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1

Potent Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytocidal Activity of Diaminonaphthoquinones, Lead Antimalarial Chemotypes Identified in an Antimalarial Compound Screen.  

PubMed

Forty percent of the world's population is threatened by malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites and results in an estimated 200 million clinical cases and 650,000 deaths each year. Drug resistance has been reported for all commonly used antimalarials and has prompted screens to identify new drug candidates. However, many of these new candidates have not been evaluated against the parasite stage responsible for transmission, gametocytes. If Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are not eliminated, patients continue to spread malaria for weeks after asexual parasite clearance. Asymptomatic individuals can also harbor gametocyte burdens sufficient for transmission, and a safe, effective gametocytocidal agent could also be used in community-wide malaria control programs. Here, we identify 15 small molecules with nanomolar activity against late-stage gametocytes. Fourteen are diaminonaphthoquinones (DANQs), and one is a 2-imino-benzo[d]imidazole (IBI). One of the DANQs identified, SJ000030570, is a lead antimalarial candidate. In contrast, 94% of the 650 compounds tested are inactive against late-stage gametocytes. Consistent with the ineffectiveness of most approved antimalarials against gametocytes, of the 19 novel compounds with activity against known anti-asexual-stage targets, only 3 had any strong effect on gametocyte viability. These data demonstrate the distinct biology of the transmission stages and emphasize the importance of screening for gametocytocidal activity. The potent gametocytocidal activity of DANQ and IBI coupled with their efficacy against asexual parasites provides leads for the development of antimalarials with the potential to prevent both the symptoms and the spread of malaria. PMID:25512421

Tanaka, Takeshi Q; Guiguemde, W Armand; Barnett, David S; Maron, Maxim I; Min, Jaeki; Connelly, Michele C; Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Guy, R Kiplin; Williamson, Kim C

2015-03-01

2

Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted. PMID:24974177

Baker, Beth H; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark; Barber, Larry B; Writer, Jeffery H; Rosenberry, Donald O; Kiesling, Richard L; Lundy, James R; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

2014-10-01

3

Conserved valproic-acid-induced lipid droplet formation in Dictyostelium and human hepatocytes identifies structurally active compounds  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Lipid droplet formation and subsequent steatosis (the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell) has been reported to contribute to hepatotoxicity and is an adverse effect of many pharmacological agents including the antiepileptic drug valproic acid (VPA). In this study, we have developed a simple model system (Dictyostelium discoideum) to investigate the effects of VPA and related compounds in lipid droplet formation. In mammalian hepatocytes, VPA increases lipid droplet accumulation over a 24-hour period, giving rise to liver cell damage, and we show a similar effect in Dictyostelium following 30 minutes of VPA treatment. Using 3H-labelled polyunsaturated (arachidonic) or saturated (palmitic) fatty acids, we shown that VPA treatment of Dictyostelium gives rise to an increased accumulation of both types of fatty acids in phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and non-polar lipids in this time period, with a similar trend observed in human hepatocytes (Huh7 cells) labelled with [3H]arachidonic acid. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ?-oxidation in Dictyostelium phenocopies fatty acid accumulation, in agreement with data reported in mammalian systems. Using Dictyostelium, we then screened a range of VPA-related compounds to identify those with high and low lipid-accumulation potential, and validated these activities for effects on lipid droplet formation by using human hepatocytes. Structure-activity relationships for these VPA-related compounds suggest that lipid accumulation is independent of VPA-catalysed teratogenicity and inositol depletion. These results suggest that Dictyostelium could provide both a novel model system for the analysis of lipid droplet formation in human hepatocytes and a rapid method for identifying VPA-related compounds that show liver toxicology. PMID:22003123

Elphick, Lucy M.; Pawolleck, Nadine; Guschina, Irina A.; Chaieb, Leila; Eikel, Daniel; Nau, Heinz; Harwood, John L.; Plant, Nick J.; Williams, Robin S. B.

2012-01-01

4

Detection of dopaminergic modulators in a tier I screening battery for identifying endocrine-active compounds (EACs).  

PubMed

Apomorphine (APO; D(2) receptor agonist), haloperidol (HAL; D(2) receptor antagonist), and reserpine (RES; a dopamine depletor that acts to lower brain dopamine levels by depleting central nervous system monoamines via disrupting storage vesicle function) have been examined in a Tier I screening battery, which has been designed to detect endocrine-active compounds (EACs). The Tier I battery incorporates two short-term in vivo tests (a 5-day ovariectomized female battery and a 15-day intact male battery using Sprague-Dawley rats) and an in vitro yeast transactivation system (YTS). In addition, two blood collection procedures were evaluated for their utility in detecting HAL-induced increases in serum prolactin (PRL) levels (i.e., the stress associated with each procedure). In the in vivo female battery, both HAL and RES increased serum PRL concentrations as expected, although the increase caused by RES was marginal. Increases in serum PRL levels are enhanced when daily dosages are administered via multiple-daily dosing of the test compound, which results in higher sustained blood levels of the test compounds. APO failed to decrease serum PRL concentrations in the female battery. In the in vivo male battery, HAL increased serum PRL concentrations as expected. However, APO and RES failed to affect serum PRL concentrations. The blood collection comparison experiment demonstrated that possible confounding of the data can occur with serum PRL concentrations when animals are exposed to stress. Basal levels of PRL were approximately fourfold higher in animals that were bled via the tail vein procedure when compared to PRL levels from animals that were bled under CO(2) anesthesia at euthanization. As a result of the higher basal PRL levels, the HAL-induced increase in serum PRL concentrations was completely attenuated in the tail-vein bled animals (1.3-fold). In contrast, HAL produced a fivefold increase in serum PRL in animals where blood was collected under CO(2) anesthesia at euthanization. Hence, collection of blood from animals under CO(2) anesthesia at euthanization is an acceptable approach for detection of compounds that increase PRL. In summary, HAL-like compounds would be identified in the Tier I male and female battery primarily via increased serum PRL concentrations. RES-like compounds would be identified in the Tier I male battery via decreased gonadotropins and steroids and possibly in the Tier I female battery by a minimal increase in serum PRL concentrations. Compounds that produce a marginal increase in serum PRL when administered using single daily dosing can also be confirmed in an in vivo female battery with multiple dosing because this regimen increases the magnitude of the PRL increase. APO, a D(2) receptor agonist, was not detected in the in vivo male or female batteries, but in both instances the top dosage produced minimal decreases in body weight (99 to 96% of control). Hence, the proposed Tier I battery needs to be further evaluated with higher dosages of APO and other D(2) receptor agonists to determine whether it is capable of detecting such agents. PMID:10838120

O'Connor, J C; Davis, L G; Frame, S R; Cook, J C

2000-01-01

5

Screening for inhibition of Vibrio cholerae VipA-VipB interaction identifies small-molecule compounds active against type VI secretion.  

PubMed

The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is the most prevalent bacterial secretion system and an important virulence mechanism utilized by Gram-negative bacteria, either to target eukaryotic cells or to combat other microbes. The components show much variability, but some appear essential for the function, and two homologues, denoted VipA and VipB in Vibrio cholerae, have been identified in all T6SSs described so far. Secretion is dependent on binding of an ?-helical region of VipA to VipB, and in the absence of this binding, both components are degraded within minutes and secretion is ceased. The aim of the study was to investigate if this interaction could be blocked, and we hypothesized that such inhibition would lead to abrogation of T6S. A library of 9,600 small-molecule compounds was screened for their ability to block the binding of VipA-VipB in a bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H). After excluding compounds that showed cytotoxicity toward eukaryotic cells, that inhibited growth of Vibrio, or that inhibited an unrelated B2H interaction, 34 compounds were further investigated for effects on the T6SS-dependent secretion of hemolysin-coregulated protein (Hcp) or of phospholipase A1 activity. Two compounds, KS100 and KS200, showed intermediate or strong effects in both assays. Analogues were obtained, and compounds with potent inhibitory effects in the assays and desirable physicochemical properties as predicted by in silico analysis were identified. Since the compounds specifically target a virulence mechanism without affecting bacterial replication, they have the potential to mitigate the virulence with minimal risk for development of resistance. PMID:24798289

Sun, Kun; Bröms, Jeanette; Lavander, Moa; Gurram, Bharat Kumar; Enquist, Per-Anders; Andersson, C David; Elofsson, Mikael; Sjöstedt, Anders

2014-07-01

6

The EPI bioassay identifies natural compounds with estrogenic activity that are potent inhibitors of androgenic pathways in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The reactive stromal phenotype is an important factor for prostate cancer progression and may be a new target for treatment and prevention. A new high efficiency preclinical protocol, the EPI bioassay, reflects the interaction of endocrine, paracrine and immune, (EPI) factors on induced androgen metabolism in human prostate reactive stroma. The bioassay is based on co-culturing human primary prostate stromal cells and LAPC-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma cells in a downscaled format of 96-well-plates for testing multiple doses of multiple target compounds. Metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with or without TGF?1-induced stimulation (D+T) of the reactive stroma phenotype was assessed by increased testosterone in the media and PSA production of the epithelial prostate cancer cells. Using the non-metabolizable androgen R1881, effects from direct androgen action were distinguished from stromal androgen production from DHEA. Stromal cell androgenic bioactivity was confirmed using conditioned media from D+T-treated stromal cell monocultures in an androgen-inducible AR screening assay. We further showed that both agonists to estrogen receptor (ER), DPN (ER?) and PPT (ER?), as well as estrogenic natural compounds including soy isoflavones attenuated D+T-induced PSA production. Studies with the pure ER agonists showed that activating either ER? or ER? could inhibit both D+T-mediated and R1881-mediated PSA production with the D+T effect being more pronounced. In conclusion, natural compounds with estrogenic activity and pure ER agonists are very potent inhibitors of stromal conversion of DHEA to androgenic metabolites. More studies are needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in estrogenic modulation of the endocrine-immune-paracrine balance of the prostate microenvironment. PMID:22207083

Vollmer, Günter; Helle, Janina; Amri, Hakima; Liu, Xunxian; Arnold, Julia T

2012-04-01

7

Microfluidic in vivo screen identifies compounds enhancing neuronal  

E-print Network

Compound screening is a powerful tool to identify new therapeutic targets, drug leads, and elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of biological processes. We report here the results of the first in vivo small-molecule screens ...

Haggarty, Stephen

8

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

9

A Novel Way To Identify Precursors That Degrade To Perfluourinated Compounds In Activated Sludge Using Ion-Trap Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), many of which are known to be toxic in laboratory animals. Despite growing public concerns, the fate and transport of PFCs are little under...

10

A Novel Way To Identify Precursors That Degrade To Perfluorinated Compounds In Activated Sludge Using Ion-Trap Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), many of which are known to be toxic in laboratory animals. Despite growing public concerns, fate and transport of PFCs are little known. M...

11

PHEROMONAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED FROM MALE PHYLLOTRETA CRUCIFERAE: FIELD TESTS OF RACEMIC MIXTURES, PURE ENANTIOMERS, AND COMBINATIONS WITH ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four himachalene sesquiterpenes and (+)-'-cadinene, previously identified as possible pheromone components from males of a North American population of Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), were tested for attractiveness in field traps in Hungary. A mixture of the four synthetic...

12

A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements. PMID:25309840

Retamales, Hernan A.; Scharaschkin, Tanya

2014-01-01

13

Zebrafish screen identifies novel compound with selective toxicity against leukemia  

PubMed Central

To detect targeted antileukemia agents we have designed a novel, high-content in vivo screen using genetically engineered, T-cell reporting zebrafish. We exploited the developmental similarities between normal and malignant T lymphoblasts to screen a small molecule library for activity against immature T cells with a simple visual readout in zebrafish larvae. After screening 26 400 molecules, we identified Lenaldekar (LDK), a compound that eliminates immature T cells in developing zebrafish without affecting the cell cycle in other cell types. LDK is well tolerated in vertebrates and induces long-term remission in adult zebrafish with cMYC-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). LDK causes dephosphorylation of members of the PI3 kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and delays sensitive cells in late mitosis. Among human cancers, LDK selectively affects survival of hematopoietic malignancy lines and primary leukemias, including therapy-refractory B-ALL and chronic myelogenous leukemia samples, and inhibits growth of human T-ALL xenografts. This work demonstrates the utility of our method using zebrafish for antineoplastic candidate drug identification and suggests a new approach for targeted leukemia therapy. Although our efforts focused on leukemia therapy, this screening approach has broad implications as it can be translated to other cancer types involving malignant degeneration of developmentally arrested cells. PMID:22490804

Ridges, Suzanne; Heaton, Will L.; Joshi, Deepa; Choi, Henry; Eiring, Anna; Batchelor, Lance; Choudhry, Priya; Manos, Elizabeth J.; Sofla, Hossein; Sanati, Ali; Welborn, Seth; Agarwal, Archana; Spangrude, Gerald J.; Miles, Rodney R.; Cox, James E.; Frazer, J. Kimble; Deininger, Michael; Balan, Kaveri; Sigman, Matthew; Müschen, Markus; Perova, Tatiana; Johnson, Radia; Montpellier, Bertrand; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Jones, David A.

2012-01-01

14

Antiapicoplast and Gametocytocidal Screening To Identify the Mechanisms of Action of Compounds within the Malaria Box  

PubMed Central

Malaria remains a significant infectious disease that causes millions of clinical cases and >800,000 deaths per year. The Malaria Box is a collection of 400 commercially available chemical entities that have antimalarial activity. The collection contains 200 drug-like compounds, based on their oral absorption and the presence of known toxicophores, and 200 probe-like compounds, which are intended to represent a broad structural diversity. These compounds have confirmed activities against the asexual intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and low cytotoxicities, but their mechanisms of action and their activities in other stages of the parasite's life cycle remain to be determined. The apicoplast is considered to be a promising source of malaria-specific targets, and its main function during intraerythrocytic stages is to provide the isoprenoid precursor isopentenyl diphosphate, which can be used for phenotype-based screens to identify compounds targeting this organelle. We screened 400 compounds from the Malaria Box using apicoplast-targeting phenotypic assays to identify their potential mechanisms of action. We identified one compound that specifically targeted the apicoplast. Further analyses indicated that the molecular target of this compound may differ from those of the current antiapicoplast drugs, such as fosmidomycin. Moreover, in our efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of action of compounds from the Malaria Box, we evaluated their activities against other stages of the life cycle of the parasite. Gametocytes are the transmission stage of the malaria parasite and are recognized as a priority target in efforts to eradicate malaria. We identified 12 compounds that were active against gametocytes with 50% inhibitory concentration values of <1 ?M. PMID:24247137

Bowman, Jessica D.; Merino, Emilio F.; Brooks, Carrie F.; Striepen, Boris; Carlier, Paul R.

2014-01-01

15

Odour-active compounds in banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction, simultaneous distillation-extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from banana fruit cv. Giant Cavendish and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 146 compounds, 124 of them were positively identified. Thirty-one odourants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical banana aroma, eleven of them are reported for the first time as odour-active compounds. PMID:23790849

Pino, Jorge A; Febles, Yanet

2013-11-15

16

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

17

[Anticancer activity of oxovanadium compounds].  

PubMed

Cytotoxic and antitumor activity of the biligand vanadyl derivative of L-malic acid (bis(L-malato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(mal)2) was investigated in comparison with inorganic vanadium(IV) compound--vanadyl sulfate (VOSO4) and also with oxovanadium monocomplex with L-malic acid (VO(mal)) and vanadyl biscomplex with acetylacetonate. In this purpose the effect of vanadyl compounds on growth of normal human skin fibroblasts and tumor cells of different lines: mouse fibrosarcoma (L929), rat pheochromocytome (PC12), human liver carcinoma (HepG2), virus transformated mouse fibroblast (NIN 3T3), virus transformated cells of human kidney (293) were investigated. The results showed that VO(mal)2 was not toxic for normal human skin fibroblasts but considerably inhibited growth of cancer cells in culture. Cytotoxic antitumor effect of vanadium complexes was found to be dependent on incubation time and concentration and on type of cells and nature of ligands of the central group of the complex (VO2+). These studies provide evidence that VO(mal)2 may be considered as a potential antitumor agent due to its low toxicity in non-tumor cells and significant anticancer activity. PMID:23987068

Abakumova, O Iu; Podobed, O V; Beliaeva, N F; Tochilkin, A I

2013-01-01

18

APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 2: APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

19

A phenotypic screening approach to identify anticancer compounds derived from marine fungi.  

PubMed

This study covers the isolation, testing, and identification of natural products with anticancer properties. Secondary metabolites were isolated from fungal strains originating from a variety of marine habitats. Strain culture protocols were optimized with respect to growth media composition and fermentation conditions. From these producers, isolated compounds were screened for their effect on the viability and proliferation of a subset of the NCI60 panel of cancer cell lines. Active compounds of interest were identified and selected for detailed assessments and structural elucidation using nuclear magnetic resonance. This revealed the majority of fungal-derived compounds represented known anticancer chemotypes, confirming the integrity of the process and the ability to identify suitable compounds. Examination of effects of selected compounds on cancer-associated cell signaling pathways used phospho flow cytometry in combination with 3D fluorescent cell barcoding. In parallel, the study addressed the logistical aspects of maintaining multiple cancer cell lines in culture simultaneously. A potential solution involving microbead-based cell culture was investigated (BioLevitator, Hamilton). Selected cell lines were cultured in microbead and 2D methods and cell viability tests showed comparable compound inhibition in both methods (R2=0.95). In a further technology assessment, an image-based assay system was investigated for its utility as a possible complement to ATP-based detection for quantifying cell growth and viability in a label-free manner. PMID:24735443

Ellinger, Bernhard; Silber, Johanna; Prashar, Anjali; Landskron, Johannes; Weber, Jonas; Rehermann, Sarah; Müller, Franz-Josef; Smith, Stephen; Wrigley, Stephen; Taskén, Kjetil; Gribbon, Philip; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F

2014-04-01

20

Fragment-based Drug Design and Drug Repositioning Using Multiple Ligand Simultaneous Docking (MLSD): Identifying Celecoxib and Template Compounds as Novel Inhibitors of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel method of drug discovery using MLSD and drug repositioning, with cancer target STAT3 being used as a test case. Multiple drug scaffolds were simultaneously docked into hot spots of STAT3 by MLSD, followed by tethering to generate virtual template compounds. Similarity search of virtual hits on drug database identified Celecoxib as a novel inhibitor of STAT3. Furthermore, we designed two novel lead inhibitors based on one of the lead templates and Celecoxib. PMID:21678971

Li, Huameng; Liu, Aiguo; Zhao, Zhenjiang; Xu, Yufang; Lin, Jiayuh; Jou, David; Li, Chenglong

2011-01-01

21

Identifying Sexual Harassment: A Classroom Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…

Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer

2002-01-01

22

An isogenic cell panel identifies compounds that inhibit proliferation of mTOR-pathway addicted cells by different mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mTOR pathway is a critical integrator of nutrient and growth factor signaling. Once activated, mTOR promotes cell growth and proliferation. Several components of the mTOR pathway are frequently deregulated in tumors, leading to constitutive activation of the pathway and thus contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. We performed a high-throughput screen with an isogenic cell line system to identify compounds specifically inhibiting proliferation of PTEN/mTOR-pathway addicted cells. We show here the characterization and mode of action of two such compound classes. One compound class inhibits components of the PTEN/mTOR signaling pathway, such as S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, and leads to cyclin D3 downregulation. These compounds are not adenosine triphosphate competitive inhibitors for kinases in the pathway, nor do they require FKBP12 for activity like rapamycin. The other compound class turned out to be a farnesylation inhibitor, blocking the activity of GTPases, as well as an inducer of oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that an isogenic cell system with few specific mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes can identify different classes of compounds selectively inhibiting proliferation of PTEN/mTOR pathway-addicted isogenic clones. The identified mechanisms are in line with the known cellular signaling networks activated by the altered oncogenes and suppressor genes in the isogenic system. PMID:23954931

Wyder Peters, Lorenza; Molle, Klaus D; Thiemeyer, Anke; Knopf, Agnes; Goxe, Marie; Guerry, Philippe; Brodbeck, Daniela; Colombi, Marco; Hall, Michael N; Moroni, Christoph; Regenass, Urs

2014-01-01

23

Novel Dual-Reporter Preclinical Screen for Anti-Astrocytoma Agents Identifies Cytostatic and Cytotoxic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Astrocytoma/glioblastoma is the most common malignant form of brain cancer and is often unresponsive to current pharmacological therapies and surgical interventions. Despite several potential therapeutic agents against astrocytoma and glioblastoma (1), there are currently no effective therapies for astrocytoma, creating a great need for the identification of effective anti-tumor agents. We have developed a novel dual-reporter system in Trp53/Nf1-null astrocytoma cells to simultaneously and rapidly assay cell viability and cell cycle progression as evidenced by activity of the human E2F1 promoter in vitro. The dual-reporter high-throughput assay was used to screen experimental therapeutics for activity in Trp53/Nf1-null astrocytoma. Several compounds were identified demonstrating selectivity for astrocytoma over primary astrocytes. The dual-reporter system described here may be a valuable tool for identifying potential anti-tumor treatments that specifically target astrocytoma. PMID:18664715

Hawes, Jessica J.; Nerva, John D.; Reilly, Karlyne M.

2009-01-01

24

Pilot-Scale Compound Screening against RNA Editing Identifies Trypanocidal Agents.  

PubMed

Most mitochondrial messenger RNAs in trypanosomatid pathogens undergo a unique type of posttranscriptional modification involving insertion and/or deletion of uridylates. This process, RNA editing, is catalyzed by a multiprotein complex (~1.6 MDa), the editosome. Knockdown of core editosome proteins compromises mitochondrial function and, ultimately, parasite viability. Hence, because the editosome is restricted to trypanosomatids, it serves as a unique drug target in these pathogens. Currently, there is a lack of editosome inhibitors for antitrypanosomatid drug development or that could serve as unique tools for perturbing and characterizing editosome interactions or RNA editing reaction stages. Here, we screened a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280) using high-throughput screening to identify RNA editing inhibitors. We report that aurintricarboxylic acid, mitoxantrone, PPNDS, and NF449 are potent inhibitors of deletion RNA editing (IC50 range, 1-5 µM). However, none of these compounds could specifically inhibit the catalytic steps of RNA editing. Mitoxantrone blocked editing by inducing RNA-protein aggregates, whereas the other three compounds interfered with editosome-RNA interactions to varying extents. Furthermore, NF449, a suramin analogue, was effective at killing Trypanosoma brucei in vitro. Thus, new tools for editosome characterization and downstream RNA editing inhibitor have been identified. PMID:25170016

Moshiri, Houtan; Mehta, Vaibhav; Yip, Chun Wai; Salavati, Reza

2015-01-01

25

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPARTICLES CONTAINING ACTIVE COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new methods of preparation and characterisation of microparticles (microcapsules and microspheres) with active compounds inside (liquid droplets or solid particles), has been intensively pursued. In fact, microencapsulation has many industrial applications, such us pharmaceutical, food, agro-chemistry and, recently, also in coating industry. Nowadays, there are new technologies that enable a more sophisticated control of certain properties concerning

J. Branquinho; M. Figueiredo; M. H. Gil

26

Compounds identified in-flight by ROSETTA-COSIMA before the comet encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a laboratory surface analyzing technique and, with the COSIMA instrument onboard ROSETTA, it will be applied for the first time to in-situ measurements of cometary grains, once ROSETTA encounters its target comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the September 2014. The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass analyzer (COSIMA) onboard ROSETTA will expose metal targets, collect cometary dust grains in the inner coma and analyze these with an optical microscope as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry [1]. The COSIMA instrument has been operated in-flight for commissioning in the first months after launch in March 2004 and on a regular basis during the passive and active spacecraft check-out time intervals up to ROSETTA hibernation from June 2011 onwards. The secondary ion mass spectra background and /or contamination level of the COSIMA metal targets has been identified prior to launch and these had been selected accordingly to avoid masking of single elements or compounds by carrying different metal targets for cometary grain collection. The main compounds identified in-flight are silicon polymers and hydrocarbons. We will discuss the surface analysis results with COSIMA, carried out far off any comet or asteroid in interplanetary space, their time evolution and their potential sources within ROSETTA.

Hilchenbach, M.; Fischer, H.; Krüger, H.; Thirkell, L.; Rynö, J.

2013-09-01

27

Information-retrieval facilities for identifying organic compounds from infrared spectra  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider the features of an IRS designed for an ES-1010 microcomputer and intended for identifying organic compounds from their IR spectra, and in particular, trace organic compounds in a natural waters and effluents after isolation in the pure state.

Antipova-Karataeva, I.I.; Rykova, E.A.; Kazanova, N.N.

1986-07-10

28

High throughput screening against the peroxidase cascade of African trypanosomes identifies antiparasitic compounds that inactivate tryparedoxin.  

PubMed

In African trypanosomes, the detoxification of broad spectrum hydroperoxides relies on a unique cascade composed of trypanothione (T(SH)(2)), trypanothione reductase, tryparedoxin (Tpx), and nonselenium glutathione peroxidase-type enzymes. All three proteins are essential for Trypanosoma brucei. Here, we subjected the complete system to a high throughput screening approach with nearly 80,000 chemicals. Twelve compounds inhibited the peroxidase system. All but one carried chloroalkyl substituents. The detailed kinetic analysis showed that two compounds weakly inhibited trypanothione reductase, but none of them specifically interacted with the peroxidase. They proved to be time-dependent inhibitors of Tpx-modifying Cys-40, the first cysteine of its active site WCPPC motif. Importantly, gel shift assays verified Tpx as a target in the intact parasites. T(SH)(2), present in the in vitro assays and in the cells in high molar excess, did not interfere with Tpx inactivation. The compounds inhibited the proliferation of bloodstream T. brucei with EC(50) values down to <1 ?M and exerted up to 83-fold lower toxicity toward HeLa cells. Irreversible inhibitors are traditionally regarded as unfavorable. However, a large number of antimicrobials and anticancer therapeutics acts covalently with their target protein. The compounds identified here also interacted with recombinant human thioredoxin, a distant relative of Tpx. This finding might even be exploited for thioredoxin-based anticancer drug development approaches reported recently. The fact that the T(SH)(2)/Tpx couple occupies a central position within the trypanosomal thiol metabolism and delivers electrons also for the synthesis of DNA precursors renders the parasite-specific oxidoreductase an attractive drug target molecule. PMID:22275351

Fueller, Florian; Jehle, Britta; Putzker, Kerstin; Lewis, Joe D; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise

2012-03-16

29

Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models  

EPA Science Inventory

Identifying Developmental Vascular Disruptor Compounds Using a Predictive Signature and Alternative Toxicity Models Presenting Author: Tamara Tal Affiliation: U.S. EPA/ORD/ISTD, RTP, NC, USA Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide...

30

Biological activity of phenolic compounds from Alchornea glandulosa.  

PubMed

From the isopropyl acetate fraction obtained by partition of the leaves ethanolic extract of Alchornea glandulosa, six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified. General lethality of the extract, fractions and compounds were assayed with Brine Shrimp Test (BST) and with Antifeedant Activity Bioassay (AAB) against neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda. Aqueous fraction and ethyl gallate, one of the major constituents of the polar fraction, have shown the highest toxicity in BST. Ethanolic extract, isopropyl acetate fraction and gallic acid reduced significantly larval growth of S. frugiperda neonates. PMID:15159004

Urrea-Bulla, A; Suárez M, M; Moreno-Murillo, B

2004-06-01

31

Biological Activity of Grapevine Phenolic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds present in nearly all parts of grape berries are increasingly believed to exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial\\u000a activities and to play a significant role in the prevention of diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Bagchi\\u000a et al. 2000, Ariga 2004). The majority of studies on grape phenolics properties has been conducted using proanthocyanidin-rich\\u000a seeds extracts (GSEs).

R. Amarowicz; S. Weidner

32

Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened two different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds – sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine – among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 ?M. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties. PMID:23118736

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

2012-01-01

33

Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened two different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds - sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine - among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 ?M. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties. PMID:23118736

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

2012-01-01

34

Virtual screening for LPA2-specific agonists identifies a nonlipid compound with antiapoptotic actions.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a highly potent endogenous lipid mediator that protects and rescues cells from programmed cell death. Earlier work identified the LPA? G protein-coupled receptor subtype as an important molecular target of LPA mediating antiapoptotic signaling. Here we describe the results of a virtual screen using single-reference similarity searching that yielded compounds 2-((9-oxo-9H-fluoren-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoic acid (NSC12404), 2-((3-(1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)propyl)thio)benzoic acid (GRI977143), 4,5-dichloro-2-((9-oxo-9H-fluoren-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzoic acid (H2L5547924), and 2-((9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracen-2-yl)carbamoyl) benzoic acid (H2L5828102), novel nonlipid and drug-like compounds that are specific for the LPA? receptor subtype. We characterized the antiapoptotic action of one of these compounds, GRI977143, which was effective in reducing activation of caspases 3, 7, 8, and 9 and inhibited poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1 cleavage and DNA fragmentation in different extrinsic and intrinsic models of apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, GRI977143 promoted carcinoma cell invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers and fibroblast proliferation. The antiapoptotic cellular signaling responses were present selectively in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells derived from LPA(1&2) double-knockout mice reconstituted with the LPA? receptor and were absent in vector-transduced control cells. GRI977143 was an effective stimulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation and promoted the assembly of a macromolecular signaling complex consisting of LPA?, Na? - H? exchange regulatory factor 2, and thyroid receptor interacting protein 6, which has been shown previously to be a required step in LPA-induced antiapoptotic signaling. The present findings indicate that nonlipid LPA?-specific agonists represent an excellent starting point for development of lead compounds with potential therapeutic utility for preventing the programmed cell death involved in many types of degenerative and inflammatory diseases. PMID:22968304

Kiss, Gyöngyi N; Fells, James I; Gupte, Renuka; Lee, Sue-Chin; Liu, Jianxiong; Nusser, Nóra; Lim, Keng G; Ray, Ramesh M; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Parrill, Abby L; Sümegi, Balázs; Miller, Duane D; Tigyi, Gabor

2012-12-01

35

Novel Plant Immune-Priming Compounds Identified via High-Throughput Chemical Screening Target Salicylic Acid Glucosyltransferases in Arabidopsis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant activators are compounds, such as analogs of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), that protect plants from pathogens by activating the plant immune system. Although some plant activators have been widely used in agriculture, the molecular mechanisms of immune induction are largely unknown. Using a newly established high-throughput screening procedure that screens for compounds that specifically potentiate pathogen-activated cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana cultured suspension cells, we identified five compounds that prime the immune response. These compounds enhanced disease resistance against pathogenic Pseudomonas bacteria in Arabidopsis plants. Pretreatments increased the accumulation of endogenous SA, but reduced its metabolite, SA-O-?-d-glucoside. Inducing compounds inhibited two SA glucosyltransferases (SAGTs) in vitro. Double knockout plants that lack both SAGTs consistently exhibited enhanced disease resistance. Our results demonstrate that manipulation of the active free SA pool via SA-inactivating enzymes can be a useful strategy for fortifying plant disease resistance and may identify useful crop protectants. PMID:22960909

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Okazaki, Masateru; Kida, Tatsuya; Nishina, Yuta; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Takumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji

2012-01-01

36

Development of an electronic nose to identify and quantify volatile hazardous compounds.  

PubMed

A new electronic nose was developed to identify the chemical compound released when a 2.5-L flask was broken inside a 3 m x 3 m x 2.5 m store-room. Flasks of 10 different hazardous compounds were initially present in the room: ammonia, propanone, hexane, acetic acid, toluene, methanol, tetrachloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and dichloromethane. Besides identification, quantification of the compound present in the air was also performed by the electronic nose, in order to evaluate the risk level for room cleaning. An array of six sensors based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used. Although none of the individual sensors was specific for a single compound, an artificial neural network made it possible to identify and quantify the released vapour, among a series of 10 compounds, with six sensors. The neural network could be simplified, and the number of neurons reduced, provided it was used just for the identification task. Quantification could be performed later using the individual calibration of the sensor most sensitive to the identified compound. PMID:18804602

Fernandes, Daniel L A; Gomes, M Teresa S R

2008-10-19

37

Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

2014-01-01

38

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

39

Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female Helicoverpa armigera to compounds identified in flowers of African marigold, Tagetes erecta.  

PubMed

Seven electrophysiologically active compounds were detected in air-entrained headspace samples of live flowers of Tagetes erecta analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) linked to a female Helicoverpa armigera electroantennograph (EAG) using polar and nonpolar capillary columns. These compounds were subsequently identified using GC linked to mass spectrometry as benzaldehyde, (S)-(-)-limonene, (R,S)-(+/-)-linalool, (E)-myroxide, (Z)-beta-ocimene, phenylacetaldehyde, and (R)-(-)-piperitone. Electrophysiological activity was confirmed by EAG with a 1-microg dose of each compound on filter paper eliciting EAG responses that were significantly greater than the solvent control response from female moths. Wind-tunnel bioassays with T. erecta headspace samples, equivalent to 0.4 flower/hr emission from a live flower, elicited a significant increase in the number of upwind approaches from female H. armigera relative to a solvent control. Similarly, a seven-component synthetic blend of EAG-active compounds identified from T. erecta presented in the same ratio (1.0:1.6:0.7:1.4:0.4:5.0:2.7, respectively) and concentration (7.2 microg) as found in the natural sample elicited a significant increase in the number of upwind approaches relative to a solvent control during a 12-min bioassay that was equivalent to that elicited by the natural T. erecta floral volatiles. PMID:11504018

Bruce, T J; Cork, A

2001-06-01

40

Antioxidant activity of new ruthenium compounds.  

PubMed

Many biological properties have been attributed to ruthenium complexes including anti-tumor activity and the attenuation of reperfusion damage and infarct size. In this work, we characterize the antioxidant activity of trans-[RuCl2(nic)4] where nic is 3-pyridinecarboxylic acid and trans-[RuCl2(i-nic)4] where i-nic is 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid by (i) evaluation of total antioxidant potential (TRAP); (ii) prevention of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide using the alkaline comet assay; and (iii) the prevention of lipid peroxidation and cell death induced by iron in liver slices. Our results suggest that nic has stronger antioxidant potential when compared to the i-nic. Higher doses (above 200 microM) of these compounds gave genotoxic effects, but the antioxidant potential could be obtained with the use lower doses (0.1-10 microM). PMID:16156952

Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva; Pich, Claus Tröger; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Drei, Lilian Batista; Rudnicki, Martina; de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Franco, César Vittorio; Dal Pizzol, Felipe

2005-01-01

41

Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

42

Activity: Identifying a solid using density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Effective measurement techniques include the concept of measurement uncertainty. Students may make erroneous conclusions analyzing data using measurements that do not include the uncertainty of the measurement. In this lab, students determine a density range for a metal and identify the material based on this range.

Greg Schmidt, Henry S.

43

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS USING SOURCE CID ON AN ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

Exact mass libraries of ESI and APCI mass spectra are not commercially available In-house libraries are dependent on CID parameters and are instrument specific. The ability to identify compounds without reliance on mass spectral libraries is therefore more crucial for liquid sam...

44

A NEW MASS SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING TRACE-LEVEL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Most organic compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and cannot be easily identified from low resolution mass spectra. Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer in a new way to determine exact mas...

45

Biological activities of phenolic compounds isolated from galls of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae).  

PubMed

The aqueous extract of galls from Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) was fractionated on Diaion and refractionated on octadecyl silica column. Six phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as gallic acid (1), punicalagin (2), isoterchebulin (3), 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (4), chebulagic acid (5) and chebulinic acid (6). All of the compounds showed stronger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and melanin inhibitory activities than ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxytoluene, ?-tocopherol, arbutin and kojic acid, the reference compounds. Gallic acid (1) exhibited inhibitory activity against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages. However, all isolated compounds exhibited less activity than the reference compounds in mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and human tumour cytotoxicity assays. This study has demonstrated that the phenolic compounds isolated from galls of T. chebula might contribute significantly due to their antioxidant and whitening activities. PMID:21108118

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Jiradej

2010-12-01

46

Insect juvenile hormone: activity of selected terpenoid compounds.  

PubMed

A nuimber of compounds with terpenoid skeletons attached to various functional groups were prepared and tested for their effects as a juvenile hormone in the yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor. Several of these compounds showed high activity. PMID:17754138

Schwarz, M; Sonnet, P E; Wakabayashi, N

1970-01-01

47

Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ? 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:49–56;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

2014-01-01

48

Compounds from Ageratum conyzoides: isolation, structural elucidation and insecticidal activity.  

PubMed

This work aimed at identifying plant compounds with insecticidal activity against Diaphania hyalinata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Musca domestica (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetaefolia L.), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), 'baleeira' herb (Cordia verbenaceae L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.) and billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.). Firstly, the insecticidal activities of hexane and ethanol plant extracts were evaluated against adults of R. dominica. Among them, only the hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticidal activity. The hexane extract of this plant species was therefore fractionated by silica gel column chromatography to isolate and purify its bioactive chemical constituents. Three compounds were identified using IR spectra, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMBC and NOE after gel chromatography: 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-heptamethoxyflavone, 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone and coumarin. The complete assignment of (13)C NMR to 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone was successfully made for the first time. 5,6,7,8,3'-Pentamethoxy-4', 5'-methylenedioxyflavone did not show any insecticidal activity against the four insect species tested. 5,6,7,8,3', 4', 5'-Heptamethoxyflavone showed low activity against D. hyalinata and R. dominica and was not toxic to M. domestica or P. americana. In contrast, coumarin showed insecticidal activity against all four insect pest species tested, with the following order of susceptibility: R. dominica < P. americana < D. hyalinata < M. domestica after 24 h exposure. PMID:17469080

Moreira, Márcio D; Picanço, Marcelo C; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Barros, Emerson C; Campos, Mateus R

2007-06-01

49

Composition and topology of activity cliff clusters formed by bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

The assessment of activity cliffs has thus far mostly focused on compound pairs, although the majority of activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple active compounds and cliffs. However, the composition of coordinated activity cliff configurations and their topologies are unknown. Therefore, we have identified all activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and analyzed them in network representations where activity cliff configurations occur as clusters. The composition, topology, frequency of occurrence, and target distribution of activity cliff clusters have been determined. A limited number of large cliff clusters with unique topologies were identified that were centers of activity cliff formation. These clusters originated from a small number of target sets. However, most clusters were of small to moderate size. Three basic topologies were sufficient to describe recurrent activity cliff cluster motifs/topologies. For example, frequently occurring clusters with star topology determined the scale-free character of the global activity cliff network and represented a characteristic activity cliff configuration. Large clusters with complex topology were often found to contain different combinations of basic topologies. Our study provides a first view of activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and of the recurrent topologies of activity cliff clusters. Activity cliff clusters of defined topology can be selected, and from compounds forming the clusters, SAR information can be obtained. The SAR information of activity cliff clusters sharing a/one specific activity and topology can be compared. PMID:24437577

Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-02-24

50

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

51

Large-scale neurochemical metabolomics analysis identifies multiple compounds associated with methamphetamine exposure  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (MA) is an illegal stimulant drug of abuse with serious negative health consequences. The neurochemical effects of MA have been partially characterized, with a traditional focus on classical neurotransmitter systems. However, these directions have not yet led to novel drug treatments for MA abuse or toxicity. As an alternative approach, we describe here the first application of metabolomics to investigate the neurochemical consequences of MA exposure in the rodent brain. We examined single exposures at 3 mg/kg and repeated exposures at 3 mg/kg over 5 days in eight common inbred mouse strains. Brain tissue samples were assayed using high-throughput gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, yielding quantitative data on >300 unique metabolites. Association testing and false discovery rate control yielded several metabolome-wide significant associations with acute MA exposure, including compounds such as lactate (p = 4.4 × 10?5, q = 0.013), tryptophan (p = 7.0 × 10?4, q = 0.035) and 2-hydroxyglutarate (p = 1.1 × 10?4, q = 0.022). Secondary analyses of MA-induced increase in locomotor activity showed associations with energy metabolites such as succinate (p = 3.8 × 10?7). Associations specific to repeated (5 day) MA exposure included phosphocholine (p = 4.0 × 10?4, q = 0.087) and ergothioneine (p = 3.0 × 10?4, q = 0.087). Our data appear to confirm and extend existing models of MA action in the brain, whereby an initial increase in energy metabolism, coupled with an increase in behavioral locomotion, gives way to disruption of mitochondria and phospholipid pathways and increased endogenous antioxidant response. Our study demonstrates the power of comprehensive MS-based metabolomics to identify drug-induced changes to brain metabolism and to develop neurochemical models of drug effects. PMID:23554582

Adkins, Daniel E.; Vunck, Sarah A.; Batman, Angela M.; Vann, Robert E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Beardsley, Patrick M.; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.

2012-01-01

52

Study of the volatile compounds and odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham extracted by SPME.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds and the most odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham were investigated by extracting them using a solid phase microextraction technique with a 2?cm Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber. The detection frequency method was applied to estimate the potential contribution of each compound to the odor of hams. Twenty-one volatile compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in dry-cured ham by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and eight in dry-cured Iberian ham. Gas chromatography-olfactometry allowed the identification for the first time of six compounds not previously reported as odorants of Iberian ham, and also two odorants were newly identified in dry-cured ham. According to the detection frequency method, the most odor active compounds found were 3-methylbutanoic acid (dirty sock-like smelling), hexanal (cut grass-like odor), 3-methylbutanal (sweaty and bitter almond-like odor), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (toasted nuts-like odor) and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like odor). PMID:23685564

del Pulgar, José Sánchez; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Carrapiso, Ana I

2013-06-01

53

Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*  

PubMed Central

New pyrethrin-like compounds are compared with earlier synthetic pyrethroids and natural pyrethrins for intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos and for residual contact activity. Two of the compounds are at least as toxic as pyrethrin I to female Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Residues of these compounds are very persistent in the dark or in very subdued lighting but they decompose on exposure to normal intensities of daylight and rapidly lose their insecticidal activity. PMID:4392939

Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

1970-01-01

54

Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

2013-01-01

55

Fun with Compound Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and create compound words We will be studying compound words! First we need to find out what a compound word is, go to this website and read about compound words.What is a compound word Now that you have read about compound words lets do some fun activities to help us review. First go to Compound word flashcards, here you will ...

Ms. Huggins

2012-04-12

56

Biologically active compounds of semi-metals.  

PubMed

Semi-metals (boron, silicon, arsenic and selenium) form organo-metal compounds, some of which are found in nature and affect the physiology of living organisms. They include, e.g., the boron-containing antibiotics aplasmomycin, borophycin, boromycin, and tartrolon or the silicon compounds present in "silicate" bacteria, relatives of the genus Bacillus, which release silicon from aluminosilicates through the secretion of organic acids. Arsenic is incorporated into arsenosugars and arsenobetaines by marine algae and invertebrates, and fungi and bacteria can produce volatile methylated arsenic compounds. Some prokaryotes can use arsenate as a terminal electron acceptor while others can utilize arsenite as an electron donor to generate energy. Selenium is incorporated into selenocysteine that is found in some proteins. Biomethylation of selenide produces methylselenide and dimethylselenide. Selenium analogues of amino acids, antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-infective drugs are often used as analogues of important pharmacological sulfur compounds. Other metalloids, i.e. the rare and toxic tellurium and the radioactive short-lived astatine, have no biological significance. PMID:17991498

Rezanka, Tomás; Sigler, Karel

2008-02-01

57

Inhibition of colon cancer cell growth and antioxidant activity of bioactive compounds from Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently several plant derived natural compounds have been screened for their anticancer activity in order to identify putative compounds with novel structures or mechanism of action. In the present study, fruits of Poncirus trifoliata were extracted with acetone and loaded onto silica gel column chromatography. The column was eluted with different solvents to obtain two bioactive compounds. The purity of

G. K. Jayaprakasha; K. K. Mandadi; Shibu M. Poulose; Y. Jadegoud; G. A. Nagana Gowda; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

2007-01-01

58

Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and Viking GCMS instruments. Experiments were conducted under SAM-like conditions using a commercial pyroprobe equipped with a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap and coupled to a GCMS. In general, when pyrolyzed with 1 wt.% calcium perchlorate, the C1 organic compounds (e.g. methanol, formic acid, and formaldehyde) produced only C1 chlorinated compounds while propanol and butyric acid formed only C3 chlorinated compounds. All of the pyrolysis experiments produced chlorobenzene, suggesting that it forms from chlorine, released during calcium perchlorate decomposition, reacting with benzene and toluene, released from the Tenax component of the hydrocarbon trap. Pyrolysis of phthalic acid however, produces a higher abundance of chlorobenzene than could be attributed to the Tenax alone and also forms C1 chlorohydrocarbons. Additional analogue experiments to identify potential precursor compounds for the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM are ongoing. Benner et al., 2000, PNAS, 97(6), 2425-2430 Biemann et al., 1977, JGR, 82(28), 4641-4658 Glavin et al., 2013, JGR-Planets, accepted for publication Leshin et al., 2013, Science, in press

Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

59

Gametocytocidal screen identifies novel chemical classes with Plasmodium falciparum transmission blocking activity.  

PubMed

Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

Sanders, Natalie G; Sullivan, David J; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K

2014-01-01

60

Gametocytocidal Screen Identifies Novel Chemical Classes with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Blocking Activity  

PubMed Central

Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

Sanders, Natalie G.; Sullivan, David J.; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K.

2014-01-01

61

Radical scavenging activities of niacin-related compounds.  

PubMed

We investigated whether niacin-related compounds had radical-scavenging activity by electron spin resonance methods. Many compounds, but not trigonelline, had radical-scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals. However, for the nitric oxide radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, only nicotinic acid hydrazide and isonicotinic acid hydrazide had scavenging activities. These results suggest that the moiety of hydrazide might have an important role in scavenging abilities of various radicals. PMID:12005062

Ogata, Shin; Takeuchi, Masayo; Teradaira, Shin; Yamamoto, Naokuni; Iwata, Keiko; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Taguchi, Hiroshi

2002-03-01

62

Cerium binding activity of different pectin compounds in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerium binding activity of different water soluble pectin compounds varying according to their degree of esterification and insoluble calcium pectate beads in aqueous solution was studied in a batch sorption system. The cerium uptake by all pectin compounds was highest within the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. The binding capacities and rates of cerium ions by pectin compounds were

Maxim Y. Khotimchenko; Elena A. Kolenchenko; Yuri S. Khotimchenko; Elena V. Khozhaenko; Valeri V. Kovalev

2010-01-01

63

Synthesis and anticholinesterase activity of new bispyridinium compounds.  

PubMed

Synthesis of new bis(1-methylpyridinium) compounds containing a 1,4-diacetylbenzene linkage between the pyridinium moieties from commercially available 2-, 3-, and 4-picoline precursors was accomplished via metallation, reaction of the picolyllithium with 1,4-dicyanobenzene, and subsequent quaternization of the resulting bispyridyl compounds. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was determined colorimetrically with purified electric eel enzyme. Examination of structure-activity relationships indicated that the 3-substituted pyridinium compound is the most potent isomer, followed by the 2-substituted isomer, and that the 4-substituted analogue is the least active. PMID:1491336

Hsu, F L; Ray, R; Clark, O E; Munavalli, S; Ashman, W P

1992-12-01

64

Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure  

PubMed Central

Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

2014-01-01

65

Cell-Based Small-Molecule Compound Screen Identifies Fenretinide as Potential Therapeutic for Translocation-Positive Rhabdomyosarcoma  

PubMed Central

A subset of paediatric sarcomas are characterized by chromosomal translocations encoding specific oncogenic transcription factors. Such fusion proteins represent tumor specific therapeutic targets although so far it has not been possible to directly inhibit their activity by small-molecule compounds. In this study, we hypothesized that screening a small-molecule library might identify already existing drugs that are able to modulate the transcriptional activity of PAX3/FOXO1, the fusion protein specifically found in the pediatric tumor alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS). Towards this end, we established a reporter cell line based on the well characterized PAX3/FOXO1 target gene AP2ß. A library enriched in mostly FDA approved drugs was screened using specific luciferase activity as read-out and normalized for cell viability. The most effective inhibitor identified from this screen was Fenretinide. Treatment with this compound resulted in down-regulation of PAX3/FOXO1 mRNA and protein levels as well as in reduced expression of several of its direct target genes, but not of wild-type FOXO1, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, fenretinide induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis as shown by caspase 9 and PARP cleavage and upregulated miR-9. Importantly, it demonstrated a significant anti-tumor effect in vivo. These results are similar to earlier reports for two other pediatric tumors, namely neuroblastoma and Ewing sarcoma, where fenretinide is under clinical development. Our results suggest that fenretinide might represent a novel treatment option also for translocation-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:23372815

Herrero Martín, David; Boro, Aleksandar; Schäfer, Beat W.

2013-01-01

66

Analysis of chlorocarbon compounds identified in the SAM Investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) mode of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment was designed for the separation and identification of the chemical components of the gases released from a solid sample or trapped from the atmosphere. Gases from solid samples are either produced by heating a cell from ambient to >800-1100oC (EGA mode) or by wet chemistry extraction and reactions (not yet employed on Mars). Prior to EGA analysis of portions of the first 3 solid samples (Rocknest, John Klein and Cumberland) collected by MSL and delivered to SAM, an internal SAM blank run was carried out with an empty quartz cup. These blank analyses are required to understand the background signal intrinsic to the GCMS and its gas manifolds and traps. Several peaks have been identified as part of SAM background, some of them below the nmol level, which attests of the sensitivity of the instrument and as-designed performance of the GCMS. The origin of each peak has been investigated, and two major contributors are revealed; residual vapor from one of the chemicals used for SAM wet chemistry experiment: N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and the Tenax from the hydrocarbon trap. Supporting lab experiments are in progress to understand the reaction pathways of the molecules identified in the SAM background. These experiments help elucidate which molecules may be interpreted as indigenous to Mars. Of the three solid samples analyzed on 11 runs, it was possible to detect and identify several chlorinated compounds including several chlorohydrocarbons. The chlorine is likely derived from the decomposition of martian perchlorates or other indigenous Cl-containing species while the origin of the carbon is presently under investigation for each detected molecule. To date, a subset these molecules have been identified in lab studies and a terrestrial contribution to the observed products are more easily explained. The combined results from SAM and the associated laboratory studies represent a significant step forward in the search for near-surface organic compounds on Mars.

Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Glavin, D.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Martin, M.; Miller, K.; Steele, A.; Szopa, C.; SAM; MSL science Team

2013-10-01

67

Orally Active Antischistosomal Early Leads Identified from the Open Access Malaria Box  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide hundreds of millions of schistosomiasis patients rely on treatment with a single drug, praziquantel. Therapeutic limitations and the threat of praziquantel resistance underline the need to discover and develop next generation drugs. Methodology We studied the antischistosomal properties of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) malaria box containing 200 diverse drug-like and 200 probe-like compounds with confirmed in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds were tested against schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. Based on in vitro performance, available pharmacokinetic profiles and toxicity data, selected compounds were investigated in vivo. Principal Findings Promising antischistosomal activity (IC50: 1.4–9.5 µM) was observed for 34 compounds against schistosomula. Three compounds presented IC50 values between 0.8 and 1.3 µM against adult S. mansoni. Two promising early leads were identified, namely a N,N?-diarylurea and a 2,3-dianilinoquinoxaline. Treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with a single oral 400 mg/kg dose of these drugs resulted in significant worm burden reductions of 52.5% and 40.8%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The two candidates identified by investigating the MMV malaria box are characterized by good pharmacokinetic profiles, low cytotoxic potential and easy chemistry and therefore offer an excellent starting point for antischistosomal drug discovery and development. PMID:24416463

Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Cowan, Noemi; Panic, Gordana; Vargas, Mireille; Mansour, Nuha R.; Bickle, Quentin D.; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Keiser, Jennifer

2014-01-01

68

Arginase II inhibitory activity of flavonoid compounds from Scutellaria indica.  

PubMed

Arginase II has recently reported as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. In the course of screening plants used in natural medicines as arginase II inhibitory activity, a methanol extract of Scutellaria indica showed significant inhibitory effect. Further fractionation and repeated column chromatography led to the isolation of a new flavan-type (1), and seven known compounds (2-8). The chemical structures of isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The isolates 1-8 were investigated in vitro for their arginase II inhibitory activity using enzyme solution prepared from kidney of anesthetized C57BL/6 mice. Compounds 3 and 5 significantly inhibited arginase II activity with IC?? values of 25.1 and 11.6 ?M, respectively, whereas the other compounds were apparently inactive. PMID:23604721

Kim, Sang Won; Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Min, Byung Sun

2013-08-01

69

In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds.  

PubMed

Salicylidene acylhydrazide compounds have been shown to inhibit bacterial pathogens, including Chlamydia and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If such compounds could also target HIV-1, their potential use as topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections would be considerable. In this study, the in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of action of several salicylidene acylhydrazides were determined. Inhibitory activity was assessed using TZM-bl cells and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as targets for HIV-1 infection. Antiviral activity was measured against cell-free and cell-associated virus and in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Since the antibacterial activity of salicylidene acylhydrazides is reversible by Fe(2+), the ability of Fe(2+) and other cations to reverse the anti-HIV-1 activity of the compounds was determined. Real-time PCR was also employed to determine the stage affected in the HIV-1 replication cycle. Four compounds with 50% inhibitory concentrations against HIV-1 of 1-7 ?M were identified. In vitro toxicity varied but was generally limited. Activity was similar against three R5 clade B primary isolates and whether the target for virus replication was TZM-bl cells or PBMCs. Compounds inhibited cell-free and cell-associated virus and were active in vaginal fluid and semen simulants. Fe(2+), but not other cations, reversed the anti-HIV-1 effect. Finally, the inhibitory effect of the compounds occurred at a post-integration step. In conclusion, salicylidene acylhydrazides were identified with in vitro anti-HIV-1 activity in the micromolar range. The activity of these compounds against other sexually transmitted pathogens makes them potential candidates to formulate for use as a broad-spectrum topical genital microbicide. PMID:22819150

Forthal, Donald N; Phan, Tran B; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Landucci, Gary; Chu, Hencelyn; Elofsson, Mikael; Peterson, Ellena

2012-10-01

70

Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.  

PubMed

A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

2014-01-01

71

Identification of active compounds in vegetal extracts based on correlation between activity and HPLC-MS data.  

PubMed

We propose a method identifying candidates for active compounds in vegetal extracts. From a collection of samples, the method requires, for each sample, a HPLC-MS analysis and a measurement of the activity. By applying a correlation analysis between the activity and the chromatographic area for each interval of elution time and m/z ratio, the peaks corresponding to candidates for active compounds can be identified. Additionally, when peaks are identified, a model can be estimated to predict the activity in new samples. Both methods are evaluated in one experiment involving the phenolic extract (PE) from 22 samples of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) where the activity is a cytotoxicity index against JIMT-1 breast cancer cells. In this experiment, the samples were separated into two disjunct partitions: one was used for training (identification of candidates and estimation of prediction model), while the other was used for validation (by comparing the predicted and the measured activities). Three compounds were identified as candidates to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of the EVOO-PE against JIMT-1 cells. The prediction model provided an accurate estimation of the activity. PMID:23122076

Roldán, Cristina; de la Torre, Angel; Mota, Sonia; Morales-Soto, Aránzazu; Menéndez, Javier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2013-01-15

72

Targeting the Wnt pathway in zebrafish as a screening method to identify novel therapeutic compounds.  

PubMed

Activating mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway account for the initiation of greater than 90% of all colorectal cancers and this pathway has been implicated in numerous other diseases. Therefore, identifying small molecule inhibitors of this pathway is of critical importance towards identifying clinically relevant drugs. Numerous screens have been employed to identify therapeutic reagents, but none have made it to advanced clinical trials, suggesting that traditional screening methods are ineffective at identifying clinically relevant targets. Here, we describe a novel in vivo screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of the Wnt pathway. Specifically, treatment of zebrafish embryos with LiCl inhibits GSK3 kinase function, resulting in hyperactivation of the signaling pathway and an eyeless phenotype at 1 day post fertilization. Using the small molecule XAV939, a known inhibitor of Wnt signaling, we rescued the LiCl induced eyeless phenotype, confirming efficacy of the screen. We next tested our assay with 400 known small molecule kinase inhibitors, none of which should inhibit Wnt signaling below the level of GSK3 based on their known targets. Accordingly, none of these small molecules rescued the eyeless phenotype, which demonstrates the stringency of the assay. However, several of these small molecule kinase inhibitors did generate a non-Wnt phenotype in accordance with the kinase they targeted. Therefore, combining the efficacy, sensitivity, and stringency of this preliminary screen, this model will provide an alternative to the traditional in vitro screen, generating potentially clinical relevant drugs in a rapid and cost-effective way. PMID:24414478

Robertson, Joshua K; Danzmann, Kestral; Charles, Sherise; Blake, Katherine; Olivares, Annia; Bamikole, Solape; Olson, Meghan; Van Raay, Terence J

2014-02-01

73

The use of stable isotopes to identify reactive metabolites and target macromolecules associated with toxicities of halogenated hydrocarbon compounds.  

PubMed

1. Halogenated compounds, such as the inhalation anaesthetics, halothane and enflurane, and the chemicals chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and bromotrichloromethane can cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and inactivation of cytochromes P-450. Each of these toxicities is mediated by reactive metabolites. 2. Stable isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, chlorine and oxygen have been used in conjunction with mass spectrometry and n.m.r. spectrometry to identify the structures of these metabolites, to elucidate the mechanisms of their formation, and to characterize the structures of their macromolecular adducts. 3. In a number of cases, oxidative pathways of metabolism to toxic metabolites have been defined by kinetic deuterium isotope effects. 4. Recently, we have found that the trichloromethyl radical metabolite of bromotrichloromethane can activate myoglobin by causing the covalent cross-linking of haem to protein. The structure of a haem-myoglobin adduct has been defined by the use of stable isotope studies. PMID:1441605

Osawa, Y; Highet, R J; Pohl, L R

1992-01-01

74

Hemagglutinating activity in phytopathogenic bacteria surface compounds.  

PubMed

Extracellular components of plant pathogenic bacteria were obtained from their culture medium as well as from the whole cells by using NaCl 1 M, pH 6.0; 20% sucrose dissolved in 0.03 M Tris buffer, pH 8.0; or 0.05 M Na2EDTA. All the extracts from Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, Pseudomonas solanacearum, and Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica, were assayed for hemagglutinating activity on sheep, rabbit and chicken red blood cells (RBCs). The only active extracts were those obtained by NaCl treatment. They agglutinated sheep and rabbit erythrocytes. Extracts from E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica gave rise to the high agglutination titer on rabbit RBCs. These extracts had the lowest polysaccharide/protein ratio. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora extracts showed only a low titer (18.5 units). The agglutinating activity present in NaCl extracts of the bacteria tested was inhibited by different carbohydrates to various extent. Extracts from E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica appeared to be the most sensitive ones while those of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora least sensitive to the presence of sugar. It is suggested that hemagglutinins observed in plant pathogenic bacteria and those in plant host are similar and that both may, in some way, be involved in the plant-parasite relationship. PMID:3625474

Serra, M T; Castresana, M C; Tejerina, G

1987-01-01

75

Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic.  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of functionally active organosulfur compounds such as allin, diallyl disulfide, S-allylmercaptocysteine, and S-trityl-L-cysteine isolated from garlic have received great attention from a large number of investigators who have studied their pharmacological effects for the treatment of various diseases. These organosulfur compounds are able to prevent for development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have been also many reports on toxicities and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. The aim of this study is to review a variety of experimental and clinical reports, and describe the effectiveness, toxicities and pharmacokinetics, and possible mechanisms of pharmaceutical actions of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. PMID:24333688

Yun, Hyung-Mun; Ban, Jung Ok; Park, Kyung-Ran; Lee, Chong Kil; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Han, Sang Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

2014-05-01

76

Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds. PMID:25343583

Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

2014-10-24

77

Cytotoxic activity of new phenolic compounds from Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic compounds, caesalpiniaphenols G-H (1 and 2), were isolated from Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan heartwood. The chemical structures were established mainly by extensive spectroscopic studies and chemical evidence. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against HL-60 cancer cell lines with respective IC50 values of 16.7 and 22.5 µg/mL. Treating HL-60 cells with various concentrations of 1 resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis. PMID:24317049

Hung, Tran Manh; Hai, Nguyen Xuan; Nhan, Nguyen Trung; Quang, Ton That; Quan, Tran Le; Cuong, To Dao; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Dat, Nguyen Tien

2013-01-01

78

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sulfur-Containing Compounds from Garlic  

PubMed Central

Abstract We identified four anti-inflammatory sulfur-containing compounds from garlic, and their chemical structures were identified as Z- and E-ajoene and oxidized sulfonyl derivatives of ajoene. The sulfur compounds inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these sulfur compounds attenuated the LPS-induced expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA. Moreover, these sulfur-containing compounds suppressed the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity and the degradation of inhibitory-?B? in LPS-activated macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that they markedly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) at 20??M. These data demonstrate that the sulfur compounds from garlic, (Z, E)-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs, can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO/PGE2 and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the NF-?B activation and the phosphorylations of p38 and ERK. Taken together, these data show that Z- and E-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs from garlic might have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential. PMID:23057778

Lee, Da Yeon; Li, Hua; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Jeon, Raok

2012-01-01

79

Anti-inflammatory activity of sulfur-containing compounds from garlic.  

PubMed

We identified four anti-inflammatory sulfur-containing compounds from garlic, and their chemical structures were identified as Z- and E-ajoene and oxidized sulfonyl derivatives of ajoene. The sulfur compounds inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these sulfur compounds attenuated the LPS-induced expression of the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins and mRNA. Moreover, these sulfur-containing compounds suppressed the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcriptional activity and the degradation of inhibitory-?B? in LPS-activated macrophages. Furthermore, we observed that they markedly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) at 20??M. These data demonstrate that the sulfur compounds from garlic, (Z, E)-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs, can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO/PGE(2) and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the NF-?B activation and the phosphorylations of p38 and ERK. Taken together, these data show that Z- and E-ajoene and their sulfonyl analogs from garlic might have anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential. PMID:23057778

Lee, Da Yeon; Li, Hua; Lim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hwa Jin; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha

2012-11-01

80

Merging bioactivity with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based chemometrics to identify minor immunomodulatory compounds from a Micronesian adaptogen, Phaleria nisidai.  

PubMed

This study presents a strategy based on repeatable reversed-phase LC-TOF-MS methods and chemometric statistical tools, including untargeted PCA and supervised OPLS-DA models, to identify low-yielding compounds with potent immunostimulant activity in Phaleria nisidai (Thymelaeaceae), a plant with a history of use as an adaptogen on the islands of Palau in Micronesia. IFN? ELISA assays were used to classify chromatographic fractions according to imunomodulatory activity prior to LC-TOF-MS chemometric analysis to target and identify compounds likely to contribute to observed activity. Simplexin, a daphnane diterpene ester, was identified for the first time from this genus and caused an increase in the production of cytokines (IFN?, IL1?, IL6, and IL13) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Five other daphnane diterpene esters were tentatively identified for the first time from this plant based on mass spectral data and are marker metabolites distinguishing active from inactive fractions. This analytical approach increased the efficiency of bioactivity-guided fractionation and has the potential to minimize redundant isolation and identify minor constituents with potent activity from a complex matrix. PMID:25218635

Kulakowski, Daniel M; Wu, Shi-Biao; Balick, Michael J; Kennelly, Edward J

2014-10-17

81

Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in Mexican chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chia seeds from two different regions in the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa were analyzed for soluble and insoluble fibre and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. The soluble and insoluble fibre content of the Sinaloa and Jalisco seeds was similar. The major compounds identified in hydrolyzed and crude extracts were quercetin and kaempferol, while caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present

E. Reyes-Caudillo; A. Tecante; M. A. Valdivia-López

2008-01-01

82

Selective CB2 receptor agonists. Part 2: Structure-activity relationship studies and optimization of proline-based compounds.  

PubMed

Through a ligand-based pharmacophore model (S)-proline based compounds were identified as potent cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists with high selectivity over the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Structure-activity relationship investigations for this compound class lead to oxo-proline compounds 21 and 22 which combine an impressive CB1 selectivity profile with good pharmacokinetic properties. In a streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy model, 22 demonstrated a dose-dependent reversal of mechanical hyperalgesia. PMID:25556092

Riether, Doris; Zindell, Renee; Wu, Lifen; Betageri, Raj; Jenkins, James E; Khor, Someina; Berry, Angela K; Hickey, Eugene R; Ermann, Monika; Albrecht, Claudia; Ceci, Angelo; Gemkow, Mark J; Nagaraja, Nelamangala V; Romig, Helmut; Sauer, Achim; Thomson, David S

2015-02-01

83

Removal of volatile organic compound by activated carbon fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to study adsorption\\/desorption of volatile organic compound (VOC) on the activated carbon fiber (ACF) under dynamic conditions. The primary objective was to experimentally demonstrate the suitability of ACF in effectively adsorbing VOCs from inert gaseous stream under varying operating conditions, and compare its performance vis-à-vis that of the other commercially available adsorbents, such as granular activated

Debasish Das; Vivekanand Gaur; Nishith Verma

2004-01-01

84

2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

A series of new 2-aminonaphthoquinones and related compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as trypanocidal and cytotoxic agents. Some tested compounds inhibited epimastigote growth and trypomastigote viability. Several compounds showed similar or higher activity and selectivity as compared with current trypanocidal drug, nifurtimox. Compound 4l exhibit higher selectivity than nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi in comparison with Vero cells. Some of the synthesized quinones were tested against cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, showing that certain chemical modifications on the naphthoquinone moiety induce and excellent increase the selectivity index of the cytotoxicity (4g and 10). The results presented here show that the anti-T. cruzi activity of 2-aminonaphthoquinones derivatives can be improved by the replacement of the benzene ring by a pyridine moiety. Interestingly, the presence of a chlorine atom at C-3 and a highly lipophilic alkyl group or aromatic ring are newly observed elements that should lead to the discovery of more selective cytotoxic and trypanocidal compounds. PMID:25127463

Sieveking, Ivan; Thomas, Pablo; Estévez, Juan C; Quiñones, Natalia; Cuéllar, Mauricio A; Villena, Juan; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Fierro, Angélica; Tapia, Ricardo A; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Cassels, Bruce K; Estévez, Ramon J; Salas, Cristian O

2014-09-01

85

Pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation approaches for identifying new lead compounds for inhibiting aldose reductase 2.  

PubMed

Aldose reductase 2 (ALR2), which catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol using NADP as a cofactor, has been implicated in the etiology of secondary complications of diabetes. A pharmacophore model, Hypo1, was built based on 26 compounds with known ALR2-inhibiting activity values. Hypo1 contains important chemical features required for an ALR2 inhibitor, and demonstrates good predictive ability by having a high correlation coefficient (0.95) as well as the highest cost difference (128.44) and the lowest RMS deviation (1.02) among the ten pharmacophore models examined. Hypo1 was further validated by Fisher's randomization method (95%), test set (r = 0.91), and the decoy set shows the goodness of fit (0.70). Furthermore, during virtual screening, Hypo1 was used as a 3D query to screen the NCI database, and the hit leads were sorted by applying Lipinski's rule of five and ADME properties. The best-fitting leads were subjected to docking to identify a suitable orientation at the ALR2 active site. The molecule that showed the strongest interactions with the critical amino acids was used in molecular dynamics simulations to calculate its binding affinity to the candidate molecules. Thus, Hypo1 describes the key structure-activity relationship along with the estimated activities of ALR2 inhibitors. The hit molecules were searched against PubChem to find similar molecules with new scaffolds. Finally, four molecules were found to satisfy all of the chemical features and the geometric constraints of Hypo1, as well as to show good dock scores, PLPs and PMFs. Thus, we believe that Hypo1 facilitates the selection of novel scaffolds for ALR2, allowing new classes of ALR2 inhibitors to be designed. PMID:22249747

Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; Lee, Keun Woo

2012-07-01

86

Compounds blocking mutant huntingtin toxicity identified using a Huntington's disease neuronal cell model.  

PubMed

Neuronal cell death in HD is believed to be largely a dominant cell-autonomous effect of the mutant huntingtin protein. We previously developed an inducible PC12 cell model which expresses an N-terminal huntingtin fragment with an expanded poly Q repeat (N63-148Q) under the control of the tet-off system. In order to evaluate the ability of compounds to protect against mutant huntingtin toxicity in our model, we measured LDH released by dead cells into the medium. We have now screened the library of 1040 compounds from the NINDS Custom Collection as part of a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collaborative project. Each positive compound was tested at 3-8 concentrations. Five compounds significantly attenuated mutant huntingtin (htt)-induced LDH release without affecting the expression level of huntingtin and independent of effect on aggregates. We also tested a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and previously proposed candidate compounds. This cell model can provide a method to screen potential therapeutic compounds for treating Huntington's disease. PMID:15908226

Wang, Wenfei; Duan, Wenzhen; Igarashi, Shuichi; Morita, Hokuto; Nakamura, Masayuki; Ross, Christopher A

2005-11-01

87

Identifying new small molecule anti-invasive compounds for glioma treatment  

PubMed Central

Glioblastoma is a disease with poor survival rates after diagnosis. Treatment of the disease involves debulking of the tumor, which is limited by the degree of invasiveness of the disease. Therefore, a treatment to halt the invasion of glioma is desirable for clinical implementation. There have been several candidate compounds targeting specific aspects of invasion, including cell adhesions, matrix degradation, and cytoskeletal rearrangement, but they have failed clinically for a variety of reasons. New targets against glioma invasion include upstream mediators of these classical targets in an effort to better inhibit invasion with more specificity for cancer. Included in these treatments is a new class of compounds inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species by targeting the NADPH oxidases. These compounds stand to inhibit multiple pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B and Akt. By conducting a screen of compounds thought to inhibit these pathways, a new compound to halt invasion was found that may have a beneficial effect against glioma, based on recent publications. Further, there are still limitations to the treatment of glioblastoma regardless of the discovery of new targets and compounds that should be addressed to better the therapies against this deadly cancer. PMID:24067366

Munson, Jennifer; Bonner, Michael; Fried, Levi; Hofmekler, Jonathan; Arbiser, Jack; Bellamkonda, Ravi

2013-01-01

88

Cytotoxic and Antimigratory Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Dendrobium brymerianum  

PubMed Central

Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract prepared from the whole plant of Dendrobium brymerianum led to the isolation of eight phenolic compounds. Among the isolated compounds (1–8), moscatilin (1), gigantol (3), lusianthridin (4), and dendroflorin (6) showed appreciable cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 196.7, 23.4, 65.0, and 125.8??g/mL, respectively, and exhibited antimigratory property at nontoxic concentrations. This study is the first report on the biological activities of this plant.

Klongkumnuankarn, Pornprom; Busaranon, Kesarin; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

2015-01-01

89

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

SciTech Connect

The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

2010-09-20

90

High-throughput screening and whole genome sequencing identifies an antimicrobially active inhibitor of Vibrio cholerae  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogenic serotypes of Vibrio cholerae cause the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. The increasing development of bacterial resistances against the known antibiotics necessitates the search for new antimicrobial compounds and targets for this pathogen. Results A high-throughput screening assay with a Vibrio cholerae reporter strain constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) was developed and applied in the investigation of the growth inhibitory effect of approximately 28,300 structurally diverse natural compounds and synthetic small molecules. Several compounds with activities in the low micromolar concentration range were identified. The most active structure, designated vz0825, displayed a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.6 ?M and a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 3.2 ?M against several strains of V. cholerae and was specific for this pathogen. Mutants with reduced sensitivity against vz0825 were generated and whole genome sequencing of 15 pooled mutants was carried out. Comparison with the genome of the wild type strain identified the gene VC_A0531 (GenBank: AE003853.1) as the major site of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the resistant mutants. VC_A0531 is located on the small chromosome of V. cholerae and encodes the osmosensitive K+-channel sensor histidine kinase (KdpD). Nucleotide exchange of the major mutation site in the wild type strain confirmed the sensitive phenotype. Conclusion The reporter strain MO10 pG13 was successfully used for the identification of new antibacterial compounds against V. cholerae. Generation of resistant mutants and whole genome sequencing was carried out to identify the histidine kinase KdpD as a novel antimicrobial target. PMID:24568688

2014-01-01

91

Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of Natural Compound Aloe Emodin Derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25323822

Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

2014-10-17

92

USE OF BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING MUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS IN URBAN AIR AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis fractionation has been used for 30 years to identify mutagenic classes of compounds in complex mixtures. Most studies have used the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, and we have recently applied this methodology to two standard reference sa...

93

Vanillin-derived antiproliferative compounds influence Plk1 activity.  

PubMed

We synthesized a series of vanillin-derived compounds and analyzed them in HeLa cells for their effects on the proliferation of cancer cells. The molecules are derivatives of the lead compound SBE13, a potent inhibitor of the inactive conformation of human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Some of the new designs were able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation to a similar extent as the lead structure. Two of the compounds ((({4-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl}methyl)(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amine) and (({4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl}methyl)(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amine)) were much stronger in their capacity to reduce HeLa cell proliferation and turned out to potently induce apoptosis and reduce Plk1 kinase activity in vitro. PMID:25304894

Carrasco-Gomez, Roberto; Keppner-Witter, Sarah; Hieke, Martina; Lange, Lisa; Schneider, Gisbert; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Ewgenij; Spänkuch, Birgit

2014-11-01

94

Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages.  

PubMed

The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 ?g/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

2014-09-01

95

Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 ?g/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

2014-01-01

96

Trypanothione Reductase High-Throughput Screening Campaign Identifies Novel Classes of Inhibitors with Antiparasitic Activity ? †  

PubMed Central

High-throughput screening of 100,000 lead-like compounds led to the identification of nine novel chemical classes of trypanothione reductase (TR) inhibitors worthy of further investigation. Hits from five of these chemical classes have been developed further through different combinations of preliminary structure-activity relationship rate probing and assessment of antiparasitic activity, cytotoxicity, and chemical and in vitro metabolic properties. This has led to the identification of novel TR inhibitor chemotypes that are drug-like and display antiparasitic activity. For one class, a series of analogues have displayed a correlation between TR inhibition and antiparasitic activity. This paper explores the process of identifying, investigating, and evaluating a series of hits from a high-throughput screening campaign. PMID:19364854

Holloway, Georgina A.; Charman, William N.; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Kostewicz, Edmund; Novello, Patrizia M.; Parisot, John P.; Richardson, John; Street, Ian P.; Watson, Keith G.; Baell, Jonathan B.

2009-01-01

97

Global proteome analysis identifies active immunoproteasome subunits in human platelets.  

PubMed

The discovery of new functions for platelets, particularly in inflammation and immunity, has expanded the role of these anucleate cell fragments beyond their primary hemostatic function. Here, four in-depth human platelet proteomic data sets were generated to explore potential new functions for platelets based on their protein content and this led to the identification of 2559 high confidence proteins. During a more detailed analysis, consistently high expression of the proteasome was discovered, and the composition and function of this complex, whose role in platelets has not been thoroughly investigated, was examined. Data set mining resulted in identification of nearly all members of the 26S proteasome in one or more data sets, except the ?5 subunit. However, ?5i, a component of the immunoproteasome, was identified. Biochemical analyses confirmed the presence of all catalytically active subunits of the standard 20S proteasome and immunoproteasome in human platelets, including ?5, which was predominantly found in its precursor form. It was demonstrated that these components were assembled into the proteasome complex and that standard proteasome as well as immunoproteasome subunits were constitutively active in platelets. These findings suggest potential new roles for platelets in the immune system. For example, the immunoproteasome may be involved in major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) peptide generation, as the MHC I machinery was also identified in our data sets. PMID:25146974

Klockenbusch, Cordula; Walsh, Geraldine M; Brown, Lyda M; Hoffman, Michael D; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Kast, Juergen

2014-12-01

98

Algicidal activity of Bacillus sp. Lzh-5 and its algicidal compounds against Microcystis aeruginosa.  

PubMed

A freshwater algicidal bacterial strain, Lzh-5, isolated from Lake Taihu, with strong algicidal activity against Microcystis aeruginosa, was identified as Bacillus sp. based on its phenotypic characteristics and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence. The algicidal mode of Bacillus sp. Lzh-5 was indirect, attacking M. aeruginosa cells by releasing algicidal compounds. Two algicidal compounds (S-5A and S-5B) produced by Bacillus sp. Lzh-5 were purified with ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography and identified as hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione and 3-isopropyl-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. The active algicidal compounds S-5A (hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione) and S-5B (3-isopropyl-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione) displayed high levels of algicidal activity against M. aeruginosa 9110, with LD50 values of 5.7 and 19.4 ?g/ml, respectively. This is the first report of 3-isopropyl-hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione as an algicidal compound. Compounds S-5A and S-5B also induced obvious morphological changes in M. aeruginosa 9110. In cocultures of M. aeruginosa 9110 and Bacillus sp. Lzh-5, the cell density of Bacillus sp. Lzh-5 and the concentrations of S-5A and S-5B correlated positively with the algicidal activity. Our results indicate that strain Lzh-5 and its two algicidal compounds are potentially useful for controlling cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu. PMID:25196270

Li, Zhenghua; Geng, Mengxin; Yang, Hong

2014-09-01

99

A yeast chemical genetics approach identifies the compound 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl isothiocyanate as a calcineurin inhibitor.  

PubMed

The phosphatase enzyme calcineurin controls gene expression in a variety of biological contexts however few potent inhibitors are currently available. A screen of 360 plant extracts for inhibition of calcineurin-dependent gene expression in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified the compound 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl isothiocyanate as an inhibitor. The compound was subsequently shown to inhibit human calcineurin via a mixed inhibition mechanism. To gain further mechanistic insight a yeast haploinsufficiency screen of 1152 deletion strains was carried out using a novel liquid medium screening method. The resulting haploinsufficiency profile is similar to that reported for the known calcineurin inhibitor FK506. PMID:24374339

Prescott, Thomas A K; Panaretou, Barry; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

2014-01-31

100

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? A New Compound from Garlic with High Antioxidant Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cinnamate (A) moiety was extracted form Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with methanol and partition by EtOAc. Purification by using column chromatography and recrystallization yielded the new white powder solid, mp 237-239OC (EtOH). This compound revealed antioxidant activity in DPHH and lipid peroxidant inhibition , results valued of IC50 64.16 µg\\/mL and 2.8 mg\\/mL were higher than BHT and ascobic

Yongyuth Tundulawessa; Valaya Alongkorn

101

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1gl?1 and 5gl?1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C were obtained. The results

Kun-Chang Huang; Zhiqiang Zhao; George E. Hoag; Amine Dahmani; Philip A. Block

2005-01-01

102

Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. PMID:23351181

Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

2013-04-01

103

Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603

Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

2014-01-01

104

Antibiofilm activity, compound characterization, and acute toxicity of extract from a novel bacterial species of paenibacillus.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237), phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512), and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260). The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups (P > 0.05). Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections. PMID:24790603

Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim

2014-01-01

105

The OPTX Project. V. Identifying Distant Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/H? versus [N II]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z < 0.5, the redshift at which [N II]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g - z color, [Ne III]?3869, and [O II]??3726 + 3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z < 1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray-selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray-selected AGNs as BPT-SF. We use the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole galaxy samples, with their accompanying deep Chandra imaging, to perform X-ray and infrared stacking analyses to further validate our TBT-AGN and TBT-SF selections; that is, we verify the dominance of AGN activity in the former and star formation activity in the latter. Finally, we address the inclusion of the majority of the BPT-comp (sources lying between the BPT-SF and BPT-AGN regimes) in our TBT-AGN regime. We find that the stacked BPT-comp source is X-ray hard (lang?effrang = 1.0+0.4 -0.4) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

2011-11-01

106

Anticancer activity of new compounds using benzimidazole as a scaffold.  

PubMed

The design and synthesis of substituted 1-(1-ethy-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl) ethanone (3a-f) and substituted 1-(2-bromoethyl)-2- (1-hydrazinylidene or ethylidene)-1H-benzimidazole (3g-j) have been successfully achieved under microwave irradiation with an aim for finding promising anticancer agents. Among the synthetic compounds, those with potential activity were selected and evaluated in-vitro for anticancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, against 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer. The title compound 3e (NSC: 765733/1) exhibited notable growth inhibition that satisfies threshold criteria at single dose (10 µM) on all human cell lines of NCI. This compound was considered for further study at five dose levels (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 µM) with GI50 values ranging from 0.19 to 92.7 µM. Compound 3e was found superior for Non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (HOP-92) and calculated end points (GI50 0.19, TGI 1.45, LC50 >100 and Log10GI50 -6.70, Log10TGI -5.84, Log10LC50 >-4.00). Docking study was performed using Maestro 9.0 to provide binding mode into binding sites of topoisomerase enzyme (PDB ID: 1SC7). Hopefully in the future, compound 3e could be used as novel template for the development of potential anticancer agents. PMID:24827531

Rashid, Mohd; Husain, Asif; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Sarafroz, Mohd

2014-01-01

107

Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

1997-01-01

108

Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*  

PubMed Central

Responses shown by female mosquitos to topical applications of solutions, to deposits from water-dispersible-powder formulations, or to exposure to the vapour from such deposits, are described for a number of compounds that have shown promise as residual contact insecticides. The behaviour of Anopheles stephensi females in laboratory tests indicates that departures of mosquitos from treated buildings, and their survival rates, are likely to be increased as a result of irritation and consequent activity after only a brief period of contact with phthalthrin (OMS-1011) and other synthetic pyrethroids but not with dieldrin (OMS-18) and lindane (OMS-17) or the carbamates and organophosphorus compounds tested. Mosquitos were not disturbed by exposure to the vapour from deposits of any of the compounds. The rates of action of the different compounds following their application in solution directly to the insect cuticle or contact of the mosquitos with deposits on plywood and plaster emphasize the importance of the lipid-solubility and partitioning properties of an insecticide in determining its passage from a surface deposit into, and through, the cuticle to the site of action. PMID:4392935

Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

1970-01-01

109

Orally active opioid compounds from a non-poppy source.  

PubMed

The basic science and clinical use of morphine and other "opioid" drugs are based almost exclusively on the extracts or analogues of compounds isolated from a single source, the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). However, it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source. Specifically, at least two alkaloids isolated from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, mitragynine ((E)-2-[(2S,3S)-3-ethyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12b-octahydroindolo[3,2-h]quinolizin-2-yl]-3-methoxyprop-2-enoic acid methyl ester; 9-methoxy coryantheidine; MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG), and several synthetic analogues of these natural products display centrally mediated (supraspinal and spinal) antinociceptive (analgesic) activity in various pain models. Several characteristics of these compounds suggest a classic "opioid" mechanism of action: nanomolar affinity for opioid receptors, competitive interaction with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and two-way analgesic cross-tolerance with morphine. However, other characteristics of the compounds suggest novelty, particularly chemical structure and possible greater separation from side effects. We review the chemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds. PMID:23517479

Raffa, Robert B; Beckett, Jaclyn R; Brahmbhatt, Vivek N; Ebinger, Theresa M; Fabian, Chrisjon A; Nixon, Justin R; Orlando, Steven T; Rana, Chintan A; Tejani, Ali H; Tomazic, Robert J

2013-06-27

110

Identifying key non-volatile compounds in ready-to-drink green tea and their impact on taste profile.  

PubMed

Thirty-nine non-volatile compounds in seven ready-to-drink (RTD) green tea samples were analysed and quantified using liquid chromatography. Taste reconstruction experiments using thirteen selected compounds were conducted to identify the key non-volatile tastants. Taste profiles of the reconstructed samples did not differ significantly from the RTD tea samples. To investigate the taste contribution and significance of individual compounds, omission experiments were carried out by removing individual or a group of compounds. Sensory evaluation revealed that the astringent- and bitter-tasting (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, bitter-tasting caffeine, and the umami-tasting l-glutamic acid were the main contributors to the taste of RTD green tea. Subsequently, the taste profile of the reduced recombinant, comprising of a combination of these three compounds and l-theanine, was found to not differ significantly from the sample recombinant and RTD tea sample. Lastly, regression models were developed to objectively predict and assess the intensities of bitterness and astringency in RTD green teas. PMID:24594147

Yu, Peigen; Yeo, Angelin Soo-Lee; Low, Mei-Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

2014-07-15

111

[Development of fluorescence imaging based assay for screening compounds with anti-migration activity].  

PubMed

In the present study, A fluorescent imaging-based high-throughput screening method was developed for identifying anti-migratory compounds with 96-well Transwell plates. The correlation, precision and stability of this method were examined and the incubation time of dye Hoechst 33342 in addition to migration time was optimized. In addition, The inhibitory activity of anti-cancer drug paclitaxel on tumor cell migration was assayed and an IC50 value of 0.717 micromol x L(-1) was obtained. Using this method, 24 components from Rhizoma Alismatis were screened and one component with anti-migration activity was found. These results show that the new proposed method with good precision, stability and linear range has the potential to assay the inhibitory activity of anticancer compounds. PMID:22010348

Nie, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Yi

2011-07-01

112

Identification of major phenolic compounds of Chinese water chestnut and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Chinese water chestnut (CWC) is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) as (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate and (+)-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:17851436

You, Yanli; Duan, Xuewu; Wei, Xiaoyi; Su, Xinguo; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Jian; Ruenroengklin, Neungnapa; Jiang, Yueming

2007-01-01

113

Anti-inflammatory activity of different agave plants and the compound cantalasaponin-1.  

PubMed

Species of the agave genus, such as Agave tequilana, Agave angustifolia and Agave americana are used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat inflammation-associated conditions. These plants' leaves contain saponin compounds which show anti-inflammatory properties in different models. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory capacity of these plants, identify which is the most active, and isolate the active compound by a bio-directed fractionation using the ear edema induced in mice with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) technique. A dose of 6 mg/ear of acetone extract from the three agave species induced anti-inflammatory effects, however, the one from A. americana proved to be the most active. Different fractions of this species showed biological activity. Finally the F5 fraction at 2.0 mg/ear induced an inhibition of 85.6%. We identified one compound in this fraction as (25R)-5?-spirostan-3?,6?,23?-triol-3,6-di-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (cantalasaponin-1) through 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral analysis and two dimensional experiments like DEPT NMR, COSY, HSQC and HMBC. This steroidal glycoside showed a dose dependent effect of up to 90% of ear edema inhibition at the highest dose of 1.5 mg/ear. PMID:23846754

Monterrosas-Brisson, Nayeli; Ocampo, Martha L Arenas; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio R; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

2013-01-01

114

Novel curcumin- and emodin-related compounds identified by in silico 2D/3D conformer screening induce apoptosis in tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibition of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) associated kinases CK2 and PKD by curcumin causes stabilization of the tumor suppressor p53. It has been shown that curcumin induces tumor cell death and apoptosis. Curcumin and emodin block the CSN-directed c-Jun signaling pathway, which results in diminished c-Jun steady state levels in HeLa cells. The aim of this work was to search for new CSN kinase inhibitors analogue to curcumin and emodin by means of an in silico screening method. Methods Here we present a novel method to identify efficient inhibitors of CSN-associated kinases. Using curcumin and emodin as lead structures an in silico screening with our in-house database containing more than 106 structures was carried out. Thirty-five compounds were identified and further evaluated by the Lipinski's rule-of-five. Two groups of compounds can be clearly discriminated according to their structures: the curcumin-group and the emodin-group. The compounds were evaluated in in vitro kinase assays and in cell culture experiments. Results The data revealed 3 compounds of the curcumin-group (e.g. piceatannol) and 4 of the emodin-group (e.g. anthrachinone) as potent inhibitors of CSN-associated kinases. Identified agents increased p53 levels and induced apoptosis in tumor cells as determined by annexin V-FITC binding, DNA fragmentation and caspase activity assays. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the new in silico screening method is highly efficient for identifying potential anti-tumor drugs. PMID:16083495

Füllbeck, Melanie; Huang, Xiaohua; Dumdey, Renate; Frommel, Cornelius; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Preissner, Robert

2005-01-01

115

Systematic repurposing screening in xenograft models identifies approved drugs with novel anti-cancer activity.  

PubMed

Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10-15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583

Roix, Jeffrey J; Harrison, S D; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A; Meshaw, Kathryn R; McMurry, Avery S; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh

2014-01-01

116

Apatite formation: why it may not work as planned, and how to conclusively identify apatite compounds.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate apatites are inorganic compounds encountered in many different mineralized tissues. Bone mineral, for example, is constituted of nanocrystalline nonstoichiometric apatite, and the production of "analogs" through a variety of methods is frequently reported. In another context, the ability of solid surfaces to favor the nucleation and growth of "bone-like" apatite upon immersion in supersaturated fluids such as SFB is commonly used as one evaluation index of the "bioactivity" of such surfaces. Yet, the compounds or deposits obtained are not always thoroughly characterized, and their apatitic nature is sometimes not firmly assessed by appropriate physicochemical analyses. Of particular importance are the "actual" conditions in which the precipitation takes place. The precipitation of a white solid does not automatically indicate the formation of a "bone-like carbonate apatite layer" as is sometimes too hastily concluded: "all that glitters is not gold." The identification of an apatite phase should be carefully demonstrated by appropriate characterization, preferably using complementary techniques. This review considers the fundamentals of calcium phosphate apatite characterization discussing several techniques: electron microscopy/EDX, XRD, FTIR/Raman spectroscopies, chemical analyses, and solid state NMR. It also underlines frequent problems that should be kept in mind when making "bone-like apatites." PMID:23984373

Drouet, Christophe

2013-01-01

117

Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome (PFAR) –– A Target for Antiprion Compounds  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting mammals. Prions are misfolded amyloid aggregates of the prion protein (PrP), which form when the alpha helical, soluble form of PrP converts to an aggregation-prone, beta sheet form. Thus, prions originate as protein folding problems. The discovery of yeast prion(s) and the development of a red-/white-colony based assay facilitated safe and high-throughput screening of antiprion compounds. With this assay three antiprion compounds; 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP), guanabenz acetate (GA), and imiquimod (IQ) have been identified. Biochemical and genetic studies reveal that these compounds target ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and inhibit specifically the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR). The domain V of the 23S/25S/28S rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit constitutes the active site for PFAR. 6AP and GA inhibit PFAR by competition with the protein substrates for the common binding sites on the domain V rRNA. PFAR inhibition by these antiprion compounds opens up new possibilities for understanding prion formation, propagation and the role of the ribosome therein. In this review, we summarize and analyze the correlation between PFAR and prion processes using the antiprion compounds as tools. PMID:25341659

Banerjee, Debapriya; Sanyal, Suparna

2014-01-01

118

Implementation of a High-Throughput Screen for Identifying Small Molecules to Activate the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Pathway  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes involved in antioxidant defense through binding to Antioxidant Response Elements (ARE) located in the promoter regions of these genes. To identify Nrf2 activators for the treatment of oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced diseases, the present study developed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Nrf2 activation using AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control of ARE promoters. Of the 47,000 compounds screened, 238 (top 0.5% hits) of the chemicals increased the luminescent signal more than 14.4-fold and were re-tested at eleven concentrations in a range of 0.01–30 µM. Of these 238 compounds, 231 (96%) increased the luminescence signal in a concentration-dependent manner. Chemical structure relationship analysis of these 231 compounds indicated enrichment of four chemical scaffolds (diaryl amides and diaryl ureas, oxazoles and thiazoles, pyranones and thiapyranones, and pyridinones and pyridazinones). In addition, 30 of these 231 compounds were highly effective and/or potent in activating Nrf2, with a greater than 80-fold increase in luminescence, or an EC50 lower than 1.6 µM. These top 30 compounds were also screened in Hepa1c1c7 cells for an increase in Nqo1 mRNA, the prototypical Nrf2-target gene. Of these 30 compounds, 17 increased Nqo1 mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the present study documents the development, implementation, and validation of a high-throughput screen to identify activators of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway. Results from this screening identified Nrf2 activators, and provide novel insights into chemical scaffolds that might prevent oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. PMID:23056183

Liu, Jie Jerry; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2012-01-01

119

Iron-Targeting Antitumor Activity of Gallium Compounds and Novel Insights Into Triapine®-Metal Complexes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Despite advances made in the treatment of cancer, a significant number of patients succumb to this disease every year. Hence, there is a great need to develop new anticancer agents. Recent Advances: Emerging data show that malignant cells have a greater requirement for iron than normal cells do and that proteins involved in iron import, export, and storage may be altered in cancer cells. Therefore, strategies to perturb these iron-dependent steps in malignant cells hold promise for the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that gallium compounds and metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes inhibit tumor cell growth by targeting iron homeostasis, including iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase. Chemical similarities of gallium(III) with iron(III) enable the former to mimic the latter and interpose itself in critical iron-dependent steps in cellular proliferation. Newer gallium compounds have emerged with additional mechanisms of action. In clinical trials, the first-generation-compound gallium nitrate has exhibited activity against bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while the thiosemicarbazone Triapine® has demonstrated activity against other tumors. Critical Issues: Novel gallium compounds with greater cytotoxicity and a broader spectrum of antineoplastic activity than gallium nitrate should continue to be developed. Future Directions: The antineoplastic activity and toxicity of the existing novel gallium compounds and thiosemicarbazone-metal complexes should be tested in animal tumor models and advanced to Phase I and II clinical trials. Future research should identify biologic markers that predict tumor sensitivity to gallium compounds. This will help direct gallium-based therapy to cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from it. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900955

Antholine, William E.

2013-01-01

120

Antifungal activity of tautomycin and related compounds against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  

PubMed

The potential of tautomycin to control oilseed rape stem rot was investigated in this paper. Tautomycin produced by Streptomyces spiroverticillatus strongly inhibited Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, which causes oilseed rape stem rot. Tautomycin showed great inhibition of the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates. The values of EC(50) and MIC were 3.26 × 10(-4) mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM, respectively. Tautomycin treatment also resulted in morphological abnormalities of S. sclerotiorum such as hyphal swellings and abnormally branched shapes, which were observed microscopically. Sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum soaked in the tautomycin solution for 24 h remained viable, but their ability to undergo myceliogenic germination on PDA plates was completely inhibited when the concentration of tautomycin reached 6.52 × 10(-4) mM. Tautomycin-treated oilseed rape leaves were found to have a low incidence of leaf blight caused by S. sclerotiorum. The activity of the protein phosphatase (PP) in S. sclerotiorum decreased by 41.6% and 52.6% when treated with 3.30 × 10(-4)?mM and 6.52 × 10(-4) mM tautomycin, respectively. Cellular constituents also leaked from S. sclerotiorum cells incubated with tautomycin. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of tautomycin is due to the inhibition of the PP and then a change of membrane permeability. This paper also investigated related compounds that possess either a maleic anhydride or maleic acid moiety. Results showed 2,3-dimethylmaleic anhydride, diphenylmaleic anhydride and dimethyl maleate demonstrated significant activity against S. sclerotiorum. The values of EC(50) for these three compounds were 0.31 mM, 0.15 mM and 3.99 mM, respectively. The MIC values obtained for these compounds were 1.11 mM, 0.56 mM and 9.58 mM, respectively. PMID:21772304

Chen, Xiaolong; Zhu, Xiaohui; Ding, Yicheng; Shen, Yinchu

2011-08-01

121

compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size is the key factor of nanostructured materials, since all the structural, transport, electrical, magnetic and other physical properties can be tuned by this factor of materials. Only the condition is to choose appropriate inexpensive scale-processing method for material synthesis which offers good control over the stoichiometry, morphology and particle size distribution. Present communication deals with the studies on the sol-gel grown Y0.95Ca0.05MnO3 (YCMO) nanostructured compounds for their size-induced tuning of dielectric behavior. Structural studies reveal the single phasic nature with improved crystallite size with sintering temperature. Dielectric constant (real and imaginary) is found to increase with temperature and crystallite size/sintering temperature. High dielectric loss has been observed in the present system. Size dependent activation energy ( E a), obtained from modulus measurement, showing the increase in E a with crystallite size. The variation in various dielectric parameters and E a has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystallite boundaries, oxygen vacancies and charge carrier hopping.

Shah, N. A.

2014-10-01

122

Phenolic Compounds from Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss and Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities  

PubMed Central

Halimodendron halodendron has been used as forage in northwestern China for a long time. Its young leaves and flowers are edible and favored by indigenous people. In this study, eleven phenolic compounds were bioassay-guided and isolated from the aerial parts of H. halodendron for the first time. They were identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis as quercetin (1), 3,5,7,8,4?-pentahydroxy-3?-methoxy flavone (2), 3-O-methylquercetin (3), 3,3?-di-O-methylquercetin (4), 3,3?-di-O-methylquercetin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamentin-3-O-?-d-rutinoside (6), 8-O-methylretusin (7), 8-O-methylretusin-7-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), salicylic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (ferulic acid) (10), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy cinnamic acid (11). They were sorted as flavonols (1–6), soflavones (7 and 8), and phenolic acids (9–11). Among the compounds, flanools 1–4 revealed a strong antibacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50–150 ?g/mL, and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 26.8–125.1 ?g/mL. The two isoflavones (7 and 8) showed moderate inhibitory activity on the test bacteria. Three phenolic acids (9, 10 and 11) showed strong antibacterial activity with IC50 values of 28.1–149.7 ?g/mL. Antifungal activities of the compounds were similar to their antibacterial activities. All these phenolic compounds showed significant antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum as well as antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ?-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. In general, the flavonol aglycones with relatively low polarity exhibited stronger activities than the glycosides. The results suggest the potential of this plant as a source of functional food ingredients and provide support data for its utilization as forage as well. PMID:23109858

Wang, Jihua; Lou, Jingfeng; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Ligang; Wang, Mingan; Wang, Lan

2012-01-01

123

Characterization of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Solanum scabrum and Solanum burbankii berries.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to quantify and characterize phenolic compounds and to measure the antioxidant activity of Solanum scabrum and Solanum burbankii berries. The antioxidant activity of Solanum berry extracts was assayed by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods, whereas liquid chromatography (LC)/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra-performance LC-photodiode detector were used for identification and quantification of their polyphenols. Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in these fruits. The presence of seven phenolic acid derivatives and two flavonols was reported for the first time. In both cultivars, the major compound was found to be anthocyanin petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl-rutinoside)-5-O-glucoside. Additional anthocyanins in S. burbankii and S. scrabum berries were characterized as petunidin, delphinidin, and malvidin with the same glycosidic substitution pattern and acylation with p-coumaric and ferulic acids. S. scabrum was richer in phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, and was characterized by more powerful antioxidant activity than S. burbankii . PMID:24506267

Oszmia?ski, J; Kolniak-Ostek, J; Wojdy?o, A

2014-02-19

124

Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

2014-01-01

125

Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of date plum persimmon ( Diospyros lotus L.) fruits.  

PubMed

In the present study, phenolic compounds are extracted from the date plum persimmon fruits using water, methanol and acetone as solvents. Antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts are measured using four different tests, namely, DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, chelating and reducing power assays. All the extracts show dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing and chelating powers and moreover, they are well correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoid substances, suggesting direct contribution of phenolic compounds to these activities. In further, the extracts are identified and quantified by HPLC-ECD. Results show that gallic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound, with amounts ranging between 45.49and 287.47 ?g/g dry sample. Myricetin is the dominant flavonoid in all extracts. Its level varied from 2.75 ?g/g dry sample in acetone extract to 5.28 ?g/g dry sample in water extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the date plum persimmon fruits phenolic extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to its significant antioxidant activities. PMID:24803703

Gao, Hui; Cheng, Ni; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Bini; Deng, Jianjun; Cao, Wei

2014-05-01

126

Automated strategies to identify compounds on the basis of GC/EI-MS and calculated properties.  

PubMed

The identification of unknown compounds based on GC/EI-MS spectrum and structure generation techniques has been improved by combining a number of strategies into a programmed sequence. The program MOLGEN-MS is used to determine the molecular formula and incorporate substructural information to generate all structures matching the mass spectral information. Mass spectral fragments are then predicted for each structure and compared with the experimental spectrum using a match value. Additional data are then calculated automatically for each candidate to allow exclusion of candidates that did not match other analytical information. The effectiveness of these "exclusion criteria", as well as the programming sequence, was tested using a case study of 29 isomers of formula C(12)H(10)O(2). The default classifier precision resulted in the generation of too many structures in some cases, which was improved by up to several orders of magnitude by including additional classifiers or restrictions. Combining this with the exclusion of candidates based on a Lee retention index/boiling point correlation, octanol-water partitioning coefficients, steric energies, and finally spectral match values limited the number of candidate structures further from over 1 billion without any restrictions down to less than 6 structures in 10 cases and below 35 in all but 3 cases. This method can be used in the absence of matching database spectra and brings unknown identification based on MS interpretation and structure generation techniques a step closer to practical reality. PMID:21226466

Schymanski, Emma L; Meringer, Markus; Brack, Werner

2011-02-01

127

Bio-active compounds from Euphorbia cornigera Boiss.  

PubMed

Euphorbia cornigera Boiss. (Euphorbiaceae) roots extracted in various organic solvents were tested against Biomphalaria glabrata snails as molluscicide using Bayluscide as a control. Among these, acetone extract was found to be the most active (LC(50)=17.5 microg L(-1)) as compared to Bayluscide. The application of HPLC fractionation yielded ten (1-10) N-(2-aminobenzoyl)anthraniloy esters. Structure and the relative configuration of all the compounds were established through spectroscopic (UV, IR (1)H, (13)C NMR, 2-D NMR, HSQC, HMQC, HMBC, COSY-45 degrees , TOCSY, HOHAHA, HOESY, ROESY, NOESY, SECSY, NOE and mass measurements) techniques. On these basis the esters are named as: 3-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]-5-O-acetyl-20-O-angelylingenol (1), 3-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloyl-5-O-angelyl-20-O-acetylingenol (2), 3-O-acetyl-5-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloyl-20-O-angelylingenol (3), 3-O-acetyl-5-O-angelyl-20-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloylingenol (4), 3-O-angelyl-5-O-acetyl-20-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]-anthraniloylingenol (5), 3-O-angelyl-5-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloyl-20-O-acetylingenol (6), 3,20-O-diacetyl-5-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloylingenol (7), 5,20-O-diacetyl-3-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloylingenol (8), 3-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloyl-20-O-acetylingenol (9) and 20-O-[N-(2-aminobenzoyl)]anthraniloyl-3-O-acetylingenol (10). The literature reveals that compounds 1-8 are new from plant kingdom, whereas 9 and 10 are known but not reported from this source earlier. Their molluscicidal activity (in terms of LC(50)) showed that all the compounds were 1.3-2.2 times more toxic than Bayluscide except 5 and 6. PMID:19376614

Baloch, Imam Bakhsh; Baloch, Musa Kaleem; Baloch, Ahmad Khan

2009-08-01

128

Identifying Physical Activity-Associated Neuroprotective Gene Transcripts.  

E-print Network

??Mild, moderate, and vigorous physical activity are associated with decreased risks of Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, and a decreased infarct from stroke. Physical activity increases… (more)

Mitchell, Amanda Christine

2011-01-01

129

Evaluation of compounds for insecticidal activity on adult mosquitos*  

PubMed Central

The N,N-dimethylcarbamates are much less toxic and much more volatile than the corresponding N-methylcarbamates. N-acylation of N-methylcarbamates is also generally accompanied by a loss in intrinsic toxicity to adult mosquitos by topical application, but the reduction in toxicity may be relatively small and in some N-acetyl derivatives may not occur at all. N-acylation is also accompanied by changes in physical properties such as lipid solubility and partition coefficient, which influence contact toxicity, and volatility, which affects residual activity. In the series of compounds examined, contact toxicity is maximal in the N-acetyl derivatives but their volatility is often so high that they lack the persistence required of residual insecticides. This does not apply, however, to the N-acetyl derivatives of OMS-597 and OMS-708 because the volatility of the parent compound is so low that some degree of persistence can be sacrificed to obtain some improvement in contact activity. OMS-1064 is the only N-chloroacetyl derivative tested so far that shows promise as a residual insecticide. PMID:4392936

Hadaway, A. B.; Barlow, F.; Grose, J. E. H.; Turner, C. R.; Flower, L. S.

1970-01-01

130

Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are exploring the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. Recently we reported evidence for a new emissivity feature identified on Iapetus using Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer [1]. This 11.7 ?m feature is consistent with emissivity minima (transparency features) of very fine-grained silicates. Its position and shape may be diagnostic of silicate type, but most lab data at these wavelengths have been acquired using coarser grains and/or at Earth surface pressures and temperatures. Infrared spectra can change substantially under low-temperature, vacuum conditions [e.g., 2,3].We prepared sieved (<0.4 mm) and very fine-grained (few ?m) powders of six different silicates and measured their VNIR (0.35-2.5 ?m) reflectance spectra under ambient air, and mid-IR (1.2-20 ?m) spectra in a purged N2 glovebox. All silicates exhibited mid-IR transparency features (and loss of other features) in micronized form that were not observed for the coarser grain sizes. Muscovite, a phyllosilicate mineral possibly similar to those tentatively identified on Europa [4], provided the closest match to Iapetus in the mid-IR--although clear VNIR features of muscovite have not been identified on Iapetus [5]--and therefore we measured muscovite across the same wavelength range under Iapetus-like conditions (T=125 K, P<3x10^-8 torr). We will report on our ongoing analysis and plans for additional future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Young, C.L., et al. (2014), Workshop on the Habitability of Icy Worlds, Abstract #4038.[2] Logan, L.M., et al. (1973), J. Geophys. Res., 78(23), 4983-5003.[3] Donaldson Hanna, K.L., et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00H05.[4] Shirley, J.H., et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #P54A-07.[5] Clark, R.N., et al. (2012), Icarus, 218, 831-860.

Wray, James J.; Young, Cindy L.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

2014-11-01

131

Extracts of Phenolic Compounds from Seeds of Three Wild Grapevines—Comparison of Their Antioxidant Activities and the Content of Phenolic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Phenolic compounds were extracted from three wild grapevine species: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH• anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds— while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

132

Extracts of phenolic compounds from seeds of three wild grapevines-comparison of their antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THREE WILD GRAPEVINE SPECIES: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH(•) anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds- while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

133

Selective targeting of neuroblastoma tumour-initiating cells by compounds identified in stem cell-based small molecule screens  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most deadly extra-cranial solid tumour in children necessitating an urgent need for effective and less toxic treatments. One reason for the lack of efficacious treatments may be the inability of existing drugs to target the tumour-initiating or cancer stem cell population responsible for sustaining tumour growth, metastases and relapse. Here, we describe a strategy to identify compounds that selectively target patient-derived cancer stem cell-like tumour-initiating cells (TICs) while sparing normal paediatric stem cells (skin-derived precursors, SKPs) and characterize two therapeutic candidates. DECA-14 and rapamycin were identified as NB TIC-selective agents. Both compounds induced TIC death at nanomolar concentrations in vitro, significantly reduced NB xenograft tumour weight in vivo, and dramatically decreased self-renewal or tumour-initiation capacity in treated tumours. These results demonstrate that differential drug sensitivities between TICs and normal paediatric stem cells can be exploited to identify novel, patient-specific and potentially less toxic therapies. PMID:20721990

Smith, Kristen M; Datti, Alessandro; Fujitani, Mayumi; Grinshtein, Natalie; Zhang, Libo; Morozova, Olena; Blakely, Kim M; Rotenberg, Susan A; Hansford, Loen M; Miller, Freda D; Yeger, Herman; Irwin, Meredith S; Moffat, Jason; Marra, Marco A; Baruchel, Sylvain; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Kaplan, David R

2010-01-01

134

Natural Compounds' Activity against Cancer Stem-Like or Fast-Cycling Melanoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence supports the concept that melanoma is highly heterogeneous and sustained by a small subpopulation of melanoma stem-like cells. Those cells are considered as responsible for tumor resistance to therapies. Moreover, melanoma cells are characterized by their high phenotypic plasticity. Consequently, both melanoma stem-like cells and their more differentiated progeny must be eradicated to achieve durable cure. By reevaluating compounds in heterogeneous melanoma populations, it might be possible to select compounds with activity not only against fast-cycling cells but also against cancer stem-like cells. Natural compounds were the focus of the present study. Methods We analyzed 120 compounds from The Natural Products Set II to identify compounds active against melanoma populations grown in an anchorage-independent manner and enriched with cells exerting self-renewing capacity. Cell viability, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, gene expression, clonogenic survival and label-retention were analyzed. Findings Several compounds efficiently eradicated cells with clonogenic capacity and nanaomycin A, streptonigrin and toyocamycin were effective at 0.1 µM. Other anti-clonogenic but not highly cytotoxic compounds such as bryostatin 1, siomycin A, illudin M, michellamine B and pentoxifylline markedly reduced the frequency of ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5)-positive cells. On the contrary, treatment with maytansine and colchicine selected for cells expressing this transporter. Maytansine, streptonigrin, toyocamycin and colchicine, even if highly cytotoxic, left a small subpopulation of slow-dividing cells unaffected. Compounds selected in the present study differentially altered the expression of melanocyte/melanoma specific microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and proto-oncogene c-MYC. Conclusion Selected anti-clonogenic compounds might be further investigated as potential adjuvants targeting melanoma stem-like cells in the combined anti-melanoma therapy, whereas selected cytotoxic but not anti-clonogenic compounds, which increased the frequency of ABCB5-positive cells and remained slow-cycling cells unaffected, might be considered as a tool to enrich cultures with cells exhibiting melanoma stem cell characteristics. PMID:24595456

Majchrzak, Kinga; Hartman, Mariusz; Czyz, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

135

Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study.  

PubMed

It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA) + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS). Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 ?g/g) and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 ?g/g); also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 ?g/g) and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 ?g/g) phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and EC (50)values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively. PMID:21472084

Esmaeili, N; Ebrahimzadeh, H; Abdi, K; Safarian, S

2011-01-01

136

Activation tag screening to identify novel genes for trichothecene resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of our research is to identify plant genes which enhance trichothecene resistance and, ultimately, Fusarium Head Blight resistance in wheat and barley. We are taking a two pronged approach using Arabidopsis to identify plant genes which confer resistance to trichothecenes. The first approac...

137

Phenolic compounds and biological activity of Kitaibelia vitifolia.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity and efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the endemic plant species Kitaibelia vitifolia in inhibiting the growth of selected fungi and bacteria. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the broth dilution procedure for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). MICs were determined for eight selected indicator strains. The highest susceptibility to K. vitifolia ethanolic extract among the bacteria tested was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 (MIC=15.62 ?g/mL), followed by Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Proteus mirabilis ATCC 14153 (MIC=31.25 ?g/mL), and Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 (MIC=62.50 ?g/mL). Of the fungi, Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC=15.62 ?g/mL) showed the highest susceptibility, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 (MIC=31.25 ?g/mL) had the lowest. Results showed that K. vitifolia extract possesses antioxidant activity, with total antioxidant capacity of 75.45±0.68 ?g of ascorbic acid/g and 50% inhibition concentration values of 47.45±0.55 ?g/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, 35.35±0.68??g/mL for inhibitory activity against lipid peroxidation, 95.25±0.52 ?g/mL for hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and 31.50±0.35 ?g/mL for metal chelating activity. Total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins, and gallotannins were 85.25±0.69 mg of gallic acid (GA)/g, 45.32±0.55 mg of rutin/g, 54.25±0.75 mg of GA/g, and 41.74±0.55 mg of GA/g, respectively. The phenolic composition of K. vitifolia extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Rosmarinic acid was found to be the dominant phenolic compound of the extract. PMID:21877950

Maškovi?, Pavle; Soluji?, Slavica; Mihailovi?, Vladimir; Mladenovi?, Milan; Cvijovi?, Milica; Mladenovi?, Jelena; A?amovi?-?okovi?, Gordana; Kur?ubi?, Vladimir

2011-12-01

138

SIRT1 Activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Results Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Conclusions Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies. PMID:24383546

2014-01-01

139

Zebrafish promoter microarrays identify actively transcribed embryonic genes  

E-print Network

We have designed a zebrafish genomic microarray to identify DNA-protein interactions in the proximal promoter regions of over 11,000 zebrafish genes. Using these microarrays, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation ...

Wardle, Fiona C

140

Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07?mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55?mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96?mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

2014-01-01

141

Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. In this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labeling pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics. PMID:25550518

Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woebken, Dagmar; Wang, Yun; Zhu, Di; Palatinszky, Marton; Schintlmeister, Arno; Schmid, Markus C.; Hanson, Buck T.; Shterzer, Naama; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen; Gibson, Christopher M.; Fowler, Patrick W.; Huang, Wei E.; Wagner, Michael

2015-01-01

142

Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells.  

PubMed

Microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. In this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labeling pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics. PMID:25550518

Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woebken, Dagmar; Wang, Yun; Zhu, Di; Palatinszky, Marton; Schintlmeister, Arno; Schmid, Markus C; Hanson, Buck T; Shterzer, Naama; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen; Gibson, Christopher M; Fowler, Patrick W; Huang, Wei E; Wagner, Michael

2015-01-13

143

Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

1988-12-01

144

Antimicrobial activity of a newly identified bacteriocin of Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed Central

A bacteriocin-producing Bacillus cereus strain was isolated. The bacteriocin, here called cerein, was shown to be active specifically against other B. cereus strains and inactive against all other bacterial species tested. Cerein was detected in the culture supernatants of stationary-phase cells, and its appearance was inhibited by induction of sporulation. The bacterial activity of cerein was insensitive to organic solvents and nonproteolytic enzymes, partially stable to heat, and active over a wide range of pH values. Direct detection of antimicrobial activity on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel suggested an apparent molecular mass of about 9 kDa. Images PMID:8285719

Naclerio, G; Ricca, E; Sacco, M; De Felice, M

1993-01-01

145

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of Magnolia dealbata and its active compounds.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistance is of great concern for public health worldwide and necessitates the search for new antimicrobials from sources such as plants. Several Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) species have been reported to exert antimicrobial effects on sensitive and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. However, the antimicrobial properties of Magnolia dealbata have not been experimentally evaluated. The antimicrobial effects of an ethanol extract of Magnolia dealbata seeds (MDE) and its active compounds honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were tested against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and several human multi-drug resistant pathogens using the disk-diffusion assay. The effects of MDE and its active compounds on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated using MTT assay. MDE and its active compounds had antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone > 10 mm) against C. michiganensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon belgeii. The results suggest that M. dealbata and its active compounds have selective antimicrobial effects against drug-resistant fungal and Gram (-) bacteria and exert minimal toxic effects on human PMBC. PMID:21922914

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Gonzalez-Espindola, Luis Angel; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Gonzalez-Martinez, Marisela del Rocio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro

2011-08-01

146

Cytochrome P450-mediated activation of the fragrance compound geraniol forms potent contact allergens  

SciTech Connect

Contact sensitization is caused by low molecular weight compounds which penetrate the skin and bind to protein. In many cases, these compounds are activated to reactive species, either by autoxidation on exposure to air or by metabolic activation in the skin. Geraniol, a widely used fragrance chemical, is considered to be a weak allergen, although its chemical structure does not indicate it to be a contact sensitizer. We have shown that geraniol autoxidizes and forms allergenic oxidation products. In the literature, it is suggested but not shown that geraniol could be metabolically activated to geranial. Previously, a skin-like CYP cocktail consisting of cutaneous CYP isoenzymes, was developed as a model system to study cutaneous metabolism. In the present study, we used this system to investigate CYP-mediated activation of geraniol. In incubations with the skin-like CYP cocktail, geranial, neral, 2,3-epoxygeraniol, 6,7-epoxygeraniol and 6,7-epoxygeranial were identified. Geranial was the main metabolite formed followed by 6,7-epoxygeraniol. The allergenic activities of the identified metabolites were determined in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Geranial, neral and 6,7-epoxygeraniol were shown to be moderate sensitizers, and 6,7-epoxygeranial a strong sensitizer. Of the isoenzymes studied, CYP2B6, CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 showed high activities. It is likely that CYP1A1 and CYP3A5 are mainly responsible for the metabolic activation of geraniol in the skin, as they are expressed constitutively at significantly higher levels than CYP2B6. Thus, geraniol is activated through both autoxidation and metabolism. The allergens geranial and neral are formed via both oxidation mechanisms, thereby playing a large role in the sensitization to geraniol.

Hagvall, Lina [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Baron, Jens Malte [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Boerje, Anna [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Weidolf, Lars [Discovery DMPK and Bioanalytical Chemistry, AstraZeneca R and D Moelndal, SE-421 83 Moelndal (Sweden); Merk, Hans [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Department of Chemistry, Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)], E-mail: karlberg@chem.gu.se

2008-12-01

147

A bitter melon extract inhibits the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells: monoglyceride as an active compound.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa membrane protein that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. In normal tissues, P-gp functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump that excretes highly hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds, playing an important role in protecting the cells/tissues from xenobiotics. In the present study, chemical substances that could directly modulate the intestinal P-gp activity were searched in vegetables and fruits. By using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells as a model of the small intestinal cells, we observed that a bitter melon fraction extracted from 40% methanol showed the greatest increase of the rhodamine-123 accumulation by Caco-2 cells. Inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were then isolated by HPLC using Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. It is interesting that certain types of monoglyceride might be involved in the drug bioavailability by specifically inhibiting the efflux mediated by P-gp. PMID:15630255

Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

2004-01-01

148

Glucocorticoid Compounds Modify Smoothened Localization and Hedgehog Pathway Activity  

PubMed Central

Summary The Hedgehog signaling pathway is linked to a variety of diseases, notably a range of cancers. The first generation of drug screens identified Smoothened (Smo), a membrane protein essential for signaling, as an attractive drug target. Smo localizes to the primary cilium upon pathway activation, and this transition is critical for the response to Hedgehog ligands. In a high content screen directly monitoring Smo distribution in Hedgehog responsive cells, we identified different glucocorticoids as specific modulators of Smo ciliary accumulation. One class promoted Smo accumulation, conferring cellular hypersensitivity to Hedgehog stimulation. In contrast, a second class inhibited Smo ciliary localization and signaling activity by both wildtype Smo, and mutant forms of Smo, SmoM2 and SmoD473H, that are refractory to previously identified Smo antagonists. These findings point to the potential for developing glucocorticoid-based pharmacological modulation of Smo signaling to treat mutated drug-resistant forms of Smo, an emerging problem in long-term cancer therapy. They also raise a concern about potential crosstalk of glucocorticoid drugs in the Hedgehog pathway, if therapeutic administration exceeds levels associated with on-target transcriptional mechanisms of glucocorticoid action. PMID:22921064

Wang, Yu; Davidow, Lance; Arvanites, Anthony C.; Blanchard, Joel; Lam, Kelvin; Xu, Ke; Oza, Vatsal; Yoo, Jin Woo; Ng, Jessica M.Y.; Curran, Tom; Rubin, Lee L.; McMahon, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

149

Recent studies on the chemistry and biological activities of the organosulfur compounds of garlic (allium sativum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garlic, Allium sativum, is known to contain a wide range of biologically active compounds. The organosulfur compounds are mainly the biologically active components of garlic. Many health benefits has been ascribed to them, possessing biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiatherosclerotic, antihypertensive, lipid and cholesterol lowering effects, inhibition of carcinogenesis, enhancing the immune system and other biological activities. The chemistry of

A. Kamel; M. Saleh

2000-01-01

150

Wogonin, an active compound in Scutellaria baicalensis, induces apoptosis and reduces telomerase activity in the HL60 leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis) has cytotoxic effect on human myelogenous leukemia cells (HL-60). We invesigated which compound from the crude extract is responsible for the cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells. We identified 29 compounds from the crude extract using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC\\/MS). Two of the compounds, baicalin and wogonoside, are converted to baicalein

Sheng-Teng Huang; Chen-Yu Wang; Rong-Chi Yang; Chih-Ju Chu; Hsiao-Ting Wu; Jong-Hwei S. Pang

2010-01-01

151

Discovering novel anti-HCV compounds with inhibitory activities toward HCV NS3/4A protease  

PubMed Central

Aim: To discover novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors and elucidate the mechanism of action of the active compounds. Methods: HCV subgenomic replicon-based luciferase reporter cell line was used to screen 1200 synthetic compounds with novel structures. Huh7.5.1 cell line stably transfected with HCV NS3/4A protease reporter was established to investigate the anti-HCV mechanism of the active compounds. The active compounds were further examined in an in vitro HCV infection assay to confirm their anti-HCV activity. Results: After two-round screening in the anti-HCV replicon assay, some 2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivatives and carboxamide analogues were found to possess anti-HCV replicon activities (the IC50 values were less than 5 ?mol/L). Among them, two representative compounds HZ-1157 and LZ-110618-6 inhibited HCV NS3/4A protease with IC50 values of 1.0 and 0.68 ?mol/L, respectively. Furthermore, HZ-1157 and LZ-110618-6 inhibited HCV infection in vitro with IC50 values of 0.82 and 0.11 ?mol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Some 2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivatives and carboxamide analogues have been identified as novel anti-HCV compounds. PMID:25066323

Yu, Ye; Jing, Jing-feng; Tong, Xian-kun; He, Pei-lan; Li, Yuan-chao; Hu, You-hong; Tang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-ping

2014-01-01

152

Pomegranate Fruit as a Rich Source of Biologically Active Compounds  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate is a widely used plant having medicinal properties. In this review, we have mainly focused on the already published data from our laboratory pertaining to the effect of methanol extract of pericarp of pomegranate (PME) and have compared it with other relevant literatures on Punica. Earlier, we had shown its antiproliferative effect using human breast (MCF-7, MDA MB-231), and endometrial (HEC-1A), cervical (SiHa, HeLa), and ovarian (SKOV3) cancer cell lines, and normal breast fibroblasts (MCF-10A) at concentration of 20–320??g/mL. The expressions of selected estrogen responsive genes (PR, pS2, and C-Myc) were downregulated by PME. Unlike estradiol, PME did not increase the uterine weight and proliferation in bilaterally ovariectomized Swiss-Albino mice models and its cardioprotective effects were comparable to that of 17?-estradiol. We had further assessed the protective role of PME on skeletal system, using MC3T3-E1 cells. The results indicated that PME (80??g/mL) significantly increased ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) activity, supporting its suggested role in modulating osteoblastic cell differentiation. The antiosteoporotic potential of PME was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model. The results from our studies and from various other studies support the fact that pomegranate fruit is indeed a source of biologically active compounds. PMID:24818149

Sreekumar, Sreeja; Sithul, Hima; Muraleedharan, Parvathy; Azeez, Juberiya Mohammed; Sreeharshan, Sreeja

2014-01-01

153

Preventive effects of guava ( Psidium guajava L.) leaves and its active compounds against ?-dicarbonyl compounds-induced blood coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is associated with a hypercoagulable state which may accelerate atherosclerosis, thrombosis and the diabetic microvascular complication. Endogenously produced ?-dicarbonyl compounds are linked to the pathophysiology of diabetic complications. The effects of ?-dicarbonyl compounds on coagulation parameters in vitro and the anticoagulant activities of aqueous extracts from guava leaves were examined. Incubation of plasma with glyoxal or methylglyoxal at 0.1mM

Chiu-Lan Hsieh; Yuh-Charn Lin; Gow-Chin Yen; Hui-Yin Chen

2007-01-01

154

Rejection of organic micropollutants (disinfection by-products, endocrine disrupting compounds, and pharmaceutically active compounds) by NF\\/RO membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand on water resources has increased interest in wastewater reclamation for potable reuse, in which rejection of organic micropollutants such as disinfection by-products (DBPs), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) is of great concern. The objective of this study was to investigate the rejection of DBPs, EDCs, and PhACs by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis

Katsuki Kimura; Gary Amy; Jörg E. Drewes; Thomas Heberer; Tae-Uk Kim; Yoshimasa Watanabe

2003-01-01

155

Occurrence, fate, and ecosystem implications of endocrine active compounds in select rivers of Minnesota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Select endocrine active compounds (EACs) were measured in four rivers in southern Minnesota. Additionally, caged and wild fish were assessed for indication of endocrine disruption using plasma vitellogenin and histopathology. Low concentrations of EACs were identified in all rivers, as was elevated plasma vitellogenin in caged and wild fish, indicating potential endocrine disruption. To evaluate the persistence of these compounds in small rivers, a tracer study was performed on one of the rivers (Redwood River) using Lagrangian sampling coupled with hydrologic modeling incorporating transient storage. Mass exchange (transient storage, sorption) and degradation were approximated as pseudo first order processes, and in-stream removal rates were then computed by comparing conservative tracer concentrations to organic compound concentrations. Production of estrone and 4-nonylphenol in the studied reach as a result of biochemical transformation from their parent compounds (17?-estradiol and alkylphenolpolyethoxylates, respectively) was quantified. The distance required for 17?-estradiol and nonylphenol to undergo a 50% reduction in concentration was >2 km and >10 km, respectively. These results indicate that EACs are transported several kilometers downstream from discharge sources and therefore have the potential of adversely impacting the lotic ecosystem over these distances.

Writer, J.; Keefe, S.; Barber, L. B.; Brown, G.; Schoenfuss, H.; Kiesling, R.; Gray, J. L.

2009-12-01

156

The novel antibacterial compound walrycin A induces human PXR transcriptional activity  

PubMed Central

The human pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a ligand-regulated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PXR is activated by a large, structurally diverse, set of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, and coordinates the expression of genes central to metabolism and excretion of potentially harmful chemicals and therapeutic drugs in humans. Walrycin A is a novel antibacterial compound targeting the WalK/WalR two-component signal transduction system of Gram (+) bacteria. Here we report that, in hepatoma cells, walrycin A potently activates a gene set known to be regulated by the xenobiotic sensor PXR. Walrycin A was as efficient as the reference PXR agonist rifampicin to activate PXR in a transactivation assay at non cytoxic concentrations. Using a limited proteolysis assay, we show that walrycin A induces conformational changes at a concentration which correlates with walrycin A ability to enhance the expression of prototypic target genes, suggesting that walrycin A interacts with PXR. The activation of the canonical human PXR target gene CYP3A4 by walrycin A is dose- and PXR-dependent. Finally, in silico docking experiments suggest that the walrycin A oxidation product Russig’s blue is the actual a ligand for PXR. Taken together, these results identify walrycin A as novel human PXR activator. PMID:22314385

Berthier, Alexandre; Oger, Frédérik; Gheeraert, Céline; Boulahtouf, Abdel; Le Guével, Rémy; Balaguer, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Salbert, Gilles; Lefebvre, Philippe

2012-01-01

157

Virtual Screening of compounds from Tabernaemontana divaricata for potential anti-bacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking analysis for Tabernaemontana divaricata derived 66 Law Molecular Weight Compounds (LMW) was conducted and to identified and predicted novel molecules as a inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumonia. The investigation has revealed several compounds with optimum binding towards Penicillin-binding proteins, Sialidases, Aspartate betasemialdehide dehydrogenase cell membrane protein of Streptococcus pneumonia. Docking results were computed in term of binding energy, ligand efficiency and number of hydrogen bonding. Apparicine (-5.14), 5-Hydroxyvoaphylline (-4.78), Voacangine (-4.7), 19-Hydroxycoronaridine (-4.44) and Coronaridine (-4.72) are identified as most suitable to bind with N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate uridyltransferase receptor. Ervaticine (-6.33), Ibogamine (-6.15), Methylvoaphylline (-5.74) and Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (-5.32) has showed novel binding against the penicillin-binding proteins. Ervaticine (-6.42), 5-oxo-11-hydroxy voaphylline (-6.18), Conolobine B (-6.02) has found optimum binding against the active site of NanB sialidase of Streptococcus pneumonia. The compounds 3S-Cyanocoronaridine (-6.71), 19-Epivoacristine (-5.48) and Ervaticine(-5.45) interacting with aspartate beta-semialdehide and found suitable with least docking score. PMID:24748755

Gogoi, Rashmi Rekha; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan

2014-01-01

158

Virtual Screening of compounds from Tabernaemontana divaricata for potential anti-bacterial activity.  

PubMed

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking analysis for Tabernaemontana divaricata derived 66 Law Molecular Weight Compounds (LMW) was conducted and to identified and predicted novel molecules as a inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumonia. The investigation has revealed several compounds with optimum binding towards Penicillin-binding proteins, Sialidases, Aspartate betasemialdehide dehydrogenase cell membrane protein of Streptococcus pneumonia. Docking results were computed in term of binding energy, ligand efficiency and number of hydrogen bonding. Apparicine (-5.14), 5-Hydroxyvoaphylline (-4.78), Voacangine (-4.7), 19-Hydroxycoronaridine (-4.44) and Coronaridine (-4.72) are identified as most suitable to bind with N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate uridyltransferase receptor. Ervaticine (-6.33), Ibogamine (-6.15), Methylvoaphylline (-5.74) and Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (-5.32) has showed novel binding against the penicillin-binding proteins. Ervaticine (-6.42), 5-oxo-11-hydroxy voaphylline (-6.18), Conolobine B (-6.02) has found optimum binding against the active site of NanB sialidase of Streptococcus pneumonia. The compounds 3S-Cyanocoronaridine (-6.71), 19-Epivoacristine (-5.48) and Ervaticine(-5.45) interacting with aspartate beta-semialdehide and found suitable with least docking score. PMID:24748755

Gogoi, Rashmi Rekha; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan

2014-01-01

159

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites  

PubMed Central

Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

2010-01-01

160

Identifying active methane-oxidizers in thawed Arctic permafrost by proteomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of CH4 release from thawing permafrost in the Arctic has been regarded as one of the determining factors on future global climate. It is uncertain how indigenous microorganisms would interact with such changing environmental conditions and hence their impact on the fate of carbon compounds that are sequestered in the cryosol. Multitudinous studies of pristine surface cryosol (top 5 cm) and microcosm experiments have provided growing evidence of effective methanotrophy. Cryosol samples corresponding to active layer were sampled from a sparsely vegetated, ice-wedge polygon at the McGill Arctic Research Station at Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45) before the onset of annual thaw. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated the occurrence of methanotroph-containing bacterial families as minor components (~5%) in pristine cryosol including Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae within alpha-Proteobacteria, and Methylacidiphilaceae within Verrucomicrobia. The potential of methanotrophy is supported by preliminary analysis of metagenome data, which indicated putative methane monooxygenase gene sequences relating to Bradyrhizobium sp. and Pseudonocardia sp. are present. Proteome profiling in general yielded minute traces of proteins, which likely hints at dormant nature of the soil microbial consortia. The lack of specific protein database for permafrost posted additional challenge to protein identification. Only 35 proteins could be identified in the pristine cryosol and of which 60% belonged to Shewanella sp. Most of the identified proteins are known to be involved in energy metabolism or post-translational modification of proteins. Microcosms amended with sodium acetate exhibited a net methane consumption of ~65 ngC-CH4 per gram (fresh weight) of soil over 16 days of aerobic incubation at room temperature. The pH in microcosm materials remained acidic (decreased from initial 4.7 to 4.5). Protein extraction and characterization identified ~350 proteins, confirmed enhanced microbial activities and significant shift in community structure within the microcosms. Although the activity of Shewanella sp. was suppressed by the incubation conditions, other bacteria were activated. This was shown by at least 3-fold increase in the number of identified proteins, which were primarily players in cellular energy metabolism. Among them, Geobacter sp. and methane-oxidizers, Bradyrhizobium sp., Methylosinus sp. and Methylocystis sp. appear dominant. In order to advance the protein database for better biodiversity and functional identification, we are currently using duo extraction protocols and consolidating metagenome data obtained from the same soil samples. A depth profile (from active to permafrost layer) for methanotrophs is being determined by examining pristine cores, thawed cryosols as well as enrichment cultures. The proteome information from these samples will be presented, which will be complemented by molecular studies.

Lau, C. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Chourey, K.; Hettich, R. L.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Layton, A. C.; Mykytczuk, N. C.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

2012-12-01

161

Antimicrobial activity of a compound isolated from an oil-macerated garlic extract.  

PubMed

A compound showing antimicrobial activity was isolated from an oil-macerated garlic extract by silica gel column chromatography and preparative TLC. On basis of the results of NMR and MS analyses, it was identified as Z-4,5,9-trithiadeca-1,6-diene-9-oxide (Z-10-devinylajoene; Z-10-DA). Z-10-DA exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against such microorganisms as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of Z-10-DA was comparable to that of Z-ajoene, but was superior to that of E-ajoene. Z-10-DA and Z-ajoene are different in respect of substitution of the allyl group by the methyl group flanking a sulfinyl group. This result suggests that substitution by the methyl group would also be effective for the inhibition of microbial growth. PMID:9648236

Yoshida, H; Iwata, N; Katsuzaki, H; Naganawa, R; Ishikawa, K; Fukuda, H; Fujino, T; Suzuki, A

1998-05-01

162

Inhibition of tyrosinase activity by polyphenol compounds from Flemingia philippinensis roots.  

PubMed

Flemingia philippinensis is used as a foodstuff or medicinal plant in the tropical regions of China. The methanol (95%) extract of the roots of this plant showed potent tyrosinase inhibition (80% inhibition at 30?g/ml). Activity-guided isolation yielded six polyphenols that inhibited both the monophenolase (IC50=1.01-18.4?M) and diphenolase (IC50=5.22-84.1?M) actions of tyrosinase. Compounds 1-6 emerged to be three new polyphenols and three known flavanones, flemichin D, lupinifolin and khonklonginol H. The new compounds (1-3) were identified as dihydrochalcones which we named fleminchalcones (A-C), respectively. The most potent inhibitor, dihydrochalcone (3) showed significant inhibitions against both the monophenolase (IC50=1.28?M) and diphenolase (IC50=5.22?M) activities of tyrosinase. Flavanone (4) possessing a resorcinol group also inhibited monophenolase (IC50=1.79?M) and diphenolase (IC50=7.48?M) significantly. In kinetic studies, all isolated compounds behaved as competitive inhibitors. Fleminchalcone A was found to have simple reversible slow-binding inhibition against monophenolase. PMID:24412339

Wang, Yan; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Lee, Byong Won; Yuk, Heung Joo; Kim, Dae Wook; Tan, Xue Fei; Park, Ki Hun

2014-02-01

163

Development of a QPatch Automated Electrophysiology Assay for Identifying KCa3.1 Inhibitors and Activators  

PubMed Central

Abstract The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 (also known as KCNN4, IK1, or the Gárdos channel) plays an important role in the activation of T and B cells, mast cells, macrophages, and microglia by regulating membrane potential, cellular volume, and calcium signaling. KCa3.1 is further involved in the proliferation of dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblast and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization responses in the vascular endothelium. Accordingly, KCa3.1 inhibitors are therapeutically interesting as immunosuppressants and for the treatment of a wide range of fibroproliferative disorders, whereas KCa3.1 activators constitute a potential new class of endothelial function preserving antihypertensives. Here, we report the development of QPatch assays for both KCa3.1 inhibitors and activators. During assay optimization, the Ca2+ sensitivity of KCa3.1 was studied using varying intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. A free Ca2+ concentration of 1??M was chosen to optimally test inhibitors. To identify activators, which generally act as positive gating modulators, a lower Ca2+ concentration (?200?nM) was used. The QPatch results were benchmarked against manual patch-clamp electrophysiology by determining the potency of several commonly used KCa3.1 inhibitors (TRAM-34, NS6180, ChTX) and activators (EBIO, riluzole, SKA-31). Collectively, our results demonstrate that the QPatch provides a comparable but much faster approach to study compound interactions with KCa3.1 channels in a robust and reliable assay. PMID:24351043

Jenkins, David Paul; Yu, Weifeng; Brown, Brandon M.; Løjkner, Lars Damgaard

2013-01-01

164

Novel pathway of metabolic activation of bisphenol A-related compounds for estrogenic activity.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that estrogenic activity of bisphenol A (BPA) in the yeast estrogen screening assay was increased severalfold after incubation with rat liver S9 fraction in the presence of a NADPH-generating system. In this study, we investigated whether eight BPA-related compounds are similarly activated metabolically by rat liver S9 fraction. Three of the analogs exhibited an increase of estrogenic activity after incubation with rat liver S9 fraction but not with microsomal or cytosolic fraction alone. The structures of the metabolites formed were examined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition to oxidized metabolites such as catechols, we found novel dimer-type metabolites. Some of the putative metabolites were chemically synthesized to confirm their structures. The structural requirements for formation of the metabolites, some of which showed more potent estrogenic activity than the parent substrates, were examined. We have uncovered a new pathway of metabolic activation of certain phenolic compounds, such as BPA analogs, to estrogenic dimer-type compounds. PMID:21636669

Okuda, Katsuhiro; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Takiguchi, Masufumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi

2011-09-01

165

Antioxidant activity of lignin phenolic compounds extracted from kraft and sulphite black liquors.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method), and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI) ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by ¹H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds. PMID:21169882

Faustino, Hélio; Gil, Nuno; Baptista, Cecília; Duarte, Ana Paula

2010-01-01

166

Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound  

PubMed Central

Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae) was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2) using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method). The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice) was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay) and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ? 5 ?g/ml). Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ? 15 ?g/ml), which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate) as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 < 1 ?g/ml against both 3D7 and W2 strains). This was also found to be the main cytotoxic compound (SI = 3.3). While this melampolide has already been described in the plant, this paper is the first report on the biological properties of this compound. Conclusions The present study highlighted the very promising anti-plasmodial activity of D. tomentosa and enabled to identify its main active compound, urospermal A-15-O-acetate. The high anti-plasmodial activity of this compound merits further study about its anti-plasmodial mechanism of action. The active extracts of D. tomentosa, as well as urospermal A 15-O-acetate, displayed only a moderate selectivity, and further studies are needed to assess the safety of the use of the plant by the local population. PMID:22909422

2012-01-01

167

Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies four small-molecule inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in cell culture.  

PubMed

Coronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar previously unknown coronavirus emerged, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), thus far causing over 650 laboratory-confirmed infections, with an unexplained steep rise in the number of cases being recorded over recent months. The human MERS fatality rate of ? 30% is alarmingly high, even though many deaths were associated with underlying medical conditions. Registered therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus infections are not available. Moreover, the pace of drug development and registration for human use is generally incompatible with strategies to combat emerging infectious diseases. Therefore, we have screened a library of 348 FDA-approved drugs for anti-MERS-CoV activity in cell culture. If such compounds proved sufficiently potent, their efficacy might be directly assessed in MERS patients. We identified four compounds (chloroquine, chlorpromazine, loperamide, and lopinavir) inhibiting MERS-CoV replication in the low-micromolar range (50% effective concentrations [EC(50)s], 3 to 8 ?M). Moreover, these compounds also inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. Although their protective activity (alone or in combination) remains to be assessed in animal models, our findings may offer a starting point for treatment of patients infected with zoonotic coronaviruses like MERS-CoV. Although they may not necessarily reduce viral replication to very low levels, a moderate viral load reduction may create a window during which to mount a protective immune response. PMID:24841269

de Wilde, Adriaan H; Jochmans, Dirk; Posthuma, Clara C; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; van Nieuwkoop, Stefan; Bestebroer, Theo M; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G; Neyts, Johan; Snijder, Eric J

2014-08-01

168

Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar previously unknown coronavirus emerged, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), thus far causing over 650 laboratory-confirmed infections, with an unexplained steep rise in the number of cases being recorded over recent months. The human MERS fatality rate of ?30% is alarmingly high, even though many deaths were associated with underlying medical conditions. Registered therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus infections are not available. Moreover, the pace of drug development and registration for human use is generally incompatible with strategies to combat emerging infectious diseases. Therefore, we have screened a library of 348 FDA-approved drugs for anti-MERS-CoV activity in cell culture. If such compounds proved sufficiently potent, their efficacy might be directly assessed in MERS patients. We identified four compounds (chloroquine, chlorpromazine, loperamide, and lopinavir) inhibiting MERS-CoV replication in the low-micromolar range (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 3 to 8 ?M). Moreover, these compounds also inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. Although their protective activity (alone or in combination) remains to be assessed in animal models, our findings may offer a starting point for treatment of patients infected with zoonotic coronaviruses like MERS-CoV. Although they may not necessarily reduce viral replication to very low levels, a moderate viral load reduction may create a window during which to mount a protective immune response. PMID:24841269

de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Jochmans, Dirk; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; van Nieuwkoop, Stefan; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G.

2014-01-01

169

Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of three tropical fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major compounds (i.e. phenolic compounds and carotenoids) were analysed in the extracts of the edible part of three tropical fruits: the Andean blackberry, the naranjilla and the tree tomato. Ellagitannins and anthocyanins were predominant in blackberries and phenolic composition can be used to differentiate the two species studied. Similar phenolic composition occurred in red and yellow tree tomato except for

Christian Mertz; Anne-Laure Gancel; Ziya Gunata; Pascaline Alter; Claudie Dhuique-Mayer; Fabrice Vaillant; Ana Mercedes Perez; Jenny Ruales; Pierre Brat

2009-01-01

170

HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

2014-01-01

171

Development of a screen to identify selective small molecules active against patient-derived metastatic and chemoresistant breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction High failure rates of new investigational drugs have impaired the development of breast cancer therapies. One challenge is that excellent activity in preclinical models, such as established cancer cell lines, does not always translate into improved clinical outcomes for patients. New preclinical models, which better replicate clinically-relevant attributes of cancer, such as chemoresistance, metastasis and cellular heterogeneity, may identify novel anti-cancer mechanisms and increase the success of drug development. Methods Metastatic breast cancer cells were obtained from pleural effusions of consented patients whose disease had progressed. Normal primary human breast cells were collected from a reduction mammoplasty and immortalized with human telomerase. The patient-derived cells were characterized to determine their cellular heterogeneity and proliferation rate by flow cytometry, while dose response curves were performed for chemotherapies to assess resistance. A screen was developed to measure the differential activity of small molecules on the growth and survival of patient-derived normal breast and metastatic, chemoresistant tumor cells to identify selective anti-cancer compounds. Several hits were identified and validated in dose response assays. One compound, C-6, was further characterized for its effect on cell cycle and cell death in cancer cells. Results Patient-derived cells were found to be more heterogeneous, with reduced proliferation rates and enhanced resistance to chemotherapy compared to established cell lines. A screen was subsequently developed that utilized both tumor and normal patient-derived cells. Several compounds were identified, which selectively targeted tumor cells, but not normal cells. Compound C-6 was found to inhibit proliferation and induce cell death in tumor cells via a caspase-independent mechanism. Conclusions Short-term culture of patient-derived cells retained more clinically relevant features of breast cancer compared to established cell lines. The low proliferation rate and chemoresistance make patient-derived cells an excellent tool in preclinical drug development. PMID:23879992

2013-01-01

172

Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds  

SciTech Connect

Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused by these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects.

Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie [Merck KGaA, Merck Serono, NCD/Toxicology, Early and Explanatory Toxicology, 64271 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller, Stefan O. [Merck KGaA, Merck Serono, NCD/Toxicology, Early and Explanatory Toxicology, 64271 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.o.mueller@merck.de

2009-04-01

173

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria.  

PubMed

This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, and ?-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:24031892

Dos Santos, Fernanda M; de Souza, Maria Gorete; Crotti, Antônio E Miller; Martins, Carlos H G; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; E Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Cunha, Wilson R

2012-04-01

174

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria  

PubMed Central

This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, and ?-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:24031892

dos Santos, Fernanda M.; de Souza, Maria Gorete; Crotti, Antônio E. Miller; Martins, Carlos H. G.; Ambrósio, Sérgio R.; Veneziani, Rodrigo C. S.; e Silva, Márcio L. Andrade; Cunha, Wilson R.

2012-01-01

175

ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX EXTRACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

Unidentified Organic Compounds. For target analytes, standards are purchased, extraction and clean-up procedures are optimized, and mass spectra and retention times for the chromatographic separation are obtained for comparison to the target compounds in environmental sample ...

176

Characterization of aroma-active compounds, sensory properties, and proteolysis in Ezine cheese.  

PubMed

Ezine cheese is a white pickled cheese ripened in tinplate containers for at least 8 mo. A mixture of milk from goat, sheep, and cow is used to make Ezine cheese. Ezine cheese has geographical indication status. The purposes of this study were to determine and compare the changes in basic composition, aroma, and sensory characteristics, and proteolytic activity of Ezine cheese stored in tinplate containers and plastic vacuum packages during storage. Aroma-active compounds were determined by thermal desorption gas chromatography olfactometry. To evaluate the proteolytic activity, casein and nitrogen fractions were determined. The results indicated that compounds identified at high intensities were dimethyl sulfide, ethyl butyrate, hexanal, ethyl pentanoate, (Z)-4-heptenal, 1-octen-3-one, acetic acid, butyric acid, and p-cresol. Characteristic descriptive terms were cooked, whey, creamy, animal-like, sour, and salty. The level of proteolysis increased in Ezine cheese during storage. Ezine cheese can be ripened in small-size packaging after 3 mo of storage. Approximately 6 mo is sufficient to produce the characteristic properties of Ezine cheese. PMID:19700675

Yuceer, Y Karagul; Tuncel, B; Guneser, O; Engin, B; Isleten, M; Yasar, K; Mendes, M

2009-09-01

177

Effects of active hexose correlated compound on the seasonal variations of immune competence in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of active hexose correlated compound intake on the immune competence in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to receive placebo or active hexose correlated compound at 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks in early winter. Natural killer cell activity was significantly increased in both groups during the study period, the natural killer cell number, however, was not altered in the active hexose correlated compound group while placebo group showed remarkable decline. In addition, the score of immunological vigor, an index of total immune competence, was maintained in the active hexose correlated compound group although that of placebo group lowered during the test period. These results suggested that the continuous active hexose correlated compound intake maintained the immune competence against the seasonal change. PMID:25376719

Takanari, Jun; Hirayama, Yosuke; Homma, Kohei; Miura, Takehito; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

2015-01-01

178

The influence of interactions among phenolic compounds on the antiradical activity of chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa).  

PubMed

In the present work, interactions between phenolic compounds from chokeberries and their influence on the antiradical activity was studied. Three fractions were isolated from chokeberries containing different classes of phenolic compounds. The first fraction contained a major part of phenolic acids and flavonols, the second anthocyanins, and the third insoluble phenols and proanthocyanidins. The phenolic compound content was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the antiradical activity using the DPPH test. In order to evaluate the effects of interactions between phenolic compounds on the antiradical activity, the antiradical activity of individual phenolic fractions was compared with that obtained by mixing phenolic fractions. Phenolic mixtures showed the decrease in the antiradical activity in comparison with the individual phenolic fractions. These results suggest the existence of complex interactions among phenolic compounds that caused the decrease of the antiradical activity. Interactions among chokeberry phenols promoted a negative synergism. PMID:21214419

Jakobek, Lidija; Seruga, Marijan; Krivak, Petra

2011-06-01

179

SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2  

EPA Science Inventory

High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

180

Synthesis and anticancer activity of focused compound libraries from the natural product lead, oroidin.  

PubMed

Oroidin (1), (E)-N-(3-(2-amino-1H-imidazol-4-yl)allyl)-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide, is a pyrrole alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Agelas oroides. Routine screening in a panel of twelve cancer cell lines revealed 1 to be poorly cytotoxic with the 50% growth inhibition concentration (GI50) of 42 ?M in MCF-7 (breast) cells and 24 ?M in A2780 (ovarian) cells and >50 ?M in all other cell lines tested. The development of eight focused libraries comprising thirty compounds total identified N-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (4l), N-benzyl-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (5a) and N-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (5l) as potent inhibitors of cell growth in our panel of cell lines. Of these compounds GI50 values of <5 ?M were observed with 4l against HT29 (colon) and SW480 (colon); 5a against HT29; and 5l against HT29, SW480, MCF-7, A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma) and MIA (pancreas) cell lines. As a cancer class, colon cancer appears to be more sensitive to the oroidin series of compounds, with analogue 5l being the most active. PMID:24508308

Dyson, Lauren; Wright, Anthony D; Young, Kelly A; Sakoff, Jennette A; McCluskey, Adam

2014-03-01

181

Visoltricin, a novel biologically active compound produced by Fusarium tricinctum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major compound responsible for toxicity to Artemia salina of some Fusarium tricinctum strains has been isolated, and its structure has been elucidated by spectroscopical methods, i.e. UV, IR, MS, H?NMR and C?NMR. The novel compound, trivially named visoltricin, is the first imidazole derivative produced by Fusarium spp., and its structure has been established as the methyl ester of 3?[l?methyl?4?(3?methyl?2?butenyl)?imidazol?5yl]?2?propenoic

A. Visconti; M. Solfrizzo

1995-01-01

182

Thiol-reactive metal compounds inhibit NF-kappa B activation by blocking I kappa B kinase.  

PubMed

Gold compounds are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. NF-kappa B is a transcription factor implicated in the expression of many inflammatory genes. NF-kappa B is activated by signal-induced phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitory I kappa B (inhibitory protein that dissociates from NF-kappa B) proteins, and a multisubunit I kappa B kinase (IKK) has been identified previously. We tested the effect of various gold compounds on the activation of NF-kappa B and IKK in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. A lipophilic gold compound, auranofin, suppressed the LPS-induced increase of nuclear kappa B-binding activity, degradation of I kappa B proteins, and IKK activation. Auranofin also blocked IKK activation induced by TNF and PMA/ionomycin, suggesting that the target of auranofin action is common among these diverse signal pathways. In vitro IKK activity was suppressed by addition of hydrophilic gold compounds, such as aurothiomalate, aurothioglucose, and AuCl3. Other thiol-reactive metal ions such as zinc and copper also inhibited IKK activity in vitro, and induction of IKK in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In vitro IKK activity required the presence of reducing agent and was blocked by addition of thiol group-reactive agents. Two catalytic subunits of IKK complex, IKK alpha and IKK beta, were both inhibited by these thiol-modifying agents, suggesting the presence of a cysteine sulfhydryl group in these subunits, which is critical for enzyme activity. The antiinflammatory activity of gold compounds in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis may depend on modification of this thiol group by gold. PMID:10820281

Jeon, K I; Jeong, J Y; Jue, D M

2000-06-01

183

Antibacterial activity of extracellular compounds produced by a Pseudomonas strain against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a world health problem. Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, is one of the most important human pathogens associated with hospital and community-acquired infections. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived compound against MRSA strains. Methods Thirty clinical MRSA strains were isolated, and three standard MRSA strains were evaluated. The extracellular compounds were purified by vacuum liquid chromatography. Evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by agar diffusion technique, determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration, curve of growth and viability and scanning electron microscopy. Interaction of an extracellular compound with silver nanoparticle was studied to evaluate antibacterial effect. Results The F3 (ethyl acetate) and F3d (dichloromethane- ethyl acetate) fractions demonstrated antibacterial activity against the MRSA strains. Phenazine-1-carboxamide was identified and purified from the F3d fraction and demonstrated slight antibacterial activity against MRSA, and synergic effect when combined with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum. Organohalogen compound was purified from this fraction showing high antibacterial effect. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that the F3d fraction caused morphological changes to the cell wall of the MRSA strains. Conclusions These results suggest that P. aeruginosa-produced compounds such as phenazines have inhibitory effects against MRSA and may be a good alternative treatment to control infections caused by MRSA. PMID:23773484

2013-01-01

184

Evaluation of Natural Compounds for Antimicrobial Activity in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an experiment that provides students with an opportunity to investigate folk medicine and herbal cures and their accompanying claims. Involves isolating some active compounds from plant materials and demonstrating their antibacterial activity. (JRH)

Finer, Kim R.

1997-01-01

185

Structural characterisation and antioxidant activity evaluation of phenolic compounds from cold-pressed Perilla frutescens var. arguta seed flour.  

PubMed

A total of 11 phenolic compounds, as well as sucrose (12) and tryptophan (13), were isolated from cold-pressed Perilla frutescens var. arguta seed flour using column chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified as 3'-dehydroxyl-rosmarinic acid-3-o-glucoside (1), rosmarinic acid-3-o-glucoside (2), rosmarinic acid (3), rosmarinic acid methyl ester (4), luteolin (5), luteolin-5-o-glucoside (6), apigenin (7), caffeic acid (8), caffeic acid-3-o-glucoside (9), vanillic acid (10) and cimidahurinine (11) using NMR and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of these components, compound 1 is novel, and this is the first report of compounds 10 and 11 in perilla seeds. HPLC quantification combined with antioxidant activity evaluation revealed that rosmarinic acid and rosmarinic acid-3-o-glucoside were the dominant phenolic antioxidants with strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24996318

Zhou, Xiao-Jing; Yan, Lin-Lin; Yin, Pei-Pei; Shi, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Jing-Hua; Liu, Yu-Jun; Ma, Chao

2014-12-01

186

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain

Sali, Andrej

187

Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

DiSpirito, Alan A. (Ames, IA); Zahn, James A. (Harbor Beach, MI); Graham, David W. (Lawrence, KS); Kim, Hyung J. (St. Paul, MN); Alterman, Michail (Lawrence, KS); Larive, Cynthia (Lawrence, KS)

2007-04-03

188

Synthesis and quorum sensing inhibitory activity of key phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives.  

PubMed

Phenolic components of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) viz. [6]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and zingerone exhibited quorum sensing inhibitory activity (QSI) against Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibitory activity of all the compounds was studied by zone inhibition, pyocyanin, and violacein assay. All the compounds displayed good inhibition at 500ppm. [6]-Azashogaol, a new derivative of [6]-shogaol has been synthesized by Beckmann rearrangement of its oxime in the presence of ZnCl2. The structure elucidation of this new derivative was carried out by 1D ((1)H NMR and (13)C NMR) and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and NOESY) spectral studies. This compound showed good QSI activity against P. aeruginosa. An isoxazoline derivative of [6]-gingerol was prepared and it exhibited good QSI activity. Present study illustrated that, the phenolic compounds of ginger and their derivatives form a class of compounds with promising QSI activity. PMID:24767081

Kumar, N Vijendra; Murthy, Pushpa S; Manjunatha, J R; Bettadaiah, B K

2014-09-15

189

Isolation, identification and antioxidant activity of bound phenolic compounds present in rice bran.  

PubMed

The bound phenolic compounds in rice bran were released and extracted with ethyl acetate based on alkaline digestion. An investigation of the chemical constituents of EtOAc extract has led to the isolation of a new compound, para-hydroxy methyl benzoate glucoside (8), together with nine known compounds, cycloeucalenol cis-ferulate (1), cycloeucalenol trans-ferulate (2), trans-ferulic acid (3), trans-ferulic acid methyl ester (4), cis-ferulic acid (5), cis-ferulic acid methyl ester (6), methyl caffeate (7), vanillic aldehyde (9) and para-hydroxy benzaldehyde (10). The structures of these compounds were determined using a combination of spectroscopic methods and chemical analysis. Among the compounds isolated, compound 3, 5 and 7 exhibited strong DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging activities, followed by compounds 4 and 6. Compound 1 and 2 showed potent DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging activities, compound 8 displayed moderate antioxidant activity against ABTS(+) radical, whereas compound 9 and 10 showed weak antioxidant activity. PMID:25308640

Wang, Wei; Guo, Jia; Zhang, Junnan; Peng, Jie; Liu, Tianxing; Xin, Zhihong

2015-03-15

190

Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2  

PubMed Central

Alphaviruses present serious health threats as emerging and re-emerging viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a New World alphavirus, can cause encephalitis in humans and horses, but there are no therapeutics for treatment. To date, compounds reported as anti-VEEV or anti-alphavirus inhibitors have shown moderate activity. To discover new classes of anti-VEEV inhibitors with novel viral targets, we used a high-throughput screen based on the measurement of cell protection from live VEEV TC-83-induced cytopathic effect to screen a 340,000 compound library. Of those, we identified five novel anti-VEEV compounds and chose a quinazolinone compound, CID15997213 (IC50?=?0.84 µM), for further characterization. The antiviral effect of CID15997213 was alphavirus-specific, inhibiting VEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In vitro assays confirmed inhibition of viral RNA, protein, and progeny synthesis. No antiviral activity was detected against a select group of RNA viruses. We found mutations conferring the resistance to the compound in the N-terminal domain of nsP2 and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Time of addition studies showed that the compound inhibits the middle stage of replication when viral genome replication is most active. In mice, the compound showed complete protection from lethal VEEV disease at 50 mg/kg/day. Collectively, these results reveal a potent anti-VEEV compound that uniquely targets the viral nsP2 N-terminal domain. While the function of nsP2 has yet to be characterized, our studies suggest that the protein might play a critical role in viral replication, and further, may represent an innovative opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for alphavirus infection. PMID:24967809

Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Sotsky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda I.; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffrey M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.

2014-01-01

191

Identification and phytotoxic activity of compounds produced during decomposition of corn and rye residues in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues from corn and rye plants were allowed to decompose in soil for periods up to 30 days at 22–23 °C, and the identity of some of the compounds produced as well as their relative phytotoxicity to lettuce seed and seedlings were determined. Paper, thin-layer, and gas chromatography were the principal methods used to identify the various compounds formed. The

Chang-Hung Chou; Z. A. Patrick

1976-01-01

192

A high throughput drug screen based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) for anticancer activity of compounds from herbal medicine  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: We report the development of a very efficient cell-based high throughput screening (HTS) method, which utilizes a novel bio-sensor that selectively detects apoptosis based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Experimental approach: We generated a stable HeLa cell line expressing a FRET-based bio-sensor protein. When cells undergo apoptosis, they activate a protease called ‘caspase-3'. Activation of this enzyme will cleave our sensor protein and cause its fluorescence emission to shift from a wavelength of 535?nm (green) to 486?nm (blue). A decrease in the green/blue emission ratio thus gives a direct indication of apoptosis. The sensor cells are grown in 96-well plates. After addition of different chemical compounds to each well, a fluorescence profile can be measured at various time-points using a fluorescent plate reader. Compounds that can trigger apoptosis are potential candidates as anti-cancer drugs. Key results: This novel cell-based HTS method is highly effective in identifying anti-cancer compounds. It was very sensitive in detecting apoptosis induced by various known anti-cancer drugs. Further, this system detects apoptosis, but not necrosis, and is thus more useful than the conventional cell viability assays, such as those using MTT. Finally, we used this system to screen compounds, isolated from two plants used in Chinese medicine, and identified several effective compounds for inducing apoptosis. Conclusions and Implications: This FRET-based HTS method is a powerful tool for identifying anti-cancer compounds and can serve as a highly efficient platform for drug discovery. PMID:17179946

Tian, H; Ip, L; Luo, H; Chang, D C; Luo, K Q

2006-01-01

193

Radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in presence of active compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi in ground beef was evaluated in the presence of 18 active compounds. Medium fat ground beef (23% fat) was inoculated with E. coli or S. typhi and each active compound was added separately at various concentrations. For E. coli, the most efficient compounds were trans-cinnamaldehyde, thymol and thyme. For S. typhi, the most efficient compounds was trans-cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol and thymol. The addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, carvacrol and ascorbic acid had no effect on the irradiation sensitivity of E. coli. For S. typhi, only ascorbic acid had no effect.

Lacroix, M.; Chiasson, F.; Borsa, J.; Ouattara, B.

2004-09-01

194

Thiol-Reactive Metal Compounds Inhibit NF-kB Activation by Blocking IkB Kinase1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold compounds are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. NF-kB is a transcription factor implicated in the expression of many inflammatory genes. NF- kB is activated by signal-induced phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of inhibitory IkB (inhibitory protein that dissociates from NF-kB) proteins, and a multisubunit IkB kinase (IKK) has been identified previously. We tested the effect of various gold

Kye-Im Jeon; Jae-Yeon Jeong; Dae-Myung Jue

195

Biodegradable sunflower protein films naturally activated with antioxidant compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the formation of biodegradable films from sunflower protein isolates having different concentrations of phenolic compounds, which are present in sunflower seeds and are retained during the isolation of proteins from the residual pellet of the oil industry. Films were obtained by casting from aqueous dispersions of the isolates, using glycerol as plasticizer.

Pablo R. Salgado; Sara E. Molina Ortiz; Silvana Petruccelli; Adriana N. Mauri

2010-01-01

196

Antimicrobial, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities of mono- and bisquaternary pyridinium compounds  

PubMed Central

Pyridinium-based oxime compounds have been utilized worldwide as antidotes following exposure to anticholinesterase agents. In the event of combined chemical and biological incident, it is of vital importance to know the ability of antidotes to provide additional protection against biological threats. This paper reports results of in vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of a series of quaternary pyridinium oximes against a number of lower pathogenicity BSL-1 and 2 agents. In general, our compound panel had little to no antimicrobial action except for thiophene- and benzothiophene-substituted monoquaternary pyridinium compounds 21 and 24 that showed moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus with IC50 values ranging from 12.2–17.7 µg/mL. Compounds 21 and 24 also exhibited antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 19 and 18 µg/mL, respectively. Another monoquaternary pyridinium compound with a bromobutyl side chain 17 showed antimalarial activity against both a chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.7 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. None of the bisquaternary pyridinium compounds showed antimicrobial, or antiprotozoal activity. None of the compounds showed cytotoxic effects towards mammalian kidney fibroblasts. Results of this study indicate that the pyridinium compounds, some of which are already in use as antidotes, do not have significant antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and cannot be relied upon for additional protection in the event of combined chemical-biological incident. PMID:21040494

Bharate, Sandip B.; Thompson, Charles M.

2010-01-01

197

Antibacterial Activity of Rhizome of Curcuma aromatica and Partial Purification of Active Compounds.  

PubMed

The hexane extract of Curcuma aromatica, a plant belonging to the family Zingiberaceae was tested on 10 bacterial strains (clinical isolates and standard strains). Agar diffusion method was adopted for determining the antibacterial activity of the extract. The hexane extract was found to be active against all Gram-positive strains tested, but inactive against Gram-negative strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined and found to be 539 ?g/ml. The phytochemical analysis of hexane extract by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of 13 compounds. The crude hexane extract was partially purified by thin layer chromatography. The zone showing good antibacterial activity was analysed further by gas chromatography mass spectrometry, UV/Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the probable presence of germacrone. PMID:24591751

Revathi, S; Malathy, N S

2013-11-01

198

Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria.  

PubMed

The growth-inhibiting activity of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol identified in the inner bark of taheebo, Tabebuia impetiginosa, toward 10 human intestinal bacteria was evaluated by using a paper disk diffusion bioassay and compared to those of seven lapachol congeners (1,4-naphthoquinone, naphthazarin, menadione, lawsone, plumbagin, juglone, and dichlone) as well as two commercially available antibiotics, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid exhibited very strong growth inhibition of Clostridium paraputrificum at 1 microg/disk while 100 microg/disk of lapachol was needed for moderate growth inhibition of the same organism. These two isolates exhibited weak inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli at 100 microg/disk while no adverse effects were observed on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei at 1000 microg/disk. Structure-activity relationships indicate that a methyl group in the C-2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives might play an important role in antibacterial activity. PMID:15713033

Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jun-Ran; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Soon; Takeoka, Gary R; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han

2005-02-23

199

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract, fractions and eight compounds isolated from Eriosema robustum (Fabaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and the cytotoxicity of the ethanol crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds from the twigs of Eriosema robustum, a plant used for the treatment of coughs and skin diseases. Methods Column chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques were used to isolate and identify eight compounds, robusflavones A (1) and B (2), orostachyscerebroside A (3), stigmasterol (4), 1-O-heptatriacontanoyl glycerol (5), eicosanoic acid (6), 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside of sitosterol (7) and 6-prenylpinocembrin (8), from E. robustum. A two-fold serial microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against fungi and bacteria, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Results Fraction B had significant antimicrobial activity against Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptoccocus neoformans (MIC 0.08 mg/ml), whilst the crude extract and fraction A had moderate activity against A. fumigatus and Candida albicans (MIC 0.16 mg/ml). Fraction A however had excellent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 0.02 mg/ml), Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (MIC 0.04 mg/ml). The crude extract had significant activity against S. aureus, E. faecalis and E. coli. Fraction B had good activity against E. faecalis and E. coli (MIC 0.08 mg/ml). All the isolated compounds had a relatively weak antimicrobial activity. An MIC of 65 ?g/ml was obtained with robusflavones A (1) and B (2) against C. albicans and A. fumigatus, orostachyscerebroside A (3) against A. fumigatus, and robusflavone B (2) against C. neoformans. Compound 8 had the best activity against bacteria (average MIC 55 ?g/ml). The 3 fractions and isolated compounds had LC50 values between 13.20 to?>?100 ?g/ml against Vero cells yielding selectivity indices between 0.01 and 1.58. Conclusion The isolated compounds generally had a much lower activity than expected based on the activity of the fractions from which they were isolated. This may be the result of synergism between different compounds in the complex extracts or fractions. The results support the traditional use of E. robustum to treat infections. The crude extract had a good activity and low preparation cost, and may be useful in topical applications to combat microbial infections. PMID:24165199

2013-01-01

200

Asymmetric bioreduction of activated alkenes to industrially relevant optically active compounds  

PubMed Central

Ene-reductases from the ‘Old Yellow Enzyme’ family of flavoproteins catalyze the asymmetric reduction of various ?,?-unsaturated compounds at the expense of a nicotinamide cofactor. They have been applied to the synthesis of valuable enantiopure products, including chiral building blocks with broad industrial applications, terpenoids, amino acid derivatives and fragrances. The combination of these highly stereoselective biocatalysts with a cofactor recycling system has allowed the development of cost-effective methods for the generation of optically active molecules, which is strengthened by the availability of stereo-complementary enzyme homologues. PMID:22498437

Winkler, Christoph K.; Tasnádi, Gábor; Clay, Dorina; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

2012-01-01

201

Structure-activity relationships for selected sulfur-rich antithrombotic compounds.  

PubMed

We assessed the antithrombotic activity of some simple organosulfur compounds which have some of the functionality found in the disulfide ajoene, a pharmacologically active compound isolated from garlic. The results establish that antithrombotic activity is associated with disulfides directly attached to a phenyl ring and is further enhanced by an alpha-sulfonyl group. CH(3)SO(2)CH(2)SSPh proved to be a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 5 microM. PMID:10873621

MacDonald, J A; Langler, R F

2000-07-01

202

Structure–Activity Relationships for Selected Sulfur-Rich Antithrombotic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the antithrombotic activity of some simple organosulfur compounds which have some of the functionality found in the disulfide ajoene, a pharmacologically active compound isolated from garlic. The results establish that antithrombotic activity is associated with disulfides directly attached to a phenyl ring and is further enhanced by an ?-sulfonyl group. CH3SO2CH2SSPh proved to be a potent inhibitor of

Justin A. MacDonald; Richard F. Langler

2000-01-01

203

Structure-dependent binding and activation of perfluorinated compounds on human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?.  

PubMed

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been shown to disrupt lipid metabolism and even induce cancer in rodents through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Lines of evidence showed that PPAR? was activated by PFCs. However, the information on the binding interactions between PPAR? and PFCs and subsequent alteration of PPAR? activity is still limited and sometimes inconsistent. In the present study, in vitro binding of 16 PFCs to human PPAR? ligand binding domain (hPPAR?-LBD) and their activity on the receptor in cells were investigated. The results showed that the binding affinity was strongly dependent on their carbon number and functional group. For the eleven perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), the binding affinity increased with their carbon number from 4 to 11, and then decreased slightly. The binding affinity of the three perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) was stronger than their PFCA counterparts. No binding was detected for the two fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs). Circular dichroim spectroscopy showed that PFC binding induced distinctive structural change of the receptor. In dual luciferase reporter assays using transiently transfected Hep G2 cells, PFCs acted as hPPAR? agonists, and their potency correlated with their binding affinity with hPPAR?-LBD. Molecular docking showed that PFCs with different chain length bind with the receptor in different geometry, which may contribute to their differences in binding affinity and transcriptional activity. PMID:24998974

Zhang, Lianying; Ren, Xiao-Min; Wan, Bin; Guo, Liang-Hong

2014-09-15

204

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

2014-03-01

205

Phenolic compounds from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and their anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Four new phenolic compounds, caesalpiniaphenols A-D (1-4), together with eight known compounds were isolated from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood. The chemical structures were established mainly by NMR, MS, ECD, and Mosher's method. Compounds 4, 5, and 7 showed weak inhibitory activity against the LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells with IC(50) values of 12.2, 3.5, and 5.7 ?M, respectively. PMID:23234407

Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Kim, Jin Cheol; Kim, Eun Hee; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sue; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Min, Byung Sun

2012-12-28

206

Effect of polyphenolic compounds on the growth and cellulolytic activity of a strain of Trichoderma viride  

SciTech Connect

Polyphenolic compounds are often regarded as inhibitors of microorganism growth. However, polyphenolic compounds can also induce stimulating effects on the growth, respiration, fermentation and excretion of amino acids. Depending on the concentration of polyphenolic compounds in the medium, opposed effects (inhibition, stimulation) can be observed. The purpose of this article is to study the effects of condensed tannins and some monomers on the growth and cellulolytic activity of Trichoderma viride. (Refs. 30).

Arrieta-Escobar, A.; Belin, J.M.

1982-04-01

207

Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro antioxidant activity of compounds from chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud.  

PubMed

This study was designed to isolate, characterise and explore in vitro antioxidant potential of compounds from the chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara wood belonging to Pinacae family. We have investigated the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of isolated compounds by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power ability. From the chloroform extract five sesquiterpenes namely atlantone, himaphenolone, atlantolone, deodardione and atlantone-2,3-diol were identified. Himaphenolone and deodardione from the chloroform extract of this plant have been isolated for the first time. A marked dose-dependent reducing power and strong TAC were found in favour of himaphenolone and atlantone-2,3-diol, respectively. Moreover, deodardione and atlantolone also exhibit good antioxidant potentials. However, atlantone has showed least antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the chloroform extract of C. deodara exhibited significant antioxidant potential mainly due to the presence of sesquiterpenes which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of this plant. PMID:25103644

Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Ahmad, Shamim; Mazumder, Avijit

2015-02-01

208

Rapid evaluation of the antibacterial activity of arylene-ethynylene compounds.  

PubMed

A series of oligo(arylene-ethynylene) (1-3 repeat units) compounds functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups was screened for their antibacterial activity in the dark and with activation by long-wavelength (365 nm) UV irradiation. Several of these compounds have effective bactericidal activity (>99.9% killing) at concentrations between 0.01 and 10 ?g/mL. Our approach uses flow cytometry to rapidly screen and evaluate the susceptibility of bacterial populations. The rapidity, high information content, and accuracy of this approach make it an extremely valuable method for the study of antibacterial compounds. PMID:21714540

Corbitt, Thomas S; Zhou, Zhijun; Tang, Yanli; Graves, Steven W; Whitten, David G

2011-08-01

209

Isolation and Chemical Structural Characterisation of a Compound with Antioxidant Activity from the Roots of Senna italica  

PubMed Central

Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpiniaceae), is widely used in South African traditional medicine to treat a number of disease conditions. Aqueous extracts of the plant are mainly used to treat sexually transmitted infections and intestinal complications. The roots of S. italica were ground to a fine powder and sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction (SEE) method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyse the phytochemical composition of the extracts and DPPH radical scavenging method to detect the presence of antioxidant compounds. The bioassay guided fractionation of the acetone fraction afforded an antioxidant compound with free radical scavenging activity. The isolated compound was subsequently identified as 3,4?,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol). This study represents the first report of the stilbene resveratrol in S. italica. PMID:23843877

Mokgotho, Matlou Phineas; Gololo, Stanley Sechene; Masoko, Peter; Shai, Leshwene Jeremiah; Bagla, Victor Patrick; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

2013-01-01

210

Modulation of Activity of Known Cytotoxic Ruthenium(III) Compound (KP418) with Hampered Transmembrane Transport  

E-print Network

Modulation of Activity of Known Cytotoxic Ruthenium(III) Compound (KP418) with Hampered on the cytotoxic and antitumor effect of a ruthenium(III) com- pound with hampered transmembrane transport, (im after ECT with KP418 in vitro. In addition, platinum compound cisplatin (CDDP) and ruthenium

Ljubljana, University of

211

Differential Effects of Procaspase-3 Activating Compounds in the Induction of Cancer Cell Death  

E-print Network

Differential Effects of Procaspase-3 Activating Compounds in the Induction of Cancer Cell Death infusion for S-PAC-1. KEYWORDS: apoptosis, small molecule, zinc chelation, ER stress, blood-brain barrier INTRODUCTION The discovery of compounds that induce apoptotic cell death is a major aim of anticancer drug

Hergenrother, Paul J.

212

Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.  

PubMed

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-03-20

213

Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources  

SciTech Connect

Indoor exposures to toxic and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are of general concern. Recently, VOCs in portable or relocatable classrooms (RCs) have received particular attention. However, very little was known about indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the sources, composition, and indoor concentrations of VOCs in RCs. This project task focused on developing and demonstrating a process for selecting interior finish materials for RCs that have relatively low impacts with respect to their emissions of toxic and odorous VOCs. This task was part of a larger project to demonstrate the potential for simultaneous improvements in IEQ and energy efficiency in four new RCs equipped both with a continuously ventilating advanced heating, ventilating, and air conditioning system (HVAC) and a standard HVAC system. These HVACs were operated on alternate weeks. One RC per pair was constructed with standard interior finish materials, and the other included alternate interior materials identified in our prior laboratory study to have low VOC emissions. The RCs were sited in side-by-side pairs at two elementary schools in distinct northern California climate zones. Classroom VOC emission rates (mg hr{sup -1}) and concentrations were predicted based on VOC emission factors ({micro}g m{sup -2} hr{sup -1}) measured for individual materials in the laboratory, the quantities of installed materials and design ventilation rates. Predicted emission rates were compared to values derived from classroom measurements of VOC concentrations and ventilation rates made at pre-occupancy, eight weeks, and 27 weeks. Predicted concentrations were compared to measured integrated VOC indoor minus outdoor concentrations during school hours in the fall cooling season with the advanced HVAC operated. These measured concentrations also were compared between standard and material-modified RCs. Our combined laboratory and field process proved effective by correctly predicting that IEQ impacts of material VOC emissions would be minor when RCs were ventilated at or above code-minimum requirements. Assuming code-minimum ventilation rates are maintained, the benefits attributable to the use of alternate interior finish materials in RC's constructed by the manufacturer associated with this study are small, implying that it is not imperative to use such alternative finishing materials. However, it is essential to avoid materials that can degrade IEQ, and the results of this study demonstrate that laboratory-based material testing combined with modeling and field validation can help to achieve that aim.

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

2003-06-01

214

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

215

Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds for Their Pharmacological Activity  

PubMed Central

Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is a plant-derived natural product known for its pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, antiadipogenic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. Dietary exposure to benzopyrones is significant as these compounds are found in vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, coffee, tea, and wine. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further. PMID:23586066

Venugopala, K. N.; Rashmi, V.; Odhav, B.

2013-01-01

216

Compound A, a Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator, Enhances Heat Shock Protein Hsp70 Gene Promoter Activation  

PubMed Central

Compound A possesses glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent anti-inflammatory properties. Just like classical GR ligands, Compound A can repress NF-?B-mediated gene expression. However, the monomeric Compound A-activated GR is unable to trigger glucocorticoid response element-regulated gene expression. The heat shock response potently activates heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), upregulates Hsp70, a known GR chaperone, and also modulates various aspects of inflammation. We found that the selective GR modulator Compound A and heat shock trigger similar cellular effects in A549 lung epithelial cells. With regard to their anti-inflammatory mechanism, heat shock and Compound A are both able to reduce TNF-stimulated I?B? degradation and NF-?B p65 nuclear translocation. We established an interaction between Compound A-activated GR and Hsp70, but remarkably, although the presence of the Hsp70 chaperone as such appears pivotal for the Compound A-mediated inflammatory gene repression, subsequent novel Hsp70 protein synthesis is uncoupled from an observed CpdA-induced Hsp70 mRNA upregulation and hence obsolete in mediating CpdA’s anti-inflammatory effect. The lack of a Compound A-induced increase in Hsp70 protein levels in A549 cells is not mediated by a rapid proteasomal degradation of Hsp70 or by a Compound A-induced general block on translation. Similar to heat shock, Compound A can upregulate transcription of Hsp70 genes in various cell lines and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, whereas Compound A-dependent Hsp70 promoter activation is GR-dependent but HSF1-independent, heat shock-induced Hsp70 expression alternatively occurs in a GR-independent and HSF1-dependent manner in A549 lung epithelial cells. PMID:23935933

Beck, Ilse M.; Drebert, Zuzanna J.; Hoya-Arias, Ruben; Bahar, Ali A.; Devos, Michael; Clarisse, Dorien; Desmet, Sofie; Bougarne, Nadia; Ruttens, Bart; Gossye, Valerie; Denecker, Geertrui; Lievens, Sam; Bracke, Marc; Tavernier, Jan; Declercq, Wim; Gevaert, Kris; Berghe, Wim Vanden; Haegeman, Guy; De Bosscher, Karolien

2013-01-01

217

Isolation and Evaluation of the Enantiospecific Antitubercular Activity of a Novel Triazole Compound  

PubMed Central

Cyclohex-3-enyl(5-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methanol (MSDRT 12) is a novel triazole-based antitubercular compound with two chiral centers. To evaluate the enantiospecific antitubercular activity, the four stereoisomers were isolated using preparative chiral chromatography and the individual stereoisomers were evaluated using the resazurin microtiter assay method (REMA) and a microbroth dilution technique against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain. Isomer III of MSDRT 12 was found to be the most potent with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78 ?g/mL, Isomer II had a MIC of 12.5 ?g/mL, and isomers I and IV showed no activity. The diastereomeric mixture of MSDRT 12 showed a MIC of 3.125 ?g/mL and isoniazid, used as the standard drug, showed a MIC of 0.4 ?g/mL. This confirms the necessity of screening individual enantiomers for their pharmacological activity early in the discovery phase to identify the most potent isomer for further development efforts. PMID:24634844

Shekar, Radha; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Mukhopadhya, Arindam; Degani, Mariam S.

2014-01-01

218

Synthetic mRNA Splicing Modulator Compounds with In Vivo Anti-tumor Activity  

PubMed Central

We report our progress on the development of new synthetic anti-cancer lead compounds that modulate the splicing of mRNA. We also report the synthesis evaluation of new biologically active ester and carbamate analogs. Further, we describe initial animal studies demonstrating the antitumor efficacy of compound 5 in vivo. Additionally, we report the enantioselective and diastereospecific synthesis of a new 1,3-dioxane series of active analogs. We confirm that compound 5 inhibits the splicing of mRNA in both cell-free nuclear extracts and in a cell-based dual-reporter mRNA splicing assay. In summary, we have developed totally synthetic novel spliceosome modulators as therapeutic lead compounds for a number of highly aggressive cancers. Future efforts will be directed toward the more complete optimization of these compounds as potential human therapeutics. PMID:19877647

Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Pourpak, Alan; Goronga, Tinopiwa; Jiang, Qin; Cui, Xiaoli; Hyle, Judith; Lahti, Jill; Morris, Stephan W.; Webb, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

219

Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.  

PubMed

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided. PMID:23899380

Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

2013-10-25

220

Antiproliferative activity of Saponaria vaccaria constituents and related compounds.  

PubMed

Total methanolic extracts of Saponaria vaccaria seed derived from several varieties, as well as various purified components obtained through successive chromatographic separations of total extracts were evaluated for their growth inhibitory activity in WiDr (colon), MDA-MB-231 (breast), NCI-417 (lung) and PC-3 (prostate) human cancer cells as well as the non-tumorigenic fibroblast BJ (CRL-2522) cell line using MTT colorimetric assay. Purified bisdesmosidic saponins segetoside H and I were further examined using microscopy and apoptosis assays. Bisdesmosidic saponins exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibitory and selective apoptosis-inducing activity. Growth inhibitory effects were particularly strong in a breast (MDA-MB-231) and a prostate (PC-3) cancer cell line. Total extracts exhibited a different preference being most active against a colon cancer cell line (WiDr). In a comparison of varieties, all of the total seed extracts exhibited similar dose-dependent activities, but with some variation in potency. Monodesmosidic saponins vaccarosides A and B, phenolic vaccarin, and cyclopeptide segetalin A, co-occurring seed substituents, did not exhibit activity. The non-tumorigenic fibroblast cell line BJ (CRL 2522) was growth inhibited but did not undergo apoptosis when treated with bisdesmosidic saponins at low micromolar concentrations. Saponin-rich extracts from Kochia scoparia seed and Chenopodium quinoa were also evaluated alongside Saponaria saponins but did not exhibit activity. Closely related Quillaja saponins exhibited activity but were less potent. PMID:22056663

Balsevich, J John; Ramirez-Erosa, Irving; Hickie, Robert A; Dunlop, Donna M; Bishop, Greg G; Deibert, Leah K

2012-01-01

221

Prediction of compounds in different local structure-activity relationship environments using emerging chemical patterns.  

PubMed

Active compounds can participate in different local structure-activity relationship (SAR) environments and introduce different degrees of local SAR discontinuity, depending on their structural and potency relationships in data sets. Such SAR features have thus far mostly been analyzed using descriptive approaches, in particular, on the basis of activity landscape modeling. However, compounds in different local SAR environments have not yet been predicted. Herein, we adapt the emerging chemical patterns (ECP) method, a machine learning approach for compound classification, to systematically predict compounds with different local SAR characteristics. ECP analysis is shown to accurately assign many compounds to different local SAR environments across a variety of activity classes covering the entire range of observed local SARs. Control calculations using random forests and multiclass support vector machines were carried out and a variety of statistical performance measures were applied. In all instances, ECP calculations yielded comparable or better performance than controls. The approach presented herein can be applied to predict compounds that complement local SARs or prioritize compounds with different SAR characteristics. PMID:24803014

Namasivayam, Vigneshwaran; Gupta-Ostermann, Disha; Balfer, Jenny; Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-05-27

222

Using Model-Eliciting Activities as a Tool to Identify and Develop Mathematically Creative Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional classroom methods for identifying mathematically creative students have been inadequate. Identifying students who could potentially be mathematically creative is instrumental in the development of students and in meeting their affective and educational needs. One prospective identification tool is the use of model-eliciting activities

Coxbill, Emmy; Chamberlin, Scott A.; Weatherford, Jennifer

2013-01-01

223

Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

2011-01-01

224

Anti-HIV-1 protease activity of compounds from Boesenbergia pandurata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for anti-HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors of Thai medicinal plants led to the isolation of a new cyclohexenyl chalcone named panduratin C (1) and chalcone derivatives (2–6) from the methanol extract of Boesenbergia pandurata rhizomes. The known compounds were identified to be panduratin A (2), hydroxypanduratin A (3), helichrysetin (4), 2?,4?,6?-trihydroxyhydrochalcone (5), and uvangoletin (6). The structures of all compounds

Sarot Cheenpracha; Chatchanok Karalai; Chanita Ponglimanont; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

2006-01-01

225

The Mast Cell Degranulator Compound 48/80 Directly Activates Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a “selective” mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Methodology/Principal Findings We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H1 and H2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. Conclusions/Significance The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn. PMID:23272218

Schemann, Michael; Kugler, Eva Maria; Buhner, Sabine; Eastwood, Christopher; Donovan, Jemma; Jiang, Wen; Grundy, David

2012-01-01

226

Compounds from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum and their anti-cholinesterase activity.  

PubMed

A new alkenylphenol, bavinol A (1), together with six known compounds (2-7) were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bavinum (Piperaceae). The chemical structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses including 2D NMR spectroscopy. The anti-Alzheimer effects of compounds 1-7 were evaluated from acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity assays. Bavinol A (1), ampelopsin (3), and violanthin (4) exhibited AChE inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 29.80, 59.47 and 79.80 ?M. Compound 1 also showed the most potent BChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 19.25 ?M. PMID:25005067

Dung, Hoang Viet; Cuong, To Dao; Chinh, Nguyen Minh; Quyen, Do; Kim, Jeong Ah; Byeon, Jeong Su; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Sui; Min, Byung Sun

2014-07-01

227

30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat or habitat areas of...

2013-07-01

228

30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities, MMS finds that essential fish habitat or habitat areas of...

2011-07-01

229

30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat or habitat areas of...

2012-07-01

230

30 CFR 585.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...activities, BOEM finds that essential fish habitat or habitat areas of...

2014-07-01

231

30 CFR 285.803 - How must I conduct my approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities to protect essential fish habitats identified and described under...approved activities, MMS finds that essential fish habitat or habitat areas of...

2010-07-01

232

Anti-Prion Activity of a Panel of Aromatic Chemical Compounds: In Vitro and In Silico Approaches  

PubMed Central

The prion protein (PrP) is implicated in the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), which comprise a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and other mammals. Conversion of cellular PrP (PrPC) into the scrapie form (PrPSc) is the hallmark of TSEs. Once formed, PrPSc aggregates and catalyzes PrPC misfolding into new PrPSc molecules. Although many compounds have been shown to inhibit the conversion process, so far there is no effective therapy for TSEs. Besides, most of the previously evaluated compounds failed in vivo due to poor pharmacokinetic profiles. In this work we propose a combined in vitro/in silico approach to screen for active anti-prion compounds presenting acceptable drugability and pharmacokinetic parameters. A diverse panel of aromatic compounds was screened in neuroblastoma cells persistently infected with PrPSc (ScN2a) for their ability to inhibit PK-resistant PrP (PrPRes) accumulation. From ?200 compounds, 47 were effective in decreasing the accumulation of PrPRes in ScN2a cells. Pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties were predicted in silico, allowing us to obtain estimates of relative blood brain barrier permeation and mutagenicity. MTT reduction assays showed that most of the active compounds were non cytotoxic. Compounds that cleared PrPRes from ScN2a cells, were non-toxic in the MTT assay, and presented a good pharmacokinetic profile were investigated for their ability to inhibit aggregation of an amyloidogenic PrP peptide fragment (PrP109–149). Molecular docking results provided structural models and binding affinities for the interaction between PrP and the most promising compounds. In summary, using this combined in vitro/in silico approach we have identified new small organic anti-scrapie compounds that decrease the accumulation of PrPRes in ScN2a cells, inhibit the aggregation of a PrP peptide, and possess pharmacokinetic characteristics that support their drugability. These compounds are attractive candidates for prion disease therapy. PMID:24400098

Ferreira, Natalia C.; Marques, Icaro A.; Conceição, Wesley A.; Macedo, Bruno; Machado, Clarice S.; Mascarello, Alessandra; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domeneghini; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Hughson, Andrew G.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Caughey, Byron; Cordeiro, Yraima

2014-01-01

233

Exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 in two siblings with severe intellectual disability, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, chorioretinal coloboma, and intractable seizures.  

PubMed

In patients with genetically heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability or epilepsy, exome sequencing is a powerful tool to elucidate the underlying genetic cause. Homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in C12orf57 have recently been described to cause an autosomal recessive syndromic form of intellectual disability, including agenesis/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, optic coloboma, and intractable seizures. Here, we report on two siblings from nonconsanguineous parents harboring two compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in C12orf57 identified by exome sequencing, including a novel nonsense mutation, and review the patients described in the literature. PMID:24798461

Platzer, Konrad; Hüning, Irina; Obieglo, Carolin; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Gabriel, Rainer; Strom, Tim M; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J

2014-08-01

234

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  

PubMed

Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2010-03-10

235

Pulmonary metabolism of foreign compounds: its role in metabolic activation.  

PubMed Central

The lung has the potential of metabolizing many foreign chemicals to a vast array of metabolites with different pharmacological and toxicological properties. Because many chemicals require metabolic activation in order to exert their toxicity, the cellular distribution of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in a heterogeneous tissue, such as the lung, and the balance of metabolic activation and deactivation pathways in any particular cell are key factors in determining the cellular specificity of many pulmonary toxins. Environmental factors such as air pollution, cigarette smoking, and diet markedly affect the pulmonary metabolism of some chemicals and, thereby, possibly affect their toxicity. PMID:2200668

Cohen, G M

1990-01-01

236

Nanopharmacy: Inorganic nanoscale devices as vectors and active compounds.  

PubMed

In this review we would like to aim at pharmaceuticals engineered on the nanoscale, i.e. pharmaceuticals where the nanomaterial plays the pivotal therapeutic role or adds additional functionality to the previous compound. Those cases would be considered as nanopharmaceuticals. The development of inorganic systems is opening the pharmaceutical nanotechnology novel horizons for diagnosis, imaging and therapy mainly because of their nanometer-size and their high surface area to volume ratios which allow for specific functions that are not possible in the micrometer-size particles. This review will focus on pharmaceutical forms that are based on inorganic nanoparticles where the nanosize of the inorganic component provides unique characteristics to the pharmaceutical form. Several examples of these systems that are either in pre-clinical investigation and under examination by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or that have been already approved by the FDA and are in clinical practice today like Gastromark, NanoTherm, Colloidal Gold for Lateral Flow tests, HfO-NPs, BioVant will be described and reviewed. PMID:20097288

Rivera Gil, Pilar; Hühn, Dominik; del Mercato, Loretta L; Sasse, Daniel; Parak, Wolfgang J

2010-08-01

237

[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

2013-09-01

238

Antioxidant Activity of Plant Extracts Containing Phenolic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant

Marja P. Kähkönen; Anu I. Hopia; Heikki J. Vuorela; Jussi-Pekka Rauha; Kalevi Pihlaja; Tytti S. Kujala; Marina Heinonen

1999-01-01

239

Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of natural antioxidant in plants is well known. This paper reports the antioxidative activities of some methanolic plant extracts namely 'ulam raja' (Cosmos caudatus), 'kesum' (Polygonum minus), 'selom' (Oenanthe javanica), 'pegaga' (Centella asiatica) and 'curry leaf' (Murraya koenigii). The analysis carried out was total phenolic content, ferric reducing power, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests. From

A. Noriham; A. S. Norrakiah; Food Biotechnology Programme; Bandar Baru Nilai

240

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2011-01-01

241

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2012-01-01

242

Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

2010-01-01

243

On establishing the core competency identifying model: A value-activity and process oriented approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research intends to establish a model integrating the related theories in strategy management and competency in the HRM field, and to develop a systematic tool that can help a company quickly and precisely identify its core competency. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An internal value activity chain is obtained through analyzing customers' needs. The priority of the activities is then

Bai-chuan Yang; Bing-eng Wu; Pei-gi Shu; Ming-hsien Yang

2006-01-01

244

THE RIGHT ANSWER TO THE WRONG QUESTION: IDENTIFYING SUPERIOR ACTIVE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate over the value of active portfolio management has often centered on whether the average active manager is capable of producing returns that exceed expectations. We argue that a more useful way to frame this issue is to focus on identifying those managers who are the most likely to generate superior risk-adjusted returns (i.e., alpha) in the future. Using

W. V. Harlow; Keith C. Brownb

2006-01-01

245

A high-content, multiplexed screen in human breast cancer cells identifies profilin-1 inducers with anti-migratory activities.  

PubMed

Profilin-1 (Pfn-1) is a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein that is essential for normal cell proliferation and migration. In breast cancer and several other adenocarcinomas, Pfn-1 expression is downregulated when compared to normal tissues. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that genetically modulating Pfn-1 expression significantly impacts proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and mammary tumor growth, dissemination, and metastatic colonization in vivo. Therefore, small molecules that can modulate Pfn-1 expression could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The overall goal of this study was to perform a multiplexed phenotypic screen to identify compounds that inhibit cell motility through upregulation of Pfn-1. Screening of a test cassette of 1280 compounds with known biological activities on an Oris™ Pro 384 cell migration platform identified several agents that increased Pfn-1 expression greater than two-fold over vehicle controls and exerted anti-migratory effects in the absence of overt cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Concentration-response confirmation and orthogonal follow-up assays identified two bona fide inducers of Pfn-1, purvalanol and tyrphostin A9, that confirmed in single-cell motility assays and Western blot analyses. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of Pfn-1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of tyrphostin A9 on cell migration, suggesting Pfn-1 is mechanistically linked to tyrphostin A9's anti-migratory activity. The data illustrate the utility of the high-content cell motility assay to discover novel targeted anti-migratory agents by integrating functional phenotypic analyses with target-specific readouts in a single assay platform. PMID:24520372

Joy, Marion E; Vollmer, Laura L; Hulkower, Keren; Stern, Andrew M; Peterson, Cameron K; Boltz, R C Dutch; Roy, Partha; Vogt, Andreas

2014-01-01

246

Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1{degree} {times} 1{degree} grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings.

Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Graedel, T.E. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1993-05-20

247

Activation Tagging in Tomato Identifies a Transcriptional Regulator of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis, Modification, and Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a high-throughput T-DNA insertional mutagenesis program in tomato using activation tagging to identify genes that regulate metabolic pathways. One of the activation-tagged insertion lines ( ant1 ) showed intense purple pigmentation from the very early stage of shoot formation in culture, reflecting activation of the biosynthetic pathway leading to anthocyanin accumulation. The purple coloration resulted from the

Helena Mathews; Stephanie K. Clendennen; Colby G. Caldwell; Xing Liang Liu; Karin Connors; Nikolaus Matheis; Debra K. Schuster; D. J. Menasco; Wendy Wagoner; Jonathan Lightner; D. Ry

2003-01-01

248

Identifying actives from HTS data sets: practical approaches for the selection of an appropriate HTS data-processing method and quality control review.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) has achieved a dominant role in drug discovery over the past 2 decades. The goal of HTS is to identify active compounds (hits) by screening large numbers of diverse chemical compounds against selected targets and/or cellular phenotypes. The HTS process consists of multiple automated steps involving compound handling, liquid transfers, and assay signal capture, all of which unavoidably contribute to systematic variation in the screening data. The challenge is to distinguish biologically active compounds from assay variability. Traditional plate controls-based and non-controls-based statistical methods have been widely used for HTS data processing and active identification by both the pharmaceutical industry and academic sectors. More recently, improved robust statistical methods have been introduced, reducing the impact of systematic row/column effects in HTS data. To apply such robust methods effectively and properly, we need to understand their necessity and functionality. Data from 6 HTS case histories are presented to illustrate that robust statistical methods may sometimes be misleading and can result in more, rather than less, false positives or false negatives. In practice, no single method is the best hit detection method for every HTS data set. However, to aid the selection of the most appropriate HTS data-processing and active identification methods, the authors developed a 3-step statistical decision methodology. Step 1 is to determine the most appropriate HTS data-processing method and establish criteria for quality control review and active identification from 3-day assay signal window and DMSO validation tests. Step 2 is to perform a multilevel statistical and graphical review of the screening data to exclude data that fall outside the quality control criteria. Step 3 is to apply the established active criterion to the quality-assured data to identify the active compounds. PMID:21160066

Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S; Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Paul A

2011-01-01

249

Comparison of antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from guava leaves and a stability study of the most active compound.  

PubMed

In the present study, quercetin (QT), morin (MR), and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside (QG) isolated from guava leaves were comparatively tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods. QT was the most active among them. The free radical scavenging activity of QT was approximately four times higher than MR and two times higher than QG. The reducing power of QT was eight times higher than MR and two times higher than QG. A mixture of QT with MR or QG showed interesting combination effect. The synergistic antioxidant activity was obtained when QT was mixed with MR whereas the antagonistic effect was found when mixed with QG. The stability study of QT in liquid preparations indicated that the decomposition reaction rate of QT could be explained by a kinetic model assuming a first-order chemical reaction. The aqueous solution of QT was rapidly decomposed with t1/2 of approximately five days whereas QT entrapped in chitosan nanoparticles was five times longer. It was concluded that QT was the most active antioxidant from guava leaves. Entrapment of QT in chitosan nanoparticles could significantly enhance its stability. PMID:22460427

Nantitanon, W; Okonogi, S

2012-02-01

250

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Rosa canina L. biotypes from spontaneous flora of Transylvania  

PubMed Central

Background The theoretical, but especially the practical values of identifying the biochemical compounds from the Rosa canina L. fruits are of present interest, this aspect being illustrated by the numerous researches. It was reported that the Rosa canina L. fruit, with its high ascorbic acid, phenolics and flavonoids contents, have antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. This study was performed on order to evaluate the amount of the main phytochemicals (vitamin C, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids) content and their antioxidant activity. Results The results obtained revealed that the average amounts of vitamin C within the studied genotypes were: 360.22 mg/100 g frozen pulp (var. transitoria f. ramosissima, altitude 1250 m) and 112.20 mg/100 g frozen pulp (var. assiensis, altitude 440 m), giving a good correlation between the vitamin C content of the rosehip and the altitude. The total polyphenols content varied from 575 mg/100 g frozen pulp (var. transitoria f. ramosissima) to 326 mg/100 g frozen pulp (var. lutetiana f. fallens). The total flavonoids content showed the highest value for var. assiensis variant 163.3 mg/100 g frozen pulp and the lowest value attributed to var. transitoria f. montivaga 101.3 mg/100 g frozen pulp. The antioxidant activity of eight rose hip extracts from wild Transylvania populations was investigated through DPPH method. The antioxidant activity revealed a good correlation only with vitamin C content and total polyphenols. Conclusion Eight Rose hip fruit species were compared taking into consideration the ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, total flavonoids contents and their antioxidant activity. Based on these results, two of the rosehip genotypes that were analysed could be of perspective for these species’ amelioration, due to their content of phytochemicals mentioned above. These varieties are var. transitoria f. ramosissima (Bistrita-Nasaud, Agiesel) and var. transitoria f. montivaga (Bistrita-Nasaud, Salva) which can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23618509

2013-01-01

251

Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly proportional to the pupal mortality. Conclusion These results suggest that the P. cablin chemical compositions have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent and pupicidal activities of the reported P. cablin chemical compositions.

Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

2013-01-01

252

Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

253

Ultraviolet-mediated antibiotic activity of species of Compositae caused by polyacetylenic compounds.  

PubMed

A survey of North, Central, and South American composites, and of certain polyacetylenic compounds occurring in them, confirmed that the ultraviolet-mediated antibiotic activity against Candida albicans can be ascribed to the presence of particular polyacetylenes and their thiophene derivatives. Leaves, stems, roots, and achenes were assayed separately. An attempt was made to relate the phototoxic activity of specific compounds to their chemical structures. Most composites tested were not phototoxic against Candida, but many were antibiotic. The antibiotic activity also appears to be caused by polyacetylenes. Of 65 sequiterpene lactones assayed, only a few were found to be antibiotic, and only one, glaucolide G, was phototoxic. PMID:73121

Towers, G H; Wat, C K; Graham, E A; Bandoni, R J; Chan, G Q; Mitchell, J C; Lam, J

1977-01-01

254

Biosynthesis of the active compounds of Isatis indigotica based on transcriptome sequencing and metabolites profiling  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Isatis indigotica is a widely used herb for the clinical treatment of colds, fever, and influenza in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Various structural classes of compounds have been identified as effective ingredients. However, little is known at genetics level about these active metabolites. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive dataset of I. indigotica. Results A database of 36,367 unigenes (average length?=?1,115.67 bases) was generated by performing transcriptome sequencing. Based on the gene annotation of the transcriptome, 104 unigenes were identified covering most of the catalytic steps in the general biosynthetic pathways of indole, terpenoid, and phenylpropanoid. Subsequently, the organ-specific expression patterns of the genes involved in these pathways, and their responses to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induction, were investigated. Metabolites profile of effective phenylpropanoid showed accumulation pattern of secondary metabolites were mostly correlated with the transcription of their biosynthetic genes. According to the analysis of UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGT) family, several flavonoids were indicated to exist in I. indigotica and further identified by metabolic profile using UPLC/Q-TOF. Moreover, applying transcriptome co-expression analysis, nine new, putative UGTs were suggested as flavonol glycosyltransferases and lignan glycosyltransferases. Conclusions This database provides a pool of candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of effective metabolites in I. indigotica. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis and characterization of the significant pathways are expected to give a better insight regarding the diversity of chemical composition, synthetic characteristics, and the regulatory mechanism which operate in this medical herb. PMID:24308360

2013-01-01

255

Synthesis, biological active molecular design, and molecular docking study of novel deazaflavin-cholestane hybrid compounds.  

PubMed

Novel deazaflavin-cholestane hybrid compounds, 3',8'-disubstituted-5'-deazacholest-2,4-dieno[2,3-g]pteridine-2',4'(3'H,8'H)-diones, have been synthesized by condensation reaction between 6-(monosubstituted amino)-pyrimidin-2,4(1H,3H)-diones and 2-hydroxymethylenecholest-4-en-3-one in presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate and diphenyl ether. The antitumor activities against human tumor cell lines (CCRF-HSB-2 and KB cells) have been investigated in vitro, and many of these compounds showed promising antitumor activities. Furthermore, molecular docking study using LigandFit within the software package Discovery Studio 1.7 was done for lead optimization of these compounds as potential PTK inhibitors. In general, all of the synthesized steroid-hybrid compounds showed good binding affinities into PTK (PDB code: 1t46). PMID:18723355

Shrestha, Ajaya R; Shindo, Takashi; Ashida, Noriyuki; Nagamatsu, Tomohisa

2008-09-15

256

In vitro and in vivo anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities of essential oils and individual compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils are increasingly of interest for use as novel drugs acting as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. In the present study, we report the in vitro antiviral activities of 29 essential oils, extracted from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants, against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Of these essential oils, those oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass effected a more than 50% inhibition of TMV at 100 ?g/ml. In addition, the mode of antiviral action of the active essential oils was also determined. Essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass possessed potent inactivation and curative effects in vivo and had a directly passivating effect on TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. However, all other active essential oils exhibited a moderate protective effect in vivo. The chemical constitutions of the essential oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of these essential oils were ?-zingiberene (35.21%), limonene (76.25%), terpinen-4-ol (41.20%), limonene (80.95%), 1,8-cineole (27.45%), and terpinolene (10.67%). The curative effects of 10 individual compounds from the active essential oils on TMV infection were also examined in vivo. The compounds from citronellal, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and ?-zingiberene effected a more than 40% inhibition rate for TMV infection, and the other compounds demonstrated moderate activities at 320 ?g/ml in vivo. There results indicate that the essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass, and the individual compound citronellal, have the potential to be used as an effective alternative for the treatment of tobacco plants infected with TMV under greenhouse conditions. PMID:23676919

Lu, Min; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yun; Yao, Lei

2013-06-28

257

Anti-Campylobacter Activities and Resistance Mechanisms of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Campylobacter  

PubMed Central

Background Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and alternative antimicrobials are needed to prevent or decrease Campylobacter contamination in foods or food producing animals. The objectives of this study are to define the anti-Campylobacter activities of natural phenolic compounds of plant origin and to determine the roles of bacterial drug efflux systems in the resistance to these natural phenolics in Campylobacter jejuni. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-Campylobacter activities were evaluated by an MIC assay using microdilution coupled with ATP measurement. Mutants of the cmeB and cmeF efflux genes and the cmeR transcriptional repressor gene were compared with the wild-type strain for their susceptibilities to phenolics in the absence and presence of efflux-pump inhibitors (EPIs). The phenolic compounds produced significant, but variable activities against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic resistant Campylobacter. The highest anti-Campylobacter activity was seen with carnosic and rosmarinic acids in their pure forms or in enriched plant extracts. Inactivation of cmeB rendered C. jejuni significantly more susceptible to the phenolic compounds, while mutation of cmeF or cmeR only produced a moderate effect on the MICs. Consistent with the results from the efflux pump mutants, EPIs, especially phenylalanine-arginine ?-naphthylamide and NMP, significantly reduced the MICs of the tested phenolic compounds. Further reduction of MICs by the EPIs was also observed in the cmeB and cmeF mutants, suggesting that other efflux systems are also involved in Campylobacter resistance to phenolic compounds. Conclusion/Significance Natural phenolic compounds of plant origin have good anti-Campylobacter activities and can be further developed for potential use in controlling Campylobacter. The drug efflux systems in Campylobacter contribute significantly to its resistance to the phenolics and EPIs potentiate the anti-Campylobacter activities of plant phenolic compounds. PMID:23284770

Klan?nik, Anja; Možina, Sonja Smole; Zhang, Qijing

2012-01-01

258

Inhibition by toxic compounds in the hemicellulosic hydrolysates on the activity of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis.  

PubMed

Xylose reductase (XR) is an oxidoreductase having potential applications in the production of various specialty products, mainly xylitol. It is important to screen for compounds that can decrease XR activity and consequently can decrease xylitol production. We have identified the byproducts in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate that inhibit XR from Candida tropicalis and measured their effects. XR inhibitory activities of byproducts, glucose, acetic acid, arabinose, lignin-degradation products (LDPs), furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), were evaluated by measuring the MIC and IC50 values. XR activity was 11.2 U/ml. Acetic acid, LDPs, furfural and HMF significantly inhibited XR with IC50 values of 11, 6.4, 2.3 and 0.4 g/l, respectively. This is the first report on the inhibitory activities of several byproducts for XR. PMID:25214231

Rafiqul, I S M; Sakinah, A M M; Zularisam, A W

2015-01-01

259

High-Throughput Screening Identifies Novel Inhibitors of the Acetyltransferase Activity of Escherichia coli GlmU?  

PubMed Central

The bifunctional GlmU protein catalyzes the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in a two-step reaction using the substrates glucosamine-1-phosphate, acetyl coenzyme A, and UTP. This metabolite is a common precursor to the synthesis of bacterial cell surface carbohydrate polymers, such as peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and wall teichoic acid that are involved in the maintenance of cell shape, permeability, and virulence. The C-terminal acetyltransferase domain of GlmU exhibits structural and mechanistic features unique to bacterial UDP-N-acetylglucosamine synthases, making it an excellent target for antibacterial design. In the work described here, we have developed an absorbance-based assay to screen diverse chemical libraries in high throughput for inhibitors to the acetyltransferase reaction of Escherichia coli GlmU. The primary screen of 50,000 drug-like small molecules identified 63 hits, 37 of which were specific to acetyltransferase activity of GlmU. Secondary screening and mode-of-inhibition studies identified potent inhibitors where compound binding within the acetyltransferase active site was requisite on the presence of glucosamine-1-phosphate and were competitive with the substrate acetyl coenzyme A. These molecules may represent novel chemical scaffolds for future antimicrobial drug discovery. In addition, this work outlines the utility of catalytic variants in targeting specific activities of bifunctional enzymes in high-throughput screens. PMID:19349513

Pereira, Mark P.; Blanchard, Jan E.; Murphy, Cecilia; Roderick, Steven L.; Brown, Eric D.

2009-01-01

260

Anti-trypanosomal activities and structural chemical properties of selected compound classes.  

PubMed

Potent compounds do not necessarily make the best drugs in the market. Consequently, with the aim to describe tools that may be fundamental for refining the screening of candidates for animal and preclinical studies and further development, molecules of different structural classes synthesized within the frame of a broad screening platform were evaluated for their trypanocidal activities, cytotoxicities against murine macrophages J774.1 and selectivity indices, as well as for their ligand efficiencies and structural chemical properties. To advance into their modes of action, we also describe the morphological and ultrastructural changes exerted by selected members of each compound class on the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Our data suggest that the potential organelles targeted are either the flagellar pocket (compound 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 15, amino acid derivative with piperazine moieties), the endoplasmic reticulum membrane systems (37, bisquaternary bisnaphthalimide; 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative), or mitochondria and kinetoplasts (88, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative). Amino acid derivatives with fumaric acid and piperazine moieties (4, 15) weakly inhibiting cysteine proteases seem to preferentially target acidic compartments. Our results suggest that ligand efficiency indices may be helpful to learn about the relationship between potency and chemical characteristics of the compounds. Interestingly, the correlations found between the physico-chemical parameters of the selected compounds and those of commercial molecules that target specific organelles indicate that our rationale might be helpful to drive compound design toward high activities and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for all compound families. PMID:25416330

Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Bruhn, Heike; Schirmeister, Tanja; Cecil, Alexander; Albert, Christian R; Buechold, Christian; Tischer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Susanne; Goebel, Tim; Fuß, Antje; Mathein, Daniela; Merget, Benjamin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Stich, August; Krohne, Georg; Engstler, Markus; Bringmann, Gerhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

2015-02-01

261

Quantitative structure-activity relationship of insect juvenile hormone mimetic compounds.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone mimetic activities on Aedes aegypti (yellow-fever mosquito) and Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) of compounds having (2E,4E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienone structures were comparatively and quantitatively analyzed in terms of their physiochemical structural parameters and by regression analysis. They were structurally composed of three classes, ester and thiol ester derivatives, amides, and ketones, depending on the C1 substituents. The results indicated that the steric dimensions and the hydrophobicity of the whole molecule are important factors in governing the activity through these classes as well as through both insect species. The effects of the structure of the C1 and C11 substituents, the two ends of the chain molecule, are specific to the insect. The length along the bond axis of the C1 substituents is significant and the hydroxy and alkoxy functions attached to the C11 atom favor the activity on A. aegypti, whereas with T. molitor the width of the C1 substituents in the direction perpendicular to the bond axis is significant and the position-specific hydrophobicity of the C1 moiety enhances the activity. The activity is also affected differently by the compound types. The amide and ketone series of compounds are more active than the corresponding ester type of compounds on T. molitor, while the favorable types on A. aegypti are the ester and ketone derivatives. Correlation equations formulated for 85 active compounds on A. aegypti and 84 compounds on T. molitor led us to draw a hypothetical "mode of action" model for each species, which visualizes the overall similarity as well as the species differences of the interaction site or the receptor and may show the structural conditions necessary for activity. PMID:6492079

Nakayama, A; Iwamura, H; Fujita, T

1984-11-01

262

Triterpene compounds isolated from Acer mandshuricum and their anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our preliminary screening study on the anti-inflammatory activity, a new triterpene compound, aceranol acetate (1), was isolated along with five known compounds: ?-amyrin acetate (2); glutinol acetate (3); friedelin (4); glutinol (5); (3?)-d-glucopyranoside-stigmast-5-en-3-yl (6), from the stems and leaves of Acer mandshuricum. The structure of the new triterpene was determined to be 5?,6?-epidioxy-5?,6?-epoxy-9,13-dimethyl-25,26-dinoroleanan-3?-ol acetate by spectroscopic studies. Compounds 2–6

Yan Ding; Chun Liang; Jun Ho Kim; Young-Mi Lee; Jae-Hee Hyun; Hee-Kyoung Kang; Jeong-Ah Kim; Byung Sun Min; Young Ho Kim

2010-01-01

263

Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds  

DOEpatents

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01

264

Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds  

DOEpatents

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figs.

Vo-Dinh, T.

1994-06-07

265

Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds  

DOEpatents

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01

266

Enhanced photo-activated luminescence for screening polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and other related chlorinated compounds  

DOEpatents

The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorinated compounds in a sample is determined by treating the sample with a photo-activator and then exposing the treated sample to a UV light source. The UV light produces a photo-product complex, which is subsequently excited with UV light to cause luminescence of the complex. The luminescence is detected and characteristics of the luminescence spectra are used to determine the presence of chlorinated compounds and also the quantity of the chlorine in the compounds. 14 figures.

Tuan Vodinh.

1993-12-21

267

Human kinome profiling identifies a requirement for AMP-activated protein kinase during human cytomegalovirus infection  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) modulates numerous cellular signaling pathways. Alterations in signaling are evident from the broad changes in cellular phosphorylation that occur during HCMV infection and from the altered activity of multiple kinases. Here we report a comprehensive RNAi screen, which predicts that 106 cellular kinases influence growth of the virus, most of which were not previously linked to HCMV replication. Multiple elements of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway scored in the screen. As a regulator of carbon and nucleotide metabolism, AMPK is poised to activate many of the metabolic pathways induced by HCMV infection. An AMPK inhibitor, compound C, blocked a substantial portion of HCMV-induced metabolic changes, inhibited the accumulation of all HCMV proteins tested, and markedly reduced the production of infectious progeny. We propose that HCMV requires AMPK or related activity for viral replication and reprogramming of cellular metabolism. PMID:22315427

Terry, Laura J.; Vastag, Livia; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Shenk, Thomas

2012-01-01

268

Electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins on nickel(II) tetraazamacrocyclic complex-modified graphite felt electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins was studied using a nickel(II) tetraazamacrocyclic complex-modified graphite felt (GF) electrode. The modified GF electrode was observed a catalytic current in the presence of bromide compound by cyclic voltammetry. A preparative electrocatalytic addition reaction of bromide compounds and activated olefins was successfully achieved on the modified GF electrode with an adequate

Yoshitomo Kashiwagi; Chikara Kikuchi; Futoshi Kurashima; Tetsuya Ono

2007-01-01

269

Screening for phenotype selective activity in multidrug resistant cells identifies a novel tubulin active agent insensitive to common forms of cancer drug resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Drug resistance is a common cause of treatment failure in cancer patients and encompasses a multitude of different mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to identify drugs effective on multidrug resistant cells. Methods The RPMI 8226 myeloma cell line and its multidrug resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was screened for cytotoxicity in response to 3,000 chemically diverse compounds using a fluorometric cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Follow-up profiling was subsequently performed using various cellular and biochemical assays. Results One compound, designated VLX40, demonstrated a higher activity against 8226/Dox40 cells compared to its parental counterpart. VLX40 induced delayed cell death with apoptotic features. Mechanistic exploration was performed using gene expression analysis of drug exposed tumor cells to generate a drug-specific signature. Strong connections to tubulin inhibitors and microtubule cytoskeleton were retrieved. The mechanistic hypothesis of VLX40 acting as a tubulin inhibitor was confirmed by direct measurements of interaction with tubulin polymerization using a biochemical assay and supported by demonstration of G2/M cell cycle arrest. When tested against a broad panel of primary cultures of patient tumor cells (PCPTC) representing different forms of leukemia and solid tumors, VLX40 displayed high activity against both myeloid and lymphoid leukemias in contrast to the reference compound vincristine to which myeloid blast cells are often insensitive. Significant in vivo activity was confirmed in myeloid U-937 cells implanted subcutaneously in mice using the hollow fiber model. Conclusions The results indicate that VLX40 may be a useful prototype for development of novel tubulin active agents that are insensitive to common mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. PMID:23919498

2013-01-01

270

Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol), small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds. PMID:25161873

Nakano, Shu-ichi; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

2014-01-01

271

Application of modified in vitro screening procedure for identifying herbals possessing sulfonylurea-like activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the application of a modified in vitro procedure for identifying herbs potentially possessing sulfonylurea-like activity. The procedure consists of the combination of an SUR1 receptor binding assay and an insulin secretion assay in cultures of HIT-T15 cells. This procedure could be used as an initial step in identifying new safe and efficacious agents for the management of

Y Rotshteyn; S. W Zito

2004-01-01

272

Peptidergic modulation of patterned motor activity in identified neurons of Helisoma  

PubMed Central

The neuroactive peptides SCPB (small cardioactive peptide B) and FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2), both originally isolated from molluscs, have potent modulatory effects upon the production of patterned motor activity in identified neurons (e.g., B5 and B19) in the buccal ganglia of the snail Helisoma. Such patterned motor activity has previously been shown to underlie feeding behavior. Micromolar concentrations of SCPB initiate patterned motor activity in quiescent ganglia and increase the rate of activity in ganglia that are spontaneously active. Micromolar concentrations of FMRFamide inhibit patterned motor activity in Helisoma buccal ganglia, and 10 ?M FMRFamide completely suppresses such activity. In addition, there are both anti-SCPB-and anti-FMRFamide-immunoreactive neurons in Helisoma buccal ganglia. Our results suggest that peptides may play a prominent role in the regulation of feeding behavior in Helisoma. Images PMID:16593621

Murphy, A. D.; Lukowiak, Ken; Stell, W. K.

1985-01-01

273

Antibacterial activity of coffee extracts and selected coffee chemical compounds against enterobacteria.  

PubMed

The in vitro antimicrobial activity of commercial coffee extracts and chemical compounds was investigated on nine strains of enterobacteria. The antimicrobial activity investigated by the disc diffusion method was observed in both the extracts and tested chemical compounds. Even though pH, color, and the contents of trigonelline, caffeine, and chlorogenic acids differed significantly among the coffee extracts, no significant differences were observed in their antimicrobial activity. Caffeic acid and trigonelline showed similar inhibitory effect against the growth of the microorganisms. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and protocatechuic acid showed particularly strong effect against Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae. The IC(50) and IC(90) for the compounds determined by the microtiter plate method indicated that trigonelline, caffeine, and protocatechuic acids are potential natural antimicrobial agents against Salmonella enterica. The concentrations of caffeine found in coffee extracts are enough to warrant 50% of the antimicrobial effect against S. enterica, which is relevant to human safety. PMID:17090115

Almeida, Ana Amélia P; Farah, Adriana; Silva, Daniela A M; Nunan, Elzíria A; Glória, M Beatriz A

2006-11-15

274

Small-Molecule Activators of Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Discovered through High-Throughput Compound Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHypocatabolism of the amyloid ?-protein (A?) by insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), making pharmacological activation of IDE an attractive therapeutic strategy. However, it has not been established whether the proteolytic activity of IDE can be enhanced by drug-like compounds.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsBased on the finding that ATP and other nucleotide polyphosphates modulate IDE activity at

Christelle Cabrol; Malwina A. Huzarska; Christopher Dinolfo; Maria C. Rodriguez; Lael Reinstatler; Jake Ni; Li-An Yeh; Gregory D. Cuny; Ross L. Stein; Dennis J. Selkoe; Malcolm A. Leissring; Andreas Hofmann

2009-01-01

275

Synthesis and evaluation of diaryl sulfides and diaryl selenide compounds for antitubulin and cytotoxic activity  

PubMed Central

We have devised a procedure for the synthesis of analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) containing sulfur and selenium atoms as spacer groups between the aromatic rings. CA-4 is well known for its potent activity as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization, and its prodrugs combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4P) and combretastatin A-1 phosphate (CA-1P) are being investigated as antitumor agents that cause tumor vascular collapse in addition to their activity as cytotoxic compounds. Here we report the preparation of two sulfur analogs and one selenium analog of CA-4. All synthesized compounds, as well as several synthetic intermediates, were evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and for cytotoxic activity in human cancer cells. Compounds 3 and 4 were active at nM concentration against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. As inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, both 3 and 4 were more active than CA-4 itself. In addition, 4 was the most active of these agents against 786, HT-29 and PC-3 cancer cells. Molecular modeling binding studies are also reported for compounds 1, 3, 4 and CA-4 to tubulin within the colchicine site. PMID:23810282

dos Santos, Edson dos A.; Hamel, Ernest; Bai, Ruoli; Burnett, James C.; Tozatti, Camila Santos Suniga; Bogo, Danielle; Perdomo, Renata T.; Antunes, Alexandra M. M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Matos, Maria de F. C.; de Lima, Dênis P.

2013-01-01

276

High Content Screening of a Kinase-Focused Library Reveals Compounds Broadly-Active against Dengue Viruses  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA) using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl)-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells). Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates. PMID:23437413

Li, Xiaolan; Milan Bonotto, Rafaela; No, Joo Hwan; Kim, Keum Hyun; Baek, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Young; Windisch, Marc Peter; Pamplona Mosimann, Ana Luiza; de Borba, Luana; Liuzzi, Michel; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Nunes Duarte dos Santos, Claudia; Freitas-Junior, Lucio Holanda

2013-01-01

277

Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon--a critical review.  

PubMed

Adsorption of phenol and its derivatives on activated carbons is considered based on numerous papers related to this issue. Special attention is paid to the effects of carbon surface functionalities, pH of solution and heterogeneity effects that accompany adsorption of phenolic compounds. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to irreversible adsorption of phenols and impact of different substituents of phenolic compounds on their uptake by activated carbons is considered. Finally, some remarks pertaining to applications of novel adsorbents for phenol adsorption are discussed and illustrated by means of a few examples. PMID:15664613

Dabrowski, A; Podko?cielny, P; Hubicki, Z; Barczak, M

2005-02-01

278

Compounds from Arnebia euchroma and their related anti-HCV and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Three new hydroquinone terpenoids with benzogeijerene skeletons, euchroquinols A-C (1- 3), and a new monoterpenylbenzenoid, 9,17-epoxyarnebinol (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the stem bark of ARNEBIA EUCHROMA. Shikonin (6) exhibited potent anti-HCV activity with a selective index of 43.56, and compounds 1, 6, and des-O-methyllasiodiplodin (7) showed anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with MICs of 0.5, 0.125, and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:21984340

Li, Hong-Mei; Tang, Ying-Lei; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Chen-Jian; Li, Hai-Zhou; Li, Rong-Tao; Xia, Xue-Shan

2012-01-01

279

Phenolic compounds with pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity from Korean yam (Dioscorea opposita).  

PubMed

Abstract Twenty-three phenolic compounds were isolated from Dioscorea opposita by bioactivity-guided method and their inhibitory effect against pancreatic lipase was evaluated. A total of 15 isolates reduced lipase activity at IC50 values of less than 50 µM and 3,3',5-trihydroxy-2'-methoxybibenzyl showed the highest inhibition with an IC50 value of 8.8 µM. This study is a first to reveal the pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity by both D. opposita and its isolated compounds. PMID:23327640

Yang, Min Hye; Chin, Young-Won; Yoon, Kee Dong; Kim, Jinwoong

2014-02-01

280

Small molecules with antimicrobial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa identified by high-throughput screening  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: New antimicrobials are needed because of the emergence of organisms that are resistant to available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a high-throughput screening approach to identify antibacterials against two common disease-causing bacteria, and to determine the frequency, novelty, and potency of compounds with antibacterial activity. Experimental approach: A high-throughput, turbidometric assay of bacterial growth in a 96-well plate format was used to screen a diverse collection of 150,000 small molecules for antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The statistical Z?-factor for the assay was ?0.7. Key results: Screening for inhibition of E. coli growth gave a ‘hit' rate (>60% inhibition at 12.5??M) of 0.025%, which was more than 5-fold reduced for P. aeruginosa. The most potent antibacterials (EC50<0.5??M) were of the nitrofuran class followed by naphthalimide, salicylanilide, bipyridinium and quinoazolinediamine chemical classes. Screening of >250 analogs of the most potent antibacterial classes established structure-activity data sets. Conclusions and Implications: Our results validate and demonstrate the utility of a growth-based phenotype screen for rapid identification of small-molecule antibacterials. The favourable efficacy and structure-activity data for several of the antibacterial classes suggests their potential development for clinical use. PMID:16981005

De La Fuente, R; Sonawane, N D; Arumainayagam, D; Verkman, A S

2006-01-01

281

Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N?-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

2014-10-01

282

Optimization of the culture condition for an antitumor bacterium Serratia proteamacula 657 and identification of the active compounds.  

PubMed

Exploration of novel active anti-tumor compounds from marine microbes for pharmaceutical applications has been a continuously hot spot in natural product research. Bacterial growth and metabolites may greatly vary under different culture conditions. In this study, the effects of different culture conditions and medium components on the growth and bioactive metabolites of Serratia proteamacula 657, an anti-tumor bacterium found in our previous study, were investigated. The results showed that lower temperature, weak acidic condition and solid fermentation favored the bacterial growth and the production of active compounds. Four components in the culture medium, NaCl, peptone, yeast extract and MgSO4, were found important to the bacterial growth and active compounds production in medium optimization. Under the optimized condition of solid state fermentation at pH 6.0-7.0, 23-25 °C, with the MgSO4-free medium containing 10.0 g/L peptone, 1.0 g/L yeast extract and 19.45 g/L NaCl, the antitumor activity of S. proteamacula 657 and the yield of crude extracts increased about 15 times and 6 times than the sample obtained in the original liquid fermentation, respectively. The active components in the metabolites of S. proteamacula 657 were identified as a homolog of prodigiosin, a red bacterial pigment, based on the analysis of the NMR and GC-MS. The bacterium S. proteamacula 657, which is adapted to lower temperature, produced prodigiosin-like pigments with highly antitumor activity, suggesting the bacterium is a potential new source for prodigiosin production. PMID:23271461

Miao, Li; Wang, Xueling; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Shengping; Zhou, Huiru; Zhai, Youpeng; Zhou, Xiaojian; Dong, Kunming

2013-05-01

283

Drug Discovery for Schistosomiasis: Hit and Lead Compounds Identified in a Library of Known Drugs by Medium-Throughput Phenotypic Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism) screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease—tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. Methods A partially automated, three-component phenotypic screen workflow is presented that utilizes at its apex the schistosomular stage of the parasite adapted to a 96-well plate format with a throughput of 640 compounds per month. Hits that arise are subsequently screened in vitro against adult parasites and finally for efficacy in a murine model of disease. Two GO/NO GO criteria filters in the workflow prioritize hit compounds for tests in the animal disease model in accordance with a target drug profile that demands short-course oral therapy. The screen workflow was inaugurated with 2,160 chemically diverse natural and synthetic compounds, of which 821 are drugs already approved for human use. This affords a unique starting point to ‘reposition’ (re-profile) drugs as anti-schistosomals with potential savings in development timelines and costs. Findings Multiple and dynamic phenotypes could be categorized for schistosomula and adults in vitro, and a diverse set of ‘hit’ drugs and chemistries were identified, including anti-schistosomals, anthelmintics, antibiotics, and neuromodulators. Of those hits prioritized for tests in the animal disease model, a number of leads were identified, one of which compares reasonably well with PZQ in significantly decreasing worm and egg burdens, and disease-associated pathology. Data arising from the three components of the screen are posted online as a community resource. Conclusions To accelerate the identification of novel anti-schistosomals, we have developed a partially automated screen workflow that interfaces schistosomula with microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. The workflow has identified various compounds and drugs as hits in vitro and leads, with the prescribed oral efficacy, in vivo. Efforts to improve throughput, automation, and rigor of the screening workflow are ongoing. PMID:19597541

Wolff, Brian; Snedecor, June; Lim, Kee-Chong; Xu, Fengyun; Renslo, Adam R.; Williams, Janice; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

2009-01-01

284

Differential perturbation of erythrocyte membrane-associated transport and enzyme activities by structurally related lipophilic compounds.  

PubMed

The alteration of two erythrocyte plasma membrane functions, acetylcholine hydrolysis and glucose exchange, by a series of structurally related small lipophilic compounds which exhibit antihemolytic behavior was studied. 2-Methyldimethylaminoazobenzene is a more potent inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase than the 3'-methyl analogue, while the unsubstituted compound fails to inhibit. Esterase inhibition by the 2-methyl compound is non-competitive and dependent on the anion composition of the assay buffer. The temperature dependence of acetylcholinesterase activity in the presence of the 2-methyl compound suggests that interaction with inhibitor is influenced by the state of lipids tightly bound to the enzyme. Glucose exchange is inhibited to the same extent by both methyl derivatives but not by the unsubstituted dye, and the temperature dependence in the presence of inhibitor is not grossly altered. The lack of correlation between inhibition of membrane function adn stabilization of erythrocytes against osmotic hemolysis is discussed. PMID:110344

Aberlin, M E; Litman, G W

1979-05-01

285

In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, José C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

2015-01-01

286

Your Mission: (1) Identify 20 active faults in California (2) Identify the direction of fault motion and the slip rate for each fault  

E-print Network

Your Mission: (1) Identify 20 active faults in California (2) Identify the direction of fault motion and the slip rate for each fault (3) Investigate recent earthquakes near your hometown (4) Use Microsoft Excel to plot a small set of earthquake data Your Supplies: California Faults map handout

Smith-Konter, Bridget

287

Heterologous Expression Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveal Two Distinct Trypanosomatid CaaX Protease Activities and Identify Their Potential Targets? †  

PubMed Central

The CaaX tetrapeptide motif typically directs three sequential posttranslational modifications, namely, isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation. In all eukaryotic systems evaluated to date, two CaaX proteases (Rce1 and Ste24/Afc1) have been identified. Although the Trypanosoma brucei genome also encodes two putative CaaX proteases, the lack of detectable T. brucei Ste24 activity in trypanosome cell extracts has suggested that CaaX proteolytic activity within this organism is solely attributed to T. brucei Rce1 (J. R. Gillespie et al., Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 153:115-124. 2007). In this study, we demonstrate that both T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 are enzymatically active when heterologously expressed in yeast. Using a-factor and GTPase reporters, we demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 and T. brucei Ste24 possess partially overlapping specificities much like, but not identical to, their fungal and human counterparts. Of interest, a CaaX motif found on a trypanosomal Hsp40 protein was not cleaved by either T. brucei CaaX protease when examined in the context of the yeast a-factor reporter but was cleaved by both in the context of the Hsp40 protein itself when evaluated using an in vitro radiolabeling assay. We further demonstrate that T. brucei Rce1 is sensitive to small molecules previously identified as inhibitors of the yeast and human CaaX proteases and that a subset of these compounds disrupt T. brucei Rce1-dependent localization of our GTPase reporter in yeast. Together, our results suggest the conserved presence of two CaaX proteases in trypanosomatids, identify an Hsp40 protein as a substrate of both T. brucei CaaX proteases, support the potential use of small molecule CaaX protease inhibitors as tools for cell biological studies on the trafficking of CaaX proteins, and provide evidence that protein context influences T. brucei CaaX protease specificity. PMID:19820121

Mokry, David Z.; Manandhar, Surya P.; Chicola, Kristen A.; Santangelo, George M.; Schmidt, Walter K.

2009-01-01

288

Does Art Therapy Work? Identifying the Active Ingredients of Art Therapy Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy research is beginning to identify more precisely the active ingredients that produce change in treatment and to test commonly held assumptions about efficacy. This editorial discusses the progression from clinical observation to single-case research and randomized controlled trials in building an evidence-based model of art therapy.

Lynn Kapitan

2012-01-01

289

Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-?(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-?8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 ?M, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively. PMID:25173461

Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

2014-12-01

290

Performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds in the separated batch reactors. The phenol-acclimated activated sludge was observed to be capable of completely removing phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol. Nevertheless, in the presence of 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol merely at 50 mg/L, incomplete removal of these phenolic compounds were noticed. The specific oxygen uptake rate patterns obtained for phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol could be used to approximate the end point of these phenolic compounds removal as well as to monitor the growth of biomass. As the 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol were only partially removed in the mixed liquor, the patterns of specific oxygen uptake rate attained for these phenolic compounds were not feasible for the similar estimation. The calculated toxicity percentages show the toxicity effects of phenolic compounds on the phenol-acclimated activated sludge followed the order of 2-chlorophenol ? 3-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol > o-cresol ? m-cresol > phenol.

Lim, Jun-Wei; Tan, Je-Zhen; Seng, Chye-Eng

2013-06-01

291

Identification of a series of compounds with potent antiviral activity for the treatment of enterovirus infections.  

PubMed

Rhinovirus (genus enterovirus) infections are responsible for many of the severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Other members of the genus can cause life-threatening acute neurological infections. There is currently no antiviral drug approved for the treatment of such infections. We have identified a series of potent, broad-spectrum antiviral compounds that inhibit the replication of the human rhinovirus, Coxsackie virus, poliovirus, and enterovirus-71. The mechanism of action of the compounds has been established as inhibition of a lipid kinase, PI4KIII?. Inhibition of hepatitis C replication in a replicon assay correlated with enterovirus inhibition. PMID:24900715

MacLeod, Angus M; Mitchell, Dale R; Palmer, Nicholas J; Van de Poël, Hervé; Conrath, Katja; Andrews, Martin; Leyssen, Pieter; Neyts, Johan

2013-07-11

292

High-throughput screening of a collection of known pharmacologically active small compounds for identification of Candida albicans biofilm inhibitors.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent of systemic fungal infections with unacceptably high mortality rates. The existing arsenal of antifungal drugs is very limited and is particularly ineffective against C. albicans biofilms. To address the unmet need for novel antifungals, particularly those active against biofilms, we have screened a small molecule library consisting of 1,200 off-patent drugs already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Prestwick Chemical Library, to identify inhibitors of C. albicans biofilm formation. According to their pharmacological applications that are currently known, we classified these bioactive compounds as antifungal drugs, as antimicrobials/antiseptics, or as miscellaneous drugs, which we considered to be drugs with no previously characterized antifungal activity. Using a 96-well microtiter plate-based high-content screening assay, we identified 38 pharmacologically active agents that inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. These drugs were subsequently tested for their potency and efficacy against preformed biofilms, and we identified three drugs with novel antifungal activity. Thus, repurposing FDA-approved drugs opens up a valuable new avenue for identification and potentially rapid development of antifungal agents, which are urgently needed. PMID:23689719

Siles, Samuel A; Srinivasan, Anand; Pierce, Christopher G; Lopez-Ribot, José L; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

2013-08-01

293

Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular activated carbon.  

PubMed

The performance of a biofilter packed with Active Carbon (AC) was evaluated. The effluent (alcohol, ketones, esters, aromatic and chlorinated compounds) treated was a representative mixture of most common industrial emissions. To achieve a better knowledge of multicomponent adsorption mechanisms, and to underline the interest of inoculating AC, a control abiotic humidified filter had been operated in the same conditions as the biofilter. For a load of 110 g VOC m(-3) AC h(-1), after 55 days of operation, the removal efficiency was higher in the biotic than in the abiotic filter (85% vs 55%, respectively). Moreover, in the biofilter, at steady state, the elimination of all compounds was almost complete except for chlorinated compounds and p-xylene (removal efficiency of 25% and 64%, respectively). The microbial colonization of AC involved a decrease of the adsorption sites accessibility and enhanced the treatment of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) having a lower affinity for activated carbon. Moreover, while aromatic compounds and MIBK were eliminated along the overall height of the biofilter, pollutants with reduced affinity for AC, such as methanol, acetone, and halogenated compounds were only treated on the second half of the reactor. Thus, the affinity for activated carbon was an important parameter controlling the biodegradation process. Nevertheless, the use of AC as packing material in biofilters treating complex mixtures of VOCs is limited. Actually, similar removal efficiency could be reached, in the same conditions, for a biofilter packed with granular peat. Furthermore, for the biofilter packed with AC, the column height necessary to remove biodegradable compounds, with reduced affinity for the support, was important. PMID:12800142

Aizpuru, A; Malhautier, L; Roux, J C; Fanlo, J L

2003-08-20

294

Feasibility studies on newly identified LiCrP2O7 compound for lithium insertion behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new category of lithium intercalating cathode candidates, namely LiCrP2O7, was synthesized at 800°C using a citric acid assisted modified (CAM) sol-gel method and examined for possible lithium insertion behavior. The formation of a phase pure and monoclinic LiCrP2O7 compound with finer crystallite size was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction patterns. The presence of nano-sized particles as observed from a transmittance electron microscope image of LiCrP2O7 and the presence of a preferred local cation environment, evidenced from Fourier transform infra-red and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance studies, are the added advantages of the present study. Further, cyclic voltametry study performed on 2016 coin cells consisting of the synthesized LiCrP2O7 cathode revealed an excellent cycling reversibility and structural stability. Hence, CAM sol-gel synthesized LiCrP2O7 is found to possess desirable physical as well as electrochemical properties, leading one to consider the same as a possible lithium intercalating cathode material.

Gangulibabu; Bhuvaneswari, D.; Kalaiselvi, N.

2009-08-01

295

Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars.  

PubMed

Fifteen jujube cultivars late in their maturation were analysed in the red stage for bioactive compounds; including total phenolics (bound/free), total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, total triterpenes, proanthocyanidins and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS(+)) scavenging methods and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution method (TOPSIS) was employed to evaluate the nutrition of different jujube cultivars based on their bioactive compounds. The results indicated that the contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities vary between different jujube cultivars. Correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were the 3 main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of jujubes. TOPSIS analysis indicated that Zyzyphus jujube cv. Nanjingyazao ranks the highest of the 15 jujube fruits with regards to nutritional value. PMID:25466122

Kou, Xiaohong; Chen, Qiong; Li, Xianhua; Li, Mianfang; Kan, Cong; Chen, Boru; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Zhaohui

2015-04-15

296

Cytotoxic activity of C-geranyl compounds from Paulownia tomentosa fruits.  

PubMed

The newly discovered 5,7-dihydroxy-6-geranylchromone ( 1) was isolated from PAULOWNIA TOMENTOSA fruit and subsequently characterized. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments including HMQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY, as well as HR-MS, IR, and UV. The cytotoxicity of 1 was evaluated using a plant cell model represented by tobacco BY-2 cells. The other phytoconstituents ( 2 - 8) previously isolated from P. TOMENTOSA were similarly evaluated together with the known flavanones 10 and 11. The cytotoxicity (human erythro-leukaemia cell line K562) and activity on erythroid differentiation of compounds 2 - 9 and 12 and 13 have also been evaluated. Acteoside ( 2) was determined to be the most toxic of the compounds tested on BY-2 cells, diplacone ( 6) on the K562 cell line. Some aspects of the relationship between the flavanone skeleton substitution and the metabolic activation necessary for a toxic effect are discussed. PMID:18729043

Smejkal, Karel; Babula, Petr; Slapetová, Tereza; Brognara, Eleonora; Dall'acqua, Stefano; Zemlicka, Milan; Innocenti, Gabbriella; Cvacka, Josef

2008-10-01

297

Biological activities of phenolic compounds and triterpenoids from the galls of Terminalia chebula.  

PubMed

Nine phenolic compounds, including two phenolic carboxylic acids, 1 and 2, seven hydrolyzable tannins, 3-9, eight triterpenoids, including four oleanane-type triterpene acids, 10-13, and four of their glucosides, 14-17, isolated from a MeOH extract of the gall of Terminalia chebula Retz. (myrobalan tree; Combretaceae), were evaluated for their inhibitory activities against melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced by ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells, and against TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and cytotoxic activities against four human cancer cell lines were also evaluated. Compounds 6-9 and 12 exhibited potent inhibitory activities against melanogenesis (39.3-66.3% melanin content) with low toxicity to the cells (74.5-105.9% cell viability) at a concentration of 10 ?M. Western-blot analysis revealed that isoterchebulin (8) reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphtalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, and TRP-1 (=tyrosine-related protein 1), mostly in a concentration-dependent manner. Eight triterpenoids, 10-17, showed potent inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction with the IC50 values in the range of 269-363 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA, while these compounds exhibited no DPPH scavenging activities (IC50 >100 ?M). On the other hand, the nine phenolic compounds, 1-9, exhibited potent radical-scavenging activities (IC50 1.4-10.9 ?M) with weak inhibitory effects on EBV-EA induction (IC50 460-518 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). The tannin 6 and seven triterpenoids, 10-16, have been shown to inhibit TPA-induced inflammation (1 ?g/ear) in mice with the ID50 values in the range of 0.06-0.33 ?mol/ear. Arjungenin (10) exhibited inhibitory effect on skin-tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage mouse-skin carcinogenesis test based on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and with TPA as promoter. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9, 12, and 13, against HL60 cell line, compounds 1 and 4, against AZ521 cell line, and compounds 1, 11, and 12, against SK-BR-3 cell line, showed moderate cytotoxic activities (IC50 13.9-73.2 ?M). PMID:23939793

Manosroi, Aranya; Jantrawut, Pensak; Ogihara, Eri; Yamamoto, Ayako; Fukatsu, Makoto; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Manosroi, Jiradej; Akihisa, Toshihiro

2013-08-01

298

In silico approach to screen compounds active against parasitic nematodes of major socio-economic importance  

PubMed Central

Background Infections due to parasitic nematodes are common causes of morbidity and fatality around the world especially in developing nations. At present however, there are only three major classes of drugs for treating human nematode infections. Additionally the scientific knowledge on the mechanism of action and the reason for the resistance to these drugs is poorly understood. Commercial incentives to design drugs that are endemic to developing countries are limited therefore, virtual screening in academic settings can play a vital role is discovering novel drugs useful against neglected diseases. In this study we propose to build robust machine learning model to classify and screen compounds active against parasitic nematodes. Results A set of compounds active against parasitic nematodes were collated from various literature sources including PubChem while the inactive set was derived from DrugBank database. The support vector machine (SVM) algorithm was used for model development, and stratified ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of each classifier. The best results were obtained using the radial basis function kernel. The SVM method achieved an accuracy of 81.79% on an independent test set. Using the model developed above, we were able to indentify novel compounds with potential anthelmintic activity. Conclusion In this study, we successfully present the SVM approach for predicting compounds active against parasitic nematodes which suggests the effectiveness of computational approaches for antiparasitic drug discovery. Although, the accuracy obtained is lower than the previously reported in a similar study but we believe that our model is more robust because we intentionally employed stringent criteria to select inactive dataset thus making it difficult for the model to classify compounds. The method presents an alternative approach to the existing traditional methods and may be useful for predicting hitherto novel anthelmintic compounds. PMID:22373185

2011-01-01

299

Novel indole-2-carboxamide compounds are potent broad-spectrum antivirals active against western equine encephalitis virus in vivo.  

PubMed

Neurotropic alphaviruses, including western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in humans for which no currently approved therapies exist. We previously identified a series of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole derivatives as novel inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication, using a cell-based phenotypic assay (W. Peng et al., J. Infect. Dis. 199:950-957, 2009, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597275), and subsequently developed second- and third-generation indole-2-carboxamide derivatives with improved potency, solubility, and metabolic stability (J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 55:3535-3545, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300214e; J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:9222-9241, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401330r). In this report, we describe the antiviral activity of the most promising third-generation lead compound, CCG205432, and closely related analogs CCG206381 and CCG209023. These compounds have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of ?1 ?M and selectivity indices of >100 in cell-based assays using western equine encephalitis virus replicons. Furthermore, CCG205432 retains similar potency against fully infectious virus in cultured human neuronal cells. These compounds show broad inhibitory activity against a range of RNA viruses in culture, including members of the Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Although their exact molecular target remains unknown, mechanism-of-action studies reveal that these novel indole-based compounds target a host factor that modulates cap-dependent translation. Finally, we demonstrate that both CCG205432 and CCG209023 dampen clinical disease severity and enhance survival of mice given a lethal western equine encephalitis virus challenge. These studies demonstrate that indole-2-carboxamide compounds are viable candidates for continued preclinical development as inhibitors of neurotropic alphaviruses and, potentially, of other RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE There are currently no approved drugs to treat infections with alphaviruses. We previously identified a novel series of compounds with activity against these potentially devastating pathogens (J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 55:3535-3545, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300214e; W. Peng et al., J. Infect. Dis. 199:950-957, 2009, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597275; J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:9222-9241, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401330r). We have now produced third-generation compounds with enhanced potency, and this manuscript provides detailed information on the antiviral activity of these advanced-generation compounds, including activity in an animal model. The results of this study represent a notable achievement in the continued development of this novel class of antiviral inhibitors. PMID:25031353

Delekta, Phillip C; Dobry, Craig J; Sindac, Janice A; Barraza, Scott J; Blakely, Pennelope K; Xiang, Jianming; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Keep, Richard F; Irani, David N; Larsen, Scott D; Miller, David J

2014-10-01

300

[Correlation between antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) comercial pulps].  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to analyze commercial açaí pulp and to correlate the contribution of vitamin C, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds with the antioxidant activity of there products besides the examination of the standard related to the quality of the obtained products. Analysis were made with regard to pH, acidity total, soluble solids, sugars, color, water activity, vitamin C, total anthocyanins, total carotenoids, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. All parameters analyzed showed significative difference among the marks not added with preservatives and sucrose. The açaí fruit can be considered a fair source of vitamin C and good source of natural antioxidants. In regard to the correlation with the antioxidant activity only the total anthocyanins and the total carotenoids presented positive and significative correlation. PMID:18833997

Santos, Gerusa Matias dos; Maia, Geraldo Arraes; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado de; Costa, José Maria Correia da; Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane de; Prado, Giovana Matias do

2008-06-01

301

DETECTION OF ROOT-ASSOCIATED MICROBES THAT PRODUCE COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria and fungi isolated from soil and plant roots, and known to be active against plant-pathogenic fungi, were assayed in vitro for production of compounds antagonistic to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). In addition, culture filtrates of fungi isolated from eg...

302

New Generation of Chromatographic Packings and Columns for Determination of Biologically Active Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of biologically active substances is particularly important in the pharmaceutical and biomedical area. For separation of polar compounds or complex mixtures by normal (NP) or reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and\\/or electromigration techniques, it is necessary to apply a new generation of packings and columns with strictly defined properties. It is connected to the definition of chromatographic behavior and

Bogus?aw Buszewski; Sylwia Kowalska; Katarzyna Krupczy?ska

2005-01-01

303

Novel SiO2-based antioxidant compound with significantly extended life-time and activity  

E-print Network

Novel SiO2-based antioxidant compound with significantly extended life-time and activity Georgios A of Process Engineering ETH Zurich, Switzerland #12;May 15, 2013 Copyright ETH Zürich 2 Antioxidants: What 15, 2013 Copyright ETH Zürich 3 Current antioxidants Phenols are potent antioxidants Gallic acid

Daraio, Chiara

304

Determining the chemical activity of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil using polymer coated vials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds, the concentrations are less indicative of potential exposure and distribution than are the associated chemical activities, fugacities and freely dissolved concentrations. The latter can be measured by diffusive sampling into thin layers of polymer, as in, for example, solid phase micro-extraction. Such measurements require equilibrium partitioning of analytes into the polymer while

Fredrik Reichenberg; Foppe Smedes; Jan-Åke Jönsson; Philipp Mayer

2008-01-01

305

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

306

Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

307

A Novel Method for the Determination of Gross Transuranic Activity in Uranium Compounds  

SciTech Connect

A Method is described to determine gross transuranic activity present in Uranium compounds and HP smears. From one count and one spectrum, three or more isotopes can be quantified. The method involves a simple digestion prep, sample extraction and precipitation. Results are obtained quickly with a very small expenditure on the part of the analytical lab.

Mann, D.K.; Tucker, M.C.

1998-11-16

308

Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed- phase HPLC\\/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida

Ana Paula Pereira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Filipa Marcelino; Patricia Valentão; Paula B. Andrade; Rosa Seabra; Leticia Estevinho; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira

2007-01-01

309

All-Union Symposium on the modification of the structures of natural physiologically active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A. L. Mndzhoyan, the director of the Institute of Fine Organic Chemicals of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, pointed out In his opening address the urgency of the work on the structure modification of natural compounds with the aim of creating medicinal preparations and elucidating the relationships between chemical structure and biological activity and emphasized the importance

V. A. Mnatsakanyan

1970-01-01

310

Femtosecond IR Studies of Alkane C-H Bond Activation by Organometallic Compounds: Direct  

E-print Network

Femtosecond IR Studies of Alkane C-H Bond Activation by Organometallic Compounds: Direct alkane solution.8,9 Our recent study on this system attributes the origin of the low quantum yield-Pz3*, Pz* ) 3,5- dimethylpyrazolyl) in room temperature alkane solution. The relatively high C

Harris, Charles B.

311

Chlorine covers on living bacteria: the initial step in antimicrobial action of active chlorine compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Although active chlorine compounds are well-known antimicrobial agents in human medi- cine, their initial steps of action have not been completely clarified. Using N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous mild representative, we observed persisting oxidation capacity affixed to bacteria. It was the aim of this study to investigate this 'chlorine cover'. Methods: Pathogens were incubated in NCT, which was subsequently washed

Waldemar Gottardi; Markus Nagl

2005-01-01

312

Occurrence of Endocrine Active Compounds and Biological Responses in the Mississippi River - Study Design and Data, June through August 2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern that selected chemicals in the environment may act as endocrine active compounds in aquatic ecosystems is widespread; however, few studies have examined the occurrence of endocrine active compounds and identified biological markers of endocrine disruption such as intersex occurrence in fish longitudinally in a river system. This report presents environmental data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and St. Cloud State University as part of an integrated biological and chemical study of endocrine disruption in fish in the Mississippi River. Data were collected from water, bed sediment, and fish at 43 sites along the river from the headwaters at Lake Itasca to 14 miles downstream from Brownsville, Minnesota during June through August 2006. Twenty-four individual compounds were detected in water samples, with cholesterol, atrazine, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide, metolachlor, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran detected most frequently (in at least 10 percent of the samples). The number of compounds detected in water per site ranged from 0 to 8. Forty individual compounds were detected in bed-sediment samples. The most commonly detected compounds (in at least 50 percent of the samples) were indole, beta-sitosterol, cholesterol, beta-stigmastanol, 3-methyl-1H-indole, p-cresol, pyrene, phenol, fluoranthene, 3-beta coprostanol, benzo[a]pyrene, acetophenone, and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene. The total number of detections in bed sediment (at a site) ranged from 3 to 31. The compounds NP1EO, NP2EO, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in greater than 10 percent of the samples. Most (80 percent) female fish collected had measurable concentrations of vitellogenin. Vitellogenin also was detected in 62, 63, and 33 percent of male carp, smallmouth bass, and redhorse, respectively. The one male walleye sample plasma sample analyzed had a vitellogenin detection. Vitellogenin concentrations were lower in male fish (not detected to 10.80 micrograms per milliliter) than female fish (0.04 to 248,079 micrograms per milliliter). Gonadosomatic Index values ranged from 0.02 to 7.49 percent among all male fish and were greater for male carp than for the other three species. No intersex (oocytes present in testes tissue) was found in any male fish sampled.

Lee, Kathy E.; Yaeger, Christine S.; Jahns, Nathan D.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

2008-01-01

313

Study of the relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity in a series of hydrazine-based coordination compounds.  

PubMed

The dependence of antimicrobial activity on the structure of compounds is studied in a series of compounds based on hydrazine coordinated with ions of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pd(II). The study has been carried out by means of the original electron-topological method developed earlier. A molecular fragment has been found that is only characteristic of biologically active compounds. Its spatial and electron parameters have been used for the quantitative assessment of the activity in view. The results obtained can be used for the antimicrobial activity prediction in a series of compounds with similar structures. PMID:10994159

Dobrova, B N; Dimoglo, A S; Chumakov, Y M

2000-08-01

314

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. The development of new anti-TB therapeutics is required, because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains as well as co-infection with other pathogens, especially HIV. Recently, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline published the results of a high-throughput screen (HTS) of their two million compound library for anti-mycobacterial phenotypes. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain, including a subset of 177 prioritized compounds with high potency and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The next major challenge is the identification of the target proteins. Here, we use a computational approach that integrates historical bioassay data, chemical properties and structural comparisons of selected compounds to propose their potential targets in M. tuberculosis. We predicted 139 target - compound links, providing a necessary basis for further studies to characterize the mode of action of these compounds. The results from our analysis, including the predicted structural models, are available to the wider scientific community in the open source mode, to encourage further development of novel TB therapeutics. PMID:24098102

Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Yang, Lun; Wallace, Iain M.; Kumar, Vinod; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Brown, James R.; Overington, John P.; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

2013-01-01

315

Antiviral compounds in extracts of Korean seaweeds: Evidence for multiple activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 13 Korean seaweeds, previously shown to contain antiviral activity, were investigated in more detail in order\\u000a to learn the nature of the antiviral compounds and their mechanisms of action. One extract, from Codium fragile, was active\\u000a against all three test viruses (herpes simplex, HSV; Sindbis, SINV; polio), whereas the others were more selective. Thus four\\u000a species, Enteromorpha linza,

J. B. Hudson; J. H. Kim; M. K. Lee; R. E. DeWreede; Y. K. Hong

1998-01-01

316

Implementation of a High-Throughput Screen for Identifying Small Molecules to Activate the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Pathway  

E-print Network

compounds protect against oxidative/ electrophilic stress-induced toxicity, at least partially through activating Nrf2. For example, curcumin protects against focal ischemia of the cerebrum through upregulation of Nrf2 [16], and oltipraz protects against... pathway [18]. To date, a number of compounds with diverse chemical structures have been shown to activate Keap1- Nrf2, including oxidizable diphenols (tBHQ), dithiolethiones (oltipraz), isothiocyanates (sulforaphane), and Michael acceptors (curcumin...

Wu, Kai Connie; McDonald, Peter R.; Liu, Jie Jerry; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2012-10-08

317

The Role of Symmetry and Spatial Shielding of Metal by Ligands in the Biological Activity of Organometallic and Coordination Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we demonstrated the importance of spatial shielding of the metal atom by ligands in the stability, volatility, and reactivity [1?3] of organometallic and coordination compounds R n M. Interest in predicting the physiological action of these compounds [4, 5] and systematic analysis of the biological activities of known organometallic and coordination compounds prompted us to the conclusion that these

G. A. Domrachev; Yu. A. Shevelev; L. N. Zakharov; L. G. Domracheva; E. G. Domracheva

2003-01-01

318

Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

2013-01-01

319

Effect of interaction between phenolic compounds and copper ion on antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds are widely used in food and cosmetics to prevent undesirable oxidation. On the other hand, phenolic compounds are also strong reducing agents and under in vitro conditions and in the presence of copper ion, they can act as pro-oxidants. In this study, we conducted electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements for the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to their structure and interaction with transition metals. Moreover, the antioxidant activity was assessed with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, and the pro-oxidant effect of phenolic compounds on DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which is effectively formed during oxidative damage. In conclusion, ortho-dihydroxyl groups that can chelate with Cu(2+) induce the greatest pro-oxidant activity. Moreover, the interaction between phenolic compounds and copper induced to H(2)O(2). The obtained results indicated that ROS participated in oxidative DNA damage induced by phenolic compounds in the presence of Cu(2+). PMID:21600975

Iwasaki, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Takayuki; Maruyama, Yosuke; Ishii, Yuji; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Umemura, Takashi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2011-10-01

320

Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from Artocarpus communis (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Artocarpus communis is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract (ACB) and compounds isolated from the bark of this plant, namely peruvianursenyl acetate C (1), ?-amyrenol or viminalol (2), artonin E (4) and 2-[(3,5-dihydroxy)-(Z)-4-(3-methylbut-1-enyl)phenyl]benzofuran-6-ol (5). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The MIC results indicated that ACB as well as compounds 4 and 5 were able to prevent the growth of all tested microbial species. All other compounds showed selective activities. The lowest MIC value of 64 ?g/ml for the crude extract was recorded on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25922 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. The corresponding value of 32 ?g/ml was recorded with compounds 4 and 5 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and compound 5 on E. coli ATCC 8739, their inhibition effect on P. aeruginosa PA01 being more than that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The overall results of this study provided supportive data for the use of A. communis as well as some of its constituents for the treatment of infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID:21612612

2011-01-01

321

Effects of cyclodextrins on the antimicrobial activity of plant-derived essential oil compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils (EOs) from plants are considered to be a safer alternative when compared to synthetic antimicrobial food additives. However, a major drawback of many EOs is their hydrophobic nature, which makes them insoluble in water based media and matrices. Although cyclodextrins (CDs) can increase the solubility of EO compounds, the effects of CDs on the antimicrobial activity of EOs have not been reported. In this paper, four different EO compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, linalool and 2-pentanoylfuran) were chosen to study the influence of CDs on the solubility and antimicrobial activity on bacteria and yeast. The greatest enhancement with regards to solubility of the four test compounds was achieved by hydroxypropyl-?-CD. In most instances, not only were the minimal antimicrobial concentrations of EO compounds decreased, but the interactivity of two combined EO compounds could be strengthened by the co-addition of CDs. Furthermore, the combination of carvacrol with hydroxypropyl-?-CD caused a marked change in the major membrane lipid composition of all microorganisms investigated; while scanning electron microscopy revealed that cellular integrity was significantly affected by 2× MIC, ultimately resulting in cell lysis. PMID:22953819

Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Vriesekoop, Frank; Lv, Fei

2012-12-01

322

Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.72. PMID:24681959

Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

2014-03-31

323

Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 ?g/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 ?g/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 ?g/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 ?g/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 ?g/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 ?g/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17?-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non-effect concentration, were lower than 1 for all the pharmaceutically active compounds so no significant risks are expected to occur due to the application of sewage sludge onto soils, except for 17?-ethinylestradiol when chronic toxicity was considered. PMID:24909712

Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2015-01-15

324

Synthesis, reactions and biological activity of some new bis-heterocyclic ring compounds containing sulphur atom  

PubMed Central

Background The derivatives of thieno[2,3-b]thiophene belong to a significant category of heterocyclic compounds, which have shown a wide spectrum of medical and industrial application. Results A new building block with two electrophilic center of thieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives 2 has been reported by one-pot reaction of diketone derivative 1 with Br2/AcOH in excellent yield. A variety of heteroaromatics having bis(1H-imidazo[1,2a] benzimidazole), bis(1H-imidazo[1,2-b][1,2,4]triazole)-3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives, dioxazolo-, dithiazolo-, and 1H-imidazolo-3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives as well pyrrolo, thiazolo -3-methyl-4-phenylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene derivatives have been designed, synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their biological activity. Compounds 3–9 showed good bioassay result. These new derivatives were evaluated for anti-cancer activity against PC-3 cell lines, in vitro antioxidant potential and ?-glucuronidase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Compound 3 (IC50?=?56.26?±?3.18??M) showed a potent DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant activity and found to be more active than standard N-acetylcystein (IC50?=?105.9?±?1.1??M). Compounds 8a (IC50?=?13.2?±?0.34??M) and 8b (IC50?=?14.1?±?0.28??M) found as potent inhibitor of ?-glucusidase several fold more active than the standard acarbose (IC50?=?841?±?1.73??M). Most promising results were obtained in ?-glucuronidase enzyme inhibition assay. Compounds 5 (IC50?=?0.13?±?0.019??M), 6 (IC50?=?19.9?±?0.285??M), 8a (IC50?=?1.2?±?0.0785??M) and 9 (IC50?=?0.003?±?0.09??M) showed a potent inhibition of ?-glucuronidase. Compound 9 was found to be several hundred fold more active than standard D-Saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50?=?45.75?±?2.16??M). Conclusions Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro biological activity of a series of thieno[2,3-b]thiophene have been investigated. PMID:23829861

2013-01-01

325

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Activity of Terpenoid and Pyrrole Compounds Isolated from Snake Fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw.) cv. Bongkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compound of 3β-hydroxy-sitosterol (1) and 2-metylester-1-H-pyrrole-4-carboxilyc acid were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of snake fruit (Salacca edulis Reinw) cv. Bongkok, (2). Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by the two compounds were evaluated against enzyme of xanthine oxidase. Compound 1 could be regarded as inactive, while compound 2 was found to be active with IC50 value of 48.86 μg mL-1.

Leni Herliani Afrianti Priyatno; Elin Yulinah Sukandar; Slamet Ibrahim; I. Ketut Adnyana

2007-01-01

326

Small-molecule screen identifies inhibitors of a human intestinal calcium-activated chloride channel.  

PubMed

Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in mammalian tissues, including intestinal epithelia, where they facilitate fluid secretion. Potent, selective CaCC inhibitors have not been available. We established a high-throughput screen for identification of inhibitors of a human intestinal CaCC based on inhibition of ATP/carbachol-stimulated iodide influx in HT-29 cells after lentiviral infection with the yellow fluorescent halide-sensing protein YFP-H148Q/I152L. Screening of 50,000 diverse, drug-like compounds yielded six classes of putative CaCC inhibitors, two of which, 3-acyl-2-aminothiophenes and 5-aryl-2-aminothiazoles, inhibited by >95% iodide influx in HT-29 cells in response to multiple calcium-elevating agonists, including thapsigargin, without inhibition of calcium elevation, calcium-calmodulin kinase II activation, or cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channels. These compounds also inhibited calcium-dependent chloride secretion in T84 human intestinal epithelial cells. Patch-clamp analysis indicated inhibition of CaCC gating, which, together with the calcium-calmodulin data, suggests that the inhibitors target the CaCC directly. Structure-activity relationships were established from analysis of more than 1800 analogs, with IC(50) values of the best analogs down to approximately 1 muM. Small-molecule CaCC inhibitors may be useful in pharmacological dissection of CaCC functions and in reducing intestinal fluid losses in CaCC-mediated secretory diarrheas. PMID:18083779

De La Fuente, Ricardo; Namkung, Wan; Mills, Aaron; Verkman, A S

2008-03-01

327

Biological activity of Pinus nigra terpenes--evaluation of FtsZ inhibition by selected compounds as contribution to their antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

In the current work, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activites of the needle terpenes of three taxa of Pinus nigra from Serbia (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) were analyzed. The black pine essential oils showed generally weak antioxidative properties tested by two methods (DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays), where the highest activity was identified in P. nigra var. banatica (IC50=25.08 mg/mL and VitC=0.67 mg (vitamin C)/g when tested with the DPPH and ABTS reagents, respectively). In the antimicrobial assays, one fungal (Aspergilus niger) and two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) showed sensitivity against essential oils of all three P. nigra taxa. The tested oils have been shown to possess inhibitory action in the range from 20.00 to 0.62 mg/mL, where var. banatica exhibited the highest and ssp. nigra the lowest antimicrobial action. In order to determine potential compounds that are responsible for alternative mode of action, molecular docking simulations inside FtsZ (a prokaryotic homolog of tubulin) were performed. Tested compounds were the most abundant terpenoid (germacrene D-4-ol) and its structurally similar terpene (germacrene D), both present in all three essential oils. It was determined that the oxygenated form of the molecule creates stable bonds with investigated enzyme FtsZ, and that this compound, through this mechanism of action participates in the antimicrobial activity. PMID:25217763

Sarac, Zorica; Mateji?, Jelena S; Stojanovi?-Radi?, Zorica Z; Veselinovi?, Jovana B; Džami?, Ana M; Bojovi?, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

2014-11-01

328

Adsorption of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound by granular activated carbon. 2. Model prediction.  

PubMed

The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs)-naproxen and carbamazepine and one endocrine disrupting compound (EDC)-nonylphenol was studied in pilot-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers using post-sedimentation (PS) water from a full-scale drinking water treatment plant. Acidic naproxen broke through fastest while nonylphenol was removed best, which was consistent with the degree to which fouling affected compound removals. Model predictions and experimental data were generally in good agreement for all three compounds, which demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of the pore and surface diffusion model (PSDM) used in combination with the time-variable parameter approach for predicting removals at environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., ng/L range). Sensitivity analyses suggested that accurate determination of film diffusion coefficients was critical for predicting breakthrough for naproxen and carbamazepine, in particular when high removals are targeted. Model simulations demonstrated that GAC carbon usage rates (CURs) for naproxen were substantially influenced by the empty bed contact time (EBCT) at the investigated conditions. Model-based comparisons between GAC CURs and minimum CURs for powdered activated carbon (PAC) applications suggested that PAC would be most appropriate for achieving 90% removal of naproxen, whereas GAC would be more suitable for nonylphenol. PMID:19350922

Yu, Zirui; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M

2009-03-01

329

Novel FTY720-Based Compounds Stimulate Neurotrophin Expression and Phosphatase Activity in Dopaminergic Cells.  

PubMed

?-Synuclein is a chaperone-like protein implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among ?-synuclein's normal functions is an ability to bind to and stimulate the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit in vitro and in vivo. PP2A activity is impaired in PD and in dementia with Lewy Bodies in brain regions harboring ?-synuclein aggregates. Using PP2A as the readout, we measured PP2A activity in response to ?-synuclein, ceramides, and FTY720, and then on the basis of those results, we created new FTY720 compounds. We then measured the effects of those compounds in dopaminergic cells. In addition to stimulating PP2A, all three compounds stimulated the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and protected MN9D cells against tumor-necrosis-factor-?-associated cell death. FTY720-C2 appears to be more potent while FTY720-Mitoxy targets mitochondria. Importantly, FTY720 is already FDA approved for treating multiple sclerosis and is used clinically worldwide. Our findings suggest that FTY720 and our new FTY720-based compounds have considerable potential for treating synucleinopathies such as PD. PMID:25050165

Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Villanueva, Ernesto; Godfrey, Wesley H; Lou, Haiyan; Chinnasamy, Ramesh; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Perez, Ruth G

2014-07-10

330

Phenolic compounds from Trifolium echinatum Bieb. and investigation of their tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Two bischromones, 3,3'-dimethoxy-2'-oxychromone (1), 3,3'-dihydroxy-2,2'-oxychromone (2) and a biflavone, 5,7,4',5?,3'",4??-hexahydroxy-3?-O-?-glucosyl-3',7?-O-biflavone (3) have been isolated from whole plant of Trifolium echinatum Bieb. together with five known flavonoids. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analysis as well as HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were investigated for their antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Highly potent inhibition was found for compounds 1 (IC50=0.41 mM), 5 (IC50=0.47 mM) and 8 (IC50=0.45 mM) compared to those of standard tyrosinase inhibitors kojic acid (IC50=0.67 mM) and l-mimosine (IC50=0.64 mM). The antioxidative effect of the extracts was determined by using ?-carotene-linoleic acid, DPPH scavenging, ABTS(+) scavenging, and CUPRAC assays. The experimental findings indicated that the compounds 2 and 8 were found to be active in radical scavenging and CUPRAC assays. PMID:24070617

Sabudak, Temine; Demirkiran, Ozlem; Ozturk, Mehmet; Topcu, Gulacti

2013-12-01

331

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in organic red wine using different winemaking techniques.  

PubMed

Wine phenolic composition depends on the grapes used to make wine and on vinification conditions. The occurrence of these biological compounds has stimulated numerous studies focused on understanding the mechanisms that influence their concentrations in wine. This article studied the effect of different vinification techniques on the antioxidant activity and on the phenolic compounds of red wine made from the variety of?Monastrell?grapes obtained by organic culture. To this purpose, 3 different vinification procedures were carried out: vinification after prolonged maceration, vinification with the addition of enological enzymes, and traditional vinification procedures (used as control).The results showed similar values of antioxidant activity in all 3 types of wine elaborated and found no differences in the concentrations of the different types of phenolic compounds in wine made with the 3 different methods. The evolution of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds tested in wines during 3 mo of storage showed a similar pattern. Organic wine has acquired an important role in the economic world and its important, working in oenology to research in this field. PMID:21535811

Mulero, Juana; Zafrilla, Pilar; Cayuela, Jose M; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Pardo, Francisco

2011-04-01

332

The red wine extract-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase is mediated by a great variety of polyphenolic compounds.  

PubMed

Phenolic extracts from red wine (RWPs) have been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasoprotective effects, mainly by causing the PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RWPs contain several hundreds of phenolic compounds. The aim of the present study was to identify red wine phenolic compounds capable of activating eNOS in endothelial cells using multi-step fractionation. The red wine phenolic extract was fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 and preparative RP-HPLC approaches. The ability of a fraction to activate eNOS was assessed by determining the phosphorylation level of Akt and eNOS by Western blot analysis, and NO formation by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Tentative identification of phenolic compounds in fractions was performed by MALDI-TOF and HPLC-MS techniques. Separation of RWPs by Sephadex LH-20 generated nine fractions (fractions A to I), of which fractions F, G, H and I caused significant eNOS activation. Fraction F was then subjected to semi-preparative RP-HPLC to generate ten subfractions (subfraction SF1 to SF10), all of which caused eNOS activation. The active fractions and subfractions contained mainly procyanidins and anthocyanins. Isolation of phenolic compounds from SF9 by semi-preparative RP-HLPC lead to the identification of petunidin-O-coumaroyl-glucoside as a potent activator of eNOS. PMID:20440695

Auger, Cyril; Chaabi, Mehdi; Anselm, Eric; Lobstein, Annelise; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2010-07-01

333

Identifying Activity Levels and Steps in People with Stroke using a Novel Shoe-Based Sensor  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose Advances in sensory technologies provides a method to accurately assess activity levels of people with stroke in their community. This information could be used to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions as well as provide behavioral enhancing feedback. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of a novel shoe-based sensor system (SmartShoe) to identify different functional postures and steps in people with stroke. The SmartShoe system consists of five force sensitive resistors built into a flexible insole and an accelerometer on the back of the shoe. Pressure and acceleration data are sent via Bluetooth to a smart phone. Methods Participants with stroke wore the SmartShoe while they performed activities of daily living (ADL) in sitting, standing and walking. Data from four participants were used to develop a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (ANN) to identify sitting, standing, and walking. A signal-processing algorithm used data from the pressure sensors to estimate number of steps taken while walking. The accuracy, precision and recall of the ANN for identifying the three functional postures were calculated using data from a different set of participants. Agreement between steps identified by SmartShoe and actual steps taken was analyzed using the Bland Altman method. Results The SmartShoe was able to accurately identify sitting, standing and walking. Accuracy, precision and recall were all greater than 95%. The mean difference between steps identified by SmartShoe and actual steps was less than 1 step. Discussion The SmartShoe was able to accurately identify different functional postures using a unique combination of pressure and acceleration data in people with stroke as they performed different ADLs. There was a strong level of agreement between actual steps taken and steps identified using the SmartShoe. Further study is needed to determine if the SmartShoe could be used to provide valid information on activity levels of people with stroke while they go about their daily lives in their home and community. PMID:22592067

Fulk, George D.; Edgar, S. Ryan; Bierwirth, Rebecca; Hart, Phil; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Sazonov, Edward

2012-01-01

334

Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae.  

PubMed

Bioassay-guided isolation studies on the extracts of yellow flowers of Tagetes patula L. against the Heterodera zeae were carried out to identify phytochemicals lethal to this economically important cyst nematode. In vitro investigation of a polar extract and fractions showing activity led to the isolation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). In the nonpolar extract, a few fatty acids, their methyl esters, and thiophenes (including ?-terthienyl) were detected. In studies of compounds obtained commercially, ?-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h. Assessment of structure-activity relationships revealed that an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in phenolic acids increased the activity; with fatty acids, activity depended on chain length and the number and position of double bonds. Crude extracts of the flowers of different colors also have promising activity. PMID:21780738

Faizi, Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Bano, Samina; Iqbal, Erum Yawar; Lubna; Siddiqi, Humaira; Naz, Aneela

2011-09-14

335

Evaluation of antioxidant activities of the edible and medicinal Acacia albida organs related to phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

This study compared phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in different organs of Acacia albida (leaves and bark) and focuses on identification of phenolic compounds of leaves by HPLC-DAD. The analysed organs exhibited differences in total polyphenol contents (100 and 59.5 mg GAE g(- 1) DW). Phenolic contents of leaves were two times higher than those in bark. Ethanolic extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities with IC50 = 26 ?g mL(- 1) for DPPH and EC50 = 50 ?g mL(- 1) for FRAP. Identification by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds known for their high antioxidant activity. The results suggested that this species can be used as source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25143148

Karoune, Samira; Falleh, Hanen; Kechebar, Mohamed Seif Allah; Halis, Youcef; Mkadmini, Khaoula; Belhamra, Mohamed; Rahmoune, Chaabane; Ksouri, Riadh

2015-03-01

336

Virtual Screening against Highly Charged Active Sites:  Identifying Substrates of Alpha?Beta Barrel Enzymes †  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a virtual ligand screening method designed to help assign enzymatic function for alpha-beta barrel proteins. We dock a library of 19,000 known metabolites against the active site and attempt to identify the relevant substrate based on predicted relative binding free energies. These energies are computed using a physics-based energy function based on an all-atom force field (OPLS-

Chakrapani Kalyanaraman; Katarzyna Bernacki; Matthew P. Jacobson

2005-01-01

337

Bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds from Rosa nutkana and quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

Rosa nutkana Presl. (Rosaceae) is distributed abundantly throughout central and southern areas of British Columbia, Canada. Aboriginal people in the Pacific Northwest have traditionally used R. nutkana as a food, medicine, and source of cultural material. The methanolic extract of the fruits of R. nutkana was previously found to have inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In our study, bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from R. nutkana led to the isolation of the following 10 compounds: (i) tormentic acid, (ii) euscaphic acid, (iii) ursolic acid, (iv) maslinic acid, (v) quercetin, (vi) catechin gallate, (vii) quercetin-3-O-glucoside, (viii) 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucoside, (ix) L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and (x) 1,6-digalloyl-beta-D-glucoside. Structures were elucidated by ultraviolet, infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance data, as well as by comparison with those of the literature. The compounds quercetin, catechin gallate, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucoside, and 1,6-digalloyl-beta-D-glucoside exhibited weak antibacterial activity against MRSA. Our research demonstrates the value of traditional knowledge held by Aboriginal people in the Pacific Northwest with respect to uses of R. nutkana. Some described uses in the ethnobotanical literature correspond to activities observed under laboratory conditions. Further work on British Columbia Rosa spp. may contribute to identifying other potential therapeutic uses. PMID:18066132

Jovel, Eduardo M; Zhou, Xi Ling; Ming, Dong Sheng; Wahbe, Tanya R; Towers, G H Neil

2007-09-01

338

Screening of osteoanagenesis-active compounds from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi by hPDLC/CMC-online-HPLC/MS.  

PubMed

In present study, an online analytical method using human periodontal ligament cell/cell membrane chromatography (hPDLC/CMC) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used for direct recognition, separation, and identification of compounds for the first time from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG) that are active on hPDLCs. Baicalein (BAI) and wogonin (WOG), which were identified as the active compounds of the ethyl ether extract of S. baicalensis Georgi (SBGEE), could bind to the same membrane receptor of hPDLC for simvastatin (SIM). Moreover, BAI (0.15-0.6 mg/L) and WOG (0.015-0.6 mg/L) had the capability to enhance cell proliferation, matrix calcification, and formation of calcified nodules, which are comparable to the activities of SIM (0.1 mg/L) in vitro. These observations are consistent with the K(A) of the various drugs. It is very important for the development of SBG used to treat periodontitis. PMID:24393619

Liu, Jin; Wang, Sicen; Sun, Junyi; Shi, Jianfeng; Li, Ye; Gou, Jianzhong; Li, Ang; He, Langchong

2014-03-01

339

Morus alba and active compound oxyresveratrol exert anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition of leukocyte migration involving MEK/ERK signaling  

PubMed Central

Background Morus alba has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammatory diseases; however, the scientific basis for such usage and the mechanism of action are not well understood. This study investigated the action of M. alba on leukocyte migration, one key step in inflammation. Methods Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and cluster analyses of supercritical CO2 extracts of three Morus species were performed for chemotaxonomy-aided plant authentication. Phytochemistry and CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis assays were used to characterize the chemical and biological properties of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol. fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and Western blot analyses were conducted to determine the mode of action of oxyresveratrol. Results Chemotaxonomy was used to help authenticate M. alba. Chemotaxis-based isolation identified oxyresveratrol as an active component in M. alba. Phytochemical and chemotaxis assays showed that the crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and oxyresveratrol from M. alba suppressed cell migration of Jurkat T cells in response to SDF-1. Mechanistic study indicated that oxyresveratrol diminished CXCR4-mediated T-cell migration via inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling cascade. Conclusions A combination of GC-MS and cluster analysis techniques are applicable for authentication of the Morus species. Anti-inflammatory benefits of M. alba and its active compound, oxyresveratrol, may involve the inhibition of CXCR-4-mediated chemotaxis and MEK/ERK pathway in T and other immune cells. PMID:23433072

2013-01-01

340

Comparison of the activity of subsurface and surface microorganisms and their anaerobic transformation of heterocyclic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Our interest in this research was mainly to compare the physiological characteristics of microorganisms derived from subsurface and surface environments and their ability to transform heterocyclic aromatic chemicals. We selected essentially indole and pyridine compounds as representatives of heterocyclic compounds. The samples investigated originated from the subsurface drillings at the Savannah River Plant, from surface samples in Pennsylvania, from municipal sewage of State College, Pennsylvania, and from pyridine-contaminated sites at Indianapolis. At different physiological conditions (aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing or methanogenic), different groups of microorganisms are active. Not only the thermodynamics of microbial physiology vary, but different metabolic pathways are used by the various types of microbial processes. Therefore, it was important to determine under which physiological conditions a compound was metabolized, and to clarify the metabolic conditions under which intermediate(s) were produced. 29 refs.

Bollag, J.-M.

1991-02-01

341

Synthesis and antioxidant activities of some new triheterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole, thiophene, and 1,2,4-triazole rings.  

PubMed

Abstract Various triheterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole, thiophene, and 1,2,4-triazole rings (3-6) were synthesized and screened for their antioxidant activities. The structures of the synthesized compounds (2-6) were judged by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, elemental analysis, and LC-MS spectral data. Antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds (2-6) were determined with CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulfate, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays. Most of the compounds showed a significant antioxidant activity and especially, compound 5c showed very good SC50 value for DPPH method and compound 5h exhibited very high scavenging activity to ABTS method. PMID:25198894

Mente?e, Emre; Y?lmaz, Fatih; Balta?, Nimet; Bekircan, Olcay; Kahveci, Bahittin

2014-09-01

342

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

343

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

Dinh, T.V.

1996-06-11

344

People who perceive themselves as active cannot identify the intensity recommended by the international physical activity guidelines  

PubMed Central

Background Many national and international organizations recommend that adults achieve at least 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity (PA) weekly, at a minimum moderate intensity to optimize health benefits. It is unknown if people who consider themselves as active have the ability to identify what is considered moderate intensity. Methods Fifty-one participants who reported achieving a minimum 150 minutes per week at a minimum of moderate intensity PA were recruited through a local fitness facility. All participants underwent a single assessment involving questionnaires, clinical measures, and a treadmill test to measure the ability to perceive moderate intensity. Following the visit, participants’ PA level was evaluated by heart rate monitor, while exercising, for 7 consecutive days. Results Eighty percent of participants overestimated moderate intensity on the treadmill test; they were at vigorous intensity compared to what is considered moderate. Only 11.8% of participants accurately identified moderate intensity; all of them were women (P=0.03), had a high level of education (P=0.04), and knew that moderate intensity was the minimum intensity recommended by health organizations (P<0.01). Only 69.2% of participants reached the aerobic component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines with no significant advantage for those correctly identifying moderate intensity. Conclusion Most people who perceive themselves as active are exercising at vigorous intensity while believing they are at moderate intensity. In addition, in this active sample, one-third of the participants were not reaching the aerobic component of the International Physical Activity Guidelines. PMID:25378959

Prokop, Neal W; Hrubeniuk, Travis JR; Sénéchal, Martin; Bouchard, Danielle R

2014-01-01

345

Analysis and determination of oestrogen-active compounds in fructus amomi by the combination of high-speed counter-current chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Amomum longiligulare or Amomum villosum showed oestrogenic activity. In the present study, oestrogen-active components in fructus amomi, the seeds of A. longiligulare were separated by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) using stepwise elution of eight mobile phases with gradient polarity and advanced separation by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results yielded 17 compounds with the amount of 8-138mg and a purity of 94.3-99.8% from a 3g ethanolic extract of fructus amomi. The chemical structures of the compounds were identified by ESI-MS and NMR spectra, in which eight diarylheptanoids were demonstrated as the main oestrogen-active compounds in the fructus amomi. Determination of the diarylheptanoids in fructus amomi from various origins showed that fructus amomi contains more than 0.5% total diarylheptanoids. The results showed that fructus amomi is a diarylheptanoids-rich food resource possessing oestrogen-activity. The combination method of HSCCC and HPLC can be applied for the analysis of bioactive compounds by detecting the corresponding bioactivity in the HSCCC fractions and separating the target compounds with HPLC. PMID:24686238

Ying, Hao; Liu, Jinpeng; Du, Qizhen

2014-05-01

346

Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from??Zea mays L.  

PubMed Central

Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78??M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-01-01

347

A concise synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a novel series of naphthylpyridine-3-carbonitrile compounds.  

PubMed

A novel series of acyclic nucleosides 2-5 and 13a-c were synthesized by utilizing 4-phenyl-6(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropridine-3-carbonitrile (1) as a key starting material. Chlorination of 1 yielded the chloro analogue 6 that was allowed to react with urea, thiourea, thiosemicarbazide and alicyclic secondary amines to produce the corresponding derivatives 7a-c and 11a-c. Further condensation of 6 with various amino acids provided the compounds 8-10, whereas hydrazinolysis of 6 yielded the hydrazinyl analogue 12 which was condensed with different isothiocyanates and acid anhydrides to afford derivatives 18-20, respectively. Upon treatment of 12 with sodium nitrite, the azide derivative 14 was obtained which was subjected to reaction with various active methylene compounds to obtain the corresponding triazolo derivatives 15-17. The structure assignment of the new compounds is based on chemicaland spectroscopic evidence. Antimicrobial evaluation of the newly synthesized derivatives was performed using ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The most effective compounds against the tested bacterial and fungal isolates were the benzothiohydrazide compound 18b followed by the hydrazone and the phthalic anhydride derivatives 13c and 20, respectively. PMID:23923391

Kotb, Eman R; Anwar, Manal M; Abbas, Hebat-Allah S; Abd El-Moez, Sherein I

2013-01-01

348

ModuleBlast: identifying activated sub-networks within and across species.  

PubMed

Identifying conserved and divergent response patterns in gene networks is becoming increasingly important. A common approach is integrating expression information with gene association networks in order to find groups of connected genes that are activated or repressed. In many cases, researchers are also interested in comparisons across species (or conditions). Finding an active sub-network is a hard problem and applying it across species requires further considerations (e.g. orthology information, expression data and networks from different sources). To address these challenges we devised ModuleBlast, which uses both expression and network topology to search for highly relevant sub-networks. We have applied ModuleBlast to expression and interaction data from mouse, macaque and human to study immune response and aging. The immune response analysis identified several relevant modules, consistent with recent findings on apoptosis and NF?B activation following infection. Temporal analysis of these data revealed cascades of modules that are dynamically activated within and across species. We have experimentally validated some of the novel hypotheses resulting from the analysis of the ModuleBlast results leading to new insights into the mechanisms used by a key mammalian aging protein. PMID:25428368

Zinman, Guy E; Naiman, Shoshana; O'Dee, Dawn M; Kumar, Nishant; Nau, Gerard J; Cohen, Haim Y; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

2014-11-26

349

Significant Centers of Tectonic Activity as Identified by Wrinkle Ridges for the Western Hemisphere of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The western hemisphere region of Mars has been the site of numerous scientific investigations regarding its tectonic evolution. For this region of Mars, the dominant tectonic region is the Tharsis province. Tharsis is characterized by an enormous system of radiating grabens and a circumferential system of wrinkle ridges. Past investigations of grabens associated with Tharsis have identified specific centers of tectonic activity. A recent structural analysis of the western hemisphere region of Mars which includes the Tharsis region, utilized 25,000 structures to determine the history of local and regional centers of tectonic activity based primarily on the spatial and temporal relationships of extensional features. This investigation revealed that Tharsis is more structurally complex (heterogeneous) than has been previously identified: it consists of numerous regional and local centers of tectonic activity (some are more dominant and/or more long lived than others). Here we use the same approach as Anderson et al. to determine whether the centers of tectonic activity that formed the extensional features also contributed to wrinkle ridge (compressional) formation.

Anderson, R.C.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.; Franklin, B. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Lias, J.

2000-01-01

350

Characterization of volatiles and aroma-active compounds in honeybush (Cyclopia subternata) by GC-MS and GC-O analysis.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in fermented honeybush, Cyclopia subternata, were sampled by means of a high-capacity headspace sample enrichment probe (SEP) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Stereochemistry was determined by means of enantioselective GC-MS with derivatized ?-cyclodextrin columns as chiral selectors. A total of 183 compounds, the majority of which are terpenoids (103; 56%), were identified by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices with those of reference compounds or tentatively identified by comparison with spectral library or literature data. Of these compounds, 37 were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), using detection frequency (DF) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), to be odor-active (FD ? 2). (E)-?-Damascenone, (R/S)-linalool, (E)-?-damascone, geraniol, (E)-?-ionone, and (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one were identified with the highest FD factors (?512). The odors of certain compounds, that is, (6E,8Z)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (6E,8E)-megastigma-4,6,8-trien-3-one, (7E)-megastigma-5,7,9-trien-4-one, 10-epi-?-eudesmol, epi-?-muurolol, and epi-?-cadinol, were perceived by GC-O assessors as typically honeybush-like. PMID:22394400

Le Roux, Maritha; Cronje, J Christel; Burger, Barend V; Joubert, Elizabeth

2012-03-14

351

Natural low-molecular mass organic compounds with oxidase activity as organocatalysts.  

PubMed

Organocatalysts, low-molecular mass organic compounds composed of nonmetallic elements, are often used in organic synthesis, but there have been no reports of organocatalysts of biological origin that function in vivo. Here, we report that actinorhodin (ACT), a natural product derived from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), acts as a biocatalyst. We purified ACT and assayed its catalytic activity in the oxidation of l-ascorbic acid and l-cysteine as substrates by analytical methods for enzymes. Our findings were as follows: (i) oxidation reactions producing H2O2 proceeded upon addition of ACT to the reaction mixture; (ii) ACT was not consumed during the reactions; and (iii) a small amount (catalytic amount) of ACT consumed an excess amount of the substrates. Even at room temperature, atmospheric pressure, and neutral pH, ACT showed catalytic activity in aqueous solution, and ACT exhibited substrate specificity in the oxidation reactions. These findings reveal ACT to be an organocatalyst. ACT is known to show antibiotic activity, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. On the basis of our results, we propose that ACT kills bacteria by catalyzing the production of toxic levels of H2O2. We also screened various other natural products of bacterial, plant, and animal origins and found that several of the compounds exhibited catalytic activity, suggesting that living organisms produce and use these compounds as biocatalysts in nature. PMID:25411318

Nishiyama, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kusakabe, Hitoshi; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

2014-12-01

352

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

353

Study of the inhibitory activity of phenolic compounds found in olive products and their degradation by Lactobacillus plantarum strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus plantarum is the main species responsible for the spontaneous fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. Olives and virgin oil provide a rich source of phenolic compounds. This study was designed to evaluate inhibitory growth activities of nine olive phenolic compounds against four L. plantarum strains isolated from different sources, and to explore the L. plantarum metabolic activities against these phenolic

José María Landete; José Antonio Curiel; Héctor Rodríguez; Blanca de las Rivas; Rosario Muñoz

2008-01-01

354

Compounds from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan and their anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Two new phenolics, (3S,4R)-3,7,2',3'-tetrahydroxy-3,4-dihydro-9H-indeno[6,5-c]chromene (caesalpiniaphenol E, 1), and (3R,4S)-3,7-dihydroxy-3-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-4-methoxychroman (caesalpiniaphenol F, 2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan. Their chemical structures were established mainly by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Among them, compounds 10 and 13 showed strong inhibitory activities toward the LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells, with IC(50) values of 12.5 and 8.1 ?m, respectively. In addition, compounds 10 and 13 inhibited the inductions of iNOS mRNA in dose-dependent manners, indicating that these compounds attenuated the synthesis of these transcripts at the transcriptional level. PMID:23127886

Min, Byung Sun; Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Min, Bo Kyung; Shin, Beom Soo; Woo, Mi Hee

2012-12-15

355

Accelerometer tags: detecting and identifying activities in fish and the effect of sampling frequency.  

PubMed

Monitoring and measuring the behaviour and movement of aquatic animals in the wild is typically challenging, though micro-accelerometer (archival or telemetry) tags now provide the means to remotely identify and quantify behavioural states and rates such as resting, swimming and migrating, and to estimate activity and energy budgets. Most studies use low-frequency (?32 Hz) accelerometer sampling because of battery and data-archiving constraints. In this study we assessed the effect of sampling frequency (aliasing) on activity detection probability using the great sculpin (Myoxocephalus polyacanthoceaphalus) as a model species. Feeding strikes and escape responses (fast-start activities) and spontaneous movements among seven different great sculpin were triggered, observed and recorded using video records and a tri-axial accelerometer sampling at 100 Hz. We demonstrate that multiple parameters in the time and probability domains can statistically differentiate between activities with high detection (90%) and identification (80%) probabilities. Detection probability for feeding and escape activities decreased by 50% when sampling at <10 Hz. Our analyses illustrate additional problems associated with aliasing and how activity and energy-budget estimates can be compromised and misinterpreted. We recommend that high-frequency (>30 Hz) accelerometer sampling be used in similar laboratory and field studies. If battery and/or data storage is limited, we also recommend archiving the events via an on-board algorithm that determines the highest likelihood and subsequent archiving of the various event classes of interest. PMID:23197088

Broell, Franziska; Noda, Takuji; Wright, Serena; Domenici, Paolo; Steffensen, John Fleng; Auclair, Jean-Pierre; Taggart, Christopher T

2013-04-01

356

TimeXNet: Identifying active gene sub-networks using time-course gene expression profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Time-course gene expression profiles are frequently used to provide insight into the changes in cellular state over time and to infer the molecular pathways involved. When combined with large-scale molecular interaction networks, such data can provide information about the dynamics of cellular response to stimulus. However, few tools are currently available to predict a single active gene sub-network from time-course gene expression profiles. Results We introduce a tool, TimeXNet, which identifies active gene sub-networks with temporal paths using time-course gene expression profiles in the context of a weighted gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. TimeXNet uses a specialized form of the network flow optimization approach to identify the most probable paths connecting the genes with significant changes in expression at consecutive time intervals. TimeXNet has been extensively evaluated for its ability to predict novel regulators and their associated pathways within active gene sub-networks in the mouse innate immune response and the yeast osmotic stress response. Compared to other similar methods, TimeXNet identified up to 50% more novel regulators from independent experimental datasets. It predicted paths within a greater number of known pathways with longer overlaps (up to 7 consecutive edges) within these pathways. TimeXNet was also shown to be robust in the presence of varying amounts of noise in the molecular interaction network. Conclusions TimeXNet is a reliable tool that can be used to study cellular response to stimuli through the identification of time-dependent active gene sub-networks in diverse biological systems. It is significantly better than other similar tools. TimeXNet is implemented in Java as a stand-alone application and supported on Linux, MS Windows and Macintosh. The output of TimeXNet can be directly viewed in Cytoscape. TimeXNet is freely available for non-commercial users. PMID:25522063

2014-01-01

357

Identifying Barriers to Patient Acceptance of Active Surveillance: Content Analysis of Online Patient Communications  

PubMed Central

Objectives Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS) has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs) could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. Methods English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC) treatment with AS from 2002–12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI) was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC) - (#Negative IC/#Total IC) x 100]. Results A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS. PMID:24039699

Mishra, Mark V.; Bennett, Michele; Vincent, Armon; Lee, Olivia T.; Lallas, Costas D.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Gomella, Leonard G.; Dicker, Adam P.; Showalter, Timothy N.

2013-01-01

358

A new biphenyl and antimicrobial activity of extracts and compounds from Clusia burlemarxii.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation on Clusia burlemarxii (Clusiaceae) led to isolation and identification of nine compounds. Were isolated from leaves 3-O-?-L- rhamnopyranosylquercetin, 3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosylkaempferol, 4-hydroxy-5,5-dimethyldihydrofuran-2-one, 2Z-?-tocotrienoloic acid and friedelin and were isolated from trunk betulinic acid, protocatechuic acid, lyoniresinol, and a new biphenyl 2,2-dimethyl-3,5-dihydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chromane. The structures were determined by ¹H, ¹³C-NMR, DEPT, HMBC, HMQC, HRESIMS. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Cladosporium cladosporioides was also determined. Extracts and compounds showed significant activity against tested Gram-positive bacteria, none activity against tested Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:21893172

Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ferraz, Caline G; Guedes, Maria L S; Martins, Dirceu; Cruz, Frederico G

2011-12-01

359

Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

360

Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds.  

PubMed

In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

Nunes, Túlio M; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P; Amaral, Mônica F Z J; von Zuben, Lucas G; Clososki, Giuliano C; Bento, José M S; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P

2014-01-01

361

Identifying induced seismicity in active tectonic regions: A case study of the San Joaquin Basin, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the connection between petroleum-industry activities, and seismic event occurrences is essential to monitor, quantify, and mitigate seismic risk. While many studies identified anthropogenically-induced seismicity in intraplate regions where background seismicity rates are generally low, little is known about how to distinguish naturally occurring from induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. Further, it is not clear how different oil and gas operational parameters impact the frequency and magnitude of the induced seismic events. Here, we examine variations in frequency-size and spatial distributions of seismicity within the Southern Joaquin basin, an area of both active petroleum production and active fault systems. We analyze a newly available, high-quality, relocated earthquake catalog (Hauksson et al. 2012). This catalog includes many seismic events with magnitudes up to M = 4.5 within the study area. We start by analyzing the overall quality and consistence of the seismic catalog, focusing on temporal variations in seismicity rates and catalog completeness which could indicate variations in network sensitivity. This catalog provides relatively homogeneous earthquake recordings after 1981, enabling us to compare seismicity rates before and after the beginning of more pervasive petroleum-industry activities, for example, hydraulic-fracturing and waste-water disposals. We conduct a limited study of waste-water disposal wells to establish a correlation between seismicity statistics (i.e. rate changes, fractal dimension, b-value) within specific regions and anthropogenic influences. We then perform a regional study, to investigate spatial variations in seismicity statistics which are then correlated to oil field locations and well densities. In order to distinguish, predominantly natural seismicity from induced seismicity, we perform a spatial mapping of b-values and fractal dimensions of earthquake hypocenters. Seismic events in the proximity to active oil fields generally show different characteristics of frequency-magnitude distributions, higher fractal dimensions and higher b-values compared to natural seismicity. The estimated b-values vary between 0.7 close to the San Andreas fault up to 1.3 within the North-western corner of the Kern County. High b-values within this particular region are likely related to active petroleum production. The spatial differences in seismicity statistics delineate earthquakes related to active faults from distributed seismicity toward the center of the basin. Our results highlight, that the analysis of spatial and temporal variations in seismicity statistics may be a promising tool to identify induced seismicity in active tectonic regions.

Aminzadeh, F.; Göbel, T.

2013-12-01

362

Human cytomegalovirus proteinase: candidate glutamic acid identified as third member of putative active-site triad.  

PubMed Central

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteinase is synthesized as a 709-amino-acid precursor that undergoes at least three autoproteolytic cleavages. The mature proteinase, called assemblin, is one of the products of autoproteolysis and is composed of the first 256 amino acids of the precursor. HCMV assemblin and its homologs in other herpes group viruses contain five highly conserved domains (CD1 through CD5). An absolutely conserved serine in CD3 has been shown by site-directed mutagenesis of the simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) enzymes and by inhibitor affinity labeling of the HSV-1 and HCMV enzymes to be the active-site nucleophile of assemblin. An absolutely conserved histidine in CD2 has also been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis of the SCMV and HSV-1 enzymes to be essential for proteolytic activity and has been proposed to be a second member of the catalytic triad of this serine proteinase. We report here the use of site-directed mutagenesis to investigate the active-site amino acids of HCMV assemblin. Substitutions were made for the CD3 serine and CD2 histidine residues implicated as active-site components, and for other amino acids whose influence on enzyme activity was of interest. The mutant proteinases were tested in a transient transfection assay for their ability to cleave their natural substrate, the assembly protein precursor. Results of these experiments verified that HCMV CD3 serine (Ser-132) and CD2 histidine (His-63) are essential for proteolytic activity and identified a glutamic acid (Glu-122) within CD3 that is also essential for proteolytic activity and may be conserved among all herpesvirus assemblin homologs. We suggest that CD3 Glu-122, CD3 Ser-132, and CD2 His-63 constitute the active-site triad of this serine proteinase. PMID:7769716

Cox, G A; Wakulchik, M; Sassmannshausen, L M; Gibson, W; Villarreal, E C

1995-01-01

363

Isolation and characterisation of new bio-active compounds from Euphorbia cornigera: cytotoxic ingenol esters.  

PubMed

The aerial parts of Euphorbia cornigera Boiss., on extraction with MeOH, yielded new bio-active constituents (1, 2) and known compounds (3 and 4) after MTT cytotoxicity assay-guided fractionation and chromatographic separation were conducted. From the aerial parts of E. cornigera Boiss., new bio-active constituents were extracted in methanol. The extract was partitioned in different organic solvents and the ethylacetate-soluble portion was subjected to Craig's distribution. The MTT cytotoxicity assay-guided chromatographic separation yielded four (1-4), out of which two (1, 2) were new and two known (3, 4) bio-active compounds, and they are reported for the first time from this source. Their structure and relative stereochemistry were established by analysing spectroscopic and mass measurement data. The isolates were named as: 13-O-[(2Z ,4 E ,6 Z)]-deca-2,4,6-trienoylingenol (1), 13-O-( 2 Z ,4 E ,6 Z)-deca-2,4,6-trienoyl-20-O-angeloylingenol (2), 13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-hexanoylingenol (3) and 3-O-(2,3-dimethylbutanoyl)-13-O-dodecanoyl-20-O-hexadecanoylingenol (4). Literature revealed that compounds 1 and 2 are new metabolites, while 3 and 4 are known, and are reported for the first time from this source. Cytotoxicities of isolates were evaluated in terms of IC(50) against RAW and HT-29 cell lines through MTT assay using ambrucin hydrochloride as a control. Compound 3 showed more activity than control, while 1, 2 and 4 were moderate. PMID:22007629

Baloch, Imam Bakhsh; Baloch, Musa Kaleem

2012-01-01

364

A SAR and QSAR study of new artemisinin compounds with antimalarial activity.  

PubMed

The Hartree-Fock method and the 6-31G** basis set were employed to calculate the molecular properties of artemisinin and 20 derivatives with antimalarial activity. Maps of molecular electrostatic potential (MEPs) and molecular docking were used to investigate the interaction between ligands and the receptor (heme). Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were employed to select the most important descriptors related to activity. The correlation between biological activity and molecular properties was obtained using the partial least squares and principal component regression methods. The regression PLS and PCR models built in this study were also used to predict the antimalarial activity of 30 new artemisinin compounds with unknown activity. The models obtained showed not only statistical significance but also predictive ability. The significant molecular descriptors related to the compounds with antimalarial activity were the hydration energy (HE), the charge on the O11 oxygen atom (QO11), the torsion angle O1-O2-Fe-N2 (D2) and the maximum rate of R/Sanderson Electronegativity (RTe+). These variables led to a physical and structural explanation of the molecular properties that should be selected for when designing new ligands to be used as antimalarial agents. PMID:24381053

Santos, Cleydson Breno R; Vieira, Josinete B; Lobato, Cleison C; Hage-Melim, Lorane I S; Souto, Raimundo N P; Lima, Clarissa S; Costa, Elizabeth V M; Brasil, Davi S B; Macêdo, Williams Jorge C; Carvalho, José Carlos T

2013-01-01

365

Procaspase-activating compound 1 induces a caspase-3-dependent cell death in cerebellar granule neurons  

SciTech Connect

Procaspase-activating compound 1, PAC-1, has been introduced as a direct activator of procaspase-3 and has been suggested as a therapeutic agent against cancer. Its activation of procaspase-3 is dependent on the chelation of zinc. We have tested PAC-1 and an analogue of PAC-1 as zinc chelators in vitro as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 and induce cell death in chicken cerebellar granule neuron cultures. These neurons are non-dividing, primary cells with normal caspase-3. The results reported herein show that PAC-1 chelates zinc, activates procaspase-3, and leads to caspase-3-dependent cell death in neurons, as the specific caspase-3-inhibitor Ac-DEVD-cmk inhibited both the caspase-3 activity and cell death. Thus, chicken cerebellar granule neurons is a suitable model to study mechanisms of interference with apoptosis of PAC-1 and similar compounds. Furthermore, the present study also raises concern about potential neurotoxicity of PAC-1 if used in cancer therapy.

Aziz, Gulzeb [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway); Akselsen, Oyvind W.; Hansen, Trond V. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.n [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway)

2010-09-15

366

Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of some commercial essential oils and their major compounds.  

PubMed

The commercial essential oils of Citrus aurantium L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L., isolated by steam distillation by a company of Morocco were evaluated in terms of in vitro antioxidant activity through several methods. In vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity was also determined. Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. oil was also studied, but it was obtained by peel expression. The best antioxidant was T. vulgaris oil, independent of the method used, mainly due to the presence of the phenolic monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, which when studied as single compounds also presented the best activities. Concerning the acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity, E. globulus was the most effective. Nevertheless its main components 1,8-cineole and limonene were not the most active, a feature that corresponded to d-3-carene. PMID:21900869

Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiâ; Miguel, Maria G

2011-01-01

367

Air-cathode microbial fuel cell array: a device for identifying and characterizing electrochemically active microbes.  

PubMed

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have generated excitement in environmental and bioenergy communities due to their potential for coupling wastewater treatment with energy generation and powering diverse devices. The pursuit of strategies such as improving microbial cultivation practices and optimizing MFC devices has increased power generating capacities of MFCs. However, surprisingly few microbial species with electrochemical activity in MFCs have been identified because current devices do not support parallel analyses or high throughput screening. We have recently demonstrated the feasibility of using advanced microfabrication methods to fabricate an MFC microarray. Here, we extend these studies by demonstrating a microfabricated air-cathode MFC array system. The system contains 24 individual air-cathode MFCs integrated onto a single chip. The device enables the direct and parallel comparison of different microbes loaded onto the array. Environmental samples were used to validate the utility of the air-cathode MFC array system and two previously identified isolates, 7Ca (Shewanella sp.) and 3C (Arthrobacter sp.), were shown to display enhanced electrochemical activities of 2.69 mW/m(2) and 1.86 mW/m(2), respectively. Experiments using a large scale conventional air-cathode MFC validated these findings. The parallel air-cathode MFC array system demonstrated here is expected to promote and accelerate the discovery and characterization of electrochemically active microbes. PMID:20655725

Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; de Figueiredo, Paul; Han, Arum

2011-01-15

368

Comprehensive profiling analysis of actively resorbing osteoclasts identifies critical signaling pathways regulated by bone substrate  

PubMed Central

As the only cells capable of efficiently resorbing bone, osteoclasts are central mediators of both normal bone remodeling and pathologies associates with excessive bone resorption. However, despite the clear evidence of interplay between osteoclasts and the bone surface in vivo, the role of the bone substrate in regulating osteoclast differentiation and activation at a molecular level has not been fully defined. Here, we present the first comprehensive expression profiles of osteoclasts differentiated on authentic resorbable bone substrates. This analysis has identified numerous critical pathways coordinately regulated by osteoclastogenic cytokines and bone substrate, including the transition from proliferation to differentiation, and sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling. Whilst, as expected, much of this program is dependent upon integrin beta 3, the pre-eminent mediator of osteoclast-bone interaction, a surprisingly significant portion of the bone substrate regulated expression signature is independent of this receptor. Together, these findings identify an important hitherto underappreciated role for bone substrate in osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25534583

Purdue, P. Edward; Crotti, Tania N.; Shen, Zhenxin; Swantek, Jennifer; Li, Jun; Hill, Jonathan; Hanidu, Adedayo; Dimock, Janice; Nabozny, Gerald; Goldring, Steven R.; McHugh, Kevin P.

2014-01-01

369

Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Four Salvia Essential Oils and Individual Compounds against Two Species of Mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four species of genus Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds identified from Salvia species essential oils were as follows: 1,8-cineole (71.7%), ?-pinene (5.1%), camphor (4.4%), and ?-pinene (3.8%) in Salvia apiana; borneol (17.4%), ?-eudesmol (10.4%), bornyl acetate (5%), and guaiol (4.8%) in Salvia elegans; bornyl acetate (11.4%), ?-caryophyllene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (13.5%), and spathulenol (7.0%) in Salvia leucantha; ?-thujene (25.8%), viridiflorol (20.4%), ?-thujene (5.7%), and camphor (6.4%) in Salvia officinalis. In biting-deterrent bioassays, essential oils of S. leucantha and S. elegans at 10 ?g/cm(2) showed activity similar to that of DEET (97%, N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) in two species of mosquitoes, whereas the activities of S. officinalis and S. apiana essential oils were lower than those of the other oils or DEET. Pure compounds ?-eudesmol and guaiol showed biting-deterrent activity similar to DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2), whereas the activity of 13-epi-manool, caryophyllene oxide, borneol, bornyl acetate, and ?-caryophyllene was significantly lower than that of ?-eudesmol, guaiol, or DEET. All essential oils showed larvicidal activity except that of S. apiana, which was inactive at the highest dose of 125 ppm against both mosquito species. On the basis of 95% CIs, all of the essential oils showed higher toxicity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus than in Aedes aegypti. The essential oil of S. leucantha with an LC50 value of 6.2 ppm showed highest toxicity in An. quadrimaculatus. PMID:25531412

Ali, Abbas; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Blythe, Eugene K; Ali, Zulfiqar; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A

2015-01-21

370

Isolation and identification of colourless caffeoyl compounds in purple sweet potato by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS and their antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

More than 10 red anthocyanins and related glucosides have been isolated and identified from purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Ayamurasaki) in the recent decades. This paper reports the isolation of colourless caffeoyl compounds from purple sweet potato using AB-8 macroresin absorption and semi-preparative HPLC-DAD. The structures of the five isolated monomers were identified as: 5-caffeoylquinic acid (1), 6-O-caffeoyl-?-d-fructofuranosyl-(2-1)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2) and trans-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3), 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5), and by ESI/MS and NMR. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 were reported previously in combination with anthocyanins in purple sweet potato, whereas 2 and 3 were found for the first time. In vitro antioxidant assay showed trans-4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid has significant antioxidant activities. These results should lay the groundwork for further work identifying purple sweet potato as a healthy food. PMID:24837917

Zhao, Jin-Ge; Yan, Qian-Qian; Xue, Ren-Yu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Qing

2014-10-15

371

Transcriptome Analysis of Pseudomonas syringae Identifies New Genes, Noncoding RNAs, and Antisense Activity? †  

PubMed Central

To fully understand how bacteria respond to their environment, it is essential to assess genome-wide transcriptional activity. New high-throughput sequencing technologies make it possible to query the transcriptome of an organism in an efficient unbiased manner. We applied a strand-specific method to sequence bacterial transcripts using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology. The resulting sequences were used to construct genome-wide transcriptional profiles. Novel bioinformatics analyses were developed and used in combination with proteomics data for the qualitative classification of transcriptional activity in defined regions. As expected, most transcriptional activity was consistent with predictions from the genome annotation. Importantly, we identified and confirmed transcriptional activity in areas of the genome inconsistent with the annotation and in unannotated regions. Further analyses revealed potential RpoN-dependent promoter sequences upstream of several noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), suggesting a role for these ncRNAs in RpoN-dependent phenotypes. We were also able to validate a number of transcriptional start sites, many of which were consistent with predicted promoter motifs. Overall, our approach provides an efficient way to survey global transcriptional activity in bacteria and enables rapid discovery of specific areas in the genome that merit further investigation. PMID:20190049

Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Stodghill, Paul V.; Bronstein, Philip A.; Moll, Simon; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Grills, George; Schweitzer, Peter; Wang, Wei; Schroth, Gary P.; Luo, Shujun; Khrebtukova, Irina; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore; Butcher, Bronwyn G.; Cartinhour, Samuel; Schneider, David J.

2010-01-01

372

Hydraphiles: A Rigorously Studied Class of Synthetic Channel Compounds with In Vivo Activity  

PubMed Central

Hydraphiles are a class of synthetic ion channels that now have a twenty-year history of analysis and success. In early studies, these compounds were rigorously validated in a wide range of in vitro assays including liposomal ion flow detected by NMR or ion-selective electrodes, as well as biophysical experiments in planar bilayers. During the past decade, biological activity was observed for these compounds including toxicity to bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells due to stress caused by the disruption of ion homeostasis. The channel mechanism was verified in cells using membrane polarity sensitive dyes, as well as patch clamping studies. This body of work has provided a solid foundation with which hydraphiles have recently demonstrated acute biological toxicity in the muscle tissue of living mice, as measured by whole animal fluorescence imaging and histological studies. Here we review the critical structure-activity relationships in the hydraphile family of compounds and the in vitro and in cellulo experiments that have validated their channel behavior. This report culminates with a description of recently reported efforts in which these molecules have demonstrated activity in living mice. PMID:23401675

Negin, Saeedeh; Smith, Bryan A.; Unger, Alexandra; Leevy, W. Matthew; Gokel, George W.

2013-01-01

373

Phenylarsonic acid compounds with broad-spectrum and potent cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells.  

PubMed

The in vitro cytotoxic activity profile of nine novel phenylarsonic acid (CAS 98-05-5, PAA) compounds against 17 human cancer cell lines including (a) ovarian cancer cell lines ES-2, PA-1, CAOV-3, OVCAR-3, (b) testicular cancer cell lines Ntera-2, Tera-2, N2NICP, 833K, and 64CP, (c) multiple myeloma cell lines ARH77, HS-Sultan, RPMI-8226, and U266, and (d) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines NALM-6, MOLT-3, ALL-1, and RS4; 11, was determined by the MTT assay. The lead compounds, 2-methylthio-4-[(4'-aminophenylazo)-phenylarsonic acid] pyrimidine (PHI-370) and 2-methylthio-4-(4'-phenylarsonic acid)-aminopyrimidine (PHI-380) caused apoptotic death in all 17 cancer cell lines at low micromolar concentrations, as documented by TUNEL assays and confocal laser scanning microscopy. PHI-380 was also tested and found to be very active against primary tumor cells isolated from surgical biopsy specimens of 14 patients with therapy-refractory non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, lymphoma, hepatoblastoma, or Wilm's tumor as well. Because of their broad-spectrum and potent anticancer activity and ability to induce apoptosis in primary tumor cells from therapy-refractory cancer patients, PAA compounds such as PHI-370 and PHI-380 may provide the basis for effective salvage regimens for patients with recurrent cancer. PMID:12872614

Uckun, Fatih M; D'Cruz, Osmond J; Liu, Xing-Ping; Narla, Rama Krishna

2003-01-01

374

Antidiarrheal activity of extracts and compound from Trilepisium madagascariense stem bark  

PubMed Central

Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the preventive and curative antidiarrheal effects of the methanol extract, fractions and compound from the stem bark of Trilepisium madagascariense in rats. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract from the stem bark of T. madagascariense, its fractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous residue) and compound (obtained from further column chromatography of the ethyl acetate fraction) were evaluated for the antidiarrheal activity in rats. These test samples (at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for the extract and fractions and 2.5 mg/kg for compound) were assayed on the latent periods, purging indices and fecal frequencies in castor oil-induced diarrhea. Gastrointestinal transit and castor oil-induced enteropooling assays were conducted. Shigella-induced diarrhea was assayed. Blood chemistry and fecal Shigella load were examined. Results: The fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of T. madagascariense afforded a known compound [isoliquiritigenin (1)]. Compound 1 increased the latent period of diarrhea induction (179.40 min) compared to the saline control (60.80 min). The purging indices, fecal frequencies and intestinal enteropooling decreased with an increase in the dose of test samples. The blood cell counts, sera creatinine and fecal Shigella load decreased significantly (P ? 0.05) in the plant extract-treated rats compared to the saline control. Conclusion: The results of our study, being reported for the first time, provide clear evidence that the methanol extract, fractions and isoliquiritigenin from T. madagascariense stem bark possess antidiarrheal activities. PMID:20871767

Teke, Gerald Ngo; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Kueté, Victor; Teponno, Rémy Bertrand; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack; Vilarem, Gerard

2010-01-01

375

Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

2009-01-01

376

High-Throughput Screening (HTS) and Hit Validation to Identify Small Molecule Inhibitors with Activity against NS3/4A proteases from Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes  

PubMed Central

Development of drug-resistant mutations has been a major problem with all currently developed Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) NS3/4A inhibitors, including the two FDA approved drugs, significantly reducing the efficacy of these inhibitors. The high incidence of drug-resistance mutations and the limited utility of these inhibitors against only genotype 1 highlight the need for novel, broad-spectrum HCV therapies. Here we used high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify low molecular weight inhibitors against NS3/4A from multiple genotypes. A total of 40,967 compounds from four structurally diverse molecular libraries were screened by HTS using fluorescence-based enzymatic assays, followed by an orthogonal binding analysis using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to eliminate false positives. A novel small molecule compound was identified with an IC50 value of 2.2 µM against the NS3/4A from genotype 1b. Mode of inhibition analysis subsequently confirmed this compound to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate, indicating direct binding to the protease active site, rather than to the allosteric binding pocket that was discovered to be the binding site of a few recently discovered small molecule inhibitors. This newly discovered inhibitor also showed promising inhibitory activity against the NS3/4As from three other HCV genotypes, as well as five common drug-resistant mutants of genotype 1b NS3/4A. The inhibitor was selective for NS3 from multiple HCV genotypes over two human serine proteases, and a whole cell lysate assay confirmed inhibitory activity in the cellular environment. This compound provides a lead for further development of potentially broader spectrum inhibitors. PMID:24130685

Lee, Hyun; Zhu, Tian; Patel, Kavankumar; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Truong, Lena; Hevener, Kirk E.; Gatuz, Joseph L.; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Jeong, Hyun-Young; Uprichard, Susan L.; Johnson, Michael E.

2013-01-01

377

Plant extracts with anti-inflammatory properties--a new approach for characterization of their bioactive compounds and establishment of structure-antioxidant activity relationships.  

PubMed

Geranium robertianum L. (Geraniacea) and Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. (Rubiaceae) plant extracts, frequently used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases, were studied to identify potential bioactive compounds that may justify their therapeutic use and their underlying mechanisms of action. Since some of the pharmacological properties of these plant extracts may be linked to their antioxidant potential, the antioxidant activity, in relation to free radical scavenging, was measured by the ABTS/HRP and DPPH() assays, presenting U. tomentosa the higher activity. The antioxidant activity was also evaluated by scavenging of HOCl, the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils and a potent pro-inflammatory agent. U. tomentosa was found to be a better protector against HOCl, which may justify its effectiveness against inflammatory diseases. SPE/LC-DAD was used for separation/purification purposes and ESI-MS/MS for identification/characterization of the major non-volatile components, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids. The ESI-MS/MS methodology proposed can be used as a model procedure for identification/characterization of unknowns without the prerequisite for standard compounds analysis. The ESI-MS/MS data obtained were consistent with the antioxidant activity results and structure-activity relationships for the compounds identified were discussed. PMID:19201196

Amaral, Sónia; Mira, Lurdes; Nogueira, J M F; da Silva, Alda Pereira; Helena Florêncio, M

2009-03-01

378

Oplophorus oxyluciferin and a model luciferin compound biologically active with Oplophorus luciferase.  

PubMed Central

The luciferin of the bioluminescent decapod shrimp, Oplophorus gracilorostris, was purified and studied with respect to u.v. spectrum, fluorescence spectrum, mass spectrum and luminescent cross-reaction with the enzyme luciferase of the bioluminescent ostracod, Cypridina hilgendorfii. On the basis of these results, an empirical formula C10H13N3O3 and an imidazo [1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one structure are proposed for luciferin. Of three model luciferin compounds, 3-hydroxy-2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine is biologically active with both Oplophorus and Cypridina luciferase, indicating that a pyrazine structure is not essential for biological activity with Cypridina luciferase. PMID:1212217

Yamaguchi, I

1975-01-01

379

Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

380

The surface-active properties of biomass burning aerosol: the importance of water soluble organic compounds.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic films on humid aerosols lower the surface tension of water and inhibit the exchange of water vapor between the gas phase and the condensed phase, with important implications for the cloud condensation nuclei activity. The present study reports an investigation of the film-forming compounds in biomass burning aerosols collected in the Amazon Basin as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). The chemical characterization of fine aerosol samples showed that water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC) accounted for a substantial fraction of OC (45-75%). WSOC could be separated into three main classes by liquid chromatography: neutral compounds, mono- and di-carboxylic acids, and polycarboxylic acids. The sum of these three groups accounted for about 70% of the WSOC, with the acidic classes being most abundant. Water extracts of fine aerosol samples collected during the peak of the dry season were subjected to surface tension measurement by a drop shape tensiometer. The results demonstrate that the carbonaceous aerosols produced by biomass burning contain substantial amounts of surface-active compounds. Furthermore, the rheological properties of the films on the water extracts were studied by dynamic measurements of surface tension. The calculated dilatational elasticity and viscosity of organic films followed the Gibbs theory of adsorption layer formation, suggesting that the surfactants are mainly water-soluble. These findings show that WSOC represent an important reservoir of film-forming agents, and that the bulk WSOC concentration is the most important parameter controlling the surface excess of organic compounds on humid aerosols and droplets. A quantitative relationship between surface tension lowering and WSOC concentration could be established, however the observed variability within samples indicates that the chemical composition of the WSOC mixture affects extension and structure of the Gibbs layers. In particular, polyacidic compounds carrying both polar and extended hydrophobic groups were found to be the most effective film-forming compounds. These organic substances are expected to play an important role in determining the overall cloud nucleating properties of biomass burning aerosols.

Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Mircea, M.; Cavalli, F.; Fuzzi, S.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.

2003-04-01

381

Pyridoxine-derived organoselenium compounds with glutathione peroxidase-like and chain-breaking antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

One of the vitamin B6 vitamers, pyridoxine, was modified to incorporate selenium in various oxidation states in place of the methyl group in position 2. Such compounds were conveniently accessed by treatment of bis-4,5-(carboethoxy)-2-iodo-3-pyridinol with disodium diselenide and LiAlH4 -reduction. After work-up, selone 7 was isolated in good yield as an air-stable crystalline material. Hydrogen bonding to the neighboring hydroxyl group, as revealed by the short intramolecular Se???H distance in the crystal structure is likely to provide extra stabilization to the compound. Computational studies showed that selone 7 is more stable than the corresponding selenol tautomer by 12.2?kcal?mol(-1) . Hydrogen peroxide oxidation of the selone 7 afforded diselenide 12, and, on further oxidation, seleninic acid 13. Treatment of the seleninic acid with thiophenol provided an isolable selenosulfide 14. The glutathione peroxidase-like properties of the pyridoxine-derived compounds were assessed by using the coupled reductase method. Seleninic acid 13 was found to be twofold more active than ebselen. The chain-breaking capacity of the pyridoxine compounds were studied in a water/chlorobenzene membrane model containing linoleic acid as an oxidizable substrate and N-acetylcysteine as a thiol reducing agent. Diselenide 15 could match ?-tocopherol when it comes to reactivity towards peroxyl radicals and inhibition time. PMID:25123932

Singh, Vijay P; Poon, Jia-Fei; Butcher, Ray J; Engman, Lars

2014-09-22

382

Supercritical CO2 extraction and purification of compounds with antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE), based on the utilization of a fluid under supercritical conditions, is a technology suitable for extraction and purification of a variety of compounds, particularly those that have low volatility and/or are susceptible to thermal degradation. The interest in SCFE is promoted by legal limitations of conventional solvents for food and pharmaceutical uses. The physicochemical properties of supercritical CO2 (higher diffusivity, lower viscosity, and lower surface tension than conventional solvents) facilitate mass transfer and allow an environmentally friendly operation. This article presents a comprehensive compilation of data on the supercritical CO2 extraction of antioxidant compounds from vegetal materials, with particular attention to those of a phenolic nature. Aspects concerning the supercritical operation for extraction and fractionation of antioxidants compounds are considered, including equilibrium solubility of pure compounds and effects of the operational conditions on the antioxidant activity of isolated fractions. The data are compared to those reported for synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts obtained by conventional solvent extraction from vegetal matrices. PMID:16569029

Díaz-Reinoso, Beatriz; Moure, Andrés; Domínguez, Herminia; Parajó, Juan Carlos

2006-04-01

383

The content of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity varies with carrot origin and root color.  

PubMed

The contents of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activities were assessed in a carrot collection comprising 35 cultivars, landraces and breeding populations. The accessions originated from various world regions and they represented Eastern and Western carrot gene pools. In two-year field trial carrot roots of orange, red, yellow, white and purple color were cultivated, freeze-dried and analyzed for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu assay and UV/Vis assay. Radical scavenging activity in the extracts was determined with a stable DPPH radical. Carrots developing purple roots possessed on average 9 times more phenolics than roots of other colors. Furthermore, they were rich in anthocyanins that caused very high antiradical activity. Red carrots showed higher antioxidant activity than orange, yellow and white carrots and in the season of lower rainfall they accumulated higher amounts of phenolic compounds. Carrots of Asian origin belonging to Eastern gene pool were more often purple or red and richer in phenolics and had higher antiradical activity than those from the Western gene pool with mainly orange roots. PMID:23613033

Leja, Maria; Kami?ska, Iwona; Kramer, Maike; Maksylewicz-Kaul, Anna; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Baranski, Rafal

2013-06-01

384

Transcriptional Response of Zebrafish Embryos Exposed to Neurotoxic Compounds Reveals a Muscle Activity Dependent hspb11 Expression  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM), in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sopfixe mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds. PMID:22205996

Klüver, Nils; Yang, Lixin; Busch, Wibke; Scheffler, Katja; Renner, Patrick; Strähle, Uwe; Scholz, Stefan

2011-01-01

385

Lending a helping hand, screening chemical libraries for compounds that enhance ?-hexosaminidase A activity in GM2 gangliosidosis cells  

PubMed Central

Enzyme enhancement therapy is an emerging therapeutic approach that has the potential to treat many genetic diseases. Candidate diseases are those associated with a mutant protein that has difficulty folding and/or assembling into active oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum. Many lysosomal storage diseases are candidates for enzyme enhancement therapy and have the additional advantage of requiring only 5–10% of normal enzyme levels to reduce and/or prevent substrate accumulation. Our long experience in working with the ?-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) isozymes system and its associated deficiencies (Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease) lead us to search for possible enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that could treat the chronic forms of these diseases which express 2–5% residual activity. Pharmacological chaperones are enzyme enhancement therapy-agents that are competitive inhibitors of the target enzyme. Each of the known ?-hexosaminidase inhibitors (low ?M IC50) increased mutant enzyme levels to ? 10% in chronic Tay-Sachs fibroblasts and also attenuated the thermo-denaturation of ?-hexosaminidase. To expand the repertoire of pharmacological chaperones to more ‘drug-like’ compounds, we screened the Maybridge library of 50 000 compounds using a real-time assay for non-carbohydrate-based ?-hexosaminidase inhibitors and identified several that functioned as pharmacological chaperones in patient cells. Two of these inhibitors had derivatives that had been tested in humans for other purposes. These observations lead us to screen the NINDS library of 1040 Food and Drug Administration approved compounds for pharmacological chaperones. Pyrimethamine, an antimalarial drug with well documented pharmacokinetics, was confirmed as a ?-hexosaminidase pharmacological chaperone and compared favorably with our best carbohydrate-based pharmacological chaperone in patient cells with various mutant genotypes. PMID:17894780

Tropak, Michael B.; Mahuran, Don

2010-01-01

386

An Automated High-Throughput Cell-Based Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Assay to Identify Novel Compounds to Target Candida albicans Virulence-Related Proteins  

PubMed Central

Although three major classes of systemic antifungal agents are clinically available, each is characterized by important limitations. Thus, there has been considerable ongoing effort to develop novel and repurposed agents for the therapy of invasive fungal infections. In an effort to address these needs, we developed a novel high-throughput, multiplexed screening method that utilizes small molecules to probe candidate drug targets in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. This method is amenable to high-throughput automated screening and is based upon detection of changes in GFP levels of individually tagged target proteins. We first selected four GFP-tagged membrane-bound proteins associated with virulence or antifungal drug resistance in C. albicans. We demonstrated proof-of-principle that modulation of fluorescence intensity can be used to assay the expression of specific GFP-tagged target proteins to inhibitors (and inducers), and this change is measurable within the HyperCyt automated flow cytometry sampling system. Next, we generated a multiplex of differentially color-coded C. albicans strains bearing C-terminal GFP-tags of each gene encoding candidate drug targets incubated in the presence of small molecules from the Prestwick Chemical Library in 384-well microtiter plate format. Following incubation, cells were sampled through the HyperCyt system and modulation of protein levels, as indicated by changes in GFP-levels of each strain, was used to identify compounds of interest. The hit rate for both inducers and inhibitors identified in the primary screen did not exceed 1% of the total number of compounds in the small-molecule library that was probed, as would be expected from a robust target-specific, high-throughput screening campaign. Secondary assays for virulence characteristics based on null mutant strains were then used to further validate specificity. In all, this study presents a method for the identification and verification of new antifungal drugs targeted to fungal virulence proteins using C. albicans as a model fungal pathogen. PMID:25350399

Bernardo, Stella M.; Allen, Christopher P.; Waller, Anna; Young, Susan M.; Oprea, Tudor; Sklar, Larry A.; Lee, Samuel A.

2014-01-01

387

The effect of phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds on the measured CCN activity of aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of inorganic semivolatile aerosol compounds on the CCN activity of aerosol particles was studied by using a computational model for a DMT-CCN counter, a cloud parcel model for condensation kinetics and experiments to quantify the modelled results. Concentrations of water vapour and semivolatiles as well as aerosol trajectories in the CCN column were calculated by a computational fluid dynamics model. These trajectories and vapour concentrations were then used as an input for the cloud parcel model to simulate mass transfer kinetics of water and semivolatiles between aerosol particles and the gas phase. Two different questions were studied: (1) how big fraction of semivolatiles is evaporated from particles before activation in the CCN counter? (2) How much the CCN activity can be increased due to condensation of semivolatiles prior to the maximum water supersaturation in the case of high semivolatile concentration in the gas phase? The results show that, to increase the CCN activity of aerosol particles, a very high gas phase concentration (as compared to typical ambient conditions) is needed. We used nitric acid as a test compound. A concentration of several ppb or higher is needed for measurable effect. In the case of particle evaporation, we used ammonium nitrate as a test compound and found that it partially evaporates before maximum supersaturation is reached in the CCN counter, thus causing an underestimation of CCN activity. The effect of evaporation is clearly visible in all supersaturations, leading to an underestimation of the critical dry diameter by 10 to 15 nanometres in the case of ammonium nitrate particles in different supersaturations. This result was also confirmed by measurements in supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.7%.

Romakkaniemi, S.; Jaatinen, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Nenes, A.; Raatikainen, T.

2013-09-01

388

An experimental method to identify neurogenic and myogenic active mechanical states of intestinal motility.  

PubMed

Excitatory and inhibitory enteric neural input to intestinal muscle acting on ongoing myogenic