Miller, Margret E.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Rincon, Marco T.; Band, Mark; Bari, Albert; Akraiko, Tatsiana; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Borovok, Ilya; Jindou, Sadanari; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.; Bayer, Edward A.; White, Bryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ruminococcus flavefaciens is a predominant cellulolytic rumen bacterium, which forms a multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that could play an integral role in the ability of this bacterium to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides. Identifying the major enzyme types involved in plant cell wall degradation is essential for gaining a better understanding of the cellulolytic capabilities of this organism as well as highlighting potential enzymes for application in improvement of livestock nutrition and for conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuels. Methodology/Principal Findings The R. flavefaciens FD-1 genome was sequenced to 29x-coverage, based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis estimates (4.4 Mb), and assembled into 119 contigs providing 4,576,399 bp of unique sequence. As much as 87.1% of the genome encodes ORFs, tRNA, rRNAs, or repeats. The GC content was calculated at 45%. A total of 4,339 ORFs was detected with an average gene length of 918 bp. The cellulosome model for R. flavefaciens was further refined by sequence analysis, with at least 225 dockerin-containing ORFs, including previously characterized cohesin-containing scaffoldin molecules. These dockerin-containing ORFs encode a variety of catalytic modules including glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases, and carbohydrate esterases. Additionally, 56 ORFs encode proteins that contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Functional microarray analysis of the genome revealed that 56 of the cellulosome-associated ORFs were up-regulated, 14 were down-regulated, 135 were unaffected, when R. flavefaciens FD-1 was grown on cellulose versus cellobiose. Three multi-modular xylanases (ORF01222, ORF03896, and ORF01315) exhibited the highest levels of up-regulation. Conclusions/Significance The genomic evidence indicates that R. flavefaciens FD-1 has the largest known number of fiber-degrading enzymes likely to be arranged in a cellulosome architecture. Functional analysis of the genome has

  11. The strain-specific cis-acting element of beet curly top geminivirus DNA replication maps to the directly repeated motif of the ori.

    PubMed

    Choi, I R; Stenger, D C

    1996-12-01

    Strains of beet curly top geminivirus (BCTV) possess distinct cis- and trans-acting replication specificity elements which are not separately interchangeable among strains. Analysis of the replication competency of chimeric BCTV genomes, in which portions of the origin of DNA replication (ori) were derived from heterologous BCTV strains, have permitted identification of an essential cis-acting element governing strain-specific replication in a subgroup II geminivirus. Our studies indicate that the cis-acting element responsible for strain-specific replication properties resides within the directly repeated motif of the BCTV ori. Transient replication assays conducted in leaf disks and complementation experiments conducted in whole plants indicated that the trans-acting replication specificity element, residing within the amino-terminal region of the C1 Rep protein, may recognize and replicate a chimeric BCTV genome containing a heterologous ori so long as all or portions of the core element of the directly repeated motif are derived from the same strain as the Rep protein. As Rep protein binding to the core element of the directly repeated motif has been demonstrated by others to be essential for replication of subgroup III geminiviruses, our results support the hypothesis that replication specificity of subgroup II viruses is governed by processes similar to that of subgroup III viruses. However, a second cis-acting element of the ori, which appears to contribute to subgroup III virus replication specificity, does not seem to be required for replication specificity among the subgroup II viruses examined. Nonetheless, a potential role for a second cis-acting element in the BCTV ori contributing to maximal replication cannot be excluded. PMID:8941329

  12. Protective effects of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Staphylococci on the infection of cultured HT29 cells with different enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotypes are strain-specific.

    PubMed

    Stöber, Helen; Maier, Eva; Schmidt, Herbert

    2010-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of 19 benign strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), bifidobacteria and staphylococci with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains of different serotypes and virulence gene spectrum in a HT29 cell culture infection model. As markers of infection, the secretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB by the infected cells were determined. With 12 of 19 tested strains, a weak reduction <30% of IL-8 secretion of HT29 cells after co-infection with EHEC O157:H7 strain EDL933 was observed. Six strains reduced the IL-8 secretion up to 60% and the strain B. adolescentis DSMZ 20086 decreased the IL-8 production about 73%. In further co-infection assays with EHEC strains of the serotypes O103:H2, O26:H⁻, 0157:H⁻ and O113:H21, different abilities of the LAB strains to influence the infection with the different EHEC strains were noted. Therefore, the protective anti-inflammatory effect is strain specific for LAB and also depends on the application of EHEC strains with different sero- and virulence types. The differences in efficacy of protective bacteria against certain EHEC strains were unexpected and have not been shown so far. Furthermore, we could show that the inhibitory effects were not attributed to lower adhesion abilities of EHEC to the production of organic acids by the benign bacteria. In addition, viable bacteria are needed to inhibit the IL-8 secretion. Moreover, the NF-κB activation was reduced significantly by all tested LAB strains in co-infection trials, but was not strain-specific. The model described here is useful to screen for basic effects of protective bacteria that are able to counteract EHEC-mediated effects on human cells, and to study the molecular interaction between bacteria as well as between bacteria and human cultured cells. PMID:20920833

  13. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  14. Monitoring Lysobacter capsici AZ78 using strain specific qPCR reveals the importance of the formulation for its survival in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Segarra, Guillem; Puopolo, Gerardo; Porcel-Rodríguez, Elena; Giovannini, Oscar; Pertot, Ilaria

    2016-02-01

    Survival in the phyllosphere is a critical feature for biofungicides based on non-spore forming bacteria. Moreover, knowledge of their persistence on plants is important to design effective formulations and application techniques. With this scope, the aim of this work was to develop a specific method to monitor the fate in the environment of Lysobacter capsici AZ78, a biocontrol agent of Plasmopara viticola, and to evaluate the contribution of formulation in its persistence on grapevine leaves. A strain-specific primer pair derived from REP-PCR fingerprinting was used in quantitative PCR experiments to track the evolution of L. capsici AZ78 population in vineyards. The population reached between 5 and 6 log10 cells gram of leaf(-1) after application and decreased by more than 100 times in one week. Multiple regression analysis showed that unfavourable temperature was the main environmental factor correlating with the decrease of L. capsici AZ78 persistence on grapevine leaves. Importantly, the use of formulation additives protected L. capsici AZ78 against environmental factors and improved its persistence on the leaves by more than 10 times compared to nude cells. Formulation and the knowledge about the persistence of L. capsici AZ78 in vineyards will be useful to develop commercial biofungicides for foliar application. PMID:26691736

  15. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    PubMed

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution. PMID:27307159

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and K-12 Cultures Exposed to Inorganic and Organic Acids in Stationary Phase Reveals Acidulant- and Strain-Specific Acid Tolerance Responses ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    King, Thea; Lucchini, Sacha; Hinton, Jay C. D.; Gobius, Kari

    2010-01-01

    The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing. PMID:20709847

  17. Sensitivity of the Green Alga Pediastrum duplex Meyen to Allelochemicals Is Strain-Specific and Not Related to Co-Occurrence with Allelopathic Macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Eigemann, Falk; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Hilt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific differences in the response of microalgae to stress have numerous ecological implications. However, little is known of intraspecific sensitivities and the potential role of local genetic adaptation of populations. We compared the allelochemical sensitivity of 23 Pediastrum duplex Meyen strains, a common component of the freshwater phytoplankton. In order to test for local genetic adaptation, strains were isolated from water bodies with and without the allelopathically-active submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum. Strains were assigned to P. duplex on the basis of cell shape and colony morphology and only P. duplex strains that belonged to the same lineage in an ITS rDNA phylogeny were used. Inhibition of strain growth rates and maximum quantum yields of photosystem II were measured after exposure to tannic acid (TA) and co-culture with Myriophyllum spicatum. Growth rate inhibition varied over one order of magnitude between the P. duplex strains. There was no correlation between the presence of Myriophyllum in the source location and the sensitivity of the strains to TA or the presence of Myriophyllum, suggesting that at least strong unidirectional local adaptation to Myriophyllum had not taken place in the studied water bodies. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II of TA exposed algae decreased, whereas the yield of algae exposed to M. spicatum was slightly higher than that of the controls. The ranking of P. duplex strain sensitivities differed between the types of exposure (single additions of TA versus co-existence with M. spicatum) and the parameter measured (growth rate versus maximum quantum yield), emphasizing the importance of measuring multiple traits when analysing strain-specific sensitivities towards allelochemicals. The observation that sensitivities to allelochemicals vary widely among strains of a single freshwater algal species should be taken into account if evaluating ecological consequences of allelopathic interactions. PMID

  18. Bifidobacterium longum CCM 7952 Promotes Epithelial Barrier Function and Prevents Acute DSS-Induced Colitis in Strictly Strain-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Hudcovic, Tomas; Zakostelska, Zuzana; Drab, Vladimir; Spanova, Alena; Rittich, Bohuslav; Kozakova, Hana; Schabussova, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced microbial diversity has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and probiotic bacteria have been proposed for its prevention and/or treatment. Nevertheless, comparative studies of strains of the same subspecies for specific health benefits are scarce. Here we compared two Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains for their capacity to prevent experimental colitis. Methods Immunomodulatory properties of nine probiotic bifidobacteria were assessed by stimulation of murine splenocytes. The immune responses to B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 (Bl 7952) and CCDM 372 (Bl 372) were further characterized by stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cell, HEK293/TLR2 or HEK293/NOD2 cells. A mouse model of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis was used to compare their beneficial effects in vivo. Results The nine bifidobacteria exhibited strain-specific abilities to induce cytokine production. Bl 372 induced higher levels of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in spleen and dendritic cell cultures compared to Bl 7952. Both strains engaged TLR2 and contain ligands for NOD2. In a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, reduced clinical symptoms and preserved expression of tight junction proteins. Importantly, Bl 7952 improved intestinal barrier function as demonstrated by reduced FITC-dextran levels in serum. Conclusions We have shown that Bl 7952, but not Bl 372, protected mice from the development of experimental colitis. Our data suggest that although some immunomodulatory properties might be widespread among the genus Bifidobacterium, others may be rare and characteristic only for a specific strain. Therefore, careful selection might be crucial in providing beneficial outcome in clinical trials with probiotics in IBD. PMID:26218526

  19. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and ... and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  20. Diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Leeds, N.E.; Jacobson, H.G.

    1986-10-17

    Developments in the burgeoning field of diagnostic radiology have continued apace. Four areas that represent either subspecialities or technological advances in diagnostic radiology will be considered in this report: ultrasonography, interventional radiology, nuclear radiology, and magnetic resonance. In no sense is the exclusion of other subdisciplines and modalities (eg, pediatric radiology, computed tomography) and indication of their of importance or their failure to include innovative concepts.

  1. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of a P1.7b,4 strain-specific serogroup B meningococcal vaccine given to preteens.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Jamie; Rasanathan, Kumanan; Mow, Florina Chan; Jackson, Catherine; Martin, Diana; O'Hallahan, Jane; Oster, Philipp; Ypma, Ellen; Reid, Stewart; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Crengle, Sue; Stewart, Joanna; Lennon, Diana

    2007-11-01

    New Zealand (NZ) has experienced a Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B epidemic since 1991. MeNZB, a strain-specific outer membrane vesicle vaccine made using an NZ epidemic strain isolate, NZ98/254 (B:4:P1.7b,4), from two manufacturing sites, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH) and Chiron Vaccines (CV; now Novartis), was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity in this observer-blind trial with 8- to 12-year-old children. In year 1, cohort A (n = 302) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of NIPH-MeNZB or MenBvac (Norwegian parent vaccine strain 44/76; B:15:P1.7,16). In year 2, cohort B (n = 313) was randomized 4:1 for receipt of CV-MeNZB or NIPH-MeNZB. Participants all received three vaccinations 6 weeks apart. Local and systemic reactions were monitored for 7 days. Seroresponse was defined as a fourfold or greater rise in the serum bactericidal antibody titer from the baseline titer as measured by a serum bactericidal assay. Those with baseline titers of <1:4 required titers of >/=1:8 to serorespond. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses are presented. In cohort A, 74% (ITT) and 73% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients demonstrated seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses, versus 32% (ITT and PP) of MenBvac recipients. In cohort B, seroresponses against NZ98/254 after three doses occurred in 79% (ITT and PP) of CV-MeNZB versus 75% (ITT) and 76% (PP) of NIPH-MeNZB recipients. Vaccines were tolerable, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. In conclusion, the NZ strain meningococcal B vaccine (MeNZB) from either manufacturing site was immunogenic against New Zealand epidemic vaccine strain meningococci with no safety concerns when given in three doses to these 8- to 12-year-old children. PMID:17898183

  2. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  3. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  4. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  5. Antigen-antibody interactions: elucidation of the epitope and strain-specificity of a monoclonal antibody directed against the pilin protein adherence binding domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, W. Y.; Irvin, R. T.; Paranchych, W.; Hodges, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    The C-terminal region of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain K (PAK) pilin comprises both an epitope for the strain-specific monoclonal antibody PK99H, which blocks pilus-mediated adherence, and the adherence binding domain for buccal and tracheal epithelial cells. The PK99H epitope was located in sequence 134-140 (Asp-Glu-Gln-Phe-Ile-Pro-Lys) by using a single alanine replacement analysis on the 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to the PAK C-terminal sequence 128-144. Indeed, a 7-residue peptide corresponding to this sequence was shown to have a similar binding affinity to that of the native conformationally constrained (disulfide bridged) 17-residue peptide. This epitope was found to contain two critical residues (Phe137 and Lys140) and one nonessential residue (Gln136). Interestingly, the peptide, Phe-Ile-Pro-Lys, which constitutes the four most important side chains for antibody binding did not bind to PK99H. It was of interest to investigate the structural basis of the strain-specificity of PK99H utilizing naturally occurring pilin sequences. Therefore, all different residues found in the sequence corresponding to the PK99H epitope of the four other strains (PAO, CD4, K122-4, and KB7) were substituted one at a time in the PAK sequence and the changes in binding affinity of these analogs to the antibody PK99H were determined by competitive ELISA. The strain-specificity of PK99H for strains PAO, K122-4, and KB7 can be explained by the accumulated sequence changes in these strains, and at least two amino acid changes were required to explain the strain-specificity of PK99H. Similarly, cross-reactivity of PK99H with CD4 can be explained by the fact that there was only one side chain responsible for decreasing binding affinity compared to the PAK sequence. PMID:1284654

  6. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  7. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  8. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  9. Accurate, rapid and high-throughput detection of strain-specific polymorphisms in Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the event of biocrimes or infectious disease outbreaks, high-resolution genetic characterization for identifying the agent and attributing it to a specific source can be crucial for an effective response. Until recently, in-depth genetic characterization required expensive and time-consuming Sanger sequencing of a few strains, followed by genotyping of a small number of marker loci in a panel of isolates at or by gel-based approaches such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, which by necessity ignores most of the genome. Next-generation, massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology (specifically the Applied Biosystems sequencing by oligonucleotide ligation and detection (SOLiD™) system) is a powerful investigative tool for rapid, cost-effective and parallel microbial whole-genome characterization. Results To demonstrate the utility of MPS for whole-genome typing of monomorphic pathogens, four Bacillus anthracis and four Yersinia pestis strains were sequenced in parallel. Reads were aligned to complete reference genomes, and genomic variations were identified. Resequencing of the B. anthracis Ames ancestor strain detected no false-positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and mapping of reads to the Sterne strain correctly identified 98% of the 133 SNPs that are not clustered or associated with repeats. Three geographically distinct B. anthracis strains from the A branch lineage were found to have between 352 and 471 SNPs each, relative to the Ames genome, and one strain harbored a genomic amplification. Sequencing of four Y. pestis strains from the Orientalis lineage identified between 20 and 54 SNPs per strain relative to the CO92 genome, with the single Bolivian isolate having approximately twice as many SNPs as the three more closely related North American strains. Coverage plotting also revealed a common deletion in two strains and an amplification in the Bolivian strain that appear to be due to insertion element-mediated recombination

  10. Graphical presentation of diagnostic information

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Penny F; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Westwood, Marie E; Bachmann, Lucas M; Harbord, Roger; Egger, Matthias; Deeks, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test characteristics (diagnostic accuracy) and the potential for use in clinical practice (predictive value). Methods We discuss the types of graphical display commonly encountered in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies, and systematically review the use of graphical displays in recent diagnostic primary studies and systematic reviews. Results We identified 57 primary studies and 49 systematic reviews. Fifty-six percent of primary studies and 53% of systematic reviews used graphical displays to present results. Dot-plot or box-and- whisker plots were the most commonly used graph in primary studies and were included in 22 (39%) studies. ROC plots were the most common type of plot included in systematic reviews and were included in 22 (45%) reviews. One primary study and five systematic reviews included a probability-modifying plot. Conclusion Graphical displays are currently underused in primary diagnostic accuracy studies and systematic reviews of such studies. Diagnostic accuracy studies need to include multiple types of graphic in order to provide both a detailed overview of the results (diagnostic accuracy) and to communicate information that can be used to inform clinical practice (predictive value). Work is required to improve graphical displays, to better communicate the utility of a test in clinical practice and the implications of test results for individual patients. PMID:18405357

  11. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  12. Identification and quantification of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota in human feces with strain-specific primers derived from randomly amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Junji; Matsuki, Takahiro; Sasamoto, Masae; Tomii, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Koichi

    2008-08-15

    Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) has been used in the production of fermented milk products for many years and is one of the most intensively studied probiotics. To evaluate the ability of LcS to proliferate in human intestines after it has been ingested, we developed a PCR-based method to identify and quantify LcS using an LcS-specific primer set (pLcS) derived from a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. We confirmed the high specificity of the pLcS primer set in 167 bacterial strains (57 strains of L. casei and 110 other strains of bacteria commonly isolated from human feces). The method's ability to identify LcS matched that of an ELISA using a monoclonal antibody and a RAPD analysis in a representative sample of colonies cultured from human feces. The detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) using pLcS was 10(4.6) per gram of feces. The number of LcS in feces detected with qPCR was highly and significantly correlated with the number of LcS added to fecal samples within the range of 10(4.6) to 10(9.6) per gram feces (r(2)=0.999, P<0.001). After 14 healthy subjects ingested 10(11.0) CFU of LcS daily for 7 days, 10(9.1+/-0.5) LcS g(-1) (mean+/-S.D.) was detected in the fecal samples of all subjects by qPCR, and 10(8.0+/-0.9) CFU g(-1) was detected by culture; these values were significantly different (P<0.001, paired t-test). After the subjects stopped ingesting LcS, fecal LcS counts obtained with both methods decreased daily. The values produced by the 2 methods might have differed because of an overestimation in the PCR analysis due to the presence of dead LcS cells or an underestimation in the culture system due to the use of selective culture media; however, dead LcS cells can also be beneficial as immunomodulators. We confirmed that qPCR with an LcS-specific primer set was a rapid and accurate method for determining the total amount of LcS in feces including dead or less active cells which could not be detected by culture method. PMID

  13. Analysis of the Fam181 gene family during mouse development reveals distinct strain-specific expression patterns, suggesting a role in nervous system development and function.

    PubMed

    Marks, Matthias; Pennimpede, Tracie; Lange, Lisette; Grote, Phillip; Herrmann, Bernhard G; Wittler, Lars

    2016-01-10

    During somitogenesis differential gene expression can be observed for so-called cyclic genes, which display expression changes with a periodicity of 120min in the mouse. In screens to identify novel cyclic genes in murine embryos, Fam181b was predicted to be an oscillating gene in the presomitic mesoderm (psm). This gene, and its closely related paralog Fam181a, belong to the thus far uncharacterized Fam181 gene family. Here we describe the expression of Fam181b and Fam181a during murine embryonic development. In addition, we confirm oscillation of Fam181b in the psm in-phase with targets of, and regulated by, Notch signaling. Fam181b expression in the psm, as well as in the lateral plate mesoderm, was found to be affected by genetic background. We show that Fam181a and b exhibit partially overlapping mRNA expression patterns, and encode for proteins containing highly-conserved motifs, which predominantly localize to the nucleus. A Fam181b loss-of-function model was generated and found to result in no obvious phenotype. PMID:26407640

  14. Factors identified for negative appendicectomies.

    PubMed

    Mirza, M R; Habib, L; Jaleel, F

    2009-07-01

    The study was done, to determine the factors for negative appendicectomies. This prospective descriptive study includes patients managed at four non teaching and a teaching hospital of Karachi from March 2006 to February 2008. One hundred and sixty eight patients underwent appendicectomy during the study period. Details of clinical presentations, investigations, operative findings and histopathology were entered and analyzed. Literature search was aimed to see the negative appendicectomy rate (NAR) in last ten years despite using diagnostic tools (clinical scoring, diagnostic imaging and laparoscopy). In this study a total number of 168 patients under went appendicectomy. Normal appendices were found in 31 patients (negative appendicectomy rate was 18.45%) and associated pathology was seen in 13 patients, an incidental finding of Meckel's diverticulum in 5 patients and no other pathology was seen in 13 patients. The different factors which we identified for negative appendicectomies in our practice were non teaching hospitals where diagnostic scoring system was difficult to apply, female gender, selective use of imaging modality, other pathologies presenting with pain in right lower quadrant (RLQ) and requiring surgical intervention, and non-availability of CT scan and laparoscopy. Despite many advances in diagnostic system, acute appendicitis is still a diagnostic dilemma at times. Although there is no substitute for clinical judgment but in sub groups of patients in whom the possibility of negative appendicectomy is high, diagnostic modalities should be used judiciously to decrease the negative exploration. PMID:19623147

  15. Thymineless Death in Escherichia coli: Strain Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Donald J.; Mondale, Lee

    1967-01-01

    Thymineless death of various ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive strains of Escherichia coli B and K-12 was investigated. It was found that E. coli B, Bs−12, K-12 rec-21, and possibly K-12 Lon−, all sensitive to UV, were also sensitive to thymine starvation. However, other UV-sensitive strains of E. coli were found to display the typical resistant-type kinetics of thymineless death. The correlation of these results with various other cellular processes suggested that the filament-forming ability of the bacteria might be involved in the mechanism of thymineless death. It was apparent from the present results that capacity for host-cell reactivation, recombination ability, thymine dimer excision, and probably induction of a defective prophage had little to do with determining sensitivity to thymine deprivation. Images PMID:5337772

  16. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Xianbin

    2015-01-01

    AM Biotechnologies, LLC, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a diagnostic device that quickly detects sampled biomarkers. The TDS quickly quantifies clinically relevant biomarkers using only microliters of a single sample. The system combines ambient-stable, long shelf-life affinity assays with handheld, microfluidic gel electrophoresis affinity assay quantification technology. The TDS is easy to use, operates in microgravity, and permits simultaneous quantification of 32 biomarkers. In Phase I of the project, the partners demonstrated that a thioaptamer assay used in the microfluidic instrument could quantify a specific biomarker in serum in the low nanomolar range. The team also identified novel affinity agents to bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and demonstrated their ability to detect BAP with the microfluidic instrument. In Phase II, AM Biotech expanded the number of ambient affinity agents and demonstrated a TDS prototype. In the long term, the clinical version of the TDS will provide a robust, flight-tested diagnostic capability for space exploration missions.

  17. Precision diagnostic disc injections.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J D

    2000-07-01

    Spinal pain is an important public health problem affecting the population indiscriminately. The structures responsible for pain in the spine include the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, nerve roots, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints, and sacroiliac joints. Even though disc herniation, facet joints, strained muscles, and torn ligaments have been attributed to be the cause of most spinal pain, either in the neck and upper extremities, upper and mid back, or low back and lower extremities, disorders of the disc other than disc herniation have been implicated more frequently than any other disorders. Once stifled by misinformation, discography now has applications in a number of clinical settings. While cervical and lumbar discography is well studied and well known, thoracic discography is in its nascent stages of clinical application. The value of discography lies in its ability to produce pain and thereby identify a "pain generator." This allows treatment to be based on the specific cause of pain. The three primary components of diagnostic disc injection are: provocation/analgesia, discometry, and nucleography. Despite the recent exponential growth of noninvasive spinal technology, diagnostic disc injection remains the sole direct method for definitively determining whether a disc is a physiological pain generator. It is clear that discography is a safe and powerful complement to the overall clinical context. PMID:16906185

  18. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  19. Identifying plant poisoning in livestock: Diagnostic approaches and laboratory tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant poisoning is often associated with a variety of livestock diseases and unexplained animal deaths. Although toxic plants commonly poison livestock and it is estimated to cost the livestock industry in the western United States more than $340 million every year, obtaining a definitive diagnosis ...

  20. Quantification of Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153 in the rhizosphere of maize by strain-specific real-time PCR unaffected by the variability of DNA extraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Von Felten, Andreas; Défago, Geneviève; Maurhofer, Monika

    2010-05-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113 and CHA0 are well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) often used as model strains in biocontrol experiments. To monitor their persistence in large scale field experiments, culture-independent methods are needed. In this study, a strain-specific real-time PCR quantification tool was developed based on sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) for P. fluorescens strains F113, CHA0 and Pf153. Differences in DNA extraction efficiencies from rhizosphere samples were circumvented using plasmid APA9 as internal standard to normalize C(T) values after real-time amplification. The detection limits of the real-time PCR assays for all three strains were approximately 10 cells for genomic DNA and 10(4)cells/g rhizosphere for maize samples grown in different natural soils. Population sizes of the three strains in the rhizosphere of maize measured by the new real-time PCR approaches were similar to those measured by most probable number (MPN)-PCR. A persistence study of the three strains indicated that the strains persisted differently over a period of 5weeks. In conclusion the newly developed real-time PCR approach is a fast and resource efficient method for monitoring individual biocontrol strains in natural soil, which makes it an apt quantification tool for future large-scale field experiments. PMID:20153383

  1. Evaluating diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ashley Graham

    2016-08-01

    Although much has been written on the role of randomized controlled trials and mechanistic reasoning in the evaluation of therapeutic treatments, philosophers of medicine have not yet turned their attention to the question of how diagnostic tests and procedures should be evaluated. I aim to begin to fill this gap by examining each of the following questions: What is the best way to determine the accuracy of a diagnostic test? What is the best way to determine the clinical effectiveness of a diagnostic test? Can an accurate diagnostic test be considered medically valuable even if it is not clinically effective? I argue that while diagnostic accuracy is a minimum requirement for both clinical effectiveness and medical value, accuracy and effectiveness are not sufficient for determining the value of a diagnostic test, because diagnostic value extends beyond patient outcomes. PMID:27091221

  2. Diagnostic odor recognition

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt; Phan; Desandre; Lobon; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Many diseases, toxic ingestions, and intoxications have characteristic odors. These odors may provide diagnostic clues that affect rapid treatment long before laboratory confirmation or clinical deterioration. Odor recognition skills, similar to auscultation and palpation skills, require teaching and practical exposure. Dr. Goldfrank and colleagues recognized the importance of teaching odor recognition to emergency service providers. They proposed the "sniffing bar" method for odor recognition training. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the recognition rates of medically important odors among emergency care providers. (2) To investigate the effectiveness of teaching odor recognition. Hypothesis: The recognition rates of medically important odors will increase after teaching exposure. METHODS: The study exposed emergency care providers to 11 tubes of odors. Identifications of each substance were recorded. After corrective feedback, subjects were re-tested on their ability to identify the odors. Analysis of odor recognition improvement after teaching was done via chi-square test. RESULTS: Improvement in identification after teaching was seen in all odors. However, the improvement was significant only in the lesscommon substances because their initial recognition was especially low. Significant changes may improve with a larger sample size. Subjects often confuse the odors of alcohol with acetone, and wintergreen with camphor. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition rates are higher for the more-common odors, and lower for the less-common odors. Teaching exposures to the less well-known odors are effective and can significantly improve the recognition rate of these substances. Because odor recognition may affect rapid diagnosis and treatment of certain medical emergencies such as toxic ingestion, future studies should investigate the correlation between odor recognition and the ability to identify corresponding medical emergencies. PMID:11015270

  3. System diagnostic builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Burke, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The System Diagnostic Builder (SDB) is an automated software verification and validation tool using state-of-the-art Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies. The SDB is used extensively by project BURKE at NASA-JSC as one component of a software re-engineering toolkit. The SDB is applicable to any government or commercial organization which performs verification and validation tasks. The SDB has an X-window interface, which allows the user to 'train' a set of rules for use in a rule-based evaluator. The interface has a window that allows the user to plot up to five data parameters (attributes) at a time. Using these plots and a mouse, the user can identify and classify a particular behavior of the subject software. Once the user has identified the general behavior patterns of the software, he can train a set of rules to represent his knowledge of that behavior. The training process builds rules and fuzzy sets to use in the evaluator. The fuzzy sets classify those data points not clearly identified as a particular classification. Once an initial set of rules is trained, each additional data set given to the SDB will be used by a machine learning mechanism to refine the rules and fuzzy sets. This is a passive process and, therefore, it does not require any additional operator time. The evaluation component of the SDB can be used to validate a single software system using some number of different data sets, such as a simulator. Moreover, it can be used to validate software systems which have been re-engineered from one language and design methodology to a totally new implementation.

  4. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  5. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  6. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  7. [Diagnostic Errors in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Buser, Claudia; Bankova, Andriyana

    2015-12-01

    The recognition of diagnostic errors in everyday practice can help improve patient safety. The most common diagnostic errors are the cognitive errors, followed by system-related errors and no fault errors. The cognitive errors often result from mental shortcuts, known as heuristics. The rate of cognitive errors can be reduced by a better understanding of heuristics and the use of checklists. The autopsy as a retrospective quality assessment of clinical diagnosis has a crucial role in learning from diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors occur more often in primary care in comparison to hospital settings. On the other hand, the inpatient errors are more severe than the outpatient errors. PMID:26649954

  8. Diagnostic Procedures of Itch.

    PubMed

    Reich, Adam; Szepietowski, Jacek C

    2016-01-01

    A complex and multifactorial pathogenesis of itch makes the proper diagnosis of underlying disease a difficult and challenging clinical problem. The examination of every patient with itch should be started by gathering an accurate history. During the anamnesis it is important to obtain data about the beginning of the appearance of symptoms, its location, diurnal variation, and the factors influencing itch perception. After careful anamnesis the patient should undergo a detailed physical examination, with particular attention to the skin in order to look for any signs of skin lesions. Special attention should be paid to distinguish the primary lesion from the changes resulting from scratching. In patients in whom the etiology of the itch cannot be identified on the basis of the medical examination, a panel of primary screen laboratory examination may be required, and if necessary, depending on the results of basic laboratory results and data from medical history, additional diagnostic tests should be considered. In patients in whom an organic cause of itching has not been established, itch is most likely of undetermined origin; however, psychogenic causes should also be suspected and ruled out. In conclusion, it could be stated that itch is a common symptom of many skin diseases, systemic of neurological diseases. Despite the complex etiology of the disease, an exact cause of itch should be searched for in each patient, as successful therapy is largely dependent on the determination of the cause of the itching. PMID:27578067

  9. Verification of Loop Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  10. Assessment of building diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courville, G. E.

    1981-07-01

    The building diagnostics requirements for in-situ or field measurements on energy consumption in conditioned spaces and on heat gain and loss in residential and nonresidential buildings are evaluated. Energy audit programs, energy performance monitoring, energy flow in buildings, and use of computer technology are considered. A diagnostics program is outlined.

  11. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  12. Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seasholtz, Richard (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostics Workshop was held July 25-26, 1995 at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to foster timely exchange of information and expertise acquired by researchers and users of laser based Rayleigh scattering diagnostics for aerospace flow facilities and other applications. This Conference Publication includes the 12 technical presentations and transcriptions of the two panel discussions. The first panel was made up of 'users' of optical diagnostics, mainly in aerospace test facilities, and its purpose was to assess areas of potential applications of Rayleigh scattering diagnostics. The second panel was made up of active researchers in Rayleigh scattering diagnostics, and its purpose was to discuss the direction of future work.

  13. The incidence of diagnostic error in medicine.

    PubMed

    Graber, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    A wide variety of research studies suggest that breakdowns in the diagnostic process result in a staggering toll of harm and patient deaths. These include autopsy studies, case reviews, surveys of patient and physicians, voluntary reporting systems, using standardised patients, second reviews, diagnostic testing audits and closed claims reviews. Although these different approaches provide important information and unique insights regarding diagnostic errors, each has limitations and none is well suited to establishing the incidence of diagnostic error in actual practice, or the aggregate rate of error and harm. We argue that being able to measure the incidence of diagnostic error is essential to enable research studies on diagnostic error, and to initiate quality improvement projects aimed at reducing the risk of error and harm. Three approaches appear most promising in this regard: (1) using 'trigger tools' to identify from electronic health records cases at high risk for diagnostic error; (2) using standardised patients (secret shoppers) to study the rate of error in practice; (3) encouraging both patients and physicians to voluntarily report errors they encounter, and facilitating this process. PMID:23771902

  14. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  15. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  16. Nonculture Diagnostics in Fungal Disease.

    PubMed

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-03-01

    Fungal diagnostics that utilize antibody, antigen or nucleic acid detection offer several advantages that supplement traditional culture-based methods. As a group, nonculture assays can help identify patients with invasive fungal infection (IFI) sooner than is possible with culture, are often more sensitive, and can be used to guide early interventions. Challenges associated with these techniques include the possibility for contamination or cross-reactivity as well as the potential for false negative tests. This review summarized the test characteristics and clinical utility of nonculture-based laboratory methods. PMID:26897062

  17. TARA diagnostic set

    SciTech Connect

    Sevillano, E.; Brau, K.; Goodrich, P.; Irby, J.; Mauel, M.; Post, R.S.; Smith, D.K.; Sullivan, J.

    1985-05-01

    The TARA Tandem Mirror Experiment has recently begun operation. The set of diagnostics available at this time is discussed. The following diagnostics are now in use: diamagnetic loops, a multichord microwave interferometer, Langmuir and emissive probes, pick-up loops, and secondary-emission detectors. End-loss diagnostics include net current detector arrays, Faraday cup arrays, swept particle analyzer arrays, and calorimetry. Light-emission measurements are made in the visible and VUV regions. A multichord fiber-optic array for plasma position detection is also used. In addition, a three-channel charge exchange analyzer, a hard x-ray system, and fast pressure gauges are available.

  18. Melioidosis Diagnostic Workshop, 20131

    PubMed Central

    AuCoin, David; Baccam, Prasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Baird, Rob; Bhengsri, Saithip; Blaney, David D.; Brett, Paul J.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Brown, Katherine A.; Chantratita, Narisara; Cheng, Allen C.; Dance, David A.B.; Decuypere, Saskia; Defenbaugh, Dawn; Gee, Jay E.; Houghton, Raymond; Jorakate, Possawat; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Merlin, Toby L.; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Norton, Robert; Peacock, Sharon J.; Rolim, Dionne B.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Steinmetz, Ivo; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Stokes, Martha M.; Sue, David; Tuanyok, Apichai; Whistler, Toni; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Walke, Henry T.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a severe disease that can be difficult to diagnose because of its diverse clinical manifestations and a lack of adequate diagnostic capabilities for suspected cases. There is broad interest in improving detection and diagnosis of this disease not only in melioidosis-endemic regions but also outside these regions because melioidosis may be underreported and poses a potential bioterrorism challenge for public health authorities. Therefore, a workshop of academic, government, and private sector personnel from around the world was convened to discuss the current state of melioidosis diagnostics, diagnostic needs, and future directions. PMID:25626057

  19. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family planning: contraception, sterilization, and pregnancy termination. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. ... RA. Infertility: etiology, diagnostic evaluation, management, prognosis In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. ...

  20. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  1. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cudahy, Patrick; Shenoi, Sheela V

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  2. Manual of diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, G.; Baker, S.; Davis, L.

    1988-01-01

    This book is on ordering and understanding the results of radiologic studies. Main sections are (I) Diagnostic Radiology serves as a basic introduction; (II) Diagnostic Modalities dedicates a chapter to each imaging modality in a clinical context, with a brief technical description and patient preparation guidelines; and (III) Organ System Imaging contains a chapter on each major organ system, covering the abilities and limitations of each modality to image a specific organ system and the significance of anatomic, physiologic, and general pathologic information.

  3. Diagnostics for pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cudahy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of human suffering and mortality despite decades of effective treatment being available. Accurate and timely diagnosis remains an unmet goal. The HIV epidemic has also led to new challenges in the diagnosis of TB. Several new developments in TB diagnostics have the potential to positively influence the global campaign against TB. We aim to review the performance of both established as well as new diagnostics for pulmonary TB in adults, and discuss the ongoing challenges. PMID:27005271

  4. Hemoptysis with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Bimalendu

    2013-02-01

    Hemoptysis is a common symptom. Although initial diagnostic workup, including a chest radiograph, often gives a clue to the cause, it provides no diagnostic hints in 3.0-42.2% of episodes of hemoptysis. To describe those cases with no diagnostic hints at initial investigations, experts have used different terms, including unexplained hemoptysis, idiopathic hemoptysis, cryptogenic hemoptysis and hemoptysis with normal chest radiographs. As hemoptysis is a common symptom of bronchogenic carcinoma, there is a concern of having underlying malignancy. Physicians value high-resolution computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy as the next investigations to establish diagnosis. These investigations however are expensive and nonspecific results are common in those cases of hemoptysis where initial diagnostic workup gives no clues to the cause. As a result, controversies exist with regard to their use. In this article, the author has proposed diagnostic approaches to evaluate those cases of hemoptysis with no diagnostic hints at initial investigation, after extensive review of published articles related to the case scenario. PMID:23362818

  5. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  6. Better Tests, Better Care: Improved Diagnostics for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Caliendo, Angela M.; Gilbert, David N.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; May, Larissa; Quinn, Thomas C.; Tenover, Fred C.; Alland, David; Blaschke, Anne J.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Joseph, W. Patrick; Karchmer, Tobi; MacIntyre, Ann T.; Reller, L. Barth; Jackson, Audrey F.

    2013-01-01

    In this IDSA policy paper, we review the current diagnostic landscape, including unmet needs and emerging technologies, and assess the challenges to the development and clinical integration of improved tests. To fulfill the promise of emerging diagnostics, IDSA presents recommendations that address a host of identified barriers. Achieving these goals will require the engagement and coordination of a number of stakeholders, including Congress, funding and regulatory bodies, public health agencies, the diagnostics industry, healthcare systems, professional societies, and individual clinicians. PMID:24200831

  7. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. PMID:25951317

  8. Diagnostic 'omics' for active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Haas, Carolin T; Roe, Jennifer K; Pollara, Gabriele; Mehta, Meera; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2016-01-01

    The decision to treat active tuberculosis (TB) is dependent on microbiological tests for the organism or evidence of disease compatible with TB in people with a high demographic risk of exposure. The tuberculin skin test and peripheral blood interferon-γ release assays do not distinguish active TB from a cleared or latent infection. Microbiological culture of mycobacteria is slow. Moreover, the sensitivities of culture and microscopy for acid-fast bacilli and nucleic acid detection by PCR are often compromised by difficulty in obtaining samples from the site of disease. Consequently, we need sensitive and rapid tests for easily obtained clinical samples, which can be deployed to assess patients exposed to TB, discriminate TB from other infectious, inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, and to identify subclinical TB in HIV-1 infected patients prior to commencing antiretroviral therapy. We discuss the evaluation of peripheral blood transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to develop the next generation of rapid diagnostics for active TB. We catalogue the studies published to date seeking to discriminate active TB from healthy volunteers, patients with latent infection and those with other diseases. We identify the limitations of these studies and the barriers to their adoption in clinical practice. In so doing, we aim to develop a framework to guide our approach to discovery and development of diagnostic biomarkers for active TB. PMID:27005907

  9. The Popcorn Book: A Diagnostic Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.; Barger, Rita.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a diagnostic teaching unit designed to identify effective teaching strategies for fourth- or fifth-grade students with learning or behavior disorders. The unit uses "The Popcorn Book" (de Paola) for activities to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategies across the content areas of reading, writing, and mathematics. (CR)

  10. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  11. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle.

    PubMed

    Evers, Ellen R K; Lakens, Daniël

    2014-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  12. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  13. Whole Genome Sequencing Increases Molecular Diagnostic Yield Compared with Current Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ellingford, Jamie M.; Barton, Stephanie; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Williams, Simon G.; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I.; O'Sullivan, James; Lamb, Janine A.; Perveen, Rahat; Hall, Georgina; Newman, William G.; Bishop, Paul N.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Leach, Rick; Tearle, Rick; Bayliss, Stuart; Ramsden, Simon C.; Nemeth, Andrea H.; Black, Graeme C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of whole genome sequencing (WGS) with targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of inherited retinal disease (IRD). Design Case series. Participants A total of 562 patients diagnosed with IRD. Methods We performed a direct comparative analysis of current molecular diagnostics with WGS. We retrospectively reviewed the findings from a diagnostic NGS DNA test for 562 patients with IRD. A subset of 46 of 562 patients (encompassing potential clinical outcomes of diagnostic analysis) also underwent WGS, and we compared mutation detection rates and molecular diagnostic yields. In addition, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 techniques to identify known single nucleotide variants (SNVs) using 6 control samples with publically available genotype data. Main Outcome Measures Diagnostic yield of genomic testing. Results Across known disease-causing genes, targeted NGS and WGS achieved similar levels of sensitivity and specificity for SNV detection. However, WGS also identified 14 clinically relevant genetic variants through WGS that had not been identified by NGS diagnostic testing for the 46 individuals with IRD. These variants included large deletions and variants in noncoding regions of the genome. Identification of these variants confirmed a molecular diagnosis of IRD for 11 of the 33 individuals referred for WGS who had not obtained a molecular diagnosis through targeted NGS testing. Weighted estimates, accounting for population structure, suggest that WGS methods could result in an overall 29% (95% confidence interval, 15–45) uplift in diagnostic yield. Conclusions We show that WGS methods can detect disease-causing genetic variants missed by current NGS diagnostic methodologies for IRD and thereby demonstrate the clinical utility and additional value of WGS. PMID:26872967

  14. Psychoeducational Diagnostic Services for Learning Disabled Youths. Research Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Thomas S.; And Others

    A detailed explicit definition of learning disability (LD) is presented in terms of the diagnostic procedures and decision points used in identifying that category among a group of juvenile delinquent and control group adolescent males. The described procedures include a review of existing records, interviews, and diagnostic assessments.…

  15. Diagnostic Errors in Ambulatory Care: Dimensions and Preventive Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Hardeep; Weingart, Saul N.

    2009-01-01

    Despite an increasing focus on patient safety in ambulatory care, progress in understanding and reducing diagnostic errors in this setting lag behind many other safety concerns such as medication errors. To explore the extent and nature of diagnostic errors in ambulatory care, we identified five dimensions of ambulatory care from which errors may…

  16. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  17. ORION laser target diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K.; and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  18. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics. PMID:23126904

  19. Radiation hardening of diagnostics for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, J.F.; Engholm, B.A.; Hacker, M.P.; Maya, I.; Miller, P.H.; Toffolo, W.E.; Wojtowicz, S.S.

    1981-12-01

    A list of the diagnostic systems presently used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is compiled herein. The radiation-sensitive components are identified, and their locations in zones around the machine are indicated. A table of radiation sensitivities of components is included to indicate the data available from previous work in fission reactor, space probe, and defense-related programs. Extrapolation and application to hardening of fusion diagnostic systems requires additional data that are more specific to the fusion radiation environment and fusion components. A list is also given of present radiation-producing facilities where near-term screening tests of materials and components can be performed.

  20. Diagnostic workup for ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Papazian, Laurent; Calfee, Carolyn S; Chiumello, Davide; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Meyer, Nuala J; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Matthay, Michael A; Meduri, Gianfranco Umberto

    2016-05-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by the association of bilateral infiltrates and hypoxaemia following an initial insult. Although a new definition has been recently proposed (Berlin definition), there are various forms of ARDS with potential differences regarding their management (ventilator settings, prone positioning use, corticosteroids). ARDS can be caused by various aetiologies, and the adequate treatment of the responsible cause is crucial to improve the outcome. It is of paramount importance to characterize the mechanisms causing lung injury to optimize both the aetiological treatment and the symptomatic treatment. If there is no obvious cause of ARDS or if a direct lung injury is suspected, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) should be strongly considered to identify microorganisms responsible for pneumonia. Blood samples can also help to identify microorganisms and to evaluate biomarkers of infection. If there is no infectious cause of ARDS or no other apparent aetiology is found, second-line examinations should include markers of immunologic diseases. In selected cases, open lung biopsy remains useful to identify the cause of ARDS when all other examinations remain inconclusive. CT scan is fundamental when there is a suspicion of intra-abdominal sepsis and in some cases of pneumonia. Ultrasonography is important not only in evaluating biventricular function but also in identifying pleural effusions and pneumothorax. The definition of ARDS remains clinical and the main objective of the diagnostic workup should be to be focused on identification of its aetiology, especially a treatable infection. PMID:27007111

  1. Heterodyne laser diagnostic system

    DOEpatents

    Globig, Michael A.; Johnson, Michael A.; Wyeth, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The heterodyne laser diagnostic system includes, in one embodiment, an average power pulsed laser optical spectrum analyzer for determining the average power of the pulsed laser. In another embodiment, the system includes a pulsed laser instantaneous optical frequency measurement for determining the instantaneous optical frequency of the pulsed laser.

  2. Flowfield modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lilley, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    This textbook is devoted solely to flowfield modeling and diagnostics; their practical use, recent and current research, and projected developments and trends. It provides an account of the use of a broad range of techniques in industrial and research practice, both with and without combustion. Application ideas are complemented by details about experimental and modeling techniques.

  3. Beam Diagnostics for FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.Z.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    FACET, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator and Experimental Tests, is a new facility being constructed in sector 20 of the SLAC linac primarily to study beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration beginning in summer 2011. The nominal FACET parameters are 23GeV, 3nC electron bunches compressed to about 20 {micro}m long and focussed to about 10 {micro}m wide. Characterization of the beam-plasma interaction requires complete knowledge of the incoming beam parameters on a pulse-to-pulse basis. FACET diagnostics include Beam Position Monitors, Toroidal current monitors, X-ray and Cerenkov based energy spectrometers, optical transition radiation (OTR) profile monitors and coherent transition radiation (CTR) bunch length measurement systems. The compliment of beam diagnostics and their expected performance are reviewed. Beam diagnostic measurements not only provide valuable insights to the running and tuning of the accelerator but also are crucial for the PWFA experiments in particular. Beam diagnostic devices are being set up at FACET and will be ready for beam commissioning in summer 2011.

  4. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  5. Tele diagnostic by web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Shigeki

    2006-03-01

    Because of the development of multimedia technologies like Web and Internet, it now becomes possible to think about Tele Medicine and Tele Diagnostic for a distant place where no doctors and no nurses are situated at or are available. And also some kind of intelligence can be added onto them, which makes possible to give certain kind of medical treatment assistance or suggestions for a patient from a computer diagnostic base through the Internetworking. For doing this, here considers about a basic system of "Tele Diagnostic for a remote place" where it dose not have a doctor and a medical assistance. In order to implement the system, JAVA, VRML, HTML, and CORTONA are used as a basic language and a viewer. And also in order to add a kind of intelligence, Augmented Knowledge In Agent (AKIA) by using Back Propagation Neural Networks (BPNN) is used. And by this study, here can introduce the system that has the following basic mechanisms; By inputting physical data like temperature or blood pressure, the system would show a diagnostic assistance by TEXT. And also the bad place of body would be shown graphically if there were any. The system can be put onto Web, so that anybody could have this assistance at any place ubiquitously only if a person has Internetworking access.

  6. Molecular Beacons in Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Fred Russell

    2012-01-01

    Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies. PMID:22619695

  7. Equivalent Diagnostic Classification Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Gunter; Bechger, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Rupp and Templin (2008) do a good job at describing the ever expanding landscape of Diagnostic Classification Models (DCM). In many ways, their review article clearly points to some of the questions that need to be answered before DCMs can become part of the psychometric practitioners toolkit. Apart from the issues mentioned in this article that…

  8. Diagnosing Diagnostic Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic language assessment (DLA) is gaining a lot of attention from language teachers, testers, and applied linguists. With a recent surge of interest in DLA, there seems to be an urgent need to assess where the field of DLA stands at the moment and develop a general sense of where it should be moving in the future. The current article, as the…

  9. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  10. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  11. Diagnostic Lessons as Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Barbara J.

    Embedded in a sensitive instructional context rather than a stifling testing atmosphere, diagnostic lessons provide assessment that is reliable, practical, valid, and efficient. In this type of assessment, there are several determiners of instructional placement: (1) students' propensity to adapt strategies as a result of specified instruction,…

  12. Reducing Diagnostic Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.

    2002-01-01

    Skill using the American Psychiatric Association's 2000 "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision" is essential for increased professional credibility, career marketability, and third-party reimbursement of professional counselors. This article focuses on how to improve counselors' skill with the manual, by providing…

  13. Diagnostic du vertige

    PubMed Central

    Monday, Louise A.

    1981-01-01

    In cases of vertigo, the history is the most important diagnostic element. Questioning must be directed towards obtaining the most pertinent and precise answers possible. A classification based on the duration of vertigo, together with the physiopathology, is suggested. PMID:21289799

  14. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  15. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25 nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  16. Diagnostics for the Combustion Science Workbench

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, J.F.; Day, M.S.; Bell, J.B.

    2007-02-21

    As the cost of computers declines relative to outfitting andmaintaining laser spectroscopy laboratories, computers will account foran increasing proportion of the research conducted in fundamentalcombustion science. W.C. Gardiner foresaw that progress will be limitedby the ability to understand the implications of what has been computedand to draw inferences about the elementary components of the combustionmodels. Yet the diagnostics that are routinely applied to computerexperiments have changed little from the sensitivity analyses includedwith the original chemkin software distribution. This paper describessome diagnostics capabilities that may be found on the virtual combustionscience workbench of the future. These diagnostics are illustrated bysome new results concerning which of the hydrogen/oxygen chain branchingreactions actually occur in flames, the increased formation of NOx inwrinkled flames versus flat flames, and the adequacy oftheoreticalpredictions of the effects of stretch. Several areas are identified wherework is needed, including the areas of combustion chemistry and laserdiagnostics, to make the virtual laboratory a reality.

  17. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  18. Culture-Independent Diagnostics for Health Security.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Norman A; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Slezak, Tom R; Chain, Patrick S; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. This article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop. PMID:27314653

  19. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  20. Diagnostics and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vial, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of prominences and the diagnostic techniques used to evaluate their physical parameters are discussed. These include electron temperature, various densities (n sub p, n sub e, n sub l), ionization degree, velocities, and magnetic field vector. UV and radio measurements have already evidenced the existence of different temperature regions, corresponding to different geometrical locations, e.g., the so called Prominence-Corona (P-C) interface. Velocity measurements are important for considering formation and mass balance of prominences but there are conflicting velocity measurements which have led to the basic question: what structure is actually observed at a given wavelength; what averaging is performed within the projected slit area during the exposure time? In optically thick lines, the question of the formation region of the radiation along the line of sight is also not a trivial one. The same is true for low resolution measurements of the magnetic field. Coupling diagnostics with structure is now a general preoccupation.

  1. DIAGNOSTICS OF BNL ERL

    SciTech Connect

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; CAMERON, P.; GASSNER, D.; KAYRAN, D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    The ERL Prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high-intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high-current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This paper outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation.

  2. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  3. Nanodevices in diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ye; Fine, Daniel H.; Tasciotti, Ennio; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The real-time, personalized and highly sensitive early-stage diagnosis of disease remains an important challenge in modern medicine. With the ability to interact with matter at the nanoscale, the development of nanotechnology architectures and materials could potentially extend subcellular and molecular detection beyond the limits of conventional diagnostic modalities. At the very least, nanotechnology should be able to dramatically accelerate biomarker discovery, as well as facilitate disease monitoring, especially of maladies presenting a high degree of molecular and compositional heterogeneity. This article gives an overview of several of the most promising nanodevices and nanomaterials along with their applications in clinical practice. Significant work to adapt nanoscale materials and devices to clinical applications involving large interdisciplinary collaborations is already underway with the potential for nanotechnology to become an important enabling diagnostic technology. PMID:20229595

  4. Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Noor, K M; Shephard, L; Bastian, I

    2015-04-01

    The phenotypic methods of smear microscopy, culture and indirect drug susceptibility testing (DST) remain the 'gold standard' diagnostics for tuberculosis (TB) in 2015. However, this review demonstrates that genotypic methods are in the ascendancy. Current-generation nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are important supplementary tests for the rapid direct detection of (multidrug-resistant) TB in specific clinical settings. Genotypic detection is already the preferred method of detecting rifampicin and pyrazinamide resistance. Next-generation NAATs able to detect about 10 colony forming units/mL of sputum could replace culture as the initial test for detecting TB. Whole genome sequencing could also plausibly replace phenotypic DST but much work is required in method standardisation, database development and elucidation of all resistance gene determinants. The challenge then will be to rollout these increasingly complex and expensive diagnostics in the low-income countries where TB is prevalent. PMID:25719854

  5. Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Racsa, Lori D; Kraft, Colleen S; Olinger, Gene G; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-15

    There are 4 families of viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), including Filoviridae. Ebola virus is one virus within the family Filoviridae and the cause of the current outbreak of VHF in West Africa. VHF-endemic areas are found throughout the world, yet traditional diagnosis of VHF has been performed in large reference laboratories centered in Europe and the United States. The large amount of capital needed, as well as highly trained and skilled personnel, has limited the availability of diagnostics in endemic areas except in conjunction with governmental and nongovernmental entities. However, rapid diagnosis of VHF is essential to efforts that will limit outbreaks. In addition, increased global travel suggests VHF diagnoses may be made outside of the endemic areas. Thus, understanding how to diagnose VHF is imperative for laboratories worldwide. This article reviews traditional and current diagnostic modalities for VHF. PMID:26354968

  6. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  7. Verifying Diagnostic Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Tony; Pecheur, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Livingstone PathFinder (LPF) is a simulation-based computer program for verifying autonomous diagnostic software. LPF is designed especially to be applied to NASA s Livingstone computer program, which implements a qualitative-model-based algorithm that diagnoses faults in a complex automated system (e.g., an exploratory robot, spacecraft, or aircraft). LPF forms a software test bed containing a Livingstone diagnosis engine, embedded in a simulated operating environment consisting of a simulator of the system to be diagnosed by Livingstone and a driver program that issues commands and faults according to a nondeterministic scenario provided by the user. LPF runs the test bed through all executions allowed by the scenario, checking for various selectable error conditions after each step. All components of the test bed are instrumented, so that execution can be single-stepped both backward and forward. The architecture of LPF is modular and includes generic interfaces to facilitate substitution of alternative versions of its different parts. Altogether, LPF provides a flexible, extensible framework for simulation-based analysis of diagnostic software; these characteristics also render it amenable to application to diagnostic programs other than Livingstone.

  8. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  9. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  10. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  11. [Spectrum diagnostic of arcjet].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Hua; Shen, Yan; Chen, Li-Ming

    2004-08-01

    Arcjet is a kind of propulsion device for mechanical operation and control of spacecraft. As its specific impulse is far greater than classical device using chemical propellant, arcjet is playing an increasing role in spacecraft propulsion. To improve our understanding of its working mechanics, the diagnostic method of arcjet is discussed and a set of spectrum diagnostic system is established in this paper. With this system, spectrum diagnostic was executed for Ar propellant at a setting value of flow rate and input current in a vacuum chamber. The result shows that the system has a high signal-to-noise ratio and the data collected can reflect the physical process objectively. Through transaction and analysis of these data, radial distribution of emission coefficient was obtained for different spectral lines, and radial distribution of temperature was also obtained through farther analysis of the emission coefficient. The result shows that under the experiment conditions of this paper, arcjet is in thermodynamic non-equilibrium state, therefore the temperatures obtained by different spectral lines are different. PMID:15766102

  12. ITER Diagnostic First Wal

    SciTech Connect

    G. Douglas Loesser, et. al.

    2012-09-21

    The ITER Diagnostic Division is responsible for designing and procuring the First Wall Blankets that are mounted on the vacuum vessel port plugs at both the upper and equatorial levels This paper will discuss the effects of the diagnostic aperture shape and configuration on the coolant circuit design. The DFW design is driven in large part by the need to conform the coolant arrangement to a wide variety of diagnostic apertures combined with the more severe heating conditions at the surface facing the plasma, the first wall. At the first wall, a radiant heat flux of 35W/cm2 combines with approximate peak volumetric heating rates of 8W/cm3 (equatorial ports) and 5W/cm3 (upper ports). Here at the FW, a fast thermal response is desirable and leads to a thin element between the heat flux and coolant. This requirement is opposed by the wish for a thicker FW element to accommodate surface erosion and other off-normal plasma events.

  13. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  14. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  15. Identification of factors associated with diagnostic error in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Missed, delayed or incorrect diagnoses are considered to be diagnostic errors. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a study to analyse cognitive aspects of the process by which primary care (PC) physicians diagnose dyspnoea. It examines the possible links between the use of heuristics, suboptimal cognitive acts and diagnostic errors, using Reason’s taxonomy of human error (slips, lapses, mistakes and violations). The influence of situational factors (professional experience, perceived overwork and fatigue) is also analysed. Methods Cohort study of new episodes of dyspnoea in patients receiving care from family physicians and residents at PC centres in Granada (Spain). With an initial expected diagnostic error rate of 20%, and a sampling error of 3%, 384 episodes of dyspnoea are calculated to be required. In addition to filling out the electronic medical record of the patients attended, each physician fills out 2 specially designed questionnaires about the diagnostic process performed in each case of dyspnoea. The first questionnaire includes questions on the physician’s initial diagnostic impression, the 3 most likely diagnoses (in order of likelihood), and the diagnosis reached after the initial medical history and physical examination. It also includes items on the physicians’ perceived overwork and fatigue during patient care. The second questionnaire records the confirmed diagnosis once it is reached. The complete diagnostic process is peer-reviewed to identify and classify the diagnostic errors. The possible use of heuristics of representativeness, availability, and anchoring and adjustment in each diagnostic process is also analysed. Each audit is reviewed with the physician responsible for the diagnostic process. Finally, logistic regression models are used to determine if there are differences in the diagnostic error variables based on the heuristics identified. Discussion This work sets out a new approach to studying the

  16. Identifying rare events in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Attiyeh, Edward F; Maris, John M

    2015-04-15

    Utilizing genomic signatures from diagnostic tumor samples to forecast clinical behavior and response to therapy has long been a goal, and we are now poised to further refine how we can identify the relatively rare patients with aggressive neuroblastoma masquerading as patients with a more benign form of the disease. Clin Cancer Res; 21(8); 1782-5. ©2014 AACR. See related article by Oberthuer et al., p. 1904. PMID:25424848

  17. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry. PMID:25206116

  18. Social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Susan; Armstrong, David

    2006-01-01

    The role of diagnostic labels in medicine is usually that of labelling an illness as a means of communication. Control over labelling processes in medicine is ordinarily imposed via medical schools, textbooks, education or by diagnostic manuals. Diagnostic labels often change following new discoveries in underlying pathology such as 'consumption' being relabelled as 'TB' or 'cancer'. Sub-types of broad diagnostic labels also often emerge from such discoveries e.g. 'lung cancer' or 'throat cancer'. In mental health, underlying pathology is the subject of ongoing debate spanning ideas including the brain as a faulty organ, faulty genetics and environmental problems. With controversy over pathology comes controversy over labels and the idea that labels may be used not just for communication, but as devices of social and professional control, arising out of a social process. This study explores the codification of the diagnostic label 'depression' which emerged in the twentieth-century and has proliferated with numerous sub-types over the last 40 years. The aim is to examine its social determinants and context. Medline is used as a data source for professional label usage. A range of depression sub-type labels in professional use was identified. This exercise revealed many official and 'unofficial' terms in professional use. Citation rate plots by year were then generated for these depression sub-type labels. The rise and fall of different labels are examined in relation to social determinants and context, including publication of diagnostic manuals DSM and ICD, power shifts in psychiatry, the discovery of psychiatric drugs and the shift from inpatient to community care. Exploring the changing use of official and unofficial labels over time in this way provides a novel historical perspective on the concept of depression in the late twentieth-century. PMID:16009477

  19. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  20. Current developments in salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Craig S; Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-02-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  1. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  2. Diagnostic radiology 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Margulis, A.R.; Gooding, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is the latest version of the continuing education course on diagnostic radiology given yearly by the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Francisco. The lectures are grouped into sections on gastrointestinal radiology, mammography, uroradiology, magnetic resonance, hepatobiliary radiology, pediatric radiology, ultrasound, interventional radiology, chest radiology, nuclear medicine, cardiovascular radiology, and skeletal radiology. Each section contains four to eight topics. Each of these consists of text that represents highlights in narrative form, selected illustrations, and a short bibliography. The presentation gives a general idea of what points were made in the lecture.

  3. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  4. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  5. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  6. Region of interest identification and diagnostic agreement in breast pathology.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Dilip B; Mercan, Ezgi; Weaver, Donald L; Brunyé, Tad T; Carney, Patricia A; Rendi, Mara H; Beck, Andrew H; Frederick, Paul D; Shapiro, Linda G; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-09-01

    A pathologist's accurate interpretation relies on identifying relevant histopathological features. Little is known about the precise relationship between feature identification and diagnostic decision making. We hypothesized that greater overlap between a pathologist's selected diagnostic region of interest (ROI) and a consensus derived ROI is associated with higher diagnostic accuracy. We developed breast biopsy test cases that included atypical ductal hyperplasia (n=80); ductal carcinoma in situ (n=78); and invasive breast cancer (n=22). Benign cases were excluded due to the absence of specific abnormalities. Three experienced breast pathologists conducted an independent review of the 180 digital whole slide images, established a reference consensus diagnosis and marked one or more diagnostic ROIs for each case. Forty-four participating pathologists independently diagnosed and marked ROIs on the images. Participant diagnoses and ROI were compared with consensus reference diagnoses and ROI. Regression models tested whether percent overlap between participant ROI and consensus reference ROI predicted diagnostic accuracy. Each of the 44 participants interpreted 39-50 cases for a total of 1972 individual diagnoses. Percent ROI overlap with the expert reference ROI was higher in pathologists who self-reported academic affiliation (69 vs 65%, P=0.002). Percent overlap between participants' ROI and consensus reference ROI was then classified into ordinal categories: 0, 1-33, 34-65, 66-99 and 100% overlap. For each incremental change in the ordinal percent ROI overlap, diagnostic agreement increased by 60% (OR 1.6, 95% CI (1.5-1.7), P<0.001) and the association remained significant even after adjustment for other covariates. The magnitude of the association between ROI overlap and diagnostic agreement increased with increasing diagnostic severity. The findings indicate that pathologists are more likely to converge with an expert reference diagnosis when they identify an

  7. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  8. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments

    PubMed Central

    Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Herzog, Stefan M.; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A.; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-01-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors’ diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  9. Boosting medical diagnostics by pooling independent judgments.

    PubMed

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Herzog, Stefan M; Hertwig, Ralph; Krause, Jens; Carney, Patricia A; Bogart, Andy; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2016-08-01

    Collective intelligence refers to the ability of groups to outperform individual decision makers when solving complex cognitive problems. Despite its potential to revolutionize decision making in a wide range of domains, including medical, economic, and political decision making, at present, little is known about the conditions underlying collective intelligence in real-world contexts. We here focus on two key areas of medical diagnostics, breast and skin cancer detection. Using a simulation study that draws on large real-world datasets, involving more than 140 doctors making more than 20,000 diagnoses, we investigate when combining the independent judgments of multiple doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group. We find that similarity in diagnostic accuracy is a key condition for collective intelligence: Aggregating the independent judgments of doctors outperforms the best doctor in a group whenever the diagnostic accuracy of doctors is relatively similar, but not when doctors' diagnostic accuracy differs too much. This intriguingly simple result is highly robust and holds across different group sizes, performance levels of the best doctor, and collective intelligence rules. The enabling role of similarity, in turn, is explained by its systematic effects on the number of correct and incorrect decisions of the best doctor that are overruled by the collective. By identifying a key factor underlying collective intelligence in two important real-world contexts, our findings pave the way for innovative and more effective approaches to complex real-world decision making, and to the scientific analyses of those approaches. PMID:27432950

  10. Magnetic Diagnostics for Ignitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alladio, F.

    2005-10-01

    All the electromagnetic diagnostics commonly used in present experiments to measure plasma parameters such as current, loop voltage, horizontal and vertical position, plasma beta, toroidal and poloidal modes, etc., are adopted for Ignitor. The moderate neutron fluence and very intense neutron flux expected in Ignitor demand the use of fully inorganic insulating materials, for which permanent radiation damage should be limited, but transient, reversible effects cannot be excluded. More data is needed to verify the sensitivity of the chosen materials to the radiation background, but in the meantime, an R&D program has started with the purpose of selecting insulator materials, testing impregnation techniques, verification of installation feasibility for all types of magnetic diagnostic coils. Full size prototypes are being manufactured. The magnetic coils system must be closely integrated with the plasma chamber as it requires early installation. While the initial positioning of the in-vessel components should be possible with relative ease (before the welding of the individual sectors of the plasma chamber), their replacement and maintenance in the course of the experimental life of the machine can be problematic. Therefore, an adequate level of redundancy is being considered.

  11. Diagnostic Technologies in Practice

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Chown, Sarah A.; Doupe, Glenn; Trussler, Terry; Rekart, Michael; Gilbert, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing HIV-positive gay men through enhanced testing technologies that detect acute HIV infection (AHI) or recent HIV infection provides opportunities for individual and population health benefits. We recruited 25 men in British Columbia who received an acute (n = 13) or recent (n = 12) HIV diagnosis to engage in a longitudinal multiple-methods study over one year or longer. Our thematic analysis of baseline qualitative interviews revealed insights within men’s accounts of technologically mediated processes of HIV discovery and diagnosis. Our analysis illuminated the dialectic of new HIV technologies in practice by considering the relationship between advances in diagnostics (e.g., nucleic acid amplification tests) and the users of these medical technologies in clinical settings (e.g., clients and practitioners). Technological innovations and testing protocols have shifted experiences of learning of one’s HIV-positive status; these innovations have created new diagnostic categories that require successful interpretation and translation to be rendered meaningful, to alleviate uncertainty, and to support public health objectives. PMID:25201583

  12. NIO1 diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zaniol, B. Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.; De Muri, M.; Mimo, A.

    2015-04-08

    The radio frequency ion source NIO1, jointly developed by Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, will generate a 60kV-135mA hydrogen negative ion beam, composed of 9 beamlets over an area of about 40 × 40 mm{sup 2}. This experiment will operate in continuous mode and in conditions similar to those foreseen for the larger ion sources of the Neutral Beam Injectors for ITER. The modular design of NIO1 is convenient to address the several still open important issues related to beam extraction, optics, and performance optimization. To this purpose a set of diagnostics is being implemented. Electric and water cooling plant related measurements will allow monitoring current, pressure, flow, and temperature. The plasma in the source will be characterized by emission spectroscopy, cavity ring-down and laser absorption spectroscopy. The accelerated beam will be analyzed with a fast emittance scanner, its intensity profile and divergence with beam emission spectroscopy and visible tomography. The power distribution of the beam on the calorimeter will be monitored by thermocouples and by an infrared camera. This contribution presents the implementation and initial operation of some of these diagnostics in the commissioning phase of the experiment, in particular the cooling water calorimetry and emission spectroscopy.

  13. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Use of health information technology to reduce diagnostic errors

    PubMed Central

    El-Kareh, Robert; Hasan, Omar; Schiff, Gordon D

    2013-01-01

    Background Health information technology (HIT) systems have the potential to reduce delayed, missed or incorrect diagnoses. We describe and classify the current state of diagnostic HIT and identify future research directions. Methods A multi-pronged literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, backwards and forwards reference searches and contributions from domain experts. We included HIT systems evaluated in clinical and experimental settings as well as previous reviews, and excluded radiology computer-aided diagnosis, monitor alerts and alarms, and studies focused on disease staging and prognosis. Articles were organised within a conceptual framework of the diagnostic process and areas requiring further investigation were identified. Results HIT approaches, tools and algorithms were identified and organised into 10 categories related to those assisting: (1) information gathering; (2) information organisation and display; (3) differential diagnosis generation; (4) weighing of diagnoses; (5) generation of diagnostic plan; (6) access to diagnostic reference information; (7) facilitating follow-up; (8) screening for early detection in asymptomatic patients; (9) collaborative diagnosis; and (10) facilitating diagnostic feedback to clinicians. We found many studies characterising potential interventions, but relatively few evaluating the interventions in actual clinical settings and even fewer demonstrating clinical impact. Conclusions Diagnostic HIT research is still in its early stages with few demonstrations of measurable clinical impact. Future efforts need to focus on: (1) improving methods and criteria for measurement of the diagnostic process using electronic data; (2) better usability and interfaces in electronic health records; (3) more meaningful incorporation of evidence-based diagnostic protocols within clinical workflows; and (4) systematic feedback of diagnostic performance. PMID:23852973

  15. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  16. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  17. Variola Virus-Specific Diagnostic Assays: Characterization, Sensitivity, and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kondas, Ashley V.; Olson, Victoria A.; Li, Yu; Abel, Jason; Laker, Miriam; Rose, Laura; Wilkins, Kimberly; Turner, Jonathan; Kline, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A public health response relies upon rapid and reliable confirmation of disease by diagnostic assays. Here, we detail the design and validation of two variola virus-specific real-time PCR assays, since previous assays cross-reacted with newly identified cowpox viruses. The assay specificity must continually be reassessed as other closely related viruses are identified. PMID:25673790

  18. Built-In Diagnostics (BID) Of Equipment/Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granieri, Michael N.; Giordano, John P.; Nolan, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostician(TM)-on-Chip (DOC) technology identifies faults and commands systems reconfiguration. Smart microcontrollers operating in conjunction with other system-control circuits, command self-correcting system/equipment actions in real time. DOC microcontroller generates commands for associated built-in test equipment to stimulate unit of equipment diagnosed, collects and processes response data obtained by built-in test equipment, and performs diagnostic reasoning on response data, using diagnostic knowledge base derived from design data.

  19. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  20. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  1. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Diagnostic Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Albert J.; Adeyiga, Oladunni B.; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    The cellular components of body fluids are routinely analyzed to identify disease and treatment approaches. While significant focus has been placed on developing cell analysis technologies, tools to automate the preparation of cellular specimens have been more limited, especially for body fluids beyond blood. Preparation steps include separating, concentrating, and exposing cells to reagents. Sample preparation continues to be routinely performed off-chip by technicians, preventing cell-based point-of-care diagnostics, increasing the cost of tests, and reducing the consistency of the final analysis following multiple manually-performed steps. Here, we review the assortment of biofluids for which suspended cells are analyzed, along with their characteristics and diagnostic value. We present an overview of the conventional sample preparation processes for cytological diagnosis. We finally discuss the challenges and opportunities in developing microfluidic devices for the purpose of automating or miniaturizing these processes, with particular emphases on preparing large or small volume samples, working with samples of high cellularity, automating multi-step processes, and obtaining high purity subpopulations of cells. We hope to convey the importance of and help identify new research directions addressing the vast biological and clinical applications in preparing and analyzing the array of available biological fluids. Successfully addressing the challenges described in this review can lead to inexpensive systems to improve diagnostic accuracy while simultaneously reducing overall systemic healthcare costs. PMID:23380972

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. PMID:25678154

  3. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  5. Diagnostic and vaccine chapter.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, J H; Kokanov, S K; Verkhovsky, O A

    2010-10-01

    The first report in this chapter describes the development of a killed composite vaccine. This killed vaccine is non-infectious to humans, other animals, and the environment. The vaccine has low reactivity, is non-abortive, and does not induce pathomorphological alterations to the organs of vaccinated animals. The second report of this chapter describes the diagnostic value of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Brucella-specific antibodies and its ability to discriminate vaccinated cattle from infected cattle. The results indicated that the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is more sensitive than traditional tests for detecting antibodies to Brucella abortus in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. PMID:20850688

  6. Diagnostic Evaluation of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days following an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. The clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbance, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25678154

  7. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  8. Diagnostic paediatric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.

  9. Balloon gondola diagnostics package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantor, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to define a new gondola structural specification and to quantify the balloon termination environment, NASA developed a balloon gondola diagnostics package (GDP). This addition to the balloon flight train is comprised of a large array of electronic sensors employed to define the forces and accelerations imposed on a gondola during the termination event. These sensors include the following: a load cell, a three-axis accelerometer, two three-axis rate gyros, two magnetometers, and a two axis inclinometer. A transceiver couple allows the data to be telemetered across any in-line rotator to the gondola-mounted memory system. The GDP is commanded 'ON' just prior to parachute deployment in order to record the entire event.

  10. Optimized diagnostic model combination for improving diagnostic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunche, S.; Chen, C.; Pecht, M. G.

    Identifying the most suitable classifier for diagnostics is a challenging task. In addition to using domain expertise, a trial and error method has been widely used to identify the most suitable classifier. Classifier fusion can be used to overcome this challenge and it has been widely known to perform better than single classifier. Classifier fusion helps in overcoming the error due to inductive bias of various classifiers. The combination rule also plays a vital role in classifier fusion, and it has not been well studied which combination rules provide the best performance during classifier fusion. Good combination rules will achieve good generalizability while taking advantage of the diversity of the classifiers. In this work, we develop an approach for ensemble learning consisting of an optimized combination rule. The generalizability has been acknowledged to be a challenge for training a diverse set of classifiers, but it can be achieved by an optimal balance between bias and variance errors using the combination rule in this paper. Generalizability implies the ability of a classifier to learn the underlying model from the training data and to predict the unseen observations. In this paper, cross validation has been employed during performance evaluation of each classifier to get an unbiased performance estimate. An objective function is constructed and optimized based on the performance evaluation to achieve the optimal bias-variance balance. This function can be solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. Sequential Quadratic Programming based optimization with better convergence property has been employed for the optimization. We have demonstrated the applicability of the algorithm by using support vector machine and neural networks as classifiers, but the methodology can be broadly applicable for combining other classifier algorithms as well. The method has been applied to the fault diagnosis of analog circuits. The performance of the proposed

  11. [Diagnostics of autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Beleznay, Zsuzsanna; Regenass, Stephan

    2008-09-01

    Autoantibodies play a key role in diagnostic laboratories as markers of autoimmune diseases. In addition to their role as markers they mediate diverse effects in vivo. Autoantibodies with protective effect have been described. Natural protective IgM autoantibodies against tumour-antigens of malignant cells or their precursors may contribute to increased survival rates of carcinoma patients. In a mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus it has been shown that anti-dsDNA IgM autoantibodies protect from glomerular damage. In contrast, a direct pathogenic role of autoantibodies has been well established e.g. in myasthenia gravis or in Goodpasture syndrome. Similarly autoantibodies against SSA Ro52 are detrimental in neonatal lupus erythematosus with congenital heart block. Moreover, putatively protective autoantibodies may become pathogenic during the course of the disease such as the onconeuronal autoantibodies whose pathogenicity depends on their compartmentalisation. In patients with paraneoplastic syndromes tumour cells express proteins that are also naturally present in the brain. Anti-tumour autoantibodies which temporarily suppress tumour growth can provoke an autoimmune attack on neurons once having crossed the blood-brain barrier and cause specific neurological symptoms. Only a restricted number of autoantibodies are useful follow-up markers for the effectiveness of treatment in autoimmune diseases. Certain autoantibodies hold prognostic value and appear years or even decades before the diagnosis of disease such as the antimitochondrial antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis or anti-citrullinated protein (CCP)-antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis. It is crucial to know whether the autoantibodies in question recognise linear or conformational epitopes in order to choose the appropriate detection methods. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy remains a very useful tool for confirmation of results of commercially available immunoassays and for detection of

  12. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  13. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  14. Optimizing Patient-centered Communication and Multidisciplinary Care Coordination in Emergency Diagnostic Imaging: A Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Sabbatini, Amber K; Merck, Lisa H; Froemming, Adam T; Vaughan, William; Brown, Michael D; Hess, Erik P; Applegate, Kimberly E; Comfere, Nneka I

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging relies on efficient communication and multispecialty care coordination to ensure optimal imaging utilization. The construct of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination cycle with three main phases (pretest, test, and posttest) provides a useful framework to evaluate care coordination in patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. This article summarizes findings reached during the patient-centered outcomes session of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization." The primary objective was to develop a research agenda focused on 1) defining component parts of the emergency diagnostic imaging care coordination process, 2) identifying gaps in communication that affect emergency diagnostic imaging, and 3) defining optimal methods of communication and multidisciplinary care coordination that ensure patient-centered emergency diagnostic imaging. Prioritized research questions provided the framework to define a research agenda for multidisciplinary care coordination in emergency diagnostic imaging. PMID:26575785

  15. Towards diagnostic markers for the psychoses.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Stephen M; O'Donovan, Michael C; Saks, Elyn; Burns, Tom; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2016-04-01

    Psychotic disorders are currently grouped under broad phenomenological diagnostic rubrics. Researchers hope that progress in identifying aetiological mechanisms will ultimately enable more precise division of heterogeneous diagnoses into specific and valid subgroups. This goal has been an aim of psychiatry since the 19th century, when patients with general paresis were thought to have "insanity" similar to dementia praecox and manic depressive illness. Nowadays, the constructs of organic-induced and substance-induced psychotic disorder show that our diagnostic classification system already reflects, in part, aetiological factors. Most recently, gene copy number variation and autoimmunity have been associated with schizophrenia. We suggest how, on the basis of recent scientific advances, we can progress the identification of further putative subgroups and make the most of currently available interventions. Prompt diagnosis and treatment, and a more routine search for causes, could preserve function and improve outcome, and therefore be more acceptable to patients and carers. PMID:27063388

  16. Epidemiology of and Diagnostic Strategies for Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dardé, Marie-Laure

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was discovered a little over 100 years ago, but knowledge of its biological life cycle and its medical importance has grown in the last 40 years. This obligate intracellular parasite was identified early as a pathogen responsible for congenital infection, but its clinical expression and the importance of reactivations of infections in immunocompromised patients were recognized later, in the era of organ transplantation and HIV infection. Recent knowledge of host cell-parasite interactions and of parasite virulence has brought new insights into the comprehension of the pathophysiology of infection. In this review, we focus on epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, putting them in perspective with current knowledge of parasite genotypes. In particular, we provide critical information on diagnostic methods according to the patient's background and discuss the implementation of screening tools for congenital toxoplasmosis according to health policies. PMID:22491772

  17. Application of Statistics in Establishing Diagnostic Certainty

    PubMed Central

    Denegar, Craig R.; Cordova, Mitchell L.

    2012-01-01

    The examination and assessment of injured and ill patients leads to the establishment of a diagnosis. However, the tests and procedures used in health care, including procedures performed by certified athletic trainers, are individually and collectively imperfect in confirming or ruling out a condition of concern. Thus, research into the utility of diagnostic tests is needed to identify the procedures that are most helpful and to indicate the confidence one should place in the results of the test. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of selected statistical procedures and the interpretation of data appropriate for assessing the utility of diagnostic tests with dichotomous (positive or negative) outcomes, with particular attention to the interpretation of sensitivity and specificity estimates and the reporting of confidence intervals around likelihood ratio estimates. PMID:22488292

  18. Diagnostic Tools for Onchocerciasis Elimination Programs.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Fischer, Peter U; Weil, Gary J

    2015-11-01

    Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Major disease-control programs have greatly reduced both disease and infection prevalence by mass distribution of donated ivermectin. Recent studies have shown that local elimination was achieved in some areas following many years of ivermectin. The global health community has recently decided to build on these successes with a new program that aims to eliminate onchocerciasis. Diagnostic tests that were useful for identifying priority areas for disease prevention may not be adequate tools for elimination programs. This paper reviews available and emerging diagnostic tests for onchocerciasis and considers how they might be best employed during different stages of onchocerciasis elimination programs. PMID:26458784

  19. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  20. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR DIAGNOSTICS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of Diagnostics Research is to provide tools to simplify diagnosis of the causes of biological impairment, in support of State and Tribe 303(d) impaired waters lists. The Diagnostics Workgroup has developed conceptual models for four major aquatic stressors that cause im...

  1. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  2. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  3. 3.3 Diagnostic Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, H.-M.; Moores, B. M.; Stieve, F.-E.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '3.3 Diagnostic Radiology' of the Chapter '3 Dosimetry in Diagnostic Radiology and Radiotherapy' with the contents:

  4. Teacher Observations for Diagnostic Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Russell W., Jr.

    Teachers at the primary level should resume the neglected practice of diagnostic teaching. This means that the teacher should observe all aspects of a student's cognitive behavior in the teaching/learning act and then plan instructional strategies for subsequent lessons. Some significant cognitive behaviors observable in diagnostic teaching are…

  5. Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome: current diagnostic criteria and advances in MRI diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Magill, Stephen T; Brus-Ramer, Marcel; Weinstein, Philip R; Chin, Cynthia T; Jacques, Line

    2015-09-01

    Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it traverses from the thoracic outlet to the axilla. Diagnosing nTOS can be difficult because of overlap with other complex pain and entrapment syndromes. An nTOS diagnosis is made based on patient history, physical exam, electrodiagnostic studies, and, more recently, interpretation of MR neurograms with tractography. Advances in high-resolution MRI and tractography can confirm an nTOS diagnosis and identify the location of nerve compression, allowing tailored surgical decompression. In this report, the authors review the current diagnostic criteria, present an update on advances in MRI, and provide case examples demonstrating how MR neurography (MRN) can aid in diagnosing nTOS. The authors conclude that improved high-resolution MRN and tractography are valuable tools for identifying the source of nerve compression in patients with nTOS and can augment current diagnostic modalities for this syndrome. PMID:26323825

  6. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  7. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update.

    PubMed

    Verma, R; Sood, S

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI) management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI. PMID:27080763

  8. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection. PMID:19485522

  9. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future. PMID:23888745

  10. Magnetic Diagnostics in LDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Garnier, D.; Hansen, A.; Mauel, M.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetic diagnostics will play an essential role in understanding the equilibrium and stability of LDX plasmas. Flux loops, poloidal field coils, Hall probes, and Mirnov coils have been installed and tested for the first experimental campaign. These measurements will provide the boundary field and flux values needed as inputs to a Grad-Shafranov solver for equilibrium reconstruction. Specifically, the boundary magnetic signals constrain the location and shape of the pressure function, p(ψ). The sensors, excluding the Mirnov coils, have been installed in accordance with an optimization scheme that maximizes their sensitivity to diamagnetic currents. The Mirnov coils have been designed to detect plasma fluctuations up to MHz range to characterize MHD activity. Initial testing and calibration of the sensors have been performed in-laboratorio using a medium-sized Helmholtz pair, and the results have subsequently been compared to data obtained in-loco with a large Helmholtz pair installed on the LDX vacuum chamber. Additionally, an equilibrium reconstruction model that incorporates pressure models more appropriate for the LDX plasmas than the more common polynomial expansion has been completed.

  11. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  12. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  13. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  14. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  15. Models of partnership between the pharmaceutical and diagnostics industries around companion diagnostics for cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ensinger, Christian

    2011-03-01

    An increase of targeted anticancer therapies has led to the beginning of a new era of cancer treatment, partly by replacing classical chemotherapies, partly supplementing these. Whereas for some substances only clinical experiences are relevant for treatment decisions, for some major cancer groups predictive markers are known that indicate probable tumor responses. To identify the latter, a need for companion diagnostics is given, often already existing as successful cooperation between pharmaceutical and diagnostic industries. This editorial focuses on the impact of companion diagnostic tests in personalized anticancer medicine, reporting recent advances in identifying and characterizing tumor subgroups responding to selected drugs. The most successful targeted therapies are directed against the EGFR/Her-2/neu receptors with regard to their downstream molecules in major cancer groups, including breast, gastric, lung and colorectal carcinomas. The development of biomarkers provides great opportunities to identify subpopulations with differential drug responses. On the one hand patients themselves are gaining major advantages of personalized and better tolerable cancer treatment, on the other hand, owing to very focused targeted therapies, these developments make possible cost-intensive targeted drug investigations and trials, especially in a situation of limited healthcare budgets. PMID:23480583

  16. Measurements and Diagnostics of Diamond Films and Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    The commercial potential of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films has been established and a number of applications have been identified through university, industry, and government research studies. This paper discusses the methodologies used for property measurement and diagnostic of CVD diamond films and coatings. Measurement and diagnostic techniques studied include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and friction examination. Each measurement and diagnostic technique provides unique information. A combination of techniques can provide the technical information required to understand the quality and properties of CVD diamond films, which are important to their application in specific component systems and environments. In this study the combination of measurement and diagnostic techniques was successfully applied to correlate deposition parameters and resultant diamond film composition, crystallinity, grain size, surface roughness, and coefficient of friction.

  17. Evaluating Detection and Diagnostic Decision Support Systems for Bioterrorism Response

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Vandana; McDonald, Kathryn M.; Smith, Wendy M.; Szeto, Herbert; Schleinitz, Mark D.; Owens, Douglas K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response. We performed a systematic review by searching relevant databases (e.g., MEDLINE) and Web sites for reports of detection systems and diagnostic decision support systems that could be used during bioterrorism responses. We reviewed over 24,000 citations and identified 55 detection systems and 23 diagnostic decision support systems. Only 35 systems have been evaluated: 4 reported both sensitivity and specificity, 13 were compared to a reference standard, and 31 were evaluated for their timeliness. Most evaluations of detection systems and some evaluations of diagnostic systems for bioterrorism responses are critically deficient. Because false-positive and false-negative rates are unknown for most systems, decision making on the basis of these systems is seriously compromised. We describe a framework for the design of future evaluations of such systems. PMID:15078604

  18. Next-generation confirmatory disease diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert; Gerver, Rachel; Karns, Kelly; Apori, Akwasi A.; Denisin, Aleksandra K.; Herr, Amy E.

    2014-06-01

    Microfluidic tools are advancing capabilities in screening diagnostics for use in near-patient settings. Here, we review three case studies to illustrate the flexibility and analytical power offered by microanalytical tools. We first overview a near-patient tool for detection of protein markers found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a means to identify the presence of cerebrospinal fluid in nasal mucous - an indication that CSF is leaking into the nasal cavity. Microfluidic design allowed integration of several up-stream preparatory steps and rapid, specific completion of the human CSF protein assay. Second, we overview a tear fluid based assay for lactoferrin, a protein produced in the lacrimal gland, then secreted into tear fluid. Tear Lf is a putative biomarker for primary SS. A critical contribution of this and related work being measurement of Lf, even in light of well-known and significant matrix interactions and losses during the tear fluid collection and preparation. Lastly, we review a microfluidic barcode platform that enables rapid measurement of multiple infectious disease biomarkers in human sera. The assay presents a new approach to multiplexed biomarker detection, yet in a simple straight microchannel - thus providing a streamlined, simplified microanalytical platform, as is relevant to robust operation in diagnostic settings. We view microfluidic design and analytical chemistry as the basis for emerging, sophisticated assays that will advance not just screening diagnostic technology, but confirmatory assays, sample preparation and handling, and thus introduction and utilization of new biomarkers and assay formats.

  19. Spontaneous hypoglycemia: diagnostic evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Kandaswamy, Leelavathy; Raghavan, Rajeev; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous hypoglycemia is a puzzling clinical problem and an important reason for referral to endocrinologists. Several clinical conditions such as insulinomas, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, insulin autoimmune syndrome, postprandial hypoglycemia (reactive hypoglycemia), non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia, primary adrenal insufficiency, hypopituitarism, and critical illness can be associated with spontaneous hypoglycemia. Rarely, in patients with mental health issues, factious hypoglycemia from extrinsic insulin use or ingestion of oral hypoglycemic agents can obfuscate the clinical picture for clinicians trying to identify an organic cause. In those presenting with Whipple's triad (symptoms ± signs of hypoglycemia, low plasma glucose, and resolution symptoms ± signs after hypoglycemia correction), a 72-h supervised fast test with measurement of plasma insulin, c-peptide, pro-insulin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels, coupled with plasma/urine sulphonylurea screen, forms the first step in diagnostic evaluation. A mixed meal test is preferable for those with predominantly postprandial symptoms. Additional non-invasive and/or invasive diagnostic evaluation is necessary if an organic hypoglycemic disorder is suspected. With the aid of a few brief clinical case scenarios, we discuss the diagnostic evaluation and management of spontaneous hypoglycemia through this comprehensive article. PMID:26951054

  20. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Bordetella, B. avium and B. hinzii, are known to infect avian hosts. B. avium is the etiologic agent of turkey coryza, a disease of high morbidity. B. hinzii, though commonly acquired from the respiratory tracts of diseased poultry, has not been demonstrated to be pathogenic in eith...

  1. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  2. Prion recognition elements govern nucleation, strain specificity and species barriers

    PubMed Central

    Tessier, Peter M.; Lindquist, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Prions are proteins that can switch to self-perpetuating, infectious conformations. The abilities of prions to replicate, form structurally distinct strains, and to establish and overcome transmission barriers between species are poorly understood. We exploit surface-bound peptides to overcome complexities of investigating such problems in solution. For the yeast prion Sup35, we find that the switch to the prion state is controlled with exquisite specificity by small elements of primary sequence. Strikingly, these same sequence elements govern the formation of distinct self-perpetuating conformations (prion strains) and determine species-specific seeding activities. A Sup35 chimera that traverses the transmission barrier between two yeast species possesses the critical sequence elements from both. Using this chimera, we show that the influence of environment and mutations on the formation of species-specific strains is driven by selective recognition of one or the other sequence element. Thus, critical aspects of prion conversion are enciphered by subtle differences between small, highly-specific recognition elements. PMID:17495929

  3. Strain-specific virulence of Bordetella hinzii in turkeys

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella hinzii is commonly acquired from the respiratory tract of diseased poultry but regarded as nonpathogenic in avian hosts. Recently, it was recognized that some previously used isolates were misidentified at the time of their acquisition as B. avium, B. avium-like or Alcaligenes faecalis ty...

  4. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sirjana Devi; Chapman, Patrick; Zhang, Yun; Gijzen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076) with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains. PMID:26930612

  5. Spectroscopic diagnostics for bacteria in biologic sample

    DOEpatents

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; El-Sayed, Ivan H.

    2002-01-01

    A method to analyze and diagnose specific bacteria in a biologic sample using spectroscopy is disclosed. The method includes obtaining the spectra of a biologic sample of a non-infected patient for use as a reference, subtracting the reference from the spectra of an infected sample, and comparing the fingerprint regions of the resulting differential spectrum with reference spectra of bacteria in saline. Using this diagnostic technique, specific bacteria can be identified sooner and without culturing, bacteria-specific antibiotics can be prescribed sooner, resulting in decreased likelihood of antibiotic resistance and an overall reduction of medical costs.

  6. Genetic Diagnostic Methods for Inherited Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Luis A. R.; Traboulsi, Elias I.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate molecular diagnosis of genetic eye diseases has proven to be of great importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic value of an accurate ascertainment of the underlying genetic mutation. Efforts continue in diagnostic laboratories to develop strategies that allow the discovery of responsible gene/mutations in the individual patient using the least number of assays and economizing on the expenses and time involved in the process. Once the ophthalmologist has made the best possible clinical diagnosis, blood samples are obtained for genetic testing. In this paper we will review the basic laboratory methods utilized to identify the chromosomal or mutational etiology of genetic diseases that affect the eye. PMID:21572730

  7. Dental and dental hygiene students' diagnostic accuracy in oral radiology: effect of diagnostic strategy and instructional method.

    PubMed

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2014-09-01

    There has been much debate surrounding diagnostic strategies and the most appropriate training models for novices in oral radiology. It has been argued that an analytic approach, using a step-by-step analysis of the radiographic features of an abnormality, is ideal. Alternative research suggests that novices can successfully employ non-analytic reasoning. Many of these studies do not take instructional methodology into account. This study evaluated the effectiveness of non-analytic and analytic strategies in radiographic interpretation and explored the relationship between instructional methodology and diagnostic strategy. Second-year dental and dental hygiene students were taught four radiographic abnormalities using basic science instructions or a step-by-step algorithm. The students were tested on diagnostic accuracy and memory immediately after learning and one week later. A total of seventy-three students completed both immediate and delayed sessions and were included in the analysis. Students were randomly divided into two instructional conditions: one group provided a diagnostic hypothesis for the image and then identified specific features to support it, while the other group first identified features and then provided a diagnosis. Participants in the diagnosis-first condition (non-analytic reasoning) had higher diagnostic accuracy then those in the features-first condition (analytic reasoning), regardless of their learning condition. No main effect of learning condition or interaction with diagnostic strategy was observed. Educators should be mindful of the potential influence of analytic and non-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of the instructional method. PMID:25179924

  8. Diagnostic imaging in pediatric emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, R.M.; Coulam, C.M.; Allen, J.H.; Fleischer, A.; Lee, G.S.; Kirchner, S.G.; James A.E. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Evaluation of pediatric emergencies by diagnostic imaging technics can involve both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Nuclear medicine, conventional radiography, ultrasound, computerized axial tomography, and xeroradiography are the major nonangiographic diagnostic technics available for patient evaluation. We will emphasize the use of computerized axial tomography, nuclear medicine, xeroradiography, and ultrasound in the evaluation of emergencies in the pediatric age group. Since the radiologist is the primary consultant with regard to diagnostic imaging, his knowledge of these modulities can greatly influence patient care and clinical results.

  9. How safe is diagnostic ultrasonography?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, B S

    1984-01-01

    Health care workers and patients alike are concerned about the safety of diagnostic ultrasonography in clinical practice. Evidence published to date on the immediate and possible long-term biologic effects of exposure to ultrasound in diagnostic procedures is reviewed in this paper. No harmful effect in the human fetus, child or adult following the diagnostic use of pulsed ultrasound has been reported. However, the question of long-term biologic effects cannot yet be answered. Continued vigilance and further research are required. PMID:6378349

  10. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  11. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  12. Diagnostic Testing in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brewington, John; Clancy, J P

    2016-03-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a rare, multisystem disease leading to significant morbidity and mortality. CF is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a chloride and bicarbonate transporter. Early diagnosis and access to therapies provides benefits in nutrition, pulmonary health, and cognitive ability. Several screening and diagnostic tests are available to support a diagnosis. We discuss the characteristics of screening and diagnostic tests for CF and guideline-based algorithms using these tools to establish a diagnosis. We discuss classification and management of common "diagnostic dilemmas," including the CFTR-related metabolic syndrome and other CFTR-associated diseases. PMID:26857766

  13. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    B.C. Stratton; D. Johnson; R. Feder; E. Fredrickson; H. Neilson; H. Takahashi; M. Zarnstorf; M. Cole; P. Goranson; E. Lazarus; B. Nelson

    2003-09-16

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation.

  14. Immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis using Google Glass.

    PubMed

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-03-25

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health. PMID:24571349

  15. Diagnostic criteria for inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Hilton-Jones, D; Brady, S

    2016-07-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) was first identified as a specific disorder about 40 years ago and is now recognized to be the most frequently presenting primary myopathy in middle age and beyond. Initial characterization was based on the observation of specific pathological features distinguishing it from polymyositis. It was soon appreciated that there were also distinguishing clinical features. The earliest diagnostic criteria were heavily biased towards pathological features, but over time revised criteria have given increasing importance to certain clinical features. Until the specific cause of IBM is determined, and the basic pathogenetic mechanisms are better understood, there can be no diagnostic gold-standard against which to compare the sensitivity and specificity of any proposed diagnostic criteria, but such criteria are essential to ensure that patients entering clinical, epidemiological, genetic, pathological or therapeutic studies represent a homogeneous population. It is likely that any currently accepted diagnostic criteria will, once a gold-standard is eventually established, be shown to have 'missed' patients with atypical features, but that has to be accepted to make certain that current studies are not contaminated by patients who do not have IBM. In other words, in everyday clinical practice there will be the occasional patient who an experienced myologist strongly suspects has IBM, but does not meet current criteria - the criteria lack sensitivity. But if the criteria are so broad as to include all such atypical cases, they would be likely to include patients who do not in fact have IBM - they would lack specificity. The sensitivity and specificity of existing criteria have been reviewed recently, in so far as it is possible to do so, and found to have high specificity but variable sensitivity. PMID:27027255

  16. Immunochromatographic Diagnostic Test Analysis Using Google Glass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a Google Glass-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) reader platform capable of qualitative and quantitative measurements of various lateral flow immunochromatographic assays and similar biomedical diagnostics tests. Using a custom-written Glass application and without any external hardware attachments, one or more RDTs labeled with Quick Response (QR) code identifiers are simultaneously imaged using the built-in camera of the Google Glass that is based on a hands-free and voice-controlled interface and digitally transmitted to a server for digital processing. The acquired JPEG images are automatically processed to locate all the RDTs and, for each RDT, to produce a quantitative diagnostic result, which is returned to the Google Glass (i.e., the user) and also stored on a central server along with the RDT image, QR code, and other related information (e.g., demographic data). The same server also provides a dynamic spatiotemporal map and real-time statistics for uploaded RDT results accessible through Internet browsers. We tested this Google Glass-based diagnostic platform using qualitative (i.e., yes/no) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. For the quantitative RDTs, we measured activated tests at various concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL for free and total PSA. This wearable RDT reader platform running on Google Glass combines a hands-free sensing and image capture interface with powerful servers running our custom image processing codes, and it can be quite useful for real-time spatiotemporal tracking of various diseases and personal medical conditions, providing a valuable tool for epidemiology and mobile health. PMID:24571349

  17. [The rational diagnostic of cholangiocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rydlo, Martin; Dvořáčková, Jana; Kupka, Tomáš; Klvaňa, Pavel; Havelka, Jaroslav; Uvírová, Magdalena; Geryk, Edvard; Czerný, Daniel; Jonszta, Tomáš; Bojková, Martina; Hrabovský, Vladimír; Jelínková, Veronika; Martínek, Arnošt; Dítě, Petr

    2016-02-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare malignant tumour arising from cholangiocytes, and its prognosis is usually unfavourable, mostly as a result of late diagnosis of the tumour. The current incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the Czech Republic is 1.4/100,000 inhabitants per year; in less than 30 % of patients with CC, one of the known risk factors can be identified, most frequently, primary sclerosing cholangitis. Only patients with early diagnosed and surgically amenable cholangiocarcinoma are likely to have a longer survival time; in their case, survival for more than five years has been achieved in 20 % to 40 %. From the perspective of the need for early diagnosis of CC, a significant part is played by imaging and histopathologic evaluation; the early diagnostic significance of oncomarkers is limited. The rational early diagnosis of CC consists in effective use of differentiated advantages of different imaging modalities - MRI with DSA appears to be the optimal method, endosonography is a sensitive method for the identification of malignancy in the hepatic hilum or distal common bile duct, MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) is used to display pathological changes in the biliary tree, ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) allows material removal for histopathological examination. Other new approaches are also beneficial, such as IDUS - intraductal ultrasonography of biliary tract or SPY-GLASS, enabling examination of the bile ducts by direct view with the possibility of taking targeted biopsies. Sensitivity and specificity of histology and cytology can be increased by using the molecular cytogenetic FISH method, i.e. fluorescence in situ by hybridization, with a specificity of 97 %. PMID:27172439

  18. Diagnostic approach to cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hilman Zulkifli; Mori, Shumpei; Sasaki, Naoto; Hirata, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disease that may be underdiagnosed and could affect the entire human body. Many organs may be affected, which could increase the morbidity and mortality. Cardiac involvement is the leading cause of poor prognosis. Patients with cardiac amyloidosis are usually admitted with heart failure. The clinical presentation varies greatly, and using the correct approach is important in identifying cardiac amyloidosis. A 51-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic heart failure. He had increased brain natriuretic peptide levels, a low ejection fraction, and left and right ventricular hypertrophy with granular sparkling as seen by echocardiography. These findings led us to perform a cardiac biopsy that confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. Further investigation revealed that the patient had amyloid light-chain type amyloidosis due to multiple myeloma. He is now undergoing the 3rd phase of chemotherapy. Congo-red stain is usually used by physicians to histologically confirm amyloidosis, with which apple-green birefringence indicates amyloid deposits. Other stains such as direct fast scarlet (DFS) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) can also confirm the presence of amyloid deposits. In the present case, DFS and HE were used, both of which suggested amyloid deposits surrounding myocardial cells. The use of a combination of stains can increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of amyloidosis. However, the typical echocardiographic appearances would be enough to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis when it is impossible for the patient to undergo a cardiac biopsy, if an additional histological specimen from another tissue such as abdominal fat confirms amyloidosis. PMID:25011639

  19. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  20. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  1. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald-Tenenbaum, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several decades, a variety of laser diagnostic techniques have been developed and applied to diagnose spacecraft propulsion devices. Laser diagnostics are inherently non-intrusive, and provide the opportunity to probe properties such as temperature, concentration or number density of plume species, and plume velocities in the harsh environments of combustion and plasma discharges. This presentation provides an overview of laser diagnostic capabilities for spacecraft propulsion devices such as small monopropellant thrusters, arcjets, ion engines and Hall thrusters. Particular emphasis is placed on recent developments for time-resolved ion velocity measurements in Hall thruster plumes. Results are presented for one such diagnostic method, a time-synchronized CW-laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique based on a sample hold scheme. This method is capable of correlating measured fluorescence excitation lineshapes with high frequency current fluctuations in the plasma discharge of a Hall thruster and is tolerant of natural drifting in the current oscillation frequency.

  2. Diagnostic Tests and Examination Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    A study of the usefulness of several diagnostic tests for selecting students to enter a civil engineering program found that the tests were not appropriate and that tests should be developed specifically for civil engineering. (MSE)

  3. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal injury has occurred in a blunt trauma victim. In many cases, the decision about when to ... One procedure used to determine whether blunt trauma victims require surgery is diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL). DPL ...

  4. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    PubMed Central

    Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them. PMID:26668438

  5. Classroom Diagnostic Testing With Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okey, James R.; McGarity, John

    1982-01-01

    Discusses value of computer diagnostic testing (CDT) including time factors in preparing programs, cost analysis, and possibilities for activities other than CDT. Includes a computer program, written in BASIC for a PET, and instructions for using the program. (SK)

  6. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  7. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to implementation of the various technologies are discussed as well. PMID:22800557

  8. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. PMID:21094724

  9. Diagnostic Studies With GLA Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Assessments of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System-1 Data Assimilation System (GEOS-1 DAS) regarding heating rates, energetics and angular momentum quantities were made. These diagnostics can be viewed as measures of climate variability. Comparisons with the NOAA/NCEP reanalysis system of momentum and energetics diagnostics are included. Water vapor and angular momentum are diagnosed in many models, including those of NASA, as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. Relevant preprints are included herein.

  10. Cotton-based diagnostic devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shang-Chi; Hsu, Min-Yen; Kuan, Chen-Meng; Wang, Hsi-Kai; Chang, Chia-Ling; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2014-01-01

    A good diagnostic procedure avoids wasting medical resources, is easy to use, resists contamination, and provides accurate information quickly to allow for rapid follow-up therapies. We developed a novel diagnostic procedure using a "cotton-based diagnostic device" capable of real-time detection, i.e., in vitro diagnostics (IVD), which avoids reagent contamination problems common to existing biomedical devices and achieves the abovementioned goals of economy, efficiency, ease of use, and speed. Our research reinforces the advantages of an easy-to-use, highly accurate diagnostic device created from an inexpensive and readily available U.S. FDA-approved material (i.e., cotton as flow channel and chromatography paper as reaction zone) that adopts a standard calibration curve method in a buffer system (i.e., nitrite, BSA, urobilinogen and uric acid assays) to accurately obtain semi-quantitative information and limit the cross-contamination common to multiple-use tools. Our system, which specifically targets urinalysis diagnostics and employs a multiple biomarker approach, requires no electricity, no professional training, and is exceptionally portable for use in remote or home settings. This could be particularly useful in less industrialized areas. PMID:25393975

  11. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  12. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  13. Identifying potential academic leaders

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members. PMID:27331226

  14. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  15. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  16. FOUR COMMON DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS THAT INHIBIT RADON MITIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper identifies four of the more significant diagnostic problems that have been observed during EPA's radon mitigation efforts, explains why they are of concern, and, when possible, offers potential solutions. The problems are: (1) inconsistent sub-slab aggregate; (2) access...

  17. Clearinghouse: Diagnostic Categories and Obstetric Complication Histories in Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Thomas F.; Wiegerink, Ronald

    1971-01-01

    No significant differences in the obstetric complication measures were found among the various diagnostic groupings of 61 psychologically or behaviorally disturbed children, nor between any complication measures and any of the three disturbed behavior patterns identified (psychotic withdrawal, acting-out aggression, organic signs). (KW)

  18. Diagnostic Delay and Antibiotic Overuse in Acute Pulmonary Blastomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Alpern, Jonathan D.; Bahr, Nathan C.; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Boulware, David R.; Sellman, Jonathan S.; Sarosi, George A.

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of blastomycosis is often delayed. We identified 28 cases of pulmonary blastomycosis in a retrospective chart review. Most patients received multiple antibiotic courses before being diagnosed, and the sputum KOH smear was rarely used. Diagnostic delay can be decreased with higher suspicion for pulmonary blastomycosis and early use of the sputum KOH smear. PMID:27419155

  19. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  20. Viral diagnostics: will new technology save the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technology for infectious agent detection continues to evolve, particularly molecular methods which first emerged in the mid-1970’s. The goals of new technology in diagnostics are to achieve the highest sensitivity and specificity possible to accurately identify the infection status of an individua...

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Procalcitonin in Bacterial Meningitis Versus Nonbacterial Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting-Ting; Hu, Zhi-De; Qin, Bao-Dong; Ma, Ning; Tang, Qing-Qin; Wang, Li-Li; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) levels in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in bacterial meningitis (BM), but the results were heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of PCT as a marker for BM detection. A systematic search of the EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases was performed to identify studies published before December 7, 2015 investigating the diagnostic accuracy of PCT for BM. The quality of the eligible studies was assessed using the revised Quality Assessment for Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy method. The overall diagnostic accuracy of PCT detection in CSF or blood was pooled using the bivariate model. Twenty-two studies involving 2058 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall specificities and sensitivities were 0.86 and 0.80 for CSF PCT, and 0.97 and 0.95 for blood PCT, respectively. Areas under the summary receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.90 and 0.98 for CSF PCT and blood PCT, respectively. The major limitation of this systematic review and meta-analysis was the small number of studies included and the heterogeneous diagnostic thresholds adopted by eligible studies. Our meta-analysis shows that PCT is a useful biomarker for BM diagnosis. PMID:26986140

  2. Diagnostic timelines and delays in diagnosing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Macklin, Eric A; Lee, Alexandra; Murphy, Alyssa; Chang, Judith; Zipf, Amanda; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the diagnostic timelines and their predictors in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Patients were identified through ALS billing codes. Time from presenting symptom to first doctor visit, first doctor visit to suspected ALS diagnosis, suspected to confirmed ALS diagnosis, and presenting symptom to confirmed ALS diagnosis (total diagnostic time) were collected. Regression models were used to analyze the predictors of diagnostic delay. Three hundred and four ALS patients were included in the analysis. Median total diagnostic time was 11.5 months. Diagnostic timelines were longer in patients with age > 60 years (p < 0.001), sporadic ALS (p = 0.043), and limb onset (p = 0.010). The presence of fasciculations, slurred speech, and lower extremity weakness when symptoms were first noted were independent predictors of shorter time to ALS diagnosis (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, and p = 0.04, respectively). About half of the patients (52%) received an alternative diagnosis and each patient saw an average of three different physicians before ALS diagnosis was confirmed. In conclusion, diagnostic timelines in ALS are long, and patients see many physicians and receive multiple alternative diagnoses before the diagnosis of ALS is confirmed. Older age, sporadic disease, and limb onset can delay ALS diagnosis. PMID:24981792

  3. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T.

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing. Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre. Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  4. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D; Kuehni, Claudia E; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T; Lucas, Jane S

    2016-04-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing.Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre.Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively.PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  5. Comparison of Experimental Diagnostic Signals with Numerical Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer, K.; Turnbull, A. D.

    1997-11-01

    A new code has been written to compare experimental diagnostic signals with those predicted by stability code output and experimental equilibrium diagnostic signals such as SXR, ECE, BSE, and reflectometry. Comparison of expected and actual diagnostic signals will help distinguish or identify modes by the signals they produce, and will also help validate stability codes. Predicted diagnostic signals are obtained by taking the total time derivative of S, the signal amplitude, and assuming steady state conditions so that the partial time derivative can be set to zero. Multiplying by delta-time (Dt) results in δ S = tilde\\underlineξ \\cdot \\underlinenablaS, where δ S is the predicted diagnostic signal, tilde\\underlineξ is the plasma displacement predicted by various equilibrium codes (such as GATO or MARS), and \\underlinenablaS is the gradient of the equilibrium diagnostic signal. \\underlinenablaS may be obtained from an experimental equilibrium signal amplitude profile, or from a functional dependence of the signal amplitude on equilibrium temperature and density. Comparisons of predicted and actual signals from linear ideal and resistive codes show reasonable agreement with the measured signals in some cases, but there are also some significant discrepancies.

  6. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  7. Identifying Young, Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better

  8. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  9. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  10. Tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Natalia

    2009-10-01

    In the previous work [1], we discussed a ``technology'' of tomographic method and relations between the tomographic diagnostics in thermal (equilibrium) and nonthermal (nonequilibrium) plasma sources. The conclusion has been made that tomographic reconstruction in thermal plasma sources is the standard procedure at present, which can provide much useful information on the plasma structure and its evolution in time, while the tomographic reconstruction of nonthermal plasma has a great potential at making a contribution to understanding the fundamental problem of substance behavior in strongly nonequilibrium conditions. Using medical terminology, one could say, that tomographic diagnostics of the equilibrium plasma sources studies their ``anatomic'' structure, while reconstruction of the nonequilibrium plasma is similar to the ``physiological'' examination: it is directed to study the physical mechanisms and processes. The present work is focused on nonthermal plasma research. The tomographic diagnostics is directed to study spatial structures formed in the gas discharge plasmas under the influence of electrical and gravitational fields. The ways of plasma ``self-organization'' in changing and extreme conditions are analyzed. The analysis has been made using some examples from our practical tomographic diagnostics of nonthermal plasma sources, such as low-pressure capacitive and inductive discharges. [0pt] [1] Denisova N. Plasma diagnostics using computed tomography method // IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 2009 37 4 502.

  11. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  12. Diagnostic Indicators of Codependence: An Investigation Using the MCMI-II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughead, Teri A.; Spurlock, Vicki L.; Ting, Yuan-yu

    1998-01-01

    A paucity of empirical research exists concerning codependence. Diagnostic indicators for self-identified codependent individuals (N=37) are examined. Cluster analysis utilizing 22 MCMI-II diagnostic scales created three cluster groups. Participants exhibited a disordered avoidant and self-defeating coping style, accompanied by passive-aggressive,…

  13. Use of a Diagnostic Errors Framework to Classify Mistakes in an Assessment of a Bilingual Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Brason

    2014-01-01

    This study applies a diagnostic errors framework to identify and classify mistakes that were made in a psychoeducational assessment of a bilingual student who was misidentified as a person with autism. Findings of diagnostic errors were categorized under four domains--faulty knowledge, faulty data gathering, faulty data processing, and faulty…

  14. Appropriateness of diagnostics tests.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the concept of 'appropriateness', in the three past decades, from 'no harm' and 'no waste' to 'medical decision-making' and 'determining outcomes' highlights two main points: its foundation is evidence-based medicine, and it is a quality of every phase of the total testing process, not only for the selection of tests. Nevertheless, appropriateness in Laboratory Hematology, as well as in Laboratory Medicine, is an elusive concept: 'Appropriateness' interplays with 'patient's safety', 'healthcare costs', 'clinical decision-making', and 'effectiveness', and the criteria for appropriateness, mainly adherence to clinical guidelines, are often not evidence-based and not always consensus-based. Moreover, practising appropriateness is a complex issue because of the ambiguity of the criteria and targets, the never-ending work of implementing guidelines and their audit, and the uniqueness of the clinical situation of the individual patient. Authors agree on some practical rules: establishing a multidisciplinary and multiprofessional team, choosing carefully clinical targets, finding or building evidences, sharing guidelines with clinicians, choosing adequate tools for changing, working hard on implementation, identifying the 'right' laboratory methods and processes, checking progress indefinitely, providing information, interpretations, and consultations, and promoting feedback and audits. The success depends on the 'right' combination of educational, operative, and reinforcing interventions. Competences in organization, in implementation science, and in interpersonal relationship management are essential as well as knowledge and experience in Hematology, not only in Laboratory Hematology. PMID:27161094

  15. Diagnostic strategies in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, J.

    1985-06-28

    Technetium-/sup 99/ pyrophosphate bone scanning often identifies patients with osteomyelitis before roentgenographic findings appear. However, recent studies have shown that /sup 99/Tc bone scanning often gives false-negative results, especially in neonates. The accuracy of computed tomographic scanning and indium-111 leukocyte scanning for diagnosis of early osteomyelitis has not been established. /sup 99/Tc bone scanning often gives false-positive results in patients with other conditions leading to bone injury and repair, such as trauma or recent surgery, further limiting the usefulness of this imaging procedure. Newer imaging techniques have not been adequately evaluated to establish their specificity. Because of their high cost and unproved accuracy, these new imaging procedures should not be routinely applied until their usefulness has been established. Bone biopsy remains the procedure of choice for establishing the diagnosis in patients suspected clinically to have osteomyelitis with negative findings on roentgenography and /sup 99/Tc bone scanning. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of osteomyelitis, other pathogens cause 30 to 40 percent of cases. Aspiration or biopsy of the involved bone is usually required to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy. Bone biopsy is essential in chronic osteomyelitis, since cultures of sinus drainage are unreliable. Osteomyelitis in diabetics with foot infection and in association with decubitus ulcers presents special problems. Radionuclide scanning often give false-positive results in these patients. Proper diagnosis usually requires careful assessment of clinical and roentgenographic findings. 33 references.

  16. Diagnostic challenges of bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Cuartin, Guillermo; Chalmers, James D; Sibila, Oriol

    2016-07-01

    Bronchiectasis is a condition of increasing incidence and prevalence around the world. Many different diseases have been associated with bronchiectasis, and their treatment can differ widely. Recent guidelines have helped to approach aetiological diagnosis but it is still a complex process. Identifying the cause of the bronchiectasis may determine a change in the treatment of a large group of subjects. That is one of the main reasons why the aetiological diagnosis is crucial in the proper management of bronchiectasis patients. Postinfectious bronchiectasis is the most frequent entity among different studies, but a high percentage of cases still remain without a clear aetiology. Bronchiectasis related to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), immunodeficiencies with antibody production deficiency, primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, among others, require a specific management that may improve quality of life and prognosis in a large group of individuals. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the main bronchiectasis related diseases and to simplify the aetiological diagnosis, in order to improve the management of bronchiectasis patients, especially in those where a specific treatment is available. PMID:27296824

  17. Diagnostic approach to tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Crummer, Richard W; Hassan, Ghinwa A

    2004-01-01

    Tinnitus is a common disorder with many possible causes. Most cases of tinnitus are subjective, but occasionally the tinnitus can be heard by an examiner. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. Common causes of conductive hearing loss include external ear infection, cerumen impaction, and middle ear effusion. Sensorineural hearing loss may be caused by exposure to excessive loud noise, presbycusis, ototoxic medications, or Meniere's disease. Unilateral hearing loss plus tinnitus should increase suspicion for acoustic neuroma. Subjective tinnitus also may be caused by neurologic, metabolic, or psychogenic disorders. Objective tinnitus usually is caused by vascular abnormalities of the carotid artery or jugular venous systems. Initial evaluation of tinnitus should include a thorough history, head and neck examination, and audiometric testing to identify an underlying etiology. Unilateral or pulsatile tinnitus may be caused by more serious pathology and typically merits specialized audiometric testing and radiologic studies. In patients who are discomforted by tinnitus and have no remediable cause, auditory masking may provide some relief. PMID:14727828

  18. [Diagnostic protocol and special tests].

    PubMed

    Bellia, M; Pennarola, R

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic protocol and special tests to ionizing radiations have a preventive function in the medical surveillance of the exposed worker. This protocol must be provided with laboratory and special test assessing fitness for working at the risk of ionizing radiations. The health of workers must be compatible with working conditions and radiation risk. This healthiness of workers is evalued in the time to give an assessment fitness for working at ionizing radiations. For this purpose the basic diagnostic protocol must guarantee minimum information about state of organs and apparatus in addition to the normality of the metabolisms. The diagnostic protocol of the exposed worker to ionizing radiations must be adapted to the specific clinical situation so as to finally make a costs-benefits balance sheet. PMID:19288808

  19. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Megha; Biswas, Abhijit

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Huntington's disease (HD), and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26442283

  20. [Diagnostic evaluation of temporal paragangliomas].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Anna; Gołabek, Wiesław; Szymański, Marcin; Morshed, Kamal; Trojanowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumours deriving from paraganglia--small bodies of neuroendocrine tissue. Approximately 3% of paragangliomas occur in the head and neck area accounting for about 0,6% of all tumours of this region. Head and neck paragangliomas are divided into two groups: neck tumours (carotid body tumor and vagal paraganglioma) and temporal paragangliomas (jugular bulb tumor and tympanic paraganglioma). Temporal paragangliomas arise from paraganglia located in the petrous part of the temporal bone. Radiological evaluation of these lesions is essential for confirming the diagnosis and surgery planning. Most useful methods are magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These modalities deliver important information about tumour location, extension and the state of the surrounding structures. Carotid angiography is a second step diagnostic method, performed in patients with jugular bulb paraganglioma. It has a diagnostic value and allows palliative or preoperative embolization of the tumor. Ultrasonographic evaluation and scintigraphy also provide advantages in diagnostic management. PMID:18546938

  1. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, C. B.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.

    2012-10-15

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the {sup 89}Zr/{sup 89m}Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  2. Physics R&D in support of ITER/BPX Diagnostic Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Boivin, R.; Costley, A. E.; Giannella, R.; Johnson, D.; Hodgson, E.; Kislyakov, A.; Krasilnikov, A.; Kusama, Y.; Leonard, T.; Malaquias, A.; Mckee, G.; Nielsen, P.; Nishitani, T.; Peebles, W.; Orsitto, F.; Pitts, R. A.; Razdobarin, G.; Sanchez, J.; Sassao, M.; Serra, F.; Shikama, T.; Strelkov, V.; Sugie, T.; Vayakis, G.; Voitsenya, V.; Vukolov, K.; Walker, C.; Young, K.

    2002-10-07

    The development of diagnostics for a next step burning plasma experiment (BPX) is a major challenge. Within the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA), one Topical Group (TG) specialises in diagnostics and aims to support the development and design of the needed systems. Several diagnostics issues have been identified as ‘high priority’ and form the focus of current work of the TG. The core of this paper is a presentation and discussion of recent progress in the field of these high priority research topics. Moreover, the status of the recently initiated International Diagnostic Database will be briefly described.

  3. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  4. A new diagnostic device: KINOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaritsky, A. R.; Zaritskaya, G. A.; Pronin, V. S.; Raspopov, N. A.; Fock, M. V.

    2005-08-01

    A new diagnostic device KINOX created at P N Lebedev Physics Institute is described. With this device it is possible to trace the variations of oxygen permeability in erythrocyte membranes during the blood oxygenation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these variations was explained and experimentally tested at P N Lebedev Physics Institute. The diagnostic method is substantiated capable of estimating physiological reserves of organism basing on the results of blood oxygenation measurements performed with the KINOX. The possible reduction in physiological reserves of organism under the laser action on malignant tumor can be detected in this way.

  5. Non- contacting capacitive diagnostic device

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Timothy

    2005-07-12

    A non-contacting capacitive diagnostic device includes a pulsed light source for producing an electric field in a semiconductor or photovoltaic device or material to be evaluated and a circuit responsive to the electric field. The circuit is not in physical contact with the device or material being evaluated and produces an electrical signal characteristic of the electric field produced in the device or material. The diagnostic device permits quality control and evaluation of semiconductor or photovoltaic device properties in continuous manufacturing processes.

  6. New Developments in Smart Bandage Technologies for Wound Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    McLister, Anna; McHugh, Jolene; Cundell, Jill; Davis, James

    2016-07-01

    The pH of wound fluid has long been recognized as an important diagnostic for assessing wound condition, but as yet there are few technological options available to the clinician. The availability of sensors that can measure wound pH, either in the clinic or at home could significantly improve clinical outcome - particularly in the early identification of complications such as infection. New material designs and electrochemical research strategies that are being targeted at wound diagnostics are identified and a critical overview of emerging research that could be pivotal in setting the direction for future devices is provided. PMID:26821765

  7. [Diagnosis and differential diagnostic features of gender identity disorder].

    PubMed

    Kórász, Krisztián; Simon, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    Gender identity disorder, or transsexualism as it is more commonly known, is a highly complex clinical entity. It is an identifiable and incapacitating disease which can be diagnosed and successfully treated by reassignment surgery. The diagnosis of gender identity disorder can be a difficult process. Transsexual patients will have to undergo extensive psychiatric assessment. The authors review the development of nosology of transsexualism. The current classification systems, symptoms and diagnostic features of gender identity disorders are discussed. The article also discusses differential diagnostic features, like intersex states, psychosis, transvestitism, autogynephilia, gynandromorphophilia, and self-amputation. The authors also discuss the problem of comorbidity, as well. PMID:18956626

  8. Porphyria or Catatonia: Diagnostic Dilemma on the Medical Wards.

    PubMed

    Kurkjian, Natalie; Tucker, Phebe

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old Caucasian female, DD, was admitted to the medical service at an academic hospital with symptoms of weakness in bilateral lower extremities, falls, headaches, and altered mental status. Psychiatry was consulted to evaluate for psychiatric causes of her symptoms. This case presented a diagnostic challenge as the patient's identified symptoms changed almost daily, depending on what practitioner or medical service she encountered. In this study, we discuss the differential diagnoses, tests and treatments the patient received, with a review of literature helping differentiate between diagnostic parameters. PMID:27027143

  9. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  10. Managing waiting times in diagnostic medical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nuti, Sabina; Vainieri, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to analyse the variation in the delivery of diagnostic imaging services in order to suggest possible solutions for the reduction of waiting times, increase the quality of services and reduce financial costs. Design This study provides a logic model to manage waiting times in a regional context. Waiting times measured per day were compared on the basis of the variability in the use rates of CT and MRI examinations in Tuscany for the population, as well as on the basis of the capacity offered with respect to the number of radiologists available. The analysis was performed at the local health authority level to support the decision-making process of local managers. Setting Diagnostic imaging services, in particular the CT and MRI examinations. The study involved all the 12 local health authorities that provide services for 3.7 million inhabitants of the Italian Tuscany Region. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants: the study uses regional administrative data on outpatients and survey data on inpatient diagnostic examinations in order to measure productivity. Primary and secondary outcome measures The study uses the volumes per 1000 inhabitants, the days of waiting times and the number of examinations per radiologist. Variability was measured using the traditional SD measures. Results A significant variation in areas considered homogeneous in terms of age, gender or mortality may indicate that the use of radiological services is not optimal and underuse or overuse occurs and that there is room for improvement in the service organisation. Conclusions Considering that there is a high level of variability among district use rates and waiting times, this study provides managers with a specific tool to find the cause of the problem, identify a possible solution, assess the financial impact and initiate the eventual reduction of waste. PMID:23242480

  11. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  12. [Imaging and Laboratory Diagnostics for Tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Bauer, C M; Schmähl, A; Kreuter, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, since symptoms are often very unspecific or lacking. However active, prompt and accurate diagnosis is the key element in the public health response to tuberculosis and the cornerstone of tuberculosis control. Different diagnostic methods for an assured diagnosis of TB are necessary. Chest radiography is a useful keystone to identify tuberculosis, but diagnosis of tuberculosis cannot be established by radiography alone. CT scanning is used in patients without pathological chest radiography but clinically suspected active TB and to differentiate TB from other diseases. Radiological appearance is primarily determined by the immune status of patients and caverns and disseminated disease foci are often observed. Laboratory diagnostic methods include microscopic identification of acid-fast mycobacteria from any body fluid (especially sputum), as well as isolation and characterisation of mycobacteria in culture. It is then possible to type the pathogens by the shape of their colony, their growth behavior and their biochemical characteristics. These methods are regarded as the gold standard in diagnosis of active TB. In patients who are highly suspected of having TB, but whose sputum specimens tested negative for mycobacteria, a nucleic acid amplification test is additionally performed. Moreover, sensitivity testing with first and second line antitubercular drugs is applied as standard. Laboratory diagnostic testing of cellular immunity against pathogenic mycobacteria employs the tuberculin skin test (TST, Mantoux tuberculin test) or the more specific interferon γ test to determine γ interferon released by T lymphocytes stimulated in vitro. The new ELISA and ELISPOT procedures exhibit higher test specificity and less cross reactivity to NTM (non-tuberculosis mycobacteria), are independent of BCG-vaccination status and correlate better with the degree of exposure than does the TST. PMID:27187878

  13. Rhinoscleroma: a detailed histopathological diagnostic insight

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed RH; El-badawy, Zeinab H; Mohamed, Ibrahim R; Abdelhameed, Waleed AM

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoscleroma (RS) is a chronic specific disease of nose and upper respiratory passages caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis bacilli. It is endemic in Egypt and in sporadic areas worldwide. Diagnosis of RS depends on identification of the pathognomonic Mickulicz cells (MCs) which is most prominent during granulomatous phase but spares or absent during catarrhal or sclerotic phases of the disease. This study aimed to identify the potential diagnostic features of nasal RS when MCs are absent. Nasal biopsies from 125 patients complaining of chronic nasal symptoms were retrieved for this study; including 72 chronic non specific inflammatory lesions and 53 RS diagnosed by PAS and Geimsa stains. The detailed histological differences among the two groups were measured statistically. RS was frequently a bilateral disease (P < 0.05) of young age (P < 0.001) with a female predominance (P < 0.05) and usually associated with nasal crustations (P < 0.001). Five strong histological indicators of RS were specified by univariate binary logistic regression analyses including squamous metaplasia (OR 27.2, P < 0.0001), dominance of plasma cells (OR 12.75, P < 0.0001), Russell bodies (OR 8.83, P < 0.0001), neutrophiles (OR 3.7, P < 0.001) and absence of oesinophiles (OR 12.0, P < 0.0001). According to Multivariate analysis, the diagnostic features of RS in absence of MCs can be classified into major criteria including dominance of plasma cells infiltration and absence of oesinophiles and minor criteria including young age, female gender, bilateral nasal involvement, nasal crustation, squamous metaplasia, Russell bodies, and neutrophiles. The diagnostic model using the two major criteria confirmed or excluded RS in 84.3% of the investigated cases. PMID:26339415

  14. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thaysa B. F.; Osório, Flávia L.; Loureiro, Sonia R.

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6–12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems

  15. SDQ: discriminative validity and diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thaysa B F; Osório, Flávia L; Loureiro, Sonia R

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was designed to screen for behavioral problems in youths based on cutoff points that favor the instrument's diagnostic sensitivity. The present study aimed to analyze the discriminative validity of the SDQ to identify behavioral difficulties and prosocial resources in school-age children compared with the diagnostic data collected by the corresponding sections of the Development and Well-being Assessment (DAWBA). In addition, new cutoff points that value specificity were defined for the SDQ scales, exploring its diagnostic potential. This study was conducted in Brazil and assessed a community convenience sample that consisted of 120 children aged 6-12 years who were not under psychological/psychiatric treatment. The mothers of the participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to clinically characterize the sample. A ROC curve was used to assess the discriminant validity of the SDQ, and new cutoff points were established to maximize the instrument's specificity. The new cutoff points enabled a significant increase in specificity without a significant loss of sensitivity, which favors approaches based on measures of screening and diagnosis yet does not damage the instrument's screening capacity. The following increases were observed: 100% for the depressive disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 95.1% for the generalized anxiety disorder scale (cutoff point = 7), 46.6% for the conduct disorder scale (cutoff point = 6), 19.2% for the hyperactive disorder scale (cutoff point = 8), and 27.6% for the antisocial personality disorder scale (cutoff point = 6). A cutoff point of 8 was applied to the prosocial behavior scale, which exhibited a 62.1% increase in specificity. The use of more specific cutoff points generated more accurate results and favored SDQ's use, particularly in contexts of care that require more precise and faster procedures for identification of problems. PMID

  16. The Efficacy of the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory in Postsecondary Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lock, Robin H.; Layton, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the ability of the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI) to differentiate between postsecondary populations with and without learning disabilities. Found that the LDDI is a reliable method for identifying the possibility of a learning disability in postsecondary students. (EV)

  17. Diagnostic techniques for thermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Fincke, J.R.; Snyder, S.C.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.; Reynolds, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    The plasma diagnostic techniques discussed are Rayleigh and coherent Thomson scattering, Coherent-Anti-Stokes-Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) and enthalpy probes. The quantities measured are heavy species and electron temperature, ionized fraction, plasma composition, and velocity. Examples of results from both subsonic and supersonic jets are presented and limitations discussed.

  18. Advanced diagnostics for reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Baganoff, D.; Bowman, C. T.; Byer, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported for the third year of an interdisciplinary program to innovate modern diagnostic techniques for application to reacting flows. Project areas are: (1) fiber optic absorption/fluorescence probes for species measurements employing tunable ultraviolet, visable and infrared laser sources; (2) wavelength modulation spectroscopy, using rapid-scanning ultraviolet, visible and infrared laser sources, for measurements of species, temperature and absorption lineshapes, (3) quantitative flow visualization, including temporally and spatially resolved species measurements in a plane, using laser-induced fluorescence; (4) multiple-point velocity visualization; (5) plasma diagnostics, utilizing planar laser-induced fluorescence and wavelength modulation techniques; (6) diagnostic techniques for thermionic converter plasmas; (7) application of advanced diagnostic techniques for studies of turbulent reacting flows; (8) development of measurement techniques and a novel facility for investigations of droplet evaporation in turbulent flows; (9) holographic display techniques for 3-D visualization of flowfield data; (10) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) for temperature and velocity measurements in a supersonic jet; and (11) computed absorption tomography system for species measurements in a plane.

  19. Drive Diagnostic Filter Wheel Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-17

    DrD Filter Wheel Control is National Instrument's Labview software that drives a Drive Diagnostic filter wheel. The software can drive the filter wheel between each end limit, detect the positive and negative limit and each home position and post the stepper motot values to an Excel spreadsheet. The software can also be used to cycle the assembly between the end limits.

  20. Herbicide poisoning: A diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supradip; Singh, Amandeep; Dewan, Himanshu; Walia, Gunwant; Bansal, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread availability, reports of herbicide poisoning from India are not common. Diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of proper history, non-specific clinical features and lack of diagnostic tests. A case of Paraquat poisoning is reported where diagnosis could be established only after the recovery of the patient. The literature is reviewed. PMID:22557836

  1. Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery (WDRB).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Janet

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Woodcock Diagnostic Reading Battery, an instrument designed to assess the abilities and achievements of individuals ages 4 through 90 in the areas of basic reading skills, reading comprehension, phonological awareness, oral language comprehension, and reading aptitude. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…

  2. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  3. [Morphological diagnostics of fat embolism].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Dmitriev, I V

    2016-01-01

    The present review of the literature concerns the problem of morphological diagnostics of fat embolism, i.e. mechanical obturation of multiple blood vessels with fat globules, that can be detected by a variety of methods including polarization microscopy, staining of native, frozen, and paraffin-embedded histological sections with the use of immunohistochemical techniques, electron microscopy, etc. PMID:27144263

  4. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  5. Cognitive Diagnostic Modeling Using R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravand, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) have been around for more than a decade but their application is far from widespread for mainly two reasons: (1) CDMs are novel, as compared to traditional IRT models. Consequently, many researchers lack familiarity with them and their properties, and (2) Software programs doing CDMs have been expensive and not…

  6. Diagnostic Teaching, Writing and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Provides ethnographic information about preservice teachers and their formative relationships to diagnostic teaching and letter writing within the school mathematics curriculum. Also, indicates that elementary school students benefit from letter writing as it relates to mathematics attitudes and achievement levels. (nine references) (JJK)

  7. Small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil; Reed, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Instrumented and optically-accessible rocket chambers are being developed to be used for diagnostics of small rocket (less than 440 N thrust level) flowfields. These chambers are being tested to gather local fluid dynamic and thermodynamic flowfield data over a range of test conditions. This flowfield database is being used to better understand mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rockets, influence the numerical modeling of small rocket flowfields, and characterize small rocket components. The diagnostic chamber designs include: a chamber design for gathering wall temperature profiles to be used as boundary conditions in a finite element heat flux model; a chamber design for gathering inner wall temperature and static pressure profiles; and optically-accessible chamber designs, to be used with a suite of laser-based diagnostics for gathering local species concentration, temperature, density, and velocity profiles. These chambers were run with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) propellants, while subsequent versions will be run on liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/HC) propellants. The purpose, design, and initial test results of these small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers are summarized.

  8. [Diagnostic dyspraxia and frontal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Donnet, A; Schmitt, A; Poncet, M

    1998-05-01

    A 27-year-old ambidexter woman experienced a clinical and psychometric frontal syndrome associated with a partial callosal syndrome following transcallosal surgery for an intraventricular neurocytoma. She also complained of difficulties with her left hand which realized a particular form of diagnostic dyspraxia: there were specific features of an isolated dysfunction of the control of the realization of a program. PMID:9773062

  9. Spectroscopy Diagnostics for Helicon Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, R. F.; Balkey, M. M.; Blackburn, M. A.; Keiter, P. A.; Kline, J. L.; Scime, E. E.; Spangler, R. S.

    1999-11-01

    Measuring plasma parameters via non-intrusive diagnostics is a matter of necessity in steady-state helicon sources. Contrary to probes, spectroscopy measurements are only weakly affected by RF fields and do not contaminate the plasma. We discuss spectroscopic diagnostics designed to evaluate the different plasma parameters of the HELIX helicon source. The wide range in density that can generated by HELIX (for He, 10^10 to 10^13 cm-3) makes it an ideal source to develop and validate diagnostics that can be used in RF plasmas. For He discharges, a spectroscopy technique based on the relative intensities of He I lines is used to measure Te in the plasma. This diagnostic is based on the fact that the dependence on the electron energy of the excitation rate differs between singlet and triplet lines of the He atom. In addition, using an absolute calibration, the study of specific neutral and ion transitions can predict the population of the different excited levels and the ion density. For Ar plasmas, the possibility of using a line ratio technique to evaluate the electron temperature is investigated. An alternative technique using the ratio of bound-bound radiation versus continuous radiation is also presented. Finally, absolute intensity measurements of specific Ar I and Ar II transitions are used to predict the excited levels populations and the ion density in the plasma, respectively.

  10. Incontinentia pigmenti diagnostic criteria update.

    PubMed

    Minić, S; Trpinac, D; Obradović, M

    2014-06-01

    In 1993 diagnostic criteria for incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a genodermatosis in which skin changes are usually combined with anomalies of other organs, were established. Approximately a decade ago, IKBKG gene mutation was discovered as a cause for IP. This finding has not been included in IP diagnosis so far. In addition, literature data pointed out a few other clinical findings as possible IP diagnostic criteria. Literature facts concerning IP diagnosis were analyzed. Different organ anomalies, their frequency and severity, were analyzed in the context of applicability as IP diagnostic criteria. Taking into account analyzed data from the literature, the proposal of updated IP diagnostic criteria was presented. We propose as major criteria one of the stages of IP skin lesions. As updated IP minor criteria in our proposal we included: dental, ocular; central nervous system (CNS), hair, nail, palate, breast and nipple anomalies; multiple male miscarriages, and IP pathohistological findings. In the diagnosis of IP, the presence of IKBKG mutation typical for IP, and existence of family relatives with diagnosed IP are taken into account. PMID:23802866

  11. Selected microgravity combustion diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    During FY 1989-1992, several diagnostic techniques for studying microgravity combustion have moved from the laboratory to use in reduced-gravity facilities. This paper discusses current instrumentation for rainbow schlieren deflectometry and thermophoretic sampling of soot from gas jet diffusion flames.

  12. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ziats, Mark N.; Rennert, Owen M.

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  13. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome. PMID:27200076

  14. Laser diagnostics of materials and chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Several examples are given of the ability of laser-based diagnostic techniques to make noninvasive measurements in hostile environments. Using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering both majority and minority species concentrations, as well as temperature, have been measured in the hot, high-pressure, particle-laden stream of a coal gasifier. In addition, numerous toxic and corrosive elements in the gasifier stream have been identified, but not yet quantified. In addition to providing the capability for making analytical determinations, laser techniques have been extensively employed to measure the rates of elementary chemical reactions. Recently, the temperature regime over which such meaurements are possible has been expanded. Although much of the laser diagnostic activity to date has involved investigations of the gas phase, significant information concerning heterogeneous phenomena can still be inferred. For instance, gas-solid reactions can manifest themselves as changes in vapor phase composition. Furthermore, in the future we expect expanded studies involving reactions of refractory metals (both atoms and clusters) and additional investigations of processes occurring at interfaces and on surfaces.

  15. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  16. Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

  17. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soubra, Ayman; Risk, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer” and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC. PMID:26604438

  18. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  19. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR. PMID:26403490

  20. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  1. Identifying Inefficient Single-Family Homes With Utility Bill Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, S.; Krarti, M.; Bianchi, M.; Roberts, D.

    2010-08-01

    Differentiating between energy-efficient and inefficient single-family homes on a community scale helps identify and prioritize candidates for energy-efficiency upgrades. Prescreening diagnostic procedures can further retrofit efforts by providing efficiency information before a site-visit is conducted. We applied the prescreening diagnostic to a simulated community of homes in Boulder, Colorado and analyzed energy consumption data to identify energy-inefficient homes.

  2. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions. PMID:27294054

  3. Pigmented purpuric dermatosis or mycosis fungoides: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Riyaz, Najeeba; Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Abdul Latheef, Ettappurath N.; Davul, Hena; Ashraf, Febin

    2016-01-01

    Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD), a group of vascular disorders with variable clinical picture is reported in all races and age groups with a male predilection. There are reports of mycosis fungoides manifesting as pigmented purpura as well as progression of PPD to cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The diagnostic dilemma is compounded by PPD manifesting histological similarity to mycosis fungoides. Currently, it is believed that PPD with monoclonal T-cell population is more likely to progress to malignancy. We report a 31-year-old male patient who presented with the lichenoid clinical variant of PPD lesions that mimicked mycosis fungoides on histopathology. Gene rearrangement studies identified a polyclonal T-cell population. The patient responded to photochemotherapy, which is beneficial in both PPD and mycosis fungoides. Our case signifies the limitations of current diagnostic modalities in accurately distinguishing PPD from cutaneous lymphoma. Data on disease progression in similar cases may enable us to formulate better diagnostic definitions. PMID:27294054

  4. New diagnostic modalities in the diagnosis of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Judith E.; Palta, Sanjeev

    2004-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the one cardiovascular disease that is increasing in prevalence in the United States. As the population continues to age, the incidence will certainly be amplified. However, some studies have shown that HF is correctly diagnosed initially in only 50% of affected patients. Despite the use of history, physical examination, echocardiogram, and chest x-ray, the percentage of correct initial diagnosis of HF is low. Recognizing the symptoms of HF decompensations is often problematic because other diagnoses can mimic them. There are two new diagnostic modalities that offer promise in improving HF diagnostic accuracy and identifying early HF decompensations. These diagnostic modalities include tests utilizing impedance cardiography and the B-type natriuretic peptide assay. They have the potential of increasing the accuracy of HF diagnosis and guide pharmacological treatment in the inpatient and outpatient settings. They may also assist in the recognition (or prediction) of acute HF decompensations. Images Figure 2 PMID:15586645

  5. R&D ERL: Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype project is currently under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ERL is expected to demonstrate energy recovery of high intensity beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps, while preserving the emittance of bunches with a charge of a few nanocoulombs produced by a high current SRF gun. To successfully accomplish this task the machine will include beam diagnostics that will be used for accurate characterization of the three dimensional beam phase space at the injection and recirculation energies, transverse and longitudinal beam matching, orbit alignment, beam current measurement, and machine protection. This report outlines requirements on the ERL diagnostics and describes its setup and modes of operation. The BNL Prototype ERL is an R&D effort aimed at reducing risks and costs associated with the proposed RHIC II electron cooler and eRHIC collider. The ERL will serve as a test bed for developing and testing instrumentation and studying physics and technological issues relevant to very high current ERL's. The prototype ERL, mated to a high current SRF gun, is expected to demonstrate production and energy recovery of high intensity, low emittance beams with a current of up to a few hundred milliamps. To successfully accomplish this task the ERL will include beam diagnostics required to characterize and tune beam parameters, as well as for machine protection. A preliminary diagnostics plan was presented in earlier publications. In this report, we describe the diagnostics presently planned to provide the data needed to meet these goals.

  6. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    PubMed Central

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  7. How can we better identify early HIV infections?

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Nora E.; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Busch, Michael P.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Detection of early HIV infections (EHIs), including acute HIV infection (AHI), is important for individual health, prevention of HIV transmission, and measurement of HIV incidence. We describe markers of EHI, diagnostic strategies for detecting these markers, and ways to incorporate these strategies into diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms. Recent findings For individual diagnosis in the United States and Europe, laboratory-based diagnostic algorithms increasingly incorporate fourth-generation HIV antigen tests, allowing for earlier detection. In some sub-Saharan African settings, symptom-based screening is being explored to identify subsets of persons at high risk for AHI. Point-of-care diagnostics designed for AHI detection are in the pipeline and, if validated, represent an opportunity for real-time AHI diagnosis. At the population level, multiassay algorithms are promising new strategies for estimating HIV incidence on the basis of several assays applied to cross-sectional samples. These algorithms can be developed to optimize performance, in addition to cost and logistical considerations. Summary There are important recent advances in detection of EHIs at the individual and population levels. Applying optimal combinations of tests in diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms is urgently needed to support the multiple goals derived from enhanced detection and discrimination of EHIs. PMID:25389806

  8. A diagnostic algorithm to distinguish desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, Stephanie E; Keil, Philipp; Silvers, David N; Klaus, Beate M; Möller, Peter; Horst, Basil A; Lennerz, Jochen K

    2014-04-01

    Spindle cell melanoma and desmoplastic melanoma differ clinically in prognosis and therapeutic implications; however, because of partially overlapping histopathological features, diagnostic distinction of spindle cell from desmoplastic melanoma is not always straightforward. A direct comparison of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers has not been performed. Meta-review of the literature discloses key clinicopathological differences between spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma, including immunophenotypes. Using 50 biomarkers available in routine diagnostics, we examined 38 archival cases (n=16 spindle, 18 desmoplastic, 4 mixed spindle/desmoplastic melanoma). S100 remains as the most reliable routine marker to reach the diagnosis of melanoma in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. We identified nine distinctly labeling markers with spindle cell melanoma showing positivity for laminin, p75, HMB45, c-kit, and MelanA, and desmoplastic melanoma preferentially labeling with collagen IV, trichrome, CD68, and MDM2. On the basis of comparisons of test performance measures, MelanA and trichrome were used to devise a 94% sensitive diagnostic algorithm for the distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma. Gene amplification and expression status was assessed for a set of potentially drugable targets (HER2, EGFR, MET, MDM2, TP53, ALK, MYC, FLI-1, and KIT). Fluorescent in situ hybridizations did not reveal a significant number of gene aberrations/rearrangements; however, protein overexpression for at least one of these markers was identified in 35 of 38 cases (92%). In addition, we found BRAF mutations in 31% of spindle cell and 5% of desmoplastic melanoma, with an overall mutation frequency of 16% (n=6/38). We present the first comprehensive screening study of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. The devised algorithm allows diagnostic distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma when routine histology is not

  9. Diagnostic Challenges of Cryptococcus neoformans in an Immunocompetent Individual Masquerading as Chronic Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kedar R; Roberts, Amity L; Curtis, Mark T; Fortuna, Danielle; Dharia, Robin; Sheehan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans can cause disseminated meningoencephalitis and evade immunosurveillance with expression of a major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule. Direct diagnostic assays often rely on the presence of the cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan capsular antigen (CrAg) or visualization of the capsule. Strain specific phenotypic traits and environmental conditions influence differences in expression that can thereby compromise detection and timely diagnosis. Immunocompetent hosts may manifest clinical signs and symptoms indolently, often expanding the differential and delaying appropriate treatment and diagnosis. We describe a 63-year-old man who presented with a progressive four-year history of ambulatory dysfunction, headache, and communicating hydrocephalus. Serial lumbar punctures (LPs) revealed elevated protein (153-300 mg/dL), hypoglycorrhachia (19-47 mg/dL), lymphocytic pleocytosis (89-95% lymphocyte, WBC 67-303 mg/dL, and RBC 34-108 mg/dL), and normal opening pressure (13-16 cm H2O). Two different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CrAg assays were negative. A large volume CSF fungal culture grew unencapsulated C. neoformans. He was initiated on induction therapy with amphotericin B plus flucytosine and consolidation/maintenance therapy with flucytosine, but he died following discharge due to complications. Elevated levels of CSF Th1 cytokines and decreased IL6 may have affected the virulence and detection of the pathogen. PMID:27525140

  10. Diagnostic Challenges of Cryptococcus neoformans in an Immunocompetent Individual Masquerading as Chronic Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Danielle; Dharia, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans can cause disseminated meningoencephalitis and evade immunosurveillance with expression of a major virulence factor, the polysaccharide capsule. Direct diagnostic assays often rely on the presence of the cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan capsular antigen (CrAg) or visualization of the capsule. Strain specific phenotypic traits and environmental conditions influence differences in expression that can thereby compromise detection and timely diagnosis. Immunocompetent hosts may manifest clinical signs and symptoms indolently, often expanding the differential and delaying appropriate treatment and diagnosis. We describe a 63-year-old man who presented with a progressive four-year history of ambulatory dysfunction, headache, and communicating hydrocephalus. Serial lumbar punctures (LPs) revealed elevated protein (153–300 mg/dL), hypoglycorrhachia (19–47 mg/dL), lymphocytic pleocytosis (89–95% lymphocyte, WBC 67–303 mg/dL, and RBC 34–108 mg/dL), and normal opening pressure (13–16 cm H2O). Two different cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CrAg assays were negative. A large volume CSF fungal culture grew unencapsulated C. neoformans. He was initiated on induction therapy with amphotericin B plus flucytosine and consolidation/maintenance therapy with flucytosine, but he died following discharge due to complications. Elevated levels of CSF Th1 cytokines and decreased IL6 may have affected the virulence and detection of the pathogen. PMID:27525140

  11. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Ponsaing, Laura Graves; Kiss, Katalin; Loft, Annika; Jensen, Lise Ingemann; Hansen, Mark Berner

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally. Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined. Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools. PMID:17659668

  12. Diagnostic marker signature for esophageal cancer from transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Warnecke-Eberz, Ute; Metzger, Ralf; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Drebber, Uta; Bollschweiler, Elfriede

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnostic markers are needed for achieving a cure in esophageal cancer detecting and treating tumor cells earlier. In patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), we profiled the gene expression of ESCC compared to corresponding normal biopsies for diagnostic markers by genome microarrays. Profiling of gene expression identified 4844 genes differentially expressed, 2122 upregulated and 2722 downregulated in ESCC. Twenty-three overexpressed candidates with best scores from significance analysis have been selected for further analysis by TaqMan low-density array-technique using a validation cohort of 40 patients. The verification rate was 100 % for ESCC. Twenty-two markers were additionally overexpressed in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC). The markers significantly overexpressed already in earlier tumor stages (pT1-2) of both histological subtypes (n = 19) have been clustered in a "diagnostic signature": PLA2G7, PRAME, MMP1, MMP3, MMP12, LIlRB2, TREM2, CHST2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, KCNJ8, EMILIN2, CTHRC1, EMR2, WDR72, LPCAT1, COL4A2, CCL4, and SNX10. The marker signature will be translated to clinical practice to prove its diagnostic impact. This diagnostic signature may contribute to the earlier detection of tumor cells, with the aim to complement clinical techniques resulting in the development of better detection of concepts of esophageal cancer for earlier therapy and more favorite prognosis. PMID:26631031

  13. Kabuki syndrome: diagnostic and treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare genetic disorder first diagnosed in 1981. Unknown by most primary care physicians and clinicians in the mental health fields, children with KS present with unique facial characteristics, mental retardation, health problems and socio-emotional delays that are often mistaken for other diagnostic problems. Literature detailing the psychological and psychosocial features of this disorder is scant, and psychotherapeutic approaches have not been described. In this article, we present a case description and treatment of a child with KS and her family. A brief review of KS is then provided, highlighting its signs and symptoms. Factors related to differential diagnoses are identified to aid primary care and mental health clinicians in better understanding this unique syndrome. Interventions with similar populations are discussed from which a psychological approach to KS is suggested. Finally, implications for primary care physicians are described and suggestions for further research indicated. PMID:23997823

  14. Tinea cutis glabrae: causes of diagnostic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Łuczkowska, Magdalena; Żaba, Ryszard; Adamski, Zygmunt

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytoses belong to the most common disease entities encountered in everyday dermatological practice. Despite the fact that their clinical presentation, course and treatment response remain rather typical, they often present a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of a 54-year-old male who presented to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Dermatology in December 2012 with the diagnosis of erythema gyratum repens for further diagnosis and treatment of skin lesions gradually intensifying in the previous 2 years. The skin changes presented as spreading annular erythematous lesions, with papules and plaques located peripherally, and accompanying pruritus. Due to the clinical presentation and anamnesis, working conditions (poultry farm), and lack of response to previous treatment, mycological culture was performed. Epithelial scrapings of the trunk and the groins proved to be positive. After 3 weeks, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var mentagrophytes was identified by epithelial cell culture. PMID:25610361

  15. Development of visual diagnostic expertise in pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, R. S.; Naus, G. J.; Friedman, C. P.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we use methods from information-processing to explore the visual diagnostic processes of novice, intermediate, and expert pathologists. Subjects were asked to examine and interpret a set of slides while we collected think-aloud verbal protocols and captured on digital video the actual visual data they examined from the microscope. We performed an in-depth combined video and protocol-based analysis of processes and errors occurring as the task was performed. Additionally, we collected measures of accuracy, certainty, and difficulty for all cases. Our preliminary analysis identified significant differences between groups in all three major aspects of this task: searching skills, perceptual skills and cognitive/reasoning skills. We describe the implications of our preliminary cognitive task analysis on the design of a developing intelligent educational system in Pathology. PMID:11825167

  16. Diagnostic stages of the parasites of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Bando, Monica; Larkin, Iskande V; Wright, Scott D; Greiner, Ellis C

    2014-02-01

    Limited information is available on diagnostic stages of parasites in Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). We examined 67 fecal samples from captive and wild manatees to define the diagnostic stages of the parasite fauna known to occur in Florida manatees. Parasite eggs were freshly extracted ex utero from identified mature helminths and subsequently characterized, illustrated, and matched to those isolated from fecal samples. In addition, coccidian oocysts in the fecal samples were identified. These diagnostic stages included eggs from 5 species of trematodes (Chiorchis fabaceus, Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Moniligerum blairi, and Nudacotyle undicola), 1 nematode (Heterocheilus tunicatus), and oocysts of 2 coccidians (Eimeria manatus and Eimeria nodulosa). PMID:24116863

  17. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions. 410.32 Section 410.32 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other...

  18. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. Scott; Hill, William; Francovich, Chris; Morris, Magdalena; Robbins, Bruce; Robins, Lynne; Turner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each) as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1) The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence); (2) logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3) a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches) in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) PTSD module among female Vietnam-era veterans.

    PubMed

    Kimerling, Rachel; Serpi, Tracey; Weathers, Frank; Kilbourne, Amy M; Kang, Han; Collins, Joseph F; Cypel, Yasmin; Frayne, Susan M; Furey, Joan; Huang, Grant D; Reinhard, Matthew J; Spiro, Avron; Magruder, Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module is widely used in epidemiological studies of PTSD, yet relatively few data attest to the instrument's diagnostic utility. The current study evaluated the diagnostic utility of the CIDI 3.0 PTSD module with U. S. women Vietnam-era veterans. The CIDI and the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) were independently administered to a stratified sample of 160 women, oversampled for current PTSD. Both lifetime PTSD and recent (past year) PTSD were assessed within a 3-week interval. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of lifetime PTSD, and 21.9% of the sample met criteria for a CAPS diagnosis of past-year PTSD. Using CAPS as the diagnostic criterion, the CIDI correctly classified 78.8% of cases for lifetime PTSD (κ = .56) and 82.0% of past year PTSD cases (κ = .51). Estimates of diagnostic performance for the CIDI were sensitivity of .61 and specificity of .91 for lifetime PTSD and sensitivity of .71 and specificity of .85 for past-year PTSD. Results suggest that the CIDI has good utility for identifying PTSD, though it is a somewhat conservative indicator of lifetime PTSD as compared to the CAPS. PMID:24740869

  20. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...

  1. Progeria Research Foundation Diagnostic Testing Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... PRF By The Numbers Medical Database Cell & Tissue Bank Diagnostic Testing Research Funding Opportunities Scientific Meetings Scientific ... New in Progeria Research Medical Database Cell & Tissue Bank Diagnostic Testing Research Funding Opportunities Scientific Meetings Scientific ...

  2. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and “subjective” hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S

  3. Diagnostic efficiency of the SDQ for parents to identify ADHD in the UK: a ROC analysis.

    PubMed

    Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Dodd, Alyson Lamont; Stringaris, Argyris; Youngstrom, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    Early, accurate identification of ADHD would improve outcomes while avoiding unnecessary medication exposure for non-ADHD youths, but is challenging, especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to test the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) using a nationally representative sample to develop scoring weights for clinical use. The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey (N = 18,232 youths 5-15 years old) included semi-structured interview DSM-IV diagnoses and parent-rated SDQ scores. Areas under the curve for SDQ subscales were good (0.81) to excellent (0.96) across sex and age groups. Hyperactivity/inattention scale scores of 10+ increased odds of ADHD by 21.3×. For discriminating ADHD from other diagnoses, accuracy was fair (<0.70) to good (0.88); Hyperactivity/inattention scale scores of 10+ increased odds of ADHD by 4.47×. The SDQ is free, easy to score, and provides clinically meaningful changes in odds of ADHD that can guide clinical decision-making in an evidence-based medicine framework. PMID:26762184

  4. Enhancing Force Concept Inventory diagnostics to identify dominant misconceptions in first-year engineering physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Blas, Teresa; Seidel, Luis; Serrano-Fernández, Ana

    2010-12-01

    This work presents the results of a study whose aim is to detect systematic errors about the concept of force among freshmen students. The researchers analysed the results of the Force Concept Inventory test, which was administered to two different groups of students. The results show that, although there were significant performance variations between the two groups, they, nonetheless, shared common incorrect answers that were consistently triggered by the same misconceptions. The analysis proposed in this paper could also be applied in other universities to reveal the students' a priori mindset in Newtonian mechanics and serve as a guideline for developing effective computer simulations or other tools.

  5. Enhancing Force Concept Inventory Diagnostics to Identify Dominant Misconceptions in First-Year Engineering Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Blas, Teresa; Seidel, Luis; Serrano-Fernandez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the results of a study whose aim is to detect systematic errors about the concept of force among freshmen students. The researchers analysed the results of the Force Concept Inventory test, which was administered to two different groups of students. The results show that, although there were significant performance variations…

  6. Molecular diagnostic tests for microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kaya; Weiss, Louis M

    2009-01-01

    The Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites which were recognized over 100 years ago with the description of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of silkworms. It is now appreciated that these organisms are related to the Fungi. Microsporidia infect all major animal groups most often as gastrointestinal pathogens; however they have been reported from every tissue and organ, and their spores are common in environmental sources such as ditch water. Several different genera of these organisms infect humans, but the majority of infections are due to either Enterocytozoon bieneusi or Encephalitozoon species. These pathogens can be difficult to diagnose, but significant progress has been made in the last decade in the development of molecular diagnostic reagents for these organisms. This report reviews the molecular diagnostic tests that have been described for the identification of the microsporidia that infect humans. PMID:19657457

  7. [Diagnostic workup of fragrance allergy].

    PubMed

    Geier, J; Uter, W

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic workup of contact allergy to fragrances must not be limited to patch testing with the two well-established fragrance mixes. False-positive reactions to these mixes occur in up to 50 % of the patch tested patients. For the diagnostic work-up of positive reactions, and in cases of suspected fragrance allergy, patch testing with the single mix components and additional fragrances is mandatory. Frequently sensitizing fragrance materials are the 14 components of the two fragrance mixes and tree moss (Evernia furfuracea), ylang ylang oil (I + II; Cananga odorata), lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon schoenanthus), sandalwood oil (Santalum album), jasmine absolute (Jasminum spp.), and, less frequently, clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllus), cedarwood oil (Cedrus atlantica/deodara, Juniperus virginiana), Neroli oil (Citrus aurantium amara flower oil), salicylaldehyde, narcissus absolute (Narcissus spp.), and patchouli oil (Pogostemon cablin). PMID:26253114

  8. Molecular Diagnostic Tests for Microsporidia

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Kaya; Weiss, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    The Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites which were recognized over 100 years ago with the description of Nosema bombycis, a parasite of silkworms. It is now appreciated that these organisms are related to the Fungi. Microsporidia infect all major animal groups most often as gastrointestinal pathogens; however they have been reported from every tissue and organ, and their spores are common in environmental sources such as ditch water. Several different genera of these organisms infect humans, but the majority of infections are due to either Enterocytozoon bieneusi or Encephalitozoon species. These pathogens can be difficult to diagnose, but significant progress has been made in the last decade in the development of molecular diagnostic reagents for these organisms. This report reviews the molecular diagnostic tests that have been described for the identification of the microsporidia that infect humans. PMID:19657457

  9. Hebephilia: quintessence of diagnostic pretextuality.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Hebephilia is an archaic term used to describe adult sexual attraction to adolescents. Prior to the advent of contemporary sexually violent predator laws, the term was not found in any dictionary or formal diagnostic system. Overnight, it is on the fast track toward recognition as a psychiatric condition meriting inclusion in the upcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This article traces the sudden emergence and popularity of hebephilia to pressure from the legal arena and, specifically, to the legal mandate of a serious mental abnormality for civil commitment of sex offenders. Hebephilia is proposed as a quintessential example of pretextuality, in which special interests promote a pseudoscientific construct that furthers an implicit, instrumental goal. Inherent problems with the construct's reliability and validity are discussed. A warning is issued about unintended consequences if hebephilia or its relative, pedohebephilia, make their way into the DSM-5, due out in 2013. PMID:21110392

  10. Novette diagnostic support. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cirigliano, R.; Franco, E.; Koppel, L.; Rodrigues, B.; Smith, J.

    1985-02-01

    The primary research areas were the following: (1) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette DANTE x-ray spectrometer experiments. This effort was expanded to improve the overall quality of the Novette database; (2) experimental and calculational characterization of the x-ray imaging properties of an ellipsoidal x-ray collection optic serving as a sensitivity enhancing component of the Transmission Grating Streak Spectrometer; (3) performance simulation of the x-ray dispersion properties of candidate x-ray laser cavity, normal incidence end-mirror optics; (4) contribute x-ray diagnostic, experimental, and data reduction and analysis support for the Novette Henway crystal spectrometer and the MCPIGS microchannel plate intensified grazing incident spectrometer experiments; and (5) perform a technical performance vs cost evaluation of commercially available hardware required to perform the NOVA neutron time-of-flight experiments.

  11. [Diagnostic role of galectin-3].

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Monika; Chrostek, Lech

    2014-12-01

    The meaning of galectin-3 role in the diagnostics of different diseases was disscused in the paper. Galectin-3 is endogenous, soluble beta- galactoside-binding lectin, which occur in the cell nucleus, the cytoplasm and on the surface of certain cells. Galectin-3 controls cell cycle, modulates adhesion, affects the mRNA splicing, extracellular matrix interactions and cellular differentiation. Galectin-3, also affects to procollagen I which irreversibly crosslinks to form collagen and results in parenchymal organs fibrosis. Taking into account numerous research and knowledge of action mechanism of galectin-3 there were presented changes in its activity in the pathological processes of the human body, including: heart failure, liver fibrosis and tumors. The results of published clinical studies have shown its high diagnostic sensitivity, which probably enables to application in laboratory diagnosis. PMID:25715576

  12. Huntington Disease: Molecular Diagnostics Approach.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, Murat; Xin, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed. PMID:26439718

  13. Endoscopic diagnostic of chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Cubranić, Aleksandar; Dintinjana, Renata Dobrila; Vanis, Nenad

    2014-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a continuous inflammatory pancreatic disease, one characterized by irreversible morphological changes, often associates with pain and sometimes with the loss of endocrine and exocrine function. As a histological confirmation of chronic pancreatitis is often unavailable, the diagnosis is traditionally based on imaging methods such as computerized tomography (CT) or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and recently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) as a noninvasive alternative to ERCP. Developments in the classification system of CP include the Marseille classification of 1963 which offered histopathologic criteria for CP, the Cambridge classification of 1984 which introduced imaging features of computed tomography (CT), transabdominal ultrasound (TUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for classification of CP as well as Rosemont classification system of 2007 which presented the endoscopic ultrasonography diagnosis of CP. Endoscopic ultra-sonography (EUS) was first introduced as a diagnostic method for evaluation of pancreatic disease in 1986. It has experienced significant improvements since then and allowed for an alternative approach in diagnosing patients with pancreatic diseases. In patients with suspected pancreatic masses EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the best method for obtaining tissue diagnosis and differentiating CP from pancreatic carcinoma. The recent studies indicate that EUS is the method of choice when compared with other imaging methods such as ERCP because it frequently provides more accurate diagnostics. The aim of this review is to discuss the findings in endoscopic diagnostics up to the present moment and to indicate advantages, limitations and possible complications along with the current recommendations in CP diagnostics. PMID:25842773

  14. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis. PMID:23931835

  15. Spectroscopic diagnostics for solar ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; Mohan, Anita

    1995-01-01

    We present new calculations for several solar ions in the temperature range 10(exp 5) is less than T is less than 10(exp 6) K and discuss their diagnostic applications with the help of available observational data. In particular, we rediscuss the plasma density and temperature in the source region of the solar wind. We also study the variation of relative elemental abundances in the solar atmosphere and compare them with previous studies.

  16. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references.

  17. Malaria diagnostics in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean C; Shott, Joseph P; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R; Stewart, V Ann

    2013-11-01

    Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484

  18. High Energy Laser Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Goddard, Douglas N.; Lewis, Jay; Thomas, David

    2010-10-01

    Recent advancements in high energy laser (HEL) sources have outpaced diagnostic tools capable of accurately quantifying system performance. Diagnostic tools are needed that allow system developers to measure the parameters that define HEL effectiveness. The two critical parameters for quantifying HEL effectiveness are the irradiance on target and resultant rise in target temperature. Off-board sensing has its limitations, including unpredictable changes in the reflectivity of the target, smoke and outgassing, and atmospheric distortion. On-board sensors overcome the limitations of off-board techniques but must survive high irradiance levels and extreme temperatures. We have developed sensors for on-target diagnostics of high energy laser beams and for the measurement of the thermal response of the target. The conformal sensors consist of an array of quantum dot photodetectors and resistive temperature detectors. The sensor arrays are lithographically fabricated on flexible substrates and can be attached to a variety of laser targets. We have developed a nanoparticle adhesive process that provides good thermal contact with the target and that ensures the sensor remains attached to the target for as long as the target survives. We have calibrated the temperature and irradiance sensors and demonstrated them in a HEL environment.

  19. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Fluorescence diagnostics in oncological gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Ludmila A.; Adamyan, Leila V.; Kozachenko, Vladimir P.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Stranadko, Eugene F.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2003-10-01

    The method of fluorescent diagnostics (FD) of tumors is a promising tool that may allow to increase sensitivity of tumor detection especially at initial stages. One of the most promising photosensitizers today is 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) that, actually, is not photosensitizer itself but precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). This paper deals with cancer diagnostics in gynecology by means of ALA-induced Pp IX laser-fluorescence spectroscopy. The tissue fluorescence spectra in vivo were studied in patients with various pathologies of ovaries, uterine and vulva after 5-aminolevulinic acid administration. It was shown that different pathologies varies in accumulation of Pp IX. Coefficient of fluorescence kf for normal tissue is not high, but exceptions are endometrium and mucous membrane of uterine tubes. Benign tumors of uterus and ovary have low values of kf, but polyps of endometrium exhibit high kf. Optical express-biopsy is important for diagnosis of ovarian cancer and micrometastatic spread. Coefficients of diagnostic contrast were determined for cancer of endometrium, cervical cancer, vulvar cancer.

  1. Temporomandibular joint diagnostics using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamsson, A-K; Kristensen, M; Arvidsson, L Z

    2015-01-01

    The present review will give an update on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) imaging using CBCT. It will focus on diagnostic accuracy and the value of CBCT compared with other imaging modalities for the evaluation of TMJs in different categories of patients; osteoarthritis (OA), juvenile OA, rheumatoid arthritis and related joint diseases, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other intra-articular conditions. Finally, sections on other aspects of CBCT research related to the TMJ, clinical decision-making and concluding remarks are added. CBCT has emerged as a cost- and dose-effective imaging modality for the diagnostic assessment of a variety of TMJ conditions. The imaging modality has been found to be superior to conventional radiographical examinations as well as MRI in assessment of the TMJ. However, it should be emphasized that the diagnostic information obtained is limited to the morphology of the osseous joint components, cortical bone integrity and subcortical bone destruction/production. For evaluation of soft-tissue abnormalities, MRI is mandatory. There is an obvious need for research on the impact of CBCT examinations on patient outcome. PMID:25369205

  2. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications. PMID:26614075

  3. Diagnostics for Fast Ignition Science

    SciTech Connect

    MacPhee, A; Akli, K; Beg, F; Chen, C; Chen, H; Clarke, R; Hey, D; Freeman, R; Kemp, A; Key, M; King, J; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Nakamura, N; Offermann, D; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P; Phillips, T; Stephens, R; Town, R; Wei, M; VanWoerkom, L; Mackinnon, A

    2008-05-06

    The concept for Electron Fast Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion demands sufficient laser energy be transferred from the ignitor pulse to the assembled fuel core via {approx}MeV electrons. We have assembled a suite of diagnostics to characterize such transfer. Recent experiments have simultaneously fielded absolutely calibrated extreme ultraviolet multilayer imagers at 68 and 256eV; spherically bent crystal imagers at 4 and 8keV; multi-keV crystal spectrometers; MeV x-ray bremmstrahlung and electron and proton spectrometers (along the same line of sight); nuclear activation samples and a picosecond optical probe based interferometer. These diagnostics allow careful measurement of energy transport and deposition during and following laser-plasma interactions at extremely high intensities in both planar and conical targets. Augmented with accurate on-shot laser focal spot and pre-pulse characterization, these measurements are yielding new insight into energy coupling and are providing critical data for validating numerical PIC and hybrid PIC simulation codes in an area that is crucial for many applications, particularly fast ignition. Novel aspects of these diagnostics and how they are combined to extract quantitative data on ultra high intensity laser plasma interactions are discussed, together with implications for full-scale fast ignition experiments.

  4. Malaria Diagnostics in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean C.; Shott, Joseph P.; Parikh, Sunil; Etter, Paige; Prescott, William R.; Stewart, V. Ann

    2013-01-01

    Malaria diagnostics are widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate natural history of disease and in drug and vaccine clinical trials to exclude participants or evaluate efficacy. The Malaria Laboratory Network (MLN), managed by the Office of HIV/AIDS Network Coordination, is an international working group with mutual interests in malaria disease and diagnosis and in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome clinical trials. The MLN considered and studied the wide array of available malaria diagnostic tests for their suitability for screening trial participants and/or obtaining study endpoints for malaria clinical trials, including studies of HIV/malaria co-infection and other malaria natural history studies. The MLN provides recommendations on microscopy, rapid diagnostic tests, serologic tests, and molecular assays to guide selection of the most appropriate test(s) for specific research objectives. In addition, this report provides recommendations regarding quality management to ensure reproducibility across sites in clinical trials. Performance evaluation, quality control, and external quality assessment are critical processes that must be implemented in all clinical trials using malaria tests. PMID:24062484

  5. Designing diagnostic workstations for neuroradiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Daniel J.; Bhushan, Vikas; Johnson, Sandra L.; Bentsen, John R.

    1995-05-01

    Despite over a decade of development, diagnostic radiology workstations have not gained popular acceptance by radiologists. Among the requirements for a clinically acceptable workstation are good image quality, a well designed user-interface, and access to ancillary diagnostic information. The user-interface should reflect radiologists' film reading habits and encourage new reading methods that take advantage of the electronic environment. We documented neuroradiologists' reading habits and used software engineering tools to design interfaces that could provide rapid access to common diagnostic tasks in neuroradiology. We used an embedded configuration tool to prototype layouts for specific clinical cases on a commercial workstation, and database integration and user-interface design tools to develop interfaces for browsing medical records. We then designed an image presentation model using the concept of a `virtual view box' for the rapid browsing and pairwise comparison of images. We used the interface design tools to prototype the `virtual view box' on commercially available hardware and tested it with experienced neuroradiologists.

  6. Excellence in sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostics: recognition of past successes and strategies for the future

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, A; Kuypers, J; Lukehart, S A; Peeling, R W; Pope, V

    2006-01-01

    Diagnostic advances do not generally receive the recognition given to prevention and treatment contributions, for the control and management of infectious diseases including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In order to identify seminal diagnostic contributions over a half century (1950–2000), the Editorial Board of the WHO Sexually Transmitted Diseases Diagnostics Initiative (SDI) Publication Review or “electronic journal club” were asked to nominate their choices of peer‐reviewed publications for special recognition. From 43 nominations, 13 were voted by a panel of 25 “experts” as having made the most significant contributions. The 1964 article by Thayer and Martin, which identified a selective media for gonococcal culture, was chosen unanimously by all panel members and is identified as the classic STI diagnostic article for this era. PMID:17135329

  7. Copper laser diagnostics and kinetics support

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    In the effort MSNW participated with the LINL copper-Vapor Laser Program by providing a useful plasma diagnostic for interpretation of Copper-vapor laser kinetics. MSNW developed and delivered a pulsed interferometric diagnostic package to LLNL. Moreover MSNW provided personal services at the request and direction of LLL in the implementation of the diagnostic and interpretation of the data.

  8. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  9. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  10. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  11. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  12. 21 CFR 868.1840 - Diagnostic spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic spirometer. 868.1840 Section 868.1840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1840 Diagnostic spirometer....

  13. Diagnostics of Pupils' Attitude to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminli, Tovuz

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation of the questions connected with the pedagogical diagnostics, in particular, the diagnostics of pupils' attitude to education. It is considered reasonable to apply the practice of development of an individual pedagogical and psychological map for productive implementation of the pedagogical diagnostics and…

  14. What Do Diagnostic Reading Tests Really Diagnose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkley, Carol K.

    A study was made of nine reading tests, including both group and individually-administered measures, which are claimed to be chiefly diagnostic. Instruments analyzed were the following: Silent Reading Diagnostic Tests (Bond, Balow, and Hoyt), Botel Reading Inventory, Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty, Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests,…

  15. DDS: The Dental Diagnostic Simulation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    The Dental Diagnostic Simulation (DDS) System provides an alternative to simulation systems which represent diagnostic case studies of relatively limited scope. It may be used to generate simulated case studies in all of the dental specialty areas with case materials progressing through the gamut of the diagnostic process. The generation of a…

  16. Cytologic findings and diagnostic yield in 92 dogs undergoing fine-needle aspiration of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Amy P; Sharkey, Leslie C; Armstrong, P Jane; McAteer, Kaitlyn D

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic disease in small animal veterinary patients is complicated by nonspecific clinical signs and the limitations of diagnostic testing. Pancreatic cytology is a potential diagnostic tool, but safety and diagnostic yield are not well characterized in large patient cohorts. We hypothesized that pancreatic fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in dogs would frequently generate diagnostic-quality samples and subsequent adverse medical events would be uncommon. Ninety-two client-owned dogs undergoing pancreatic FNA for clinical diagnostic evaluation were identified retrospectively by a computer search for pancreatic cytology submissions. Archived slides were reviewed by a single board-certified clinical pathologist using a predetermined descriptive scheme. Medical records were reviewed for adverse events 48 hr following FNA, for concurrent procedures and diagnosis in patients with adverse events and for histology results. Diagnostic yield was calculated as the % cases in which a cytologic diagnosis could be achieved; correlation with histology or other confirmatory testing was determined when possible. Diagnostic yield was 73.5%, and the major pathologic process identified cytologically correlated with confirmatory testing in 10 out of 11 cases. There were 7 adverse events, all in dogs with significant comorbidities or undergoing other invasive procedures. Pancreatic FNA in dogs has a good diagnostic yield and a low rate of clinical complications in a large case series of dogs. Correlation of cytology and histology results was high in a limited number of cases. PMID:25776547

  17. Multiplex PCR Method for Identifying Recombinant Vaccine-Related Polioviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, David R.; Ching, Karen; Iber, Jane; Campagnoli, Ray; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mishrik, Nada; Liu, Hong-Mei; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen M.

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of recombinant circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (recombinant cVDPV) has highlighted the need for enhanced global poliovirus surveillance to assure timely detection of any future cVDPV outbreaks. Six pairs of Sabin strain-specific recombinant primers were designed to permit rapid screening for VDPV recombinants by PCR. PMID:15365031

  18. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  19. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Aswathy N.; Epperson, William B.; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  20. Diagnostic Imaging of Canine Hepatobiliary Affections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Adarsh; Varshney, A. C.; Tyagi, S. P.; Kanwar, M. S.; Sharma, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic disease is often treatable and has a predictable prognosis when a definitive diagnosis is made. The aim of clinicopathological evaluation of hepatobiliary affections is to identify and characterize hepatic damage and dysfunction, identify possible primary causes of secondary liver disease, differentiate causes of icterus, evaluate potential anaesthetic risks, assess prognosis and response to xenobiotics, and monitor response to therapy. This paper describes the different diagnostic methods and imaging techniques employed in diagnosis of hepatobiliary affections in dogs. Besides reviewing the significant clinical manifestations and imaging structural abnormalities in diagnostic approach to different hepatic affections, it also depicts radiographic, ultrasonographic, and wherever applicable, the laparoscopic characterization of different hepatic affections and target lesions encountered in clinical cases presented in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, COVAS, Palampur in the year 2007-2008. PMID:22577609

  1. Application of Functional Genomics for Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Rai, Aswathy N; Epperson, William B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common economically important disease affecting cattle. For developing accurate diagnostics that can predict disease susceptibility/resistance and stratification, it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that underlie BRD. To study the complex interactions among the bovine host and the multitude of viral and bacterial pathogens, as well as the environmental factors associated with BRD etiology, genome-scale high-throughput functional genomics methods such as microarrays, RNA-seq, and proteomics are helpful. In this review, we summarize the progress made in our understanding of BRD using functional genomics approaches. We also discuss some of the available bioinformatics resources for analyzing high-throughput data, in the context of biological pathways and molecular interactions. Although resources for studying host response to infection are avail-able, the corresponding information is lacking for majority of BRD pathogens, impeding progress in identifying diagnostic signatures for BRD using functional genomics approaches. PMID:26526746

  2. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  3. Groin pain in athletes: a novel diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Vijay D.; Shetty, Nikhil S.; Shetty, Amith P.

    2015-01-01

    Groin pain in a performing athlete can be very challenging to diagnose and treat. The differential diagnosis includes intra-articular causes, extra-articular causes and non-musculoskeletal causes. A detailed clinical and radiological assessment of groin pain in this group is critical and can identify the underlying pathology. Diagnostic hip block is a valuable tool to differentiate intra-articular causes from extra-articular causes. Hip arthroscopy can help in identifying some of the elusive intra-articular conditions, which were once undiagnosed and therefore, left untreated, resulting in premature ending of competitive careers. This article attempts to explore current thinking on evaluation of groin pain, particularly in young individuals, and to establish a simple protocol for a clinical and diagnostic approach to this difficult problem. PMID:27163072

  4. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:20093196

  5. Overview of Core Diagnostics for TEXTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A.J.H.; Bock, M.F.M. de; Classen, I.G.J.

    2005-02-15

    The diagnostic system of TEXTOR comprises about 50 individual diagnostic devices. Since the start of the Trilateral Euregio Cluster collaboration, part of the emphasis in the experimental program has shifted toward the study of physics processes in the plasma core. To aid these studies several new and advanced core diagnostics have been implemented, whereas a number of other core diagnostics have been upgraded to higher resolution, more channels, and better accuracy. In this paper a brief overview is given of the present set of plasma core diagnostics at TEXTOR.

  6. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  7. The diagnostic dilemma of barodontalgia. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Senia, E S; Cunningham, K W; Marx, R E

    1985-08-01

    Although rare, barodontalgia can be a problem for those who fly. Two cases are presented, one which occurred during simulated high-altitude flight in the altitude chamber and the other during actual flight. The case that occurred during actual flight was resolved by treatment of the most suspect tooth after diagnostic tests failed to identify the problem. The other case was eventually treated successfully when symptoms became localized. The difficulties encountered in making a diagnosis are described. PMID:2863800

  8. Molecular diagnostic assays for infectious diseases in cats.

    PubMed

    Veir, Julia K; Lappin, Michael R

    2010-11-01

    With the advent of more accessible polymerase chain reaction panels, the use of molecular techniques for the detection of infectious organisms has become more routine in veterinary medicine. The use of molecular diagnostics is best reserved for the detection of organisms that are difficult to detect or identify expediently. In this article, the fundamentals of molecular techniques are reviewed along with an examination of specific feline infectious diseases in which diagnosis via molecular techniques is advantageous. PMID:20933144

  9. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  10. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  11. Exploring Situational Awareness in Diagnostic Errors in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Giardina, Traber Davis; Petersen, Laura A.; Smith, Michael; Wilson, Lindsey; Dismukes, Key; Bhagwath, Gayathri; Thomas, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diagnostic errors in primary care are harmful but poorly studied. To facilitate understanding of diagnostic errors in real-world primary care settings using electronic health records (EHRs), this study explored the use of the Situational Awareness (SA) framework from aviation human factors research. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted involving reviews of EHR data followed by semi-structured interviews of selected providers from two institutions in the US. The study population included 380 consecutive patients with colorectal and lung cancers diagnosed between February 2008 and January 2009. Using a pre-tested data collection instrument, trained physicians identified diagnostic errors, defined as lack of timely action on one or more established indications for diagnostic work-up for lung and colorectal cancers. Twenty-six providers involved in cases with and without errors were interviewed. Interviews probed for providers' lack of SA and how this may have influenced the diagnostic process. Results Of 254 cases meeting inclusion criteria, errors were found in 30 (32.6%) of 92 lung cancer cases and 56 (33.5%) of 167 colorectal cancer cases. Analysis of interviews related to error cases revealed evidence of lack of one of four levels of SA applicable to primary care practice: information perception, information comprehension, forecasting future events, and choosing appropriate action based on the first three levels. In cases without error, the application of the SA framework provided insight into processes involved in attention management. Conclusions A framework of SA can help analyze and understand diagnostic errors in primary care settings that use EHRs. PMID:21890757

  12. Overview of the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Since its birth in the late 1980s, the field of microfluidics has continued to mature, with a growing number of companies pursuing diagnostic applications. In 2009 the worldwide in vitro diagnostics market was estimated at >$40 billion USD, and microfluidic diagnostics are poised to reap a significant part of this market across a range of areas including laboratory diagnostics, point-of-care diagnostics, cancer diagnostics, and others. The potential economic advantages of microfluidics are numerous and compelling: lower reagent and/or sample volumes, lower equipment costs, improved portability, increased automation, and increased measurement speed. All of these factors may help put more information in the hands of doctors and patients sooner, enabling earlier disease detection and more tailored, effective treatments. This chapter reviews the microfluidic diagnostics commercial landscape and discusses potential commercialization challenges and opportunities. PMID:23329436

  13. Transbronchial needle aspiration. An underused diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Mehta, A C

    1999-03-01

    Despite its proven usefulness, TBNA is not widely used. An American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) survey showed that only 11.8% of pulmonologists use TBNA. Most pulmonologists in the 1980s were not formally trained in TBNA. This lack of training has unfortunately translated to minimal emphasis on TBNA in current training programs in a large number of institutions. Technical problems with the procedure (faulty site selection, incomplete needle penetration, catheter kinking that prevents adequate suction, etc.), the confusing array of needles, low diagnostic yields, unproven concerns regarding the safety of the procedure, inadequate cytopathology support, and bronchoscopic damage have all perpetuated the image of limited usefulness for this procedure. Limitations to the practice of TBNA are: Lack of training during fellowship Technical inadequacies Lack of cytopathologists trained in TBNA interpretation Fear of bronchoscope damage Safety issues Failure to reproduce published successes Reservations regarding usefulness of TBNA results Hands-on experience with TBNA, developing familiarity and expertise with only a few needles, and paying careful attention to anatomy, procedure techniques, and specimen acquisition may all help to increase yield. The following lists how better results can be obtained with TBNA: Preprocedure Review TBNA instruction tapes Attend hands-on courses Practice with lung models Review patient's CAT scans Familiarize with one-two cytology and histology needle Obtain a trained assistant Procedural Identify target site Needle to airway angle at least greater than 45 degrees Insert entire length of the needle Use scope channel to support the catheter Release suction before withdrawing needle (for staging) Specimen acquisition Avoid delay in preparing slides Adequate sampling (at least two) Use smear method for cytology specimen Analyze all samples flush solutions cell block Postprocedure Find an experienced cytopathologist Review your procedure

  14. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included "binge eating disorder," DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and "shape and weight concerns." Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors' knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  15. Characteristics of binge eating disorder in relation to diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Wilfley, Denise E; Citrome, Leslie; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to examine the evidentiary basis for binge eating disorder (BED) with reference to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for BED. A PubMed search restricted to titles and abstracts of English-language reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, journal articles, and letters using human participants was conducted on August 7, 2015, using keywords that included “binge eating disorder,” DSM-5, DSM-IV, guilt, shame, embarrassment, quantity, psychological, behavior, and “shape and weight concerns.” Of the 257 retrieved publications, 60 publications were considered relevant to discussions related to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and were included in the current review, and 20 additional references were also included on the basis of the authors’ knowledge and/or on a review of the reference lists from relevant articles obtained through the literature search. Evidence supports the duration/frequency criterion for BED and the primary importance of loss of control and marked distress in identifying individuals with BED. Although overvaluation of shape/weight is not a diagnostic criterion, its relationship to the severity of BED psychopathology may identify a unique subset of individuals with BED. Additionally, individuals with BED often exhibit a clinical profile consisting of psychiatric (eg, mood, obsessive–compulsive, and impulsive disorders) and medical (eg, gastrointestinal symptoms, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes) comorbidities and behavioral profiles (eg, overconsumption of calories outside of a binge eating episode and emotional eating). Future revisions of the BED diagnostic criteria should consider the inclusion of BED subtypes, perhaps based on the overvaluation of shape/weight, and an evidence-based reassessment of severity criteria. PMID:27621631

  16. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  17. [Incontinence - Etiology, diagnostics and Therapy].

    PubMed

    Frieling, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Fecal incontinence is defined by the unintentional loss of solid or liquid stool, and anal incontinence includes leakage of gas and / or fecal incontinence. Anal-fecal incontinence is not a diagnosis but a symptom. Many patients hide the problem from their families, friends, and even their doctors. Epidemiologic studies indicate a prevalence between 7-15 %, up to 30 % in hospitals and up to 70 % in longterm care settings. Anal-fecal incontinence causes a significant socio-economic burden. There is no widely accepted approach for classifying anal-fecal incontinence available. Anal-fecal continence is maintained by anatomical factors, rectoanal sensation, and rectal compliance. The diagnostic approach comprises muscle and nerve injuries by iatrogenic, obstetric or surgical trauma, descending pelvic floor or associated diseases. A basic diagnostic workup is sufficient to characterize the different manifestations of fecal incontinence in most of the cases. This includes patient history with a daily stool protocol and digital rectal investigation. Additional investigations may include anorectal manometry, anal sphincter EMG, conduction velocity of the pudendal nerve, needle EMG, barostat investigation, defecography and the dynamic MRI. Therapeutic interventions are focused on the individual symptoms and should be provided in close cooperation with gastroenterologists, surgeons, gynecologists, urologists, physiotherapeutics and psychologists (nutritional-training, food fibre content, pharmacological treatment of diarrhea/constipation, toilet training, pelvic floor gymnastic, anal sphincter training, biofeedback). Surgical therapy includes the STARR operation for rectoanal prolapse and sacral nerve stimulation for chronic constipation and anal-fecal incontinence. Surgery should not be applied unless the diagnostic work-up is complete and all conservative treatment options failed. PMID:27557074

  18. Understanding Onychomycosis Resolving Diagnostic Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-03-01

    No scientifically rigorous, large, prospective studies have been done to document the true prevalence of onychomycosis; the reported rates vary mainly by climate and by population, but the overall prevalence in the United States is estimated to be at least 10%. Advanced age and diabetes are the most commonly reported risk factors for onychomycosis. The differential diagnosis of onychomycosis is lengthy, and visual inspection alone is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis-direct microscopic examination of a wet-mount preparation with 10% to 20% potassium hydroxide is the first-line diagnostic test. PMID:27074698

  19. Spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.Y.; Weng, W.T.

    1993-04-23

    In this article, we discuss fundamentals of the spectrum analysis in beam diagnostics, where several important particle motions in a circular accelerator are considered. The properties of the Fourier transform are presented. Then the coasting and the bunched beam motion in both longitudinal and transverse are studied. The discussions are separated for the signal particle, multiple particle, and the Schottky noise cases. To demonstrate the interesting properties of the beam motion spectrum, time domain functions are generated, and then the associated spectra are calculated and plotted. In order to show the whole picture in a single plot, some data have been scaled, therefore they may not be realistic in an accelerator.

  20. Noise Diagnostics of Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koktavy, Pavel; Raska, Michal; Sadovsky, Petr; Krcal, Ondrej

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the use of micro-plasma noise for solar cells diagnostic purposes. When a high electric field is applied to a PN junction containing some technological imperfections, enhanced impact ionization arises in micro-sized regions, thus producing so-called micro-plasmas, which in turn can lead to the deterioration in quality or destruction of the PN junction. It is therefore advisable to use methods which can indicate the presence of micro-plasma in the junction and make the quality assessment and quantitative description of the tested cells possible.