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1

Potent Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytocidal Activity of Diaminonaphthoquinones, Lead Antimalarial Chemotypes Identified in an Antimalarial Compound Screen.  

PubMed

Forty percent of the world's population is threatened by malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium parasites and results in an estimated 200 million clinical cases and 650,000 deaths each year. Drug resistance has been reported for all commonly used antimalarials and has prompted screens to identify new drug candidates. However, many of these new candidates have not been evaluated against the parasite stage responsible for transmission, gametocytes. If Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are not eliminated, patients continue to spread malaria for weeks after asexual parasite clearance. Asymptomatic individuals can also harbor gametocyte burdens sufficient for transmission, and a safe, effective gametocytocidal agent could also be used in community-wide malaria control programs. Here, we identify 15 small molecules with nanomolar activity against late-stage gametocytes. Fourteen are diaminonaphthoquinones (DANQs), and one is a 2-imino-benzo[d]imidazole (IBI). One of the DANQs identified, SJ000030570, is a lead antimalarial candidate. In contrast, 94% of the 650 compounds tested are inactive against late-stage gametocytes. Consistent with the ineffectiveness of most approved antimalarials against gametocytes, of the 19 novel compounds with activity against known anti-asexual-stage targets, only 3 had any strong effect on gametocyte viability. These data demonstrate the distinct biology of the transmission stages and emphasize the importance of screening for gametocytocidal activity. The potent gametocytocidal activity of DANQ and IBI coupled with their efficacy against asexual parasites provides leads for the development of antimalarials with the potential to prevent both the symptoms and the spread of malaria. PMID:25512421

Tanaka, Takeshi Q; Guiguemde, W Armand; Barnett, David S; Maron, Maxim I; Min, Jaeki; Connelly, Michele C; Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Guy, R Kiplin; Williamson, Kim C

2015-03-01

2

Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes.  

PubMed

Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted. PMID:24974177

Baker, Beth H; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark; Barber, Larry B; Writer, Jeffery H; Rosenberry, Donald O; Kiesling, Richard L; Lundy, James R; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

2014-10-01

3

Chemistry & Biology Synthetic Lethal Screening Identifies Compounds  

E-print Network

-Dependent, Nonapoptotic Cell Death in Oncogenic-RAS-Harboring Cancer Cells Wan Seok Yang1 and Brent R. Stockwell1,2,* 1, such as a nonapoptotic, MEK-de- pendent, and iron-dependent oxidative cell death. Erastin, a previously reported compound VDACs to activate the observed pathway. RSL3 acti- vated a similar death mechanism but in a VDAC

Stockwell, Brent R.

4

Screening with a novel cell-based assay for TAZ activators identifies a compound that enhances myogenesis in C2C12 cells and facilitates muscle repair in a muscle injury model.  

PubMed

The transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) cooperates with various transcriptional factors and plays various roles. Immortalized human mammalian epithelial MCF10A cells form spheres when TAZ is overexpressed and activated. We developed a cell-based assay using sphere formation by TAZ-expressing MCF10A cells as a readout to screen 18,458 chemical compounds for TAZ activators. Fifty compounds were obtained, and 47 were confirmed to activate the TAZ-dependent TEAD-responsive reporter activity in HEK293 cells. We used the derived subset of compounds as a TAZ activator candidate minilibrary and searched for compounds that promote myogenesis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. In this study, we focused on one compound, IBS008738. IBS008738 stabilizes TAZ, increases the unphosphorylated TAZ level, enhances the association of MyoD with the myogenin promoter, upregulates MyoD-dependent gene transcription, and competes with myostatin in C2C12 cells. TAZ knockdown verifies that the effect of IBS008738 depends on endogenous TAZ in C2C12 cells. IBS008738 facilitates muscle repair in cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and prevents dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Thus, this cell-based assay is useful to identify TAZ activators with a variety of cellular outputs. Our findings also support the idea that TAZ is a potential therapeutic target for muscle atrophy. PMID:24550007

Yang, Zeyu; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Sarkar, Aradhan; Maruyama, Junichi; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Bao, Yijun; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Ito, Shigeru; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Hata, Shoji; Nishina, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinya; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Hata, Yutaka

2014-05-01

5

Screening with a Novel Cell-Based Assay for TAZ Activators Identifies a Compound That Enhances Myogenesis in C2C12 Cells and Facilitates Muscle Repair in a Muscle Injury Model  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) cooperates with various transcriptional factors and plays various roles. Immortalized human mammalian epithelial MCF10A cells form spheres when TAZ is overexpressed and activated. We developed a cell-based assay using sphere formation by TAZ-expressing MCF10A cells as a readout to screen 18,458 chemical compounds for TAZ activators. Fifty compounds were obtained, and 47 were confirmed to activate the TAZ-dependent TEAD-responsive reporter activity in HEK293 cells. We used the derived subset of compounds as a TAZ activator candidate minilibrary and searched for compounds that promote myogenesis in mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. In this study, we focused on one compound, IBS008738. IBS008738 stabilizes TAZ, increases the unphosphorylated TAZ level, enhances the association of MyoD with the myogenin promoter, upregulates MyoD-dependent gene transcription, and competes with myostatin in C2C12 cells. TAZ knockdown verifies that the effect of IBS008738 depends on endogenous TAZ in C2C12 cells. IBS008738 facilitates muscle repair in cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury and prevents dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy. Thus, this cell-based assay is useful to identify TAZ activators with a variety of cellular outputs. Our findings also support the idea that TAZ is a potential therapeutic target for muscle atrophy. PMID:24550007

Yang, Zeyu; Nakagawa, Kentaro; Sarkar, Aradhan; Maruyama, Junichi; Iwasa, Hiroaki; Bao, Yijun; Ishigami-Yuasa, Mari; Ito, Shigeru; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Hata, Shoji; Nishina, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinya; Kitagawa, Masanobu

2014-01-01

6

The EPI Bioassay identifies natural compounds with estrogenic activity that are potent inhibitors of androgenic pathways in human prostate stromal and epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The reactive stromal phenotype is an important factor for prostate cancer progression and may be a new target for treatment and prevention. A new high efficiency preclinical protocol, the EPI bioassay, reflects the interaction of endocrine, paracrine and immune, (EPI) factors on induced androgen metabolism in human prostate reactive stroma. The bioassay is based on co-culturing human primary prostate stromal cells and LAPC-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma cells in a downscaled format of 96-well-plates for testing multiple doses of multiple target compounds. Metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) with or without TGF?1–induced stimulation (D+T) of the reactive stroma phenotype was assessed by increased testosterone in the media and PSA production of the epithelial prostate cancer cells. By using the non-metabolizable androgen R1881, effects from direct androgen action were distinguished from stromal androgen production from DHEA. Stromal cell androgenic bioactivity was confirmed using conditioned media from D+T-treated stromal cell monocultures in an androgen-inducible AR screening assay. We further showed that both agonists to estrogen receptor (ER), DPN (ER?) and PPT (ER?), as well as estrogenic natural compounds including soy isoflavones attenuated D+T-induced PSA production. Studies with the pure ER agonists showed that activating either ER? or ER? could inhibit both D+T-mediated and R1881-mediated PSA production with the D+T effect being more pronounced. In conclusion, natural compounds with estrogenic activity and pure ER agonists are very potent inhibitors of stromal conversion of DHEA to androgenic metabolites. More studies are needed to characterize the mechanisms involved in estrogenic modulation of the endocrine-immune-paracrine balance of the prostate microenvironment. PMID:22207083

Vollmer, Günter; Helle, Janina; Amri, Hakima; Liu, Xunxian; Arnold, Julia T.

2012-01-01

7

Microfluidic in vivo screen identifies compounds enhancing neuronal  

E-print Network

Compound screening is a powerful tool to identify new therapeutic targets, drug leads, and elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of biological processes. We report here the results of the first in vivo small-molecule screens ...

Haggarty, Stephen

8

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

9

A Novel Way To Identify Precursors That Degrade To Perfluourinated Compounds In Activated Sludge Using Ion-Trap Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), many of which are known to be toxic in laboratory animals. Despite growing public concerns, the fate and transport of PFCs are little under...

10

A Novel Way To Identify Precursors That Degrade To Perfluorinated Compounds In Activated Sludge Using Ion-Trap Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of studies have been conducted to investigate the environmental distribution of perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), many of which are known to be toxic in laboratory animals. Despite growing public concerns, fate and transport of PFCs are little known. M...

11

PHEROMONAL ACTIVITY OF COMPOUNDS IDENTIFIED FROM MALE PHYLLOTRETA CRUCIFERAE: FIELD TESTS OF RACEMIC MIXTURES, PURE ENANTIOMERS, AND COMBINATIONS WITH ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four himachalene sesquiterpenes and (+)-'-cadinene, previously identified as possible pheromone components from males of a North American population of Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), were tested for attractiveness in field traps in Hungary. A mixture of the four synthetic...

12

A staining protocol for identifying secondary compounds in Myrtaceae1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Here we propose a staining protocol using toluidine blue (TBO) and ruthenium red to reliably identify secondary compounds in the leaves of some species of Myrtaceae. • Methods and Results: Leaves of 10 species representing 10 different genera of Myrtaceae were processed and stained using five different combinations of ruthenium red and TBO. Optimal staining conditions were determined as 1 min of ruthenium red (0.05% aqueous) and 45 s of TBO (0.1% aqueous). Secondary compounds clearly identified under this treatment include mucilage in the mesophyll, polyphenols in the cuticle, lignin in fibers and xylem, tannins and carboxylated polysaccharides in the epidermis, and pectic substances in the primary cell walls. • Conclusions: Potential applications of this protocol include systematic, phytochemical, and ecological investigations in Myrtaceae. It might be applicable to other plant families rich in secondary compounds and could be used as a preliminary screening method for extraction of these elements. PMID:25309840

Retamales, Hernan A.; Scharaschkin, Tanya

2014-01-01

13

Odour-active compounds in papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol.  

PubMed

Application of solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous distillation-extraction combined with GC-FID, GC-MS, aroma extract dilution analysis, and odour activity value were used to analyse volatile compounds from papaya fruit cv. Red Maradol and to estimate the most odour-active compounds. The analyses led to the identification of 137 compounds; 118 of them were positively identified. Twenty-five odorants were considered as odour-active compounds and contribute to the typical papaya aroma, from which ethyl butanoate, benzyl isothiocyanate, 1-hexen-3-one, (E)-?-ionone, and methyl benzoate were the most odour-active compounds. PMID:24176322

Pino, Jorge A

2014-03-01

14

A Screen for Kinetochore-Microtubule Interaction Inhibitors Identifies Novel Antitubulin Compounds  

PubMed Central

Background Protein assemblies named kinetochores bind sister chromatids to the mitotic spindle and orchestrate sister chromatid segregation. Interference with kinetochore activity triggers a spindle checkpoint mediated arrest in mitosis, which frequently ends in cell death. We set out to identify small compounds that inhibit kinetochore-microtubule binding for use in kinetochore-spindle interaction studies and to develop them into novel anticancer drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings A fluorescence microscopy-based in vitro assay was developed to screen compound libraries for molecules that prevented the binding of a recombinant human Ndc80 kinetochore complex to taxol-stabilized microtubules. An active compound was identified that acted at the microtubule level. More specifically, by localizing to the colchicine-binding site in ??-tubulin the hit compound prevented the Ndc80 complex from binding to the microtubule surface. Next, structure-activity analyses distinguished active regions in the compound and led to the identification of highly potent analogs that killed cancer cells with an efficacy equaling that of established spindle drugs. Conclusions/Significance The compound identified in our screen and its subsequently identified analogs represent new antitubulin chemotypes that can be synthetically developed into a novel class of antimitotic spindle drugs. In addition, they are stereochemically unique as their R- and S-isomers mimic binding of colchicine and podophyllotoxin, respectively, two antitubulin drugs that interact differently with the tubulin interface. Model-driven manipulation of our compounds promises to advance insight into how antitubulin drugs act upon tubulin. These advances in turn may lead to tailor-made colchicine site agents which would be valuable new assets to fight a variety of tumors, including those that have become resistant to the (antispindle) drugs used today. PMID:20657644

Nguyen, Tam; Silvestri, Romano; Gussio, Rick; Musacchio, Andrea; Hamel, Ernest; De Wulf, Peter

2010-01-01

15

APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 1: TEXT  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

16

APPLICATION OF AN ANALYSIS PROTOCOL TO IDENTIFY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS NOT IDENTIFIED BY SPECTRUM MATCHING. PART 2: APPENDICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial wastewater survey samples were analyzed for organic compounds not identified by spectrum matching. Analysis of the samples proceeded from an initial packed column GC/MS analysis for Priority Pollutants, through computerized spectrum matching for other compounds, to the...

17

Identifying Sexual Harassment: A Classroom Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…

Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer

2002-01-01

18

Inferring Genetic Networks and Identifying Compound Mode of Action via Expression Profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of cellular gene, protein, and metabolite networks can hinder attempts to elucidate their structure and function. To address this problem, we used systematic transcriptional perturbations to construct a first-order model of regulatory interactions in a nine-gene subnetwork of the SOS pathway in Escherichia coli. The model correctly identified the major regulatory genes and the transcriptional targets of mitomycin C activity in the subnetwork. This approach, which is experimentally and computationally scalable, provides a framework for elucidating the functional properties of genetic networks and identifying molecular targets of pharmacological compounds.

Gardner, Timothy S.; di Bernardo, Diego; Lorenz, David; Collins, James J.

2003-07-01

19

Antioxidant activity of compounds isolated from Salvia plebeia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six compounds, hispidulin-glucuronide (1), hispidulin-7-O-d-glucoside (2), 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside (3), ?-sitosterol (4), 2?-hydroxy-5?-methoxybiochanin A (5) and coniferyl aldehyde (6), were isolated from Salvia plebeia and identified by UV, IR, Mass, 1H and 13CNMR spectra. Their antioxidant activities were investigated individually and compared with butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) (8) and ?-tocopherol (7) by the oxidative stability instrument (OSI) at 100°C. Compounds 3, 4 and 5

X. C. Weng; W. Wang

2000-01-01

20

Isolation of opioid-active compounds from Tabernaemontana pachysiphon leaves.  

PubMed

A procedure for prefractionation of crude plant extracts by centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) has been developed to enable rapid identification of known-positive compounds or false-positive compounds and to increase the chance of identifying minor unknown-active compounds. The study explored the use of CPC as a tool in the prefractionation step before investigation of bioactivity. Fractions obtained by CPC from an ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf (Apocynaceae) were screened by means of an opiate-receptor-binding assay and an adenosine A1-receptor-binding assay. Fractions containing fatty acids, which had false-positive effects on the assay, were identified, as were unknown-positive fractions from which two opioid-active compounds, tubotaiwine and apparicine, were subsequently isolated. The affinities (Ki) of tubotaiwine and apparicine at the opiate receptor were 1.65 +/- 0.81 and 2.65 +/- 1.56 micromol, respectively. Both alkaloids had analgesic activity in the abdominal constriction test in mice. CPC prefractionation led to the rapid isolation of two opioid-active compounds, tubotaiwine and apparicine, from the unknown-positive fraction; false-positive fractions were rapidly identified. Both tubotaiwine and apparicine had affinity for adenosine receptors in the micromolar range and also had in-vivo analgesic activity in mice. PMID:10678501

Ingkaninan, K; Ijzerman, A P; Taesotikult, T; Verpoorte, R

1999-12-01

21

An isogenic cell panel identifies compounds that inhibit proliferation of mTOR-pathway addicted cells by different mechanisms.  

PubMed

The mTOR pathway is a critical integrator of nutrient and growth factor signaling. Once activated, mTOR promotes cell growth and proliferation. Several components of the mTOR pathway are frequently deregulated in tumors, leading to constitutive activation of the pathway and thus contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. We performed a high-throughput screen with an isogenic cell line system to identify compounds specifically inhibiting proliferation of PTEN/mTOR-pathway addicted cells. We show here the characterization and mode of action of two such compound classes. One compound class inhibits components of the PTEN/mTOR signaling pathway, such as S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, and leads to cyclin D3 downregulation. These compounds are not adenosine triphosphate competitive inhibitors for kinases in the pathway, nor do they require FKBP12 for activity like rapamycin. The other compound class turned out to be a farnesylation inhibitor, blocking the activity of GTPases, as well as an inducer of oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate that an isogenic cell system with few specific mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes can identify different classes of compounds selectively inhibiting proliferation of PTEN/mTOR pathway-addicted isogenic clones. The identified mechanisms are in line with the known cellular signaling networks activated by the altered oncogenes and suppressor genes in the isogenic system. PMID:23954931

Wyder Peters, Lorenza; Molle, Klaus D; Thiemeyer, Anke; Knopf, Agnes; Goxe, Marie; Guerry, Philippe; Brodbeck, Daniela; Colombi, Marco; Hall, Michael N; Moroni, Christoph; Regenass, Urs

2014-01-01

22

Multiplexing high-content flow (HCF) and quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) to identify compounds capable of decreasing cell viability, activating caspase 3/7, expressing annexin V, and changing mitochondrial membrane integrity.  

PubMed

High-content flow (HCF) screening systems, such as the iQue Screener and HTFC Screening System from IntelliCyt, have facilitated the implementation of flow cytometry assays for high-throughput screening. HCF screening systems enable the use of smaller sample volumes and multiplexed assays to simultaneously assess different cellular parameters from a single well. This becomes invaluable when working with cells or compounds that are available in limited quantities or when conducting large-scale screens. When assays can be miniaturized to a 384- or 1536-well microplate format, it is possible to implement dose-response-based high-throughput screens, also known as quantitative HTS or qHTS. This article describes how qHTS at the new National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) has been systematically coupled with the HTFC Screening System and Multimetric Apoptosis Screening Kit from IntelliCyt to biologically validate active compounds from primary cell proliferation screens using a model of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). PMID:24391083

Mathews, Lesley A; Keller, Jonathan M; McKnight, Crystal; Michael, Sam; Shinn, Paul; Liu, Dongbo; Staudt, Louis M; Thomas, Craig J; Ferrer, Marc

2013-01-01

23

Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (polypore) fungi.  

PubMed

This review describes biologically active natural products isolated from Aphyllophorales, many of which are known as polypores. Polypores are a large group of terrestrial fungi of the phylum Basdiomycota (basidiomycetes), and they along with certain Ascomycota are a major source of pharmacologically active substances. There are about 25 000 species of basidiomycetes, of which about 500 are members of the Aphyllophorales, a polyphyletic group that contains the polypores. Many of these fungi have circumboreal distributions in North America, Europe, and Asia and broad distributions on all inhabited continents and Africa; only a small number of the most common species with the most obvious fruiting bodies (basidiocarps) have been evaluated for biological activity. An estimated 75% of polypore fungi that have been tested show strong antimicrobial activity, and these may constitute a good source for developing new antibiotics. Numerous compounds from these fungi also display antiviral, cytotoxic, and/or antineoplastic activities. Additional important components of this vast arsenal of compounds are polysaccharides derived from the fungal cell walls. These compounds have attracted significant attention in recent years because of their immunomodulatory activities, resulting in antitumor effects. These high molecular weight compounds, often called biological response modifiers (BRM), or immunopotentiators, prevent carcinogenesis, show direct anticancer effects, and prevent tumor metastasis. Some of the protein-bound polysaccharides from polypores and other basidiomycetes have found their way to the market in Japan as anticancer drugs. Finally, numerous compounds with cardiovascular, phytotoxic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, insecticidal, and nematocidal activities, isolated from polypores, are also presented. In fact many of the fungi mentioned in this paper have long been used in herbal medicine, including polypores such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi), Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken-of-the-Woods), Trametes versicolor (Yun Zhi), Grifola umbellata (Zhu Lin), Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), and Wolfiporia cocos (Hoelen). PMID:14987072

Zjawiony, Jordan K

2004-02-01

24

Pilot-scale compound screening against RNA editing identifies trypanocidal agents.  

PubMed

Most mitochondrial messenger RNAs in trypanosomatid pathogens undergo a unique type of posttranscriptional modification involving insertion and/or deletion of uridylates. This process, RNA editing, is catalyzed by a multiprotein complex (~1.6 MDa), the editosome. Knockdown of core editosome proteins compromises mitochondrial function and, ultimately, parasite viability. Hence, because the editosome is restricted to trypanosomatids, it serves as a unique drug target in these pathogens. Currently, there is a lack of editosome inhibitors for antitrypanosomatid drug development or that could serve as unique tools for perturbing and characterizing editosome interactions or RNA editing reaction stages. Here, we screened a library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC1280) using high-throughput screening to identify RNA editing inhibitors. We report that aurintricarboxylic acid, mitoxantrone, PPNDS, and NF449 are potent inhibitors of deletion RNA editing (IC50 range, 1-5 µM). However, none of these compounds could specifically inhibit the catalytic steps of RNA editing. Mitoxantrone blocked editing by inducing RNA-protein aggregates, whereas the other three compounds interfered with editosome-RNA interactions to varying extents. Furthermore, NF449, a suramin analogue, was effective at killing Trypanosoma brucei in vitro. Thus, new tools for editosome characterization and downstream RNA editing inhibitor have been identified. PMID:25170016

Moshiri, Houtan; Mehta, Vaibhav; Yip, Chun Wai; Salavati, Reza

2015-01-01

25

Glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of flavonoid compound and triterpenoid compound from Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb  

PubMed Central

Background In Chinese traditional medicine, Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (APL) exhibits great effect on treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however its mechanism is still unknown. Considering that T2DM are correlated with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, we investigated the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity and the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compound (FC) and triterpenoid compound (TC) from APL. Methods Entire plants of APL were extracted using 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol successively. The resulting extracts were partitioned and isolated by applying liquid chromatography using silica gel column and Sephadex LH 20 column to give FC and TC. The content of total flavonoids in FC and the content of total triterpenoids in TC were determined by using UV spectrophotometry. HPLC analysis was used to identify and quantify the monomeric compound in FC and TC. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities were determined using the chromogenic method with p-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Antioxidant activities were assessed through three kinds of radical scavenging assays (DPPH radical, ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical) & ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. Results The results indicate FC is abundant of quercitrin, and hyperoside, and TC is abundant of 1?, 2?, 3?, 19?-tetrahydroxy-12-en-28-oic acid (265.2 mg/g) and corosolic acid (100.9 mg/g). The FC & the TC have strong ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 of 8.72 ?g/mL and 3.67 ?g/mL, respectively. We find that FC show competitive inhibition against ?-glucosidase, while the TC exhibits noncompetitive inhibition. Furthermore, The FC exhibits significant radical scavenging activity with the EC50 values of 7.73 ?g/mL, 3.64 ?g/mL and 5.90 ?g/mL on DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical and ABTS radical, respectively. The FC also shows moderate anti-lipid peroxidation activity with the IC50 values of 41.77 ?g/mL on inhibiting ?-carotene bleaching. Conclusion These results imply that the FC and the TC could be responsible for the good clinical effects of APL on T2MD through targeting oxidative stress and postprandial hyperglycaemia. So APL may be good sources of natural antioxidants and ?-glucosidase inhibitors exhibiting remarkable potential value for the therapy of T2DM. PMID:24410924

2014-01-01

26

A Virtual Screening Approach For Identifying Plants with Anti H5N1 Neuraminidase Activity.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic and occasional drug-resistant influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop novel anti-influenza therapeutics. Here, we report computational and experimental efforts to identify influenza neuraminidase inhibitors from among the 3000 natural compounds in the Malaysian-Plants Natural-Product (NADI) database. These 3000 compounds were first docked into the neuraminidase active site. The five plants with the largest number of top predicted ligands were selected for experimental evaluation. Twelve specific compounds isolated from these five plants were shown to inhibit neuraminidase, including two compounds with IC50 values less than 92 ?M. Furthermore, four of the 12 isolated compounds had also been identified in the top 100 compounds from the virtual screen. Together, these results suggest an effective new approach for identifying bioactive plant species that will further the identification of new pharmacologically active compounds from diverse natural-product resources. PMID:25555059

Ikram, Nur Kusaira Khairul; Durrant, Jacob D; Muchtaridi, Muchtaridi; Zalaludin, Ayunni Salihah; Purwitasari, Neny; Mohamed, Nornisah; Rahim, Aisyah Saad Abdul; Lam, Chan Kit; Normi, Yahaya M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Amaro, Rommie E; Wahab, Habibah A

2015-02-23

27

Marine compounds and their antiviral activities.  

PubMed

Available treatments for many infectious diseases are limited. In particular, diseases caused by viral pathogens have demonstrated the need for new medicines, due to the increasing appearance of resistance to these available treatments. Thousands of novel compounds have been isolated from various marine organisms and tested for pharmacological properties, many of which are commercially available. The screening of natural products derived from marine species for antiviral activity has yielded a considerable number of active crude aqueous and organic solvent extracts. Today, over 40 compounds are commercially available in pharmacological markets, including alternative antiviral medicines or those being tested as potential antiviral drugs. Many more are being tested as potential antiviral drugs at the preclinical and clinical stages. The growing interest in marine-derived antiviral compounds, along with the development of new technology in marine cultures and extraction, will significantly expedite the current exploration of the marine environment for compounds with significant pharmacological applications, which will continue to be a promising strategy and new trend for modern medicine. PMID:20338196

Yasuhara-Bell, Jarred; Lu, Yuanan

2010-06-01

28

Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity  

PubMed Central

Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

2014-01-01

29

Compounds identified in-flight by ROSETTA-COSIMA before the comet encounter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a laboratory surface analyzing technique and, with the COSIMA instrument onboard ROSETTA, it will be applied for the first time to in-situ measurements of cometary grains, once ROSETTA encounters its target comet, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in the September 2014. The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass analyzer (COSIMA) onboard ROSETTA will expose metal targets, collect cometary dust grains in the inner coma and analyze these with an optical microscope as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry [1]. The COSIMA instrument has been operated in-flight for commissioning in the first months after launch in March 2004 and on a regular basis during the passive and active spacecraft check-out time intervals up to ROSETTA hibernation from June 2011 onwards. The secondary ion mass spectra background and /or contamination level of the COSIMA metal targets has been identified prior to launch and these had been selected accordingly to avoid masking of single elements or compounds by carrying different metal targets for cometary grain collection. The main compounds identified in-flight are silicon polymers and hydrocarbons. We will discuss the surface analysis results with COSIMA, carried out far off any comet or asteroid in interplanetary space, their time evolution and their potential sources within ROSETTA.

Hilchenbach, M.; Fischer, H.; Krüger, H.; Thirkell, L.; Rynö, J.

2013-09-01

30

USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Most compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and must be identified by other means. Often, compound identities can be deduced from the compositions of the ions in their mass spectra and review of the chemical literature. Confirmation is provided by mass spectra and r...

31

Identifying Promising Compounds in Drug Discovery: Genetic Algorithms and Some New Statistical Techniques  

E-print Network

Identifying Promising Compounds in Drug Discovery: Genetic Algorithms and Some New Statistical Techniques Abhyuday Mandal* Department of Statistics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-1952 Kjell, Michigan 48105 Received December 14, 2006 Throughout the drug discovery process, discovery teams

Wu, Jeff

32

Identifying developmental vascular disruptor compounds using a predictive signature and alternative toxicity models  

EPA Science Inventory

Identifying Developmental Vascular Disruptor Compounds Using a Predictive Signature and Alternative Toxicity Models Presenting Author: Tamara Tal Affiliation: U.S. EPA/ORD/ISTD, RTP, NC, USA Chemically induced vascular toxicity during embryonic development can result in a wide...

33

Sulfonamides identified as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from diseases by activating the plant immune system. To isolate lead compounds for use as practical plant activators, we screened two different chemical libraries composed of various bioactive substances by using an established screening procedure that can selectively identify immune-priming compounds. We identified and characterized a group of sulfonamide compounds – sulfameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfabenzamide, and sulfachloropyridazine – among the various isolated candidate molecules. These sulfonamide compounds enhanced the avirulent Pseudomonas-induced cell death of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures and increased disease resistance in Arabidopsis plants against both avirulent and virulent strains of the bacterium. These compounds did not prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria in minimal liquid media at 200 ?M. They also did not induce the expression of defense-related genes in Arabidopsis seedlings, at least not at 24 and 48 h after treatment, suggesting that they do not act as salicylic acid analogs. In addition, although sulfonamides are known to be folate biosynthesis inhibitors, the application of folate did not restore the potentiation effects of the sulfonamides on pathogen-induced cell death. Our data suggest that sulfonamides potentiate Arabidopsis disease resistance by their novel chemical properties. PMID:23118736

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Ikeda, Mika; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

2012-01-01

34

Novel Plant Immune-Priming Compounds Identified via High-Throughput Chemical Screening Target Salicylic Acid Glucosyltransferases in Arabidopsis[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plant activators are compounds, such as analogs of the defense hormone salicylic acid (SA), that protect plants from pathogens by activating the plant immune system. Although some plant activators have been widely used in agriculture, the molecular mechanisms of immune induction are largely unknown. Using a newly established high-throughput screening procedure that screens for compounds that specifically potentiate pathogen-activated cell death in Arabidopsis thaliana cultured suspension cells, we identified five compounds that prime the immune response. These compounds enhanced disease resistance against pathogenic Pseudomonas bacteria in Arabidopsis plants. Pretreatments increased the accumulation of endogenous SA, but reduced its metabolite, SA-O-?-d-glucoside. Inducing compounds inhibited two SA glucosyltransferases (SAGTs) in vitro. Double knockout plants that lack both SAGTs consistently exhibited enhanced disease resistance. Our results demonstrate that manipulation of the active free SA pool via SA-inactivating enzymes can be a useful strategy for fortifying plant disease resistance and may identify useful crop protectants. PMID:22960909

Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Okazaki, Masateru; Kida, Tatsuya; Nishina, Yuta; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Ogawa, Takumi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Kamiya, Yuji

2012-01-01

35

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

36

Development of an electronic nose to identify and quantify volatile hazardous compounds.  

PubMed

A new electronic nose was developed to identify the chemical compound released when a 2.5-L flask was broken inside a 3 m x 3 m x 2.5 m store-room. Flasks of 10 different hazardous compounds were initially present in the room: ammonia, propanone, hexane, acetic acid, toluene, methanol, tetrachloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and dichloromethane. Besides identification, quantification of the compound present in the air was also performed by the electronic nose, in order to evaluate the risk level for room cleaning. An array of six sensors based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used. Although none of the individual sensors was specific for a single compound, an artificial neural network made it possible to identify and quantify the released vapour, among a series of 10 compounds, with six sensors. The neural network could be simplified, and the number of neurons reduced, provided it was used just for the identification task. Quantification could be performed later using the individual calibration of the sensor most sensitive to the identified compound. PMID:18804602

Fernandes, Daniel L A; Gomes, M Teresa S R

2008-10-19

37

Identifying inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates using an exometabolomics approach  

PubMed Central

Background Inhibitors are formed that reduce the fermentation performance of fermenting yeast during the pretreatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. An exometabolomics approach was applied to systematically identify inhibitors in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Results We studied the composition and fermentability of 24 different biomass hydrolysates. To create diversity, the 24 hydrolysates were prepared from six different biomass types, namely sugar cane bagasse, corn stover, wheat straw, barley straw, willow wood chips and oak sawdust, and with four different pretreatment methods, i.e. dilute acid, mild alkaline, alkaline/peracetic acid and concentrated acid. Their composition and that of fermentation samples generated with these hydrolysates were analyzed with two GC-MS methods. Either ethyl acetate extraction or ethyl chloroformate derivatization was used before conducting GC-MS to prevent sugars are overloaded in the chromatograms, which obscure the detection of less abundant compounds. Using multivariate PLS-2CV and nPLS-2CV data analysis models, potential inhibitors were identified through establishing relationship between fermentability and composition of the hydrolysates. These identified compounds were tested for their effects on the growth of the model yeast, Saccharomyces. cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D, confirming that the majority of the identified compounds were indeed inhibitors. Conclusion Inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates were successfully identified using a non-targeted systematic approach: metabolomics. The identified inhibitors include both known ones, such as furfural, HMF and vanillin, and novel inhibitors, namely sorbic acid and phenylacetaldehyde. PMID:24655423

2014-01-01

38

Compounds from Gum Ammoniacum with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal medicinal preparations in dementia therapy has been studied based on experience from traditional medicine. A dichloromethane extract of gum ammoniacum, the gum-resin from Dorema ammoniacum D. Don had shown acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in a previous study. The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of the active compounds from this resin. The extract was investigated by a respective colorimetric microplate assay and the active zones were identified via TLC bioautography and isolated using several chromatographic techniques. The structures of the active components were characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as (2?S,5?S)-2?-ethenyl-5?-(3-hy-droxy-6-methyl-4-oxohept-5-en-2-yl)-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclopentane]-2,4-dione (1), which is an analogue of doremone A and a new natural compound, and as (2?S,5?R)-2?-ethenyl-5?-[(2R,4R)-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3-oxohept-5-en-2-yl]-7-methoxy-2?-methyl-4H-spiro[chromene-3,1?-cyclo-pentane]-2,4-dione (2 = doremone A), (4E,8E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,9,13-trimethyltetradeca-4,8,12-trien-1-one (3 = dshamirone), and 4,7-dihydroxy-3-[(2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trien-1-yl]-2H-chromen-2-one (4 = am-moresinol). Dshamirone turned out to be the most active compound with an IC50 value for AChE inhibitory activity of 23.5 ?M, whereas the other substances showed weak activity. The concentrations of the analytes in the resin were determined by HPLC as 3.1%, 4.6%, 1.9%, and 9.9%, respectively. PMID:24106674

Adhami, Hamid-Reza; Lutz, Johannes; Kählig, Hanspeter; Zehl, Martin; Krenn, Liselotte

2013-01-01

39

A framework for identifying characteristic odor compounds in municipal wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Municipal wastewater often contains trace amounts of organic compounds that can compromise aesthetics of drinking water and undermine public confidence if a small amount of effluent enters the raw water source of a potable water supply. To efficiently identify compounds responsible for odors in wastewater effluent, an analytical framework consisting of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with olfactometry detection (GC-Olf) coupled with flavor profile analysis (FPA) was used to identify and monitor compounds that could affect the aesthetics of drinking water. After prioritizing odor peaks detected in wastewater effluent by GC-Olf, the odorous components were tentatively identified using retention indices, mass spectra and odor descriptors. Wastewater effluent samples were typically dominated by earthy-musty odors with additional odors in the amine, sulfidic and fragrant categories. 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (246TCA), geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2MIB) were the main sources of the earthy/musty odors in wastewater effluent. The other odors were attributable to a suite of compounds, which were detected in some but not all of the wastewater effluents at levels well in excess of their odor thresholds. In most cases, the identities of odorants were confirmed using authentic standards. The fate of these odorous compounds, including 2-pyrrolidone, methylnaphthalenes, vanillin and 5-hydroxyvanillin (5-OH-vanillin), should be considered in future studies of water systems that receive effluent from upstream sources. PMID:22981490

Agus, Eva; Zhang, Lifeng; Sedlak, David L

2012-11-15

40

Increasing analytical capacity in the search to identify compounds that kill young wheat stem sawfly larvae  

E-print Network

Increasing analytical capacity in the search to identify compounds that kill young wheat stem insect pest species in wheat. Two examples that have some relevance to Montana are antibiosis to Hessian fly (HF) and to orange wheat blossom midge (OWBM), both occasional pests of wheat. In the case of both

Maxwell, Bruce D.

41

IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS USING SOURCE CID ON AN ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER  

EPA Science Inventory

Exact mass libraries of ESI and APCI mass spectra are not commercially available In-house libraries are dependent on CID parameters and are instrument specific. The ability to identify compounds without reliance on mass spectral libraries is therefore more crucial for liquid sam...

42

A NEW MASS SPECTROMETRIC TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING TRACE-LEVEL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Most organic compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and cannot be easily identified from low resolution mass spectra. Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer in a new way to determine exact mas...

43

Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

44

Composition and topology of activity cliff clusters formed by bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

The assessment of activity cliffs has thus far mostly focused on compound pairs, although the majority of activity cliffs are not formed in isolation but in a coordinated manner involving multiple active compounds and cliffs. However, the composition of coordinated activity cliff configurations and their topologies are unknown. Therefore, we have identified all activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and analyzed them in network representations where activity cliff configurations occur as clusters. The composition, topology, frequency of occurrence, and target distribution of activity cliff clusters have been determined. A limited number of large cliff clusters with unique topologies were identified that were centers of activity cliff formation. These clusters originated from a small number of target sets. However, most clusters were of small to moderate size. Three basic topologies were sufficient to describe recurrent activity cliff cluster motifs/topologies. For example, frequently occurring clusters with star topology determined the scale-free character of the global activity cliff network and represented a characteristic activity cliff configuration. Large clusters with complex topology were often found to contain different combinations of basic topologies. Our study provides a first view of activity cliff configurations formed by currently available bioactive compounds and of the recurrent topologies of activity cliff clusters. Activity cliff clusters of defined topology can be selected, and from compounds forming the clusters, SAR information can be obtained. The SAR information of activity cliff clusters sharing a/one specific activity and topology can be compared. PMID:24437577

Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-02-24

45

Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential  

PubMed Central

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ? 3; p < 0.05]. More than 11% of the structural clusters that constitute the Tox21 library (76 of 651 clusters) were significantly enriched for compounds that decreased the MMP. Conclusions: Our multiplexed qHTS approach allowed us to generate a robust and reliable data set to evaluate the ability of thousands of drugs and environmental compounds to decrease MMP. The use of structure-based clustering analysis allowed us to identify molecular features that are likely responsible for the observed activity. Citation: Attene-Ramos MS, Huang R, Michael S, Witt KL, Richard A, Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:49–56;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

2014-01-01

46

Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

2012-01-01

47

Is the toxicity of pesticide mixtures on river biofilm accounted for solely by the major compounds identified?  

PubMed

Comparative effects of long-term exposure to Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) extracts (PE) and to a reconstituted mixture based on the major compounds quantified in the PE were evaluated on river biofilm communities. The study aimed to characterize the effects of long-term and low-dose exposure to pesticides on natural biofilm communities and to evaluate if the effects due to PE exposure could be explained solely by the major compounds identified in the extracts. Biofilms from an uncontaminated site were exposed in artificial channels to realistic environmental concentrations using diluted PE, with the 12 major compounds quantified in the extracts (Mix) or with water not containing pesticides (Ctr). Significant differences between biofilms exposed to pesticides or not were observed with regard to diatom density, biomass (dry weight and ash-free dry mass), photosynthetic efficiency (?psII) and antioxidant enzyme activities. After 14 days of exposure to the different treatments, the observed trend towards a decrease of mean diatom cell biovolumes in samples exposed to pesticides was related to the control biofilms' higher relative abundance of large species like Cocconeis placentula or Amphora copulata and lower relative abundance of small species like Eolimna minima compared to the contaminated ones. Principal component analyses clearly separated contaminated (PE and Mix) from non-contaminated (Ctr) biofilms; on the contrary, the analyses did not reveal separation between biofilms exposed to PE or to the 12 major compounds identified in the extract. PMID:25077658

Kim Tiam, Sandra; Morin, Soizic; Bonet, Berta; Guasch, Helena; Feurtet-Mazel, Agnès; Eon, Mélissa; Gonzalez, Patrice; Mazzella, Nicolas

2015-03-01

48

Study of the volatile compounds and odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham extracted by SPME.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds and the most odor-active compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham were investigated by extracting them using a solid phase microextraction technique with a 2?cm Carboxen/PDMS/DVB fiber. The detection frequency method was applied to estimate the potential contribution of each compound to the odor of hams. Twenty-one volatile compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in dry-cured ham by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and eight in dry-cured Iberian ham. Gas chromatography-olfactometry allowed the identification for the first time of six compounds not previously reported as odorants of Iberian ham, and also two odorants were newly identified in dry-cured ham. According to the detection frequency method, the most odor active compounds found were 3-methylbutanoic acid (dirty sock-like smelling), hexanal (cut grass-like odor), 3-methylbutanal (sweaty and bitter almond-like odor), 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (toasted nuts-like odor) and 1-octen-3-one (mushroom-like odor). PMID:23685564

del Pulgar, José Sánchez; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Carrapiso, Ana I

2013-06-01

49

A cell-based fascin bioassay identifies compounds with potential anti-metastasis or cognition-enhancing functions  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The actin-bundling protein fascin is a key mediator of tumor invasion and metastasis and its activity drives filopodia formation, cell-shape changes and cell migration. Small-molecule inhibitors of fascin block tumor metastasis in animal models. Conversely, fascin deficiency might underlie the pathogenesis of some developmental brain disorders. To identify fascin-pathway modulators we devised a cell-based assay for fascin function and used it in a bidirectional drug screen. The screen utilized cultured fascin-deficient mutant Drosophila neurons, whose neurite arbors manifest the ‘filagree’ phenotype. Taking a repurposing approach, we screened a library of 1040 known compounds, many of them FDA-approved drugs, for filagree modifiers. Based on scaffold distribution, molecular-fingerprint similarities, and chemical-space distribution, this library has high structural diversity, supporting its utility as a screening tool. We identified 34 fascin-pathway blockers (with potential anti-metastasis activity) and 48 fascin-pathway enhancers (with potential cognitive-enhancer activity). The structural diversity of the active compounds suggests multiple molecular targets. Comparisons of active and inactive compounds provided preliminary structure-activity relationship information. The screen also revealed diverse neurotoxic effects of other drugs, notably the ‘beads-on-a-string’ defect, which is induced solely by statins. Statin-induced neurotoxicity is enhanced by fascin deficiency. In summary, we provide evidence that primary neuron culture using a genetic model organism can be valuable for early-stage drug discovery and developmental neurotoxicity testing. Furthermore, we propose that, given an appropriate assay for target-pathway function, bidirectional screening for brain-development disorders and invasive cancers represents an efficient, multipurpose strategy for drug discovery. PMID:22917928

Kraft, Robert; Kahn, Allon; Medina-Franco, José L.; Orlowski, Mikayla L.; Baynes, Cayla; López-Vallejo, Fabian; Barnard, Kobus; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Restifo, Linda L.

2013-01-01

50

Synthesis and anti-norovirus activity of pyranobenzopyrone compounds.  

PubMed

During the last decade, noroviruses have gained media attention as the cause of large scale outbreaks of gastroenteritis on cruise ships, dormitories, nursing homes, etc. Although noroviruses do not multiply in food or water, they can cause large outbreaks because approximately 10-100 virions are sufficient to cause illness in a healthy adult. Recently, it was shown that the activity of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) enzyme may be important in norovirus infection. In search of anti-noroviral agents based on the inhibition of ACAT1, we synthesized and evaluated the inhibitory activities of a class of pyranobenzopyrone molecules containing amino, pyridine, substituted quinolines, or 7,8-benzoquinoline nucleus. Three of the sixteen evaluated compounds possess ED(50) values in the low micrometer range. 2-Quinolylmethyl derivative 3A and 4-quinolylmethyl derivative 4A showed ED(50) values of 3.4 and 2.4 ?M and TD(50) values of >200 and 96.4 ?M, respectively. The identified active compounds are suitable for further modification for the development of anti-norovirus agents. PMID:22513282

Pokhrel, Laxman; Kim, Yunjeong; Nguyen, Thi D T; Prior, Allan M; Lu, Jianyu; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Hua, Duy H

2012-05-15

51

Antioxidant activity relationship of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L.  

PubMed Central

Background The St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum; Clusiaceae) has been used in traditional and modern medicine for a long time due to its high content of biologically active phenolics. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for their fractionation and identification, and to determine the most active antioxidant compounds in plant extract. Results An LC-MS method which enables fast qualitative and semiquantitative analysis was developed. The composition determined is in agreement with the previous results, where 6 flavonoids, 4 naphthodianthrones and 4 phloroglucinols have been identified. Significant antioxidant activity was determined for most of the fractions by DPPH assay (the lowest IC50 of 0.52 ?g/ml), NO scavenging (6.11 ?g/ml), superoxide scavenging (1.86 ?g/ml), lipid peroxidation (0.0079 ?g/ml) and FRAP (the highest reduction capacity of 104 mg Fe equivalents/g) assays. Conclusion LC-MS technique has been successfully applied for a quick separation and identification of the major components of H. perforatum fractions. Majority of the fractions analyzed have expressed a very high antioxidative activity when compared to synthetic antioxidants. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to flavonoids and phenolic acids, while phloroglucinols and naphthodianthrones showed no significant activity. It is demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by fractionation, H. perforatum preparations with significantly increased phloroglucinols-to-naphthodianthrones ratio (up to 95:5). PMID:21702979

2011-01-01

52

Fun with Compound Words  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify and create compound words We will be studying compound words! First we need to find out what a compound word is, go to this website and read about compound words.What is a compound word Now that you have read about compound words lets do some fun activities to help us review. First go to Compound word flashcards, here you will ...

Ms. Huggins

2012-04-12

53

Histone markers identify the mode of action for compounds positive in the TK6 micronucleus assay.  

PubMed

The in vitro micronucleus assay with TK6 cells is frequently used as part of the genotoxicity testing battery for pharmaceuticals. Consequently, follow-up testing strategies are needed for positive compounds to determine their mode of action, which would then allow for deployment of appropriate in vivo follow-up strategies. We have chosen 3 micronucleus positive compounds, the clastogen etoposide, the aneugen noscapine and the cytotoxicant tunicamycin to evaluate different approaches to determine their aneugenic or clastogenic properties. Each of the three compounds were evaluated following 4 and 24h of continuous treatment by flow cytometry for micronucleus induction, the aneugenicity markers phosphorylated-histone 3 (p-H3) and polyploidy, the clastogenicity marker ?H2AX and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. They were further evaluated by Western blot for mono-ubiquitinated and ?H2AX. Results show that the clastogen etoposide produced a dose related increase in ?H2AX and mono-ubiquitinated H2AX and a dose related decrease in p-H3 positive mitotic cells. Conversely, the aneugen produced increases in p-H3 and polyploidy with no significant increases seen in mono-ubiquitinated H2AX or ?H2AX. Lastly, the cytotoxicant tunicamycin induced neither an increase in p-H3 nor ?H2AX. All three compounds produced dose-related increases in cleaved caspase 3. The results from this study provide evidence that adding clastogenicity and aneugenicity markers to the in vitro micronucleus assay in TK6 cells could help to identify the mode of action of positive compounds. The combination of endpoints suggested here needs to be further evaluated by a broader set of test compounds. PMID:25726170

Cheung, Jennifer R; Dickinson, Donna A; Moss, Jocelyn; Schuler, Maik J; Spellman, Richard A; Heard, Pamela L

2015-01-01

54

Unbiased compound screening identifies unexpected drug sensitivities and novel treatment options for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.  

PubMed

Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are caused by oncogenic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor activation, and the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is an effective first-line therapy for metastatic or unresectable GIST. However, complete remissions are rare and most patients ultimately develop resistance, mostly because of secondary mutations in the driver oncogenic kinase. Hence, there is a need for novel treatment options to delay failure of primary treatment and restore tumor control in patients who progress under therapy with targeted agents. Historic data suggest that GISTs do not respond to classical chemotherapy, but systematic unbiased screening has not been performed. In screening a compound library enriched for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chemotherapeutic agents (NCI Approved Oncology Drugs Set II), we discovered that GIST cells display high sensitivity to transcriptional inhibitors and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Mechanistically, these compounds exploited the cells' dependency on continuous KIT expression and/or intrinsic DNA damage response defects, explaining their activity in GIST. Mithramycin A, an indirect inhibitor of the SP1 transcription factor, and mitoxantrone, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerted significant antitumor effects in mouse xenograft models of human GIST. Moreover, these compounds were active in patient-derived imatinib-resistant primary GIST cells, achieving efficacy at clinically relevant concentrations. Taken together, our findings reveal that GIST cells have an unexpectedly high and specific sensitivity to certain types of FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents, with immediate implications for encouraging their clinical exploration. PMID:24385214

Boichuk, Sergei; Lee, Derek J; Mehalek, Keith R; Makielski, Kathleen R; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Seneviratne, Danushka S; Korzeniewski, Nina; Cuevas, Rolando; Parry, Joshua A; Brown, Matthew F; Zewe, James; Taguchi, Takahiro; Kuan, Shin-Fan; Schöffski, Patrick; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Duensing, Anette

2014-02-15

55

Structure-Activity Relationships in Nitro-Aromatic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many nitro-aromatic compounds show mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, posing a potential human health risk. Despite this potential health hazard, nitro-aromatic compounds continue to be emitted into ambient air from municipal incinerators, motor vehicles, and industrial power plants. As a result, understanding the structural and electronic factors that influence mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds has been a long standing objective. Progress toward this goal has accelerated over the years, in large part due to the synergistic efforts among toxicology, computational chemistry, and statistical modeling of toxicological data. The concerted influence of several structural and electronic factors in nitro-aromatic compounds makes the development of structure-activity relationships (SARs) a paramount challenge. Mathematical models that include a regression analysis show promise in predicting the mutagenic activity of nitro-aromatic compounds as well as in prioritizing compounds for which experimental data should be pursued. A major challenge of the structure-activity models developed thus far is their failure to apply beyond a subset of nitro-aromatic compounds. Most quantitative structure-activity relationship papers point to statistics as the most important confirmation of the validity of a model. However, the experimental evidence shows the importance of the chemical knowledge in the process of generating models with reasonable applicability. This chapter will concisely summarize the structural and electronic factors that influence the mutagenicity in nitro-aromatic compounds and the recent efforts to use quantitative structure-activity relationships to predict those physicochemical properties.

Vogt, R. A.; Rahman, S.; Crespo-Hernández, C. E.

56

Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).  

PubMed

Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed. PMID:15139308

Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter

2004-03-01

57

Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Important Genes Affected by R2 Compound Disrupting FAK and P53 Complex.  

PubMed

Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays an important role in many cellular processes: adhesion, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and survival. Recently, we have shown that Roslin 2 or R2 (1-benzyl-15,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1~3,7~]decane) compound disrupts FAK and p53 proteins, activates p53 transcriptional activity, and blocks tumor growth. In this report we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of R2-treated HCT116 p53+/+ and p53-/- cells and detected 1484 genes that were significantly up- or down-regulated (p < 0.05) in HCT116 p53+/+ cells but not in p53-/- cells. Among up-regulated genes in HCT p53+/+ cells we detected critical p53 targets: Mdm-2, Noxa-1, and RIP1. Among down-regulated genes, Met, PLK2, KIF14, BIRC2 and other genes were identified. In addition, a combination of R2 compound with M13 compound that disrupts FAK and Mmd-2 complex or R2 and Nutlin-1 that disrupts Mdm-2 and p53 decreased clonogenicity of HCT116 p53+/+ colon cancer cells more significantly than each agent alone in a p53-dependent manner. Thus, the report detects gene expression profile in response to R2 treatment and demonstrates that the combination of drugs targeting FAK, Mdm-2, and p53 can be a novel therapy approach. PMID:24452144

Golubovskaya, Vita M; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G

2014-01-01

58

Taking Inventory: Identifying Assessment Activities. AIR 1990 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "formal information inventory" survey method was used to help educate a university campus about outcomes assessment while identifying assessment activities already being undertaken. The survey was sent to 102 individuals identified as being responsible for, or having knowledge of, any assessment activities within a department or area, with 93…

Underwood, David G.

59

Polyketide and benzopyran compounds of an endophytic fungus isolated from Cinnamomum mollissimum: biological activity and structure  

PubMed Central

Objective To study bioactivity and compounds produced by an endophytic Phoma sp. fungus isolated from the medicinal plant Cinnamomum mollissimum. Methods Compounds produced by the fungus were extracted from fungal broth culture with ethyl acetate. This was followed by bioactivity profiling of the crude extract fractions obtained via high performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were tested for cytotoxicity to P388 murine leukemic cells and antimicrobial activity against bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Compounds purified from active fractions which showed antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities were identified using capillary nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, mass spectrometry and admission to AntiMarin database. Results Three known compounds, namely 4-hydroxymellein, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone, were isolated from the fungus. The polyketide compound 4-hydroxymellein showed high inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (94.6%) and the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (97.3%). Meanwhile, 4,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-1-one, a benzopyran compound, demonstrated moderate inhibitory activity against P388 murine leukemic cells (48.8%) and the fungus Aspergillus niger (56.1%). The second polyketide compound, 1 (2,6-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanone was inactive against the tested targets. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of endophytes as producers of pharmacologically important compounds, including polyketides which are major secondary metabolites in fungi. PMID:25183332

Santiago, Carolina; Sun, Lin; Munro, Murray Herbert Gibson; Santhanam, Jacinta

2014-01-01

60

Analogue Experiments Identify Possible Precursor Compounds for Chlorohydrocarbons Detected in SAM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since landing at Gale Crater on August 6, 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, aboard the Curiosity Rover, has conducted multiple analyses of scooped and drilled samples and has identified a suite of chlorohydrocarbons including chloromethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, chloromethylpropene, and chlorobenzene (Glavin et al., 2013; Leshin et al., 2013). These compounds were identified after samples were pyrolysed at temperatures up to ~835°C through a combination of Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Since these chlorinated species were well above the background levels determined by empty cup blanks analyzed prior to solid sample analyses, thermal degradation of oxychlorine phases, such as perchlorate, present in the Martian soil, are the most likely source of chlorine needed to generate these chlorohydrocarbons. Laboratory analogue experiments show that terrestrial organics internal to SAM, such as N-methyl-N(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), a derivatization agent, can react with perchlorates to produce all of the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM. However, in pyrolysis-trap-GCMS laboratory experiments with MTBSTFA, C4 compounds are the predominant chlorohydrocarbon observed, whereas on SAM the C1 chlorohydrocarbons dominate (Glavin et al., 2013). This, in addition to the previous identification of chloromethane and dichloromethane by the 1976 Viking missions (Biemann et al., 1977), suggest that there could be another, possibly Martian, source of organic carbon contributing to the formation of the C1 chlorohydrocarbons, or other components of the solid samples analyzed by SAM are having a catalytic effect on chlorohydrocarbon generation. Laboratory analogue experiments investigated a suite of organic compounds that have the potential to accumulate on Mars (Benner et al., 2000) and thus serve as sources of carbon for the formation of chlorohydrocarbons detected by the SAM and Viking GCMS instruments. Experiments were conducted under SAM-like conditions using a commercial pyroprobe equipped with a SAM-like hydrocarbon trap and coupled to a GCMS. In general, when pyrolyzed with 1 wt.% calcium perchlorate, the C1 organic compounds (e.g. methanol, formic acid, and formaldehyde) produced only C1 chlorinated compounds while propanol and butyric acid formed only C3 chlorinated compounds. All of the pyrolysis experiments produced chlorobenzene, suggesting that it forms from chlorine, released during calcium perchlorate decomposition, reacting with benzene and toluene, released from the Tenax component of the hydrocarbon trap. Pyrolysis of phthalic acid however, produces a higher abundance of chlorobenzene than could be attributed to the Tenax alone and also forms C1 chlorohydrocarbons. Additional analogue experiments to identify potential precursor compounds for the chlorohydrocarbons detected by SAM are ongoing. Benner et al., 2000, PNAS, 97(6), 2425-2430 Biemann et al., 1977, JGR, 82(28), 4641-4658 Glavin et al., 2013, JGR-Planets, accepted for publication Leshin et al., 2013, Science, in press

Miller, K.; Summons, R. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M. G.; Team, M.

2013-12-01

61

Whole-exome sequencing identifies compound heterozygous mutations in WDR62 in siblings with recurrent polymicrogyria.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria is a disorder of neuronal development resulting in structurally abnormal cerebral hemispheres characterized by over-folding and abnormal lamination of the cerebral cortex. Polymicrogyria is frequently associated with severe neurologic deficits including intellectual disability, motor problems, and epilepsy. There are acquired and genetic causes of polymicrogyria, but most patients with a presumed genetic etiology lack a specific diagnosis. Here we report using whole-exome sequencing to identify compound heterozygous mutations in the WD repeat domain 62 (WDR62) gene as the cause of recurrent polymicrogyria in a sibling pair. Sanger sequencing confirmed that the siblings both inherited 1-bp (maternal allele) and 2-bp (paternal allele) frameshift deletions, which predict premature truncation of WDR62, a protein that has a role in early cortical development. The probands are from a non-consanguineous family of Northern European descent, suggesting that autosomal recessive PMG due to compound heterozygous mutation of WDR62 might be a relatively common cause of PMG in the population. Further studies to identify mutation frequency in the population are needed. PMID:21834044

Murdock, David R; Clark, Gary D; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Newsham, Irene; Wu, Yuan-Qing; Muzny, Donna M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Gibbs, Richard A; Ramocki, Melissa B

2011-09-01

62

Gametocytocidal Screen Identifies Novel Chemical Classes with Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Blocking Activity  

PubMed Central

Discovery of transmission blocking compounds is an important intervention strategy necessary to eliminate and eradicate malaria. To date only a small number of drugs that inhibit gametocyte development and thereby transmission from the mosquito to the human host exist. This limitation is largely due to a lack of screening assays easily adaptable to high throughput because of multiple incubation steps or the requirement for high gametocytemia. Here we report the discovery of new compounds with gametocytocidal activity using a simple and robust SYBR Green I- based DNA assay. Our assay utilizes the exflagellation step in male gametocytes and a background suppressor, which masks the staining of dead cells to achieve healthy signal to noise ratio by increasing signal of viable parasites and subtracting signal from dead parasites. By determining the contribution of exflagellation to fluorescent signal and using appropriate cutoff values, we were able to screen for gametocytocidal compounds. After assay validation and optimization, we screened an FDA approved drug library of approximately 1500 compounds, as well as the 400 compound MMV malaria box and identified 44 gametocytocidal compounds with sub to low micromolar IC50s. Major classes of compounds with gametocytocidal activity included quaternary ammonium compounds with structural similarity to choline, acridine-like compounds similar to quinacrine and pyronaridine, as well as antidepressant, antineoplastic, and anthelminthic compounds. Top drug candidates showed near complete transmission blocking in membrane feeding assays. This assay is simple, reproducible and demonstrated robust Z-factor values at low gametocytemia levels, making it amenable to HTS for identification of novel and potent gametocytocidal compounds. PMID:25157792

Sanders, Natalie G.; Sullivan, David J.; Mlambo, Godfree; Dimopoulos, George; Tripathi, Abhai K.

2014-01-01

63

Advanced steady-state model for the fate of hydrophobic and volatile compounds in activated sludge  

SciTech Connect

A steady-state, advanced, general fate model developed to study the fate of organic compounds in primary and activated-sludge systems. This model considers adsorption, biodegradation from the dissolved and adsorbed phases, bubble volatilization, and surface volatilization as removal mechanisms. A series of modeling experiments was performed to identify the key trends of these removal mechanisms for compounds with a range of molecular properties. With typical municipal wastewater treatment conditions, the results from the modeling experiments show that co-metabolic and primary utilization mechanisms give very different trends in biodegradation for the compounds tested. For co-metabolism, the effluent concentration increases when the influent concentration increases, while the effluent concentration remains unchanged when primary utilization occurs. For a highly hydrophobic compound, the fraction of compound removed from adsorption onto primary sludge can be very important, and the direct biodegradation of compound sorbed to the activated sludge greatly increases its biodegradation and reduces its discharge with the waste activated sludge. Volatilization from the surface of the primary and secondary systems is important for compounds with moderate to high volatilities, especially when these compounds are not biodegradable. Finally, bubble volatilization can be a major removal mechanism for highly volatile compounds even when they are highly biodegradable.

Lee, K.C.; Rittmann, B.E.; Shi, J.; McAvoy, D.

1998-09-01

64

Compounds with species and cell type specific toxicity identified in a 2000 compound drug screen of neural stem cells and rat mixed cortical neurons.  

PubMed

Human primary neural tissue is a vital component for the quick and simple determination of chemical compound neurotoxicity in vitro. In particular, such tissue would be ideal for high-throughput screens that can be used to identify novel neurotoxic or neurotherapeutic compounds. We have previously established a high-throughput screening platform using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) and neurons. In this study, we conducted a 2000 compound screen with human NSCs and rat cortical cells to identify compounds that are selectively toxic to each group. Approximately 100 of the tested compounds showed specific toxicity to human NSCs. A secondary screen of a small subset of compounds from the primary screen on human iPSCs, NSC-derived neurons, and fetal astrocytes validated the results from >80% of these compounds with some showing cell specific toxicity. Amongst those compounds were several cardiac glycosides, all of which were selectively toxic to the human cells. As the screen was able to reliably identify neurotoxicants, many with species and cell-type specificity, this study demonstrates the feasibility of this NSC-driven platform for higher-throughput neurotoxicity screens. PMID:25454721

Malik, Nasir; Efthymiou, Anastasia G; Mather, Karly; Chester, Nathaniel; Wang, Xiantao; Nath, Avindra; Rao, Mahendra S; Steiner, Joseph P

2014-12-01

65

Steroid hormone activity of flavonoids and related compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soy isoflavones have been studied extensively for estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties. Other flavonoids, found in fruits, vegetables, tea and wine, have been much less tested for steroid hormone activity. We therefore assessed the estrogenic, androgenic and progestational activities of 72 flavonoids and structurally-related compounds. These compounds were tested on BT-474 human breast cancer cells at concentrations of 108–10-5?M, with estradiol

Rachel S. Rosenberg Zand; David J. A. Jenkins; Eleftherios P. Diamandis

2000-01-01

66

Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.  

PubMed

The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295?gL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater. PMID:24997902

Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2014-09-01

67

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of Liriope muscari.  

PubMed

Five phenolic compounds, namely N-trans-coumaroyltyramine (1), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (2), N-trans-feruloyloctopamine (3), 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone (4) and (3S)3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxy-6-methylhomoisoflavanone (5), were isolated from the fibrous roots of Liriope muscari (Liliaceae). Compounds 2-5 were isolated for the first time from the Liriope genus. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The structure-activity relationships of compounds 1-3 are discussed. PMID:22328078

Li, Wen Jie; Cheng, Xian Long; Liu, Jing; Lin, Rui Chao; Wang, Gang Li; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

2012-01-01

68

Activation of shallow dopants in II-VI compounds  

SciTech Connect

The amphoteric native defect model is applied to the understanding of the variations in the dopant activation efficiency in II-VI compounds. It is shown that the location of the common energy reference, the Fermi level stabilization energy, relative to the band edges can be used to determine the doping induced reduction of the formation energy and the enhancement of the concentration of compensating native defects. The model is applied to the most extensively studied compound semiconductors as well as to ternary and quaternary alloys. The effects of the compound ionicity on the dopant activation are briefly discussed.

Walukiewicz, W.

1995-08-01

69

Selenium compounds activate early barriers of tumorigenesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selenium chemoprevention by apoptosis has been well studied, but it is not clear whether selenium can activate early barriers of tumorigenesis, namely senescence and DNA damage response. To address this issue, we treated normal and cancerous cells with a gradient concentration of sodium selenite, me...

70

Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum is a wood-degrading basidiomycete with numerous pharmacological effects. Since the mushroom is very rare in nature, artificial cultivation of fruiting bodies has been known on wood logs and on sawdust in plastic bags or bottles. Biotechnological cultivation of G. lucidum mycelia in bioreactors has also been established, both on solid substrates and in liquid media by submerged cultivation of fungal biomass. The most important pharmacologically active constituents of G. lucidum are triterpenoids and polysaccharides. Triterpenoids have been reported to possess hepatoprotective, anti-hypertensive, hypocholesterolemic and anti-histaminic effects, anti-tumor and anti-engiogenic activity, effects on platelet aggregation and complement inhibition. Polysaccharides, especially beta-d-glucans, have been known to possess anti-tumor effects through immunomodulation and anti-angiogenesis. In addition, polysaccharides have a protective effect against free radicals and reduce cell damage caused by mutagens. PMID:17875480

Boh, Bojana; Berovic, Marin; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhi-Bin, Lin

2007-01-01

71

Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

2003-08-01

72

Analysis of chlorocarbon compounds identified in the SAM Investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) mode of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment was designed for the separation and identification of the chemical components of the gases released from a solid sample or trapped from the atmosphere. Gases from solid samples are either produced by heating a cell from ambient to >800-1100oC (EGA mode) or by wet chemistry extraction and reactions (not yet employed on Mars). Prior to EGA analysis of portions of the first 3 solid samples (Rocknest, John Klein and Cumberland) collected by MSL and delivered to SAM, an internal SAM blank run was carried out with an empty quartz cup. These blank analyses are required to understand the background signal intrinsic to the GCMS and its gas manifolds and traps. Several peaks have been identified as part of SAM background, some of them below the nmol level, which attests of the sensitivity of the instrument and as-designed performance of the GCMS. The origin of each peak has been investigated, and two major contributors are revealed; residual vapor from one of the chemicals used for SAM wet chemistry experiment: N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and the Tenax from the hydrocarbon trap. Supporting lab experiments are in progress to understand the reaction pathways of the molecules identified in the SAM background. These experiments help elucidate which molecules may be interpreted as indigenous to Mars. Of the three solid samples analyzed on 11 runs, it was possible to detect and identify several chlorinated compounds including several chlorohydrocarbons. The chlorine is likely derived from the decomposition of martian perchlorates or other indigenous Cl-containing species while the origin of the carbon is presently under investigation for each detected molecule. To date, a subset these molecules have been identified in lab studies and a terrestrial contribution to the observed products are more easily explained. The combined results from SAM and the associated laboratory studies represent a significant step forward in the search for near-surface organic compounds on Mars.

Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Glavin, D.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Martin, M.; Miller, K.; Steele, A.; Szopa, C.; SAM; MSL science Team

2013-10-01

73

Removal of endocrine active compounds using layered double hydroxide material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A granular form of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) material was used as an anionic adsorbent in packed column and slurry experiments to remove endocrine active compounds (EACs) from river water downstream from wastewater treatment plants and from laboratory water spiked with 17?-estradiol (E2). The estrogenic activity of the samples was estimated using the biological yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay

J. M. Morris; S. Jin; K. Cui

2008-01-01

74

Antioxidant activity of some foods containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine the total phenols (TP) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of some liquid and solid plant foods that are commonly consumed in Turkey. Total phenols were analysed according to the Folin- Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activities of these compounds in aqueous phase were assessed by measuring their direct ABTSï- radical scavenging abilities. Total phenols varied

S. Karakaya; S. N. El; A. A. Taç

2001-01-01

75

Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.  

PubMed

Abstract Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds. PMID:25343583

Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

2014-10-24

76

Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria. PMID:24666260

Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

2014-01-01

77

Novel Tensio-Active Microbial Compounds for Biocontrol Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several microorganisms are known to produce tensio-active compounds (biosurfactants). They have emerged out as successful\\u000a alternative to synthetic surfactants. The enormous diversity of biosurfactants makes them interesting for application in several\\u000a areas. Rhamnolipids are one such heterogeneous group of compounds which has been studied as a model system and acquired a\\u000a status as potential performance-effective molecules in various fields, like

Meenal Kulkarni; Ranjana Chaudhari; Ambalal Chaudhari

78

Anti-cancer activity of the bioactive compound inositol pentakisphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds are extra nutritional constituents found in small quantities in foods. We have recently shown that a bioactive\\u000a compound, inositol pentakisphosphate (IP5), a naturally occurring substance that is present in most legumes, wheat bran and nuts, inhibits cell growth of ovarian,\\u000a lung and breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that IP5 specifically blocks the activation of the critical phosphoinositide 3-kinase

Marco Falasca

2009-01-01

79

Cytotoxic activity of new phenolic compounds from Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic compounds, caesalpiniaphenols G-H (1 and 2), were isolated from Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan heartwood. The chemical structures were established mainly by extensive spectroscopic studies and chemical evidence. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against HL-60 cancer cell lines with respective IC50 values of 16.7 and 22.5 µg/mL. Treating HL-60 cells with various concentrations of 1 resulted in growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis. PMID:24317049

Hung, Tran Manh; Hai, Nguyen Xuan; Nhan, Nguyen Trung; Quang, Ton That; Quan, Tran Le; Cuong, To Dao; Dang, Nguyen Hai; Dat, Nguyen Tien

2013-01-01

80

Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.  

PubMed

A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

2014-01-01

81

Orally Active Antischistosomal Early Leads Identified from the Open Access Malaria Box  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide hundreds of millions of schistosomiasis patients rely on treatment with a single drug, praziquantel. Therapeutic limitations and the threat of praziquantel resistance underline the need to discover and develop next generation drugs. Methodology We studied the antischistosomal properties of the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) malaria box containing 200 diverse drug-like and 200 probe-like compounds with confirmed in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds were tested against schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni in vitro. Based on in vitro performance, available pharmacokinetic profiles and toxicity data, selected compounds were investigated in vivo. Principal Findings Promising antischistosomal activity (IC50: 1.4–9.5 µM) was observed for 34 compounds against schistosomula. Three compounds presented IC50 values between 0.8 and 1.3 µM against adult S. mansoni. Two promising early leads were identified, namely a N,N?-diarylurea and a 2,3-dianilinoquinoxaline. Treatment of S. mansoni infected mice with a single oral 400 mg/kg dose of these drugs resulted in significant worm burden reductions of 52.5% and 40.8%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The two candidates identified by investigating the MMV malaria box are characterized by good pharmacokinetic profiles, low cytotoxic potential and easy chemistry and therefore offer an excellent starting point for antischistosomal drug discovery and development. PMID:24416463

Ingram-Sieber, Katrin; Cowan, Noemi; Panic, Gordana; Vargas, Mireille; Mansour, Nuha R.; Bickle, Quentin D.; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Spangenberg, Thomas; Keiser, Jennifer

2014-01-01

82

Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae)  

PubMed Central

The nematicidal activity of two cassia, Cinnamomum cassia, oils (Especial and true), four cinnamon, Cinnamomum zey-lanicum, oils (technical, #500, bark and green leaf), and their compounds (e.g., trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-cinnamic acid) toward adult Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was examined by a direct contact bioassay. Results were compared with those of 34 related compounds. As judged by 24-hour LC50 values, two cassia oils (0.084–0.085 mg/ml) and four cinnamon oils (0.064–0.113 mg/ml) were toxic toward adult B. xylophilus. Of 45 test compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (0.061 mg/ml) was the most active nematicide, followed by ethyl cinnamate, ?-methyl-trans-cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and allyl cinnamate (0.114–0.195 mg/ml). Potent nematicidal activity was also observed with 4-methoxycinnamonitrile, trans-4-methoxycinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, ethyl ?-cyanocinnamate, cinnamonitrile and cinnamyl bromide (0.224–0.502 mg/ml). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups, saturation and carbon skeleton, appear to play a role in determining the toxicities to adult B. xylophilus. Cassia and cinnamon oils and test compounds described merit further study as potential nematicides or leads for the control of pine wilt disease caused by B. xylophilus. PMID:19259472

Kong, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Sang-Myung; Moon, Yil-Seong; Lee, Sang-Gil; Ahn, Young-Joon

2007-01-01

83

Tumour Targeting with ? -Active Compounds of 211At  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles for use of the ? -emitter 211At for tumour therapy are discussed. The use of ? -emitters instead of ? -emitters for this purposes has the potential of providing a higher dose to the tumour with simultaneous lower dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Furthermore, ? -active compounds with tumour affinity has a much higher efficiency the corresponding ? -active compounds against single cell or micrometastatic cancer. Constraints and limitations of the method are discussed. Experiments with astatinated monoclonal antibodies as well as small molecules are described, as well as some possible strategies still not investigated.

Hoff, Per

2000-01-01

84

Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound  

PubMed Central

The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3?µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of euparin against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with EC50 values of 0.47, 0.12, and 0.15?µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this compound showed high selectivity indexes of 284.9, 1068, and 854.7, respectively. In order to identify the mechanism by which euparin exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the pretreatment of Vero cells, and the time of action on one viral replication cycle were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that euparin exerts its effect during the early events of the replication cycle, from the virus adsorption to cells up to the first twenty minutes after infection. This is the first report on the presence of euparin in E. buniifolium and its antiviral activity. PMID:23956770

Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Martino, Virginia S.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.; Muschietti, Liliana V.

2013-01-01

85

Quantitative high-throughput screening: A titration-based approach that efficiently identifies biological activities in large chemical libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical compounds to identify modulators of molecular targets is a mainstay of pharmaceutical development. Increasingly, HTS is being used to identify chemical probes of gene, pathway, and cell functions, with the ultimate goal of comprehensively delineating relationships between chemical structures and biological activities. Achieving this goal will require methodologies that efficiently generate pharmacological data from the

James Inglese; Douglas S. Auld; Ajit Jadhav; Ronald L. Johnson; Anton Simeonov; Adam Yasgar; Wei Zheng; Christopher P. Austin

2006-01-01

86

Dietary fibre content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in Mexican chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chia seeds from two different regions in the states of Jalisco and Sinaloa were analyzed for soluble and insoluble fibre and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. The soluble and insoluble fibre content of the Sinaloa and Jalisco seeds was similar. The major compounds identified in hydrolyzed and crude extracts were quercetin and kaempferol, while caffeic and chlorogenic acids were present

E. Reyes-Caudillo; A. Tecante; M. A. Valdivia-López

2008-01-01

87

Parallel synthesis and biological evaluation of 837 analogues of procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1).  

PubMed

Procaspase-Activating Compound 1 (PAC-1) is an ortho-hydroxy N-acyl hydrazone that enhances the enzymatic activity of procaspase-3 in vitro and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. An analogue of PAC-1, called S-PAC-1, was evaluated in a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with lymphoma and found to have considerable potential as an anticancer agent. With the goal of identifying more potent compounds in this promising class of experimental therapeutics, a combinatorial library based on PAC-1 was created, and the compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce death of cancer cells in culture. For library construction, 31 hydrazides were condensed in parallel with 27 aldehydes to create 837 PAC-1 analogues, with an average purity of 91%. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, and through this work, six compounds were discovered to be substantially more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1. These six hits were further evaluated for their ability to relieve zinc-mediated inhibition of procaspase-3 in vitro. In general, the newly identified hit compounds are two- to four-fold more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1 in cell culture, and thus have promise as experimental therapeutics for treatment of the many cancers that have elevated expression levels of procaspase-3. PMID:22007686

Hsu, Danny C; Roth, Howard S; West, Diana C; Botham, Rachel C; Novotny, Chris J; Schmid, Steven C; Hergenrother, Paul J

2012-01-01

88

Parallel Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 837 Analogues of Procaspase-Activating Compound 1 (PAC-1)  

PubMed Central

Procaspase-Activating Compound 1 (PAC-1) is an ortho-hydroxy N-acyl hydrazone that enhances the enzymatic activity of procaspase-3 in vitro and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. An analogue of PAC-1, called S-PAC-1, was evaluated in a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with lymphoma and found to have considerable potential as an anticancer agent. With the goal of identifying more potent compounds in this promising class of experimental therapeutics, a combinatorial library based on PAC-1 was created, and the compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce death of cancer cells in culture. For library construction, 31 hydrazides were condensed in parallel with 27 aldehydes to create 837 PAC-1 analogues, with an average purity of 91%. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, and through this work, six compounds were discovered to be substantially more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1. These six hits were further evaluated for their ability to relieve zinc-mediated inhibition of procaspase-3 in vitro. In general, the newly identified hit compounds are two- to four-fold more potent than PAC-1 and S-PAC-1 in cell culture, and thus have promise as experimental therapeutics for treatment of the many cancers that have elevated expression levels of procaspase-3. PMID:22007686

Hsu, Danny C.; Roth, Howard S.; West, Diana C.; Botham, Rachel C.; Novotny, Chris J.; Schmid, Steven C.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

2011-01-01

89

Prioritizing testing of organic compounds detected as gas phase air pollutants: structure-activity study for human contact allergens.  

PubMed Central

Organic compounds that are used or generated anthropogenically in large quantities in cities can be identified through their presence in the urban atmosphere and in air pollutant source emissions. Compounds identified by this method were screened to evaluate their potential to act as contact allergens. The CASE and MULTICASE computer programs, which are based on the detection of structure-activity relationships (SAR), were used to evaluate this potential. These relationships first are determined by comparing chemical structures to biological activity within a learning set comprised of 458 compounds, each of which had been tested experimentally in human trials for its sensitization potential. Using the information contained in this learning set, CASE and MULTICASE predicted the activity of 238 compounds found in the atmosphere for their ability to act as contact allergens. The analysis finds that 21 of 238 compounds are predicted to be active contact allergens (probability >0.5), with potencies ranging from mild to very strong. The compounds come from chemical classes that include chlorinated aromatics and chlorinated hydrocarbons, N-containing compounds, phenols, alkenes, and an S-containing compound. Using the measured airborne concentrations or emission rates of these compounds as an indication of the extent of their use, together with their predicted potencies, provides an efficient method to prioritize the experimental assessment of contact sensitization of untested organic compounds that can be detected as air pollutants. Images Figure 1. PMID:9300925

Johnson, R; Macina, O T; Graham, C; Rosenkranz, H S; Cass, G R; Karol, M H

1997-01-01

90

ORIGINAL PAPER Nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen compounds in xylem  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Nitrate reductase activity and nitrogen compounds in xylem exudate of Juglans nigra, and xylem exudate N compo- sition were assessed. Specific leaf NRA was higher in NO3 - -fed and NH4NO3-fed increased the proportion of amino acids (AA) in xylem exudate, inferring greater NRA in roots, which

91

Influence of endocrine active compounds on the developing rodent brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the volumes of sexually dimorphic brain nuclei are often used as a biomarker for developmental disruption by endocrine-active compounds (EACs). However, these gross, morphological analyses do not reliably predict disruption of cell phenotype or neuronal function. Therefore, an experimental approach that simultaneously assesses anatomical, physiological and behavioral endpoints is required when developing risk assessment models for EAC exposure.

Heather B. Patisaul; Eva K. Polston

2008-01-01

92

The synthesis and surface active properties of certain amphoteric compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain some insight into the correlation between chemical structure and surface active properties, a number of amphoteric\\u000a surface active agents were synthesized. All of these compounds possessed both a quaternary ammonium group and an anionic functional\\u000a group. The anionic functional group was either a carboxylate, sulfonate, or a sulfate group. The molecules possessed either\\u000a one or two

W. M. Linfield; P. G. Abend; G. A. Davis

1963-01-01

93

Effects of surface active compounds on thermal denaturation of DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

and Summary  The interaction of surface active compounds (including N-lauroyl amino acids) withself thymus DNA in aqueous solutions has been studied by measurements of the melting temperature of the DNA. The results suggest that\\u000a the surface active nature of these additives is not the primary factor governing the interaction with DNA, but their molecular\\u000a structure is very important in the interaction,

K. Tsujii; F. Tokiwa

1977-01-01

94

Activity of a newly identified serine protease in CNS demyelination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have identified a novel serine protease, myelen- cephalon-specific protease (MSP), which is preferen- tially expressed in the adult CNS, and therein, is abundant in both neurones and oligodendroglia. To determine the potential activity of MSP in CNS demye- lination, we examined its expression in multiple sclerosis lesions and in two animal models of multiple sclerosis: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis

I. A. Scarisbrick; S. I. Blaber; C. F. Lucchinetti; C. P. Genain; M. Blaber; M. Rodriguez

2002-01-01

95

Identifying Associations between Student Achievement and Parental Involvement Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revision and renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 will likely expand its parental involvement component to engage educators, parents, and community partners in supporting public education for children. This revisions call for best practices, but current literature fails to identify specific activities associated…

Waddle, Ann R.

2011-01-01

96

2-Phenylaminonaphthoquinones and related compounds: synthesis, trypanocidal and cytotoxic activities.  

PubMed

A series of new 2-aminonaphthoquinones and related compounds were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as trypanocidal and cytotoxic agents. Some tested compounds inhibited epimastigote growth and trypomastigote viability. Several compounds showed similar or higher activity and selectivity as compared with current trypanocidal drug, nifurtimox. Compound 4l exhibit higher selectivity than nifurtimox against Trypanosoma cruzi in comparison with Vero cells. Some of the synthesized quinones were tested against cancer cells and normal fibroblasts, showing that certain chemical modifications on the naphthoquinone moiety induce and excellent increase the selectivity index of the cytotoxicity (4g and 10). The results presented here show that the anti-T. cruzi activity of 2-aminonaphthoquinones derivatives can be improved by the replacement of the benzene ring by a pyridine moiety. Interestingly, the presence of a chlorine atom at C-3 and a highly lipophilic alkyl group or aromatic ring are newly observed elements that should lead to the discovery of more selective cytotoxic and trypanocidal compounds. PMID:25127463

Sieveking, Ivan; Thomas, Pablo; Estévez, Juan C; Quiñones, Natalia; Cuéllar, Mauricio A; Villena, Juan; Espinosa-Bustos, Christian; Fierro, Angélica; Tapia, Ricardo A; Maya, Juan D; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Cassels, Bruce K; Estévez, Ramon J; Salas, Cristian O

2014-09-01

97

Nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds and their analogues against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the nematicidal activity of natural ester compounds against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to identify candidates for the development of novel, safe nematicides. We also tested the nematicidal activity of synthesized analogues of these ester compounds to determine the structure-activity relationship. Among 28 ester compounds tested, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl tiglate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate showed strong nematicidal activity against the pine wood nematode at a 1 mg/mL concentration. The other ester compounds showed weak nematicidal activity. The LC50 values of 3-methylbutyl tiglate, isobutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate, 3-methyl-2-butenyl 2-methylbutanoate, and pentyl 2-methylbutanoate were 0.0218, 0.0284, 0.0326, 0.0402, and 0.0480 mg/mL, respectively. The ester compounds described herein merit further study as potential nematicides for pine wood nematode control. PMID:25153339

Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Il-Kwon

2014-09-17

98

Cytotoxic and Antimigratory Activities of Phenolic Compounds from Dendrobium brymerianum  

PubMed Central

Chromatographic separation of a methanol extract prepared from the whole plant of Dendrobium brymerianum led to the isolation of eight phenolic compounds. Among the isolated compounds (1–8), moscatilin (1), gigantol (3), lusianthridin (4), and dendroflorin (6) showed appreciable cytotoxicity against human lung cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 196.7, 23.4, 65.0, and 125.8??g/mL, respectively, and exhibited antimigratory property at nontoxic concentrations. This study is the first report on the biological activities of this plant. PMID:25685168

Klongkumnuankarn, Pornprom; Busaranon, Kesarin; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Jongbunprasert, Vichien; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

2015-01-01

99

Oviposition stimulants for the black swallowtail butterfly: Identification of electrophysiologically active compounds in carrot volatiles.  

PubMed

Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of carrot,Daucus carota, a host-plant species of the black swallowtail butterfly,Papilio polyxenes. The volatiles were fractionated over silica on an open column, and the fractions were tested in behavioral assays withP. polyxenes females in laboratory experiments. The polar fractions, as well as the total mixture of volatiles, increased the landing frequency and the number of eggs laid on model plants with leaves bearing contact-oviposition stimulants. The nonpolar fraction, containing the most abundant compounds in carrot odor, was not stimulatory. Gas Chromatographic (GC) separation of the fractions was coupled with electroantennogram (EAG) recordings to identify the compounds perceived byP. polyxenes females. The EAG activity corresponded to the behavioral activity of the fractions. None of the nonpolar compounds, identified as various monoterpenes, evoked a major EAG response, but several constituents of the polar fractions elicited high EAG responses. Sabinene hydrate (both stereoisomers), 4-terpineol, bomyl acetate, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS as active compounds. PMID:24249074

Baur, R; Feeny, P; Städler, E

1993-05-01

100

Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25323822

Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

2015-05-01

101

Vanillin-derived antiproliferative compounds influence Plk1 activity.  

PubMed

We synthesized a series of vanillin-derived compounds and analyzed them in HeLa cells for their effects on the proliferation of cancer cells. The molecules are derivatives of the lead compound SBE13, a potent inhibitor of the inactive conformation of human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Some of the new designs were able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation to a similar extent as the lead structure. Two of the compounds ((({4-[(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)methoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl}methyl)(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amine) and (({4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl}methyl)(pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amine)) were much stronger in their capacity to reduce HeLa cell proliferation and turned out to potently induce apoptosis and reduce Plk1 kinase activity in vitro. PMID:25304894

Carrasco-Gomez, Roberto; Keppner-Witter, Sarah; Hieke, Martina; Lange, Lisa; Schneider, Gisbert; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Ewgenij; Spänkuch, Birgit

2014-11-01

102

Analysis of Indonesian Spice Essential Oil Compounds That Inhibit Locomotor Activity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Some fragrance components of spices used for cooking are known to have an effect on human behavior. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum formacitratum L.) leaves, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates L.) herbs, ki lemo (Litsea cubeba L.) bark, and laja gowah (Alpinia malaccencis Roxb.) rhizomes on locomotor activity in mice and identify the active component(s) that might be responsible for the activity. The effect of the essential oils was studied by a wheel cage method and the active compounds of the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis. The essential oils were administered by inhalation at doses of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 mL/cage. The results showed that the four essential oils had inhibitory effects on locomotor activity in mice. Inhalation of the essential oils of basil leaves, lemongrass herbs, ki lemo bark, and laja gowah rhizomes showed the highest inhibitory activity at doses of 0.5 (57.64%), 0.1 (55.72%), 0.5 (60.75%), and 0.1 mL/cage (47.09%), respectively. The major volatile compounds 1,8-cineole, ?-terpineol, 4-terpineol, citronelol, citronelal, and methyl cinnamate were identified in blood plasma of mice after inhalation of the four oils. These compounds had a significant inhibitory effect on locomotion after inhalation. The volatile compounds of essential oils identified in the blood plasma may correlate with the locomotor-inhibiting properties of the oil when administered by inhalation.

Muchtaridi; Diantini, Adjeng; Subarnas, Anas

2011-01-01

103

FP Tethering: a screening technique to rapidly identify compounds that disrupt protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Tethering is a screening technique for discovering small-molecule fragments that bind to pre-determined sites via formation of a disulphide bond. Tethering screens traditionally rely upon mass spectrometry to detect disulphide bind formation, which requires a time-consuming liquid chromatography step. Here we show that Tethering can be performed rapidly and inexpensively using a homogenous fluorescence polarization (FP) assay that detects displacement of a peptide ligand from the protein target as an indirect readout of disulphide formation. We apply this method, termed FP Tethering, to identify fragments that disrupt the protein-protein interaction between the KIX domain of the transcriptional coactivator CBP and the transcriptional activator peptide pKID. PMID:24795804

Lodge, Jean M.; Rettenmaier, T. Justin; Wells, James A.; Pomerantz, William C.; Mapp, Anna K.

2014-01-01

104

Screening of Bioactive Compounds from Moutan Cortex and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Rat Synoviocytes  

PubMed Central

Moutan Cortex, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, is the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (Paeoniaceae). Most of the pharmacological investigations of Moutan Cortex have been addressed to its central nervous system activities, anti-oxidative and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the active compounds with anti-inflammatory activity of Moutan Cortex. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory effect from Moutan Cortex. With the aid of preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of Moutan Cortex were isolated into twenty-two fractions. Bioactivities of these fractions were evaluated by measuring expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rat synoviocytes subjected to interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Eight compounds were isolated from six active fractions and identified by HPLC/MSn. Purified compounds, paeoniflorin, paeonol and pentagalloylglucose resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-? synthesis and IL-6 production in synoviocytes treated with proinflammatory mediator. These results suggested that paeonol, paeoniflorin, glycosides and pentagalloylglucose contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of Moutan Cortex. PMID:18955220

Wu, Mengjie

2009-01-01

105

Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages.  

PubMed

The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 ?g/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

2014-09-01

106

Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages  

PubMed Central

The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 ?g/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

2014-01-01

107

Antioxidative activity of some phenoxy and organophosphorous compounds.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed in order to check whether biological activity of some organophosphorous compounds widely applied as herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (1) and its sodium salt (2), N-phosphonomethylglycine acid (3) and its sodium salt (4), diethyl 1-butylamino-1-cyclohexanephosphonate (5) and diethyl 9-butylamino-9-fluorenephosphonate (6) followed from their oxidative activity. The compounds studied differed in their polarity and hydrophobicity. On the contrary, it was found that all herbicides protected erythrocyte membranes against partial peroxidation induced by UV irradiation. The effect was somewhat differentiated and followed the sequence: 5 >1 >2 >6 >3 >4. The observed differences between the antioxidative activities of the compounds are probably related to differences in their ability to incorporate into the lipid phase of the erythrocyte membrane. Once incorporated, they change fluidity of the membranes. The extent of the changes was determined in fluorescence measurements. Polarization and anisotropy coefficients of erythrocyte membranes modified by micromolar concentrations of herbicides at different temperatures were measured for that purpose. Generally, they followed the sequence found for antioxidative activity of the herbicides studied, which confirms the assumption of close correlation between the depth of incorporation of a herbicide into the erythrocyte membrane and its protective efficiency. PMID:12378278

Bonarska, Dorota; Kleszczy?ska, Halina; Sarapuk, Janusz

2002-01-01

108

New Compound Sets Identified from High Throughput Phenotypic Screening Against Three Kinetoplastid Parasites: An Open Resource  

PubMed Central

Using whole-cell phenotypic assays, the GlaxoSmithKline high-throughput screening (HTS) diversity set of 1.8 million compounds was screened against the three kinetoplastids most relevant to human disease, i.e. Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. Secondary confirmatory and orthogonal intracellular anti-parasiticidal assays were conducted, and the potential for non-specific cytotoxicity determined. Hit compounds were chemically clustered and triaged for desirable physicochemical properties. The hypothetical biological target space covered by these diversity sets was investigated through bioinformatics methodologies. Consequently, three anti-kinetoplastid chemical boxes of ~200 compounds each were assembled. Functional analyses of these compounds suggest a wide array of potential modes of action against kinetoplastid kinases, proteases and cytochromes as well as potential host–pathogen targets. This is the first published parallel high throughput screening of a pharma compound collection against kinetoplastids. The compound sets are provided as an open resource for future lead discovery programs, and to address important research questions. PMID:25740547

Peña, Imanol; Pilar Manzano, M.; Cantizani, Juan; Kessler, Albane; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Bardera, Ana I.; Alvarez, Emilio; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Cotillo, Ignacio; Roquero, Irene; de Dios-Anton, Francisco; Barroso, Vanessa; Rodriguez, Ana; Gray, David W.; Navarro, Miguel; Kumar, Vinod; Sherstnev, Alexander; Drewry, David H.; Brown, James R.; Fiandor, Jose M.; Julio Martin, J.

2015-01-01

109

Compounds blocking mutant huntingtin toxicity identified using a Huntington's disease neuronal cell model.  

PubMed

Neuronal cell death in HD is believed to be largely a dominant cell-autonomous effect of the mutant huntingtin protein. We previously developed an inducible PC12 cell model which expresses an N-terminal huntingtin fragment with an expanded poly Q repeat (N63-148Q) under the control of the tet-off system. In order to evaluate the ability of compounds to protect against mutant huntingtin toxicity in our model, we measured LDH released by dead cells into the medium. We have now screened the library of 1040 compounds from the NINDS Custom Collection as part of a National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) collaborative project. Each positive compound was tested at 3-8 concentrations. Five compounds significantly attenuated mutant huntingtin (htt)-induced LDH release without affecting the expression level of huntingtin and independent of effect on aggregates. We also tested a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and previously proposed candidate compounds. This cell model can provide a method to screen potential therapeutic compounds for treating Huntington's disease. PMID:15908226

Wang, Wenfei; Duan, Wenzhen; Igarashi, Shuichi; Morita, Hokuto; Nakamura, Masayuki; Ross, Christopher A

2005-11-01

110

Synthesis and Structure activity relationships of EGCG Analogues, A Recently Identified Hsp90 Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the principal polyphenol isolated from green tea, was recently shown to inhibit Hsp90, however structure-activity relationships for this natural product have not yet been produced. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of EGCG analogues to establish structure-activity relationships between EGCG and Hsp90. All four rings as well as the linker connecting the C- and the D-rings were systematically investigated, which led to the discovery of compounds that inhibit Hs90 and display improvement in efficacy over EGCG. Anti-proliferative activity of all the analogues was determined against MCF-7 and SKBr3 cell lines and Hsp90 inhibitory activity of four most potent analogues was further evaluated by western blot analyses and degradation of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Prenyl substituted aryl ester of 3,5-dihydroxychroman-3-ol ring system was identified as novel scaffold that exhibit Hsp90 inhibitory activity. PMID:23834230

Khandelwal, Anuj; Hall, Jessica

2014-01-01

111

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

SciTech Connect

The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed significantly to formaldehyde emissions. The VOC emission stream (excluding formaldehyde) was composed of up to 18 different chemicals and the total VOC emissions ranged in magnitude from 7 mu g/m2/h (old wood with old polish) to>500 mu g/m2/h (painted drywall). The formaldehyde emissions from drywall and old wood with either new or old polish were ~;;15 mu g/m2/h while the new wood material emitted>100 mu g/m2/h. However, when the projected surface area of each material in the building was considered, the new wood, old wood and painted drywall material all contributed substantially to the indoor formaldehyde loading while the coatings contributed primarily to the VOCs.

Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

2010-09-20

112

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1gl?1 and 5gl?1 and at temperatures of 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C were obtained. The results

Kun-Chang Huang; Zhiqiang Zhao; George E. Hoag; Amine Dahmani; Philip A. Block

2005-01-01

113

Freeze concentration for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progressive freeze concentration process, unidirectional downward freezing (UDF), was investigated for removal of five commonly used pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, acetylsalicylic acid, metoprolol and sulfamethoxazole) in water. The feed water with the pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) at concentrations from ng\\/L to mg\\/L range was frozen at ?7 and ?15°C. The separation efficiency of PhACs in the single stage and two-stage

W. Gao; Y. Shao

2009-01-01

114

USE OF BIOASSAY-DIRECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR IDENTIFYING MUTAGENIC COMPOUNDS IN URBAN AIR AND COMBUSTION EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioassay-directed chemical analysis fractionation has been used for 30 years to identify mutagenic classes of compounds in complex mixtures. Most studies have used the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, and we have recently applied this methodology to two standard reference sa...

115

Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 ?g/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 ?g/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. Conclusion This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds. PMID:20939907

2010-01-01

116

Antifungal activity of volatile organic compounds from Streptomyces alboflavus TD-1.  

PubMed

Streptomyces sp. TD-1 was identified as Streptomyces alboflavus based on its morphological characteristics, physiological properties, and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The antifungal activity of the volatile-producing S. alboflavus TD-1 was investigated. Results showed that volatiles generated by S. alboflavus TD-1 inhibited storage fungi Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, and Penicillum citrinum in vitro. GC/MS analysis revealed that 27 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified from the volatiles of S. alboflavus TD-1 mycelia, among which the most abundant compound was 2-methylisoborneol. Dimethyl disulfide was proved to have antifungal activity against F. moniliforme by fumigation in vitro. PMID:23351181

Wang, Changlu; Wang, Zhifang; Qiao, Xi; Li, Zhenjing; Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Mianhua; Wang, Yurong; Huang, Yufang; Cui, Haiyan

2013-04-01

117

Orally active opioid compounds from a non-poppy source.  

PubMed

The basic science and clinical use of morphine and other "opioid" drugs are based almost exclusively on the extracts or analogues of compounds isolated from a single source, the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). However, it now appears that biological diversity has evolved an alternative source. Specifically, at least two alkaloids isolated from the plant Mitragyna speciosa, mitragynine ((E)-2-[(2S,3S)-3-ethyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12b-octahydroindolo[3,2-h]quinolizin-2-yl]-3-methoxyprop-2-enoic acid methyl ester; 9-methoxy coryantheidine; MG) and 7-hydroxymitragynine (7-OH-MG), and several synthetic analogues of these natural products display centrally mediated (supraspinal and spinal) antinociceptive (analgesic) activity in various pain models. Several characteristics of these compounds suggest a classic "opioid" mechanism of action: nanomolar affinity for opioid receptors, competitive interaction with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and two-way analgesic cross-tolerance with morphine. However, other characteristics of the compounds suggest novelty, particularly chemical structure and possible greater separation from side effects. We review the chemical and pharmacological properties of these compounds. PMID:23517479

Raffa, Robert B; Beckett, Jaclyn R; Brahmbhatt, Vivek N; Ebinger, Theresa M; Fabian, Chrisjon A; Nixon, Justin R; Orlando, Steven T; Rana, Chintan A; Tejani, Ali H; Tomazic, Robert J

2013-06-27

118

Large-Scale Chemical Similarity Networks for Target Profiling of Compounds Identified in Cell-Based Chemical Screens  

PubMed Central

Target identification is one of the most critical steps following cell-based phenotypic chemical screens aimed at identifying compounds with potential uses in cell biology and for developing novel disease therapies. Current in silico target identification methods, including chemical similarity database searches, are limited to single or sequential ligand analysis that have limited capabilities for accurate deconvolution of a large number of compounds with diverse chemical structures. Here, we present CSNAP (Chemical Similarity Network Analysis Pulldown), a new computational target identification method that utilizes chemical similarity networks for large-scale chemotype (consensus chemical pattern) recognition and drug target profiling. Our benchmark study showed that CSNAP can achieve an overall higher accuracy (>80%) of target prediction with respect to representative chemotypes in large (>200) compound sets, in comparison to the SEA approach (60–70%). Additionally, CSNAP is capable of integrating with biological knowledge-based databases (Uniprot, GO) and high-throughput biology platforms (proteomic, genetic, etc) for system-wise drug target validation. To demonstrate the utility of the CSNAP approach, we combined CSNAP's target prediction with experimental ligand evaluation to identify the major mitotic targets of hit compounds from a cell-based chemical screen and we highlight novel compounds targeting microtubules, an important cancer therapeutic target. The CSNAP method is freely available and can be accessed from the CSNAP web server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/CSNAP/). PMID:25826798

Lo, Yu-Chen; Senese, Silvia; Li, Chien-Ming; Hu, Qiyang; Huang, Yong; Damoiseaux, Robert; Torres, Jorge Z.

2015-01-01

119

Large-scale chemical similarity networks for target profiling of compounds identified in cell-based chemical screens.  

PubMed

Target identification is one of the most critical steps following cell-based phenotypic chemical screens aimed at identifying compounds with potential uses in cell biology and for developing novel disease therapies. Current in silico target identification methods, including chemical similarity database searches, are limited to single or sequential ligand analysis that have limited capabilities for accurate deconvolution of a large number of compounds with diverse chemical structures. Here, we present CSNAP (Chemical Similarity Network Analysis Pulldown), a new computational target identification method that utilizes chemical similarity networks for large-scale chemotype (consensus chemical pattern) recognition and drug target profiling. Our benchmark study showed that CSNAP can achieve an overall higher accuracy (>80%) of target prediction with respect to representative chemotypes in large (>200) compound sets, in comparison to the SEA approach (60-70%). Additionally, CSNAP is capable of integrating with biological knowledge-based databases (Uniprot, GO) and high-throughput biology platforms (proteomic, genetic, etc) for system-wise drug target validation. To demonstrate the utility of the CSNAP approach, we combined CSNAP's target prediction with experimental ligand evaluation to identify the major mitotic targets of hit compounds from a cell-based chemical screen and we highlight novel compounds targeting microtubules, an important cancer therapeutic target. The CSNAP method is freely available and can be accessed from the CSNAP web server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/CSNAP/). PMID:25826798

Lo, Yu-Chen; Senese, Silvia; Li, Chien-Ming; Hu, Qiyang; Huang, Yong; Damoiseaux, Robert; Torres, Jorge Z

2015-03-01

120

Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the extent and treatability of the degradation of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) listed in the EPA SW-846 Method 8260B with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Data on the degradation of the 59 VOCs (in mixture) reacted with sodium persulfate in concentrations of 1 g l(-1) and 5 g l(-1) and at temperatures of 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C were obtained. The results indicate that persulfate oxidation mechanisms are effective in degrading many VOCs including chlorinated ethenes (CEs), BTEXs and trichloroethanes that are frequently detected in the subsurface at contaminated sites. Most of the targeted VOCs were rapidly degraded under the experimental conditions while some showed persistence to the persulfate oxidation. Compounds with "CC" bonds or with benzene rings bonded to reactive functional groups were readily degraded. Saturated hydrocarbons and halogenated alkanes were much more stable and difficult to degrade. For those highly persulfate-degradable VOCs, degradation was well fitted with a pseudo first-order decay model. Activation energies of reactions of CEs and BTEXs with persulfate were determined. The degradation rates increased with increasing reaction temperature and oxidant concentration. Nevertheless, to achieve complete degradation of persulfate-degradable compounds, the systems required sufficient amounts of persulfate to sustain the degradation reaction. PMID:16202809

Huang, Kun-Chang; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Hoag, George E; Dahmani, Amine; Block, Philip A

2005-10-01

121

Natural Product Compounds with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity: An Update  

PubMed Central

Several synthetic aromatase inhibitors are currently in clinical use for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, these treatments may lead to untoward side effects and so a search for new aromatase inhibitors continues, especially those for which the activity is promoter-specific, targeting the breast-specific promoters I.3 and II. Recently, numerous natural product compounds have been found to inhibit aromatase in non-cellular, cellular, and in vivo studies. These investigations, covering the last two years, as well as additional studies that have focused on the evaluation of natural product compounds as promoter-specific aromatase inhibitors or as aromatase inducers, are described in this review. PMID:20635310

Balunas, Marcy J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

2010-01-01

122

Studies on the antioxidant activities of some new chromone compounds.  

PubMed

Recent reviews evidence that the naturally occurring compounds containing the chromone skeleton exhibit antiradical activities, providing protection against oxidative stress. The antioxidant activities of 13 new synthesized chromonyl-2,4-thiazolidinediones, chromonyl-2,4-imidazolidinediones and chromonyl-2-thioxoimidzolidine-4-ones were evaluated using in vitro antioxidant assays, including superoxide anion radical (O2(-•)), hydroxyl radical (HO(•)), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging capacity and total antioxidant capacity ferric ion reducing activity. Superoxide anion radical was produced using potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, and the Fenton-like reaction (Fe(II)?+ H2O2) was a generator of hydroxyl radicals. Chemiluminescence, spectrophotometry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the spin trap were the measurement techniques. The results showed that the majority of the chromone derivatives tested showed a strong scavenging effect towards free radicals, similar to the chemiluminescence reaction with superoxide anion radical with a high activity, inhibition of the DMPO-OOH radical EPR signal (24-58%), the DMPO-OH radical EPR signal (4-75%) and DPPH radical EPR signal (6-100%) at 1 mmol/L. Several of the examined compounds exhibited the high reduction potentials. The results obtained show that the new synthesized chromone derivatives may directly scavenger reactive oxygen species and thus may play a protective role against oxidative damage. PMID:24482260

K?adna, Aleksandra; Berczy?ski, Pawe?; Piechowska, Teresa; Kruk, Irena; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Ceylan-Unlusoy, Meltem; Verspohl, Eugen J; Ertan, Rahmiye

2014-11-01

123

Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils  

PubMed Central

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

124

Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, ?-eudesmol, farnesol, ?-caryophyllene and ?-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only ?-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of ?-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

2011-01-01

125

Historical trends in organochlorine compounds in river basins identified using sediment cores from reservoirs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DDT (DDT + DDD + DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat hogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.This study used chemical analyses of dated sediment cores from reservoirs to define historical trends in water quality in the influent river basins. This work applies techniques from paleolimnology to reservoirs, and in the process, highlights differences between sediment-core interpretations for reservoirs and natural lakes. Sediment cores were collected from six reservoirs in the central and southeastern United States, sectioned, and analyzed for 137Cs and organochlorine compounds. 137Cs analyses were used to demonstrate limited post-depositional mixing, to indicate sediment deposition dates, and to estimate sediment focusing factors. Relative lack of mixing, high sedimentation rates, and high focusing factors distinguish reservoir sediment cores from cores collected in natural lakes. Temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs, total DOT (DDT+DDD+DDE), and chlordane reflect historical use and regulation of these compounds and differences in land use between reservoir drainages. PCB and total DDT core burdens, normalized for sediment focusing, greatly exceed reported cumulative regional atmospheric fallout of PCBs and total DDT estimated using cores from peat bogs and natural lakes, indicating the dominance of fluvial inputs of both groups of compounds to the reservoirs.

Van Metre, P.C.; Callender, E.; Fuller, C.C.

1997-01-01

126

Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome (PFAR) –– A Target for Antiprion Compounds  

PubMed Central

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting mammals. Prions are misfolded amyloid aggregates of the prion protein (PrP), which form when the alpha helical, soluble form of PrP converts to an aggregation-prone, beta sheet form. Thus, prions originate as protein folding problems. The discovery of yeast prion(s) and the development of a red-/white-colony based assay facilitated safe and high-throughput screening of antiprion compounds. With this assay three antiprion compounds; 6-aminophenanthridine (6AP), guanabenz acetate (GA), and imiquimod (IQ) have been identified. Biochemical and genetic studies reveal that these compounds target ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and inhibit specifically the protein folding activity of the ribosome (PFAR). The domain V of the 23S/25S/28S rRNA of the large ribosomal subunit constitutes the active site for PFAR. 6AP and GA inhibit PFAR by competition with the protein substrates for the common binding sites on the domain V rRNA. PFAR inhibition by these antiprion compounds opens up new possibilities for understanding prion formation, propagation and the role of the ribosome therein. In this review, we summarize and analyze the correlation between PFAR and prion processes using the antiprion compounds as tools. PMID:25341659

Banerjee, Debapriya; Sanyal, Suparna

2014-01-01

127

Identifying Source Soils in Contemporary Estuarine Sediments: A New Compound-Specific Isotope Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method is proposed for the identification and apportionment of contemporary source soils contributing to estuarine sediments.\\u000a The method uses compound-specific isotopic analysis of naturally occurring biomarkers (fatty acids) derived from plants to\\u000a link source soils to land use within a single catchment. For identification and apportionment of source soils in the estuarine\\u000a samples, the method uses the isotopic

M. M. Gibbs

2008-01-01

128

Iron-Targeting Antitumor Activity of Gallium Compounds and Novel Insights Into Triapine®-Metal Complexes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Despite advances made in the treatment of cancer, a significant number of patients succumb to this disease every year. Hence, there is a great need to develop new anticancer agents. Recent Advances: Emerging data show that malignant cells have a greater requirement for iron than normal cells do and that proteins involved in iron import, export, and storage may be altered in cancer cells. Therefore, strategies to perturb these iron-dependent steps in malignant cells hold promise for the treatment of cancer. Recent studies show that gallium compounds and metal-thiosemicarbazone complexes inhibit tumor cell growth by targeting iron homeostasis, including iron-dependent ribonucleotide reductase. Chemical similarities of gallium(III) with iron(III) enable the former to mimic the latter and interpose itself in critical iron-dependent steps in cellular proliferation. Newer gallium compounds have emerged with additional mechanisms of action. In clinical trials, the first-generation-compound gallium nitrate has exhibited activity against bladder cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while the thiosemicarbazone Triapine® has demonstrated activity against other tumors. Critical Issues: Novel gallium compounds with greater cytotoxicity and a broader spectrum of antineoplastic activity than gallium nitrate should continue to be developed. Future Directions: The antineoplastic activity and toxicity of the existing novel gallium compounds and thiosemicarbazone-metal complexes should be tested in animal tumor models and advanced to Phase I and II clinical trials. Future research should identify biologic markers that predict tumor sensitivity to gallium compounds. This will help direct gallium-based therapy to cancer patients who are most likely to benefit from it. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000–000. PMID:22900955

Antholine, William E.

2013-01-01

129

Antioxidant activity of oxygen-containing aromatic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition efficiency (antioxidant activity) of 26 oxygen-containing aromatic compounds was studied in methemalbumin-H2O2-o-phenylenediamine (PDA) or tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) pseudoperoxidase system at 20°C in buffered physiological solution (pH\\u000a 7.4) containing 6% DMF and 0.25% DMSO. The inhibitor’s efficiency was quantitatively characterized by the inhibition constants\\u000a (K\\u000a i, ?M) or the inhibition degree (%). K\\u000a i values varied in the range of 4

M. V. Potapovich; V. P. Kurchenko; D. I. Metelitza; O. I. Shadyro

2011-01-01

130

Antiplasmodial and antibacterial activity of compounds isolated from Ormocarpum trichocarpum.  

PubMed

Using activity-guided fractionation based on in vitro antibacterial assays, five biflavonoids, among them two new ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ormocarpum trichocarpum. The isolated compounds showed MIC values in the range of 4.0 to 136.7?µM against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumonia and IC50 values in the range of 4.30 to 94.32?µM against the chloroquine-sensitive D10 Plasmodium falciparum strain. PMID:23059633

Chukwujekwu, Jude C; de Kock, Carmen A; Smith, Peter J; van Heerden, Fanie R; van Staden, Johannes

2012-11-01

131

The OPTX Project. V. Identifying Distant Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/H? versus [N II]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z < 0.5, the redshift at which [N II]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g - z color, [Ne III]?3869, and [O II]??3726 + 3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z < 1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray-selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray-selected AGNs as BPT-SF. We use the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole galaxy samples, with their accompanying deep Chandra imaging, to perform X-ray and infrared stacking analyses to further validate our TBT-AGN and TBT-SF selections; that is, we verify the dominance of AGN activity in the former and star formation activity in the latter. Finally, we address the inclusion of the majority of the BPT-comp (sources lying between the BPT-SF and BPT-AGN regimes) in our TBT-AGN regime. We find that the stacked BPT-comp source is X-ray hard (lang?effrang = 1.0+0.4 -0.4) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

2011-11-01

132

Laccase catalyzed synthesis of iodinated phenolic compounds with antifungal activity.  

PubMed

Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

2014-01-01

133

Laccase Catalyzed Synthesis of Iodinated Phenolic Compounds with Antifungal Activity  

PubMed Central

Iodine is a well known antimicrobial compound. Laccase, an oxidoreductase which couples the one electron oxidation of diverse phenolic and non-phenolic substrates to the reduction of oxygen to water, is capable of oxidizing unreactive iodide to reactive iodine. We have shown previously that laccase-iodide treatment of spruce wood results in a wash-out resistant antimicrobial surface. In this study, we investigated whether phenolic compounds such as vanillin, which resembles sub-structures of softwood lignin, can be directly iodinated by reacting with laccase and iodide, resulting in compounds with antifungal activity. HPLC-MS analysis showed that vanillin was converted to iodovanillin by laccase catalysis at an excess of potassium iodide. No conversion of vanillin occurred in the absence of enzyme. The addition of redox mediators in catalytic concentrations increased the rate of iodide oxidation ten-fold and the yield of iodovanillin by 50%. Iodinated phenolic products were also detected when o-vanillin, ethyl vanillin, acetovanillone and methyl vanillate were incubated with laccase and iodide. At an increased educt concentration of 0.1 M an almost one to one molar ratio of iodide to vanillin could be used without compromising conversion rate, and the insoluble iodovanillin product could be recovered by simple centrifugation. The novel enzymatic synthesis procedure fulfills key criteria of green chemistry. Biocatalytically produced iodovanillin and iodo-ethyl vanillin had significant growth inhibitory effects on several wood degrading fungal species. For Trametes versicolor, a species causing white rot of wood, almost complete growth inhibition and a partial biocidal effect was observed on agar plates. Enzymatic tests indicated that the iodinated compounds acted as enzyme responsive, antimicrobial materials. PMID:24594755

Ihssen, Julian; Schubert, Mark; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Richter, Michael

2014-01-01

134

Catalytic activities of zeolite compounds for decomposing aqueous ozone.  

PubMed

The advanced oxidation process (AOP), chemical oxidation using aqueous ozone in the presence of appropriate catalysts to generate highly reactive oxygen species, offers an attractive option for removing poorly biodegradable pollutants. Using the commercial zeolite powders with various Si/Al ratios and crystal structures, their catalytic activities for decomposing aqueous ozone were evaluated by continuously flowing ozone to water containing the zeolite powders. The hydrophilic zeolites (low Si/Al ratio) with alkali cations in the crystal structures were found to possess high catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. The hydrophobic zeolite compounds (high Si/Al ratio) were found to absorb ozone very well, but to have no catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. Their catalytic activities were also evaluated by using the fixed bed column method. When alkali cations were removed by acid rinsing or substituted by alkali-earth cations, the catalytic activities was significantly deteriorated. These results suggest that the metal cations on the crystal surface of the hydrophilic zeolite would play a key role for catalytic activity for decomposing aqueous ozone. PMID:25078817

Kusuda, Ai; Kitayama, Mikito; Ohta, Yoshio

2013-12-01

135

Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the methanolic extract of Geum iranicum and its main compounds.  

PubMed

Geum iranicum Khatamsaz, belonging to the Rosaceae family, is an endemic plant of Iran. The methanol extract of the roots of this plant showed significant activity against one of the clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori which was resistant to metronidazole. The aim of this study was the isolation and evaluation of the major compounds of G. iranicum effective against H. pylori. The compounds were isolated using various chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, EI-MS). An antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed employing the disk diffusion method against clinical isolates of H. pylori and a micro dilution method against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; additionally the inhibition zone diameters (IZD) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were recorded. Nine compounds were isolated: two triterpenoids, uvaol and niga-ichigoside F1, three sterols, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosteryl acetate, and beta-sitosteryl linoleate, one phenyl propanoid, eugenol, one phenolic glycoside, gein, one flavanol, (+)-catechin, and sucrose. The aqueous fraction, obtained by partitioning the MeOH extract with water and chloroform, was the most effective fraction of the extract against all clinical isolates of H. pylori. Further investigation of the isolated compounds showed that eugenol was effective against H. pylori but gein, diglycosidic eugenol, did not exhibit any activity against H. pylori. The subfraction D4 was the effective fraction which contained tannins. It appeared that tannins were probably the active compounds responsible for the anti-H. pylori activity of G. iranicum. The aqueous fraction showed a moderate inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MIC values indicated that Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis are more susceptible than Gram-neagative bacteria including Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:22624333

Shahani, Somayeh; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Saniee, Parastoo; Siavoshi, Farideh; Foroumadi, Alireza; Samadi, Nasrin; Gohari, Ahmad R

2012-01-01

136

Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of date plum persimmon ( Diospyros lotus L.) fruits.  

PubMed

In the present study, phenolic compounds are extracted from the date plum persimmon fruits using water, methanol and acetone as solvents. Antioxidant activities of the phenolic extracts are measured using four different tests, namely, DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, chelating and reducing power assays. All the extracts show dose dependent DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing and chelating powers and moreover, they are well correlated with the total phenolic and total flavonoid substances, suggesting direct contribution of phenolic compounds to these activities. In further, the extracts are identified and quantified by HPLC-ECD. Results show that gallic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound, with amounts ranging between 45.49and 287.47 ?g/g dry sample. Myricetin is the dominant flavonoid in all extracts. Its level varied from 2.75 ?g/g dry sample in acetone extract to 5.28 ?g/g dry sample in water extract. On the basis of the results obtained, the date plum persimmon fruits phenolic extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants owing to its significant antioxidant activities. PMID:24803703

Gao, Hui; Cheng, Ni; Zhou, Juan; Wang, Bini; Deng, Jianjun; Cao, Wei

2014-05-01

137

Polyphenolic compounds in clove and pimento and their antioxidative activities.  

PubMed

Two new polyphenolic glucosides, 6'-O-acetylisobiflorin (1) and (2S)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propane-1,2-diol 1-O-(6'-O-galloyl)-?-D-glucoside (2), were respectively isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum and berries of Pimenta dioica. Each structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses (NMR, MS and [?](D)) and chemical conversion. A total of twenty-seven known compounds from the plants were also characterized. The antioxidative activity of their extracts and the twenty-nine isolates including gallo- and ellagitannins was estimated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and eugenol (3), which was the most abundant ingredient in each plant extract, showed the most potent antioxidative activity [ORAC value of 39,270 µmol TE (trolox equivalent)/g]. PMID:22056438

Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Takashi

2011-01-01

138

[Antioxidant activity of oxygen-containing aromatic compounds].  

PubMed

Inhibition efficiency (antioxidant activity) of 26 oxygen-containing aromatic compounds was studied in methemalbumin-H202-o-phenylenediamine (PDA) or tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) pseudoperoxidase system at 20 degrees C in buffered physiological solution (pH 7.4) containing 6% DM F and 0.25% DMSO. The inhibitor's efficiency was quantitatively characterized by the inhibition constants (Ki, microM) or the inhibition degree (%). Ki values varied in the range of4 to 500 microM and were influenced by a substrate, the structure of an inhibitor, hydroxyl groups, electron-donating substituents in aromatic ring, and steric hindrances. The type of inhibition at cooxidation of eight pairs was noncompetitive, and that of five pairs was mixed and determined by the substrate nature and the inhibitor structure. Lignin phenolic compounds ofguaiacyl and syringal series exhibited high antioxidant activity (Ki in the range of 10-300 microM), and their efficiency decreased in the following order: caffeic acid > synapaldehyde > syringic acid > coniferyl aldehyde > para-hydroxycou maric acid. PMID:21950111

Potapovich, M V; Kurchenko, V P; Metelitsa, D I; Shadyro, O I

2011-01-01

139

Anticoccidial activity of eight compounds in domestic mink.  

PubMed

Eight compounds were tested for anticoccidial activity in 44 domestic mink (Mustela vision). A treatment group consisted of 4 mink exposed to 2 inoculumns of sporulated oocysts on day 0 and day 22 of the experiments. Each inoculum contained 2,000 Isospora laidlawi, 2,000 Eimeria vision, and 2,000 Eimeria sp. One compound was administered to each treatment group; a control of 4 juvenile mink and a control group of 4 adult mink were designated. All treatments were given each day for 30 days after the initial exposure, except lincomycin which was administered for 14 days. In juvenile mink (3 to 4 months old), amprolium at dose level of 0.012% and sulfaquinoxaline at dose level of 0.024% in the water inhibited almost all of the oocyst production when compared with that of the control group. Lincomycin injected at dose level of 5 mg/day/mink was ineffective in suppressing oocyst production. In adult mink (2 to 4 years) monensin sodium at dose level of 0.012% a commercial antiobiotic-sulfonamide mixture at dose level of 0.49%, and lasalocid solium at dose level of 0.01% in the feed inhibited almost 100% oocyst production. Lasalocid sodium at dose level of 0.10% in the feed was lethal to 3 to 4 mink. Sulfamethazine at dose level of 0.014% and sulfathiazole at 0.014% in the feed had limited anticoccidial activities. PMID:851272

Foreyt, W J; Todd, A C; Hartsough, G R

1977-03-01

140

Extracts of phenolic compounds from seeds of three wild grapevines-comparison of their antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THREE WILD GRAPEVINE SPECIES: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH(•) anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds- while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2012-01-01

141

Identification of Novel p53 Pathway Activating Small-Molecule Compounds Reveals Unexpected Similarities with Known Therapeutic Agents  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of the activity of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway has demonstrated potential benefit in preclinical mouse tumor models and has entered human clinical trials. We describe here an improved, extensive small-molecule chemical compound library screen for p53 pathway activation in a human cancer cell line devised to identify hits with potent antitumor activity. We uncover six novel small-molecule lead compounds, which activate p53 and repress the growth of human cancer cells. Two tested compounds suppress in vivo tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model of human B-cell lymphoma. All compounds interact with DNA, and two activate p53 pathway in a DNA damage signaling-dependent manner. A further screen of a drug library of approved drugs for medicinal uses and analysis of gene-expression signatures of the novel compounds revealed similarities to known DNA intercalating and topoisomerase interfering agents and unexpected connectivities to known drugs without previously demonstrated anticancer activities. These included several neuroleptics, glycosides, antihistamines and adrenoreceptor antagonists. This unbiased screen pinpoints interference with the DNA topology as the predominant mean of pharmacological activation of the p53 pathway and identifies potential novel antitumor agents. PMID:20885994

Peltonen, Karita; Colis, Laureen; Liu, Hester; Jäämaa, Sari; Moore, Henna M.; Enbäck, Juulia; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Vaahtokari, Anne; Jones, Richard J.; af Hällström, Taija M.; Laiho, Marikki

2010-01-01

142

Systematic Repurposing Screening in Xenograft Models Identifies Approved Drugs with Novel Anti-Cancer Activity  

PubMed Central

Approved drugs target approximately 400 different mechanisms of action, of which as few as 60 are currently used as anti-cancer therapies. Given that on average it takes 10–15 years for a new cancer therapeutic to be approved, and the recent success of drug repurposing for agents such as thalidomide, we hypothesized that effective, safe cancer treatments may be found by testing approved drugs in new therapeutic settings. Here, we report in-vivo testing of a broad compound collection in cancer xenograft models. Using 182 compounds that target 125 unique target mechanisms, we identified 3 drugs that displayed reproducible activity in combination with the chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Candidate drugs appear effective at dose equivalents that exceed current prescription levels, suggesting that additional pre-clinical efforts will be needed before these drugs can be tested for efficacy in clinical trials. In total, we suggest drug repurposing is a relatively resource-intensive method that can identify approved medicines with a narrow margin of anti-cancer activity. PMID:25093583

Roix, Jeffrey J.; Harrison, S. D.; Rainbolt, Elizabeth A.; Meshaw, Kathryn R.; McMurry, Avery S.; Cheung, Peter; Saha, Saurabh

2014-01-01

143

Identifying competing aerobic nitrobenzene biodegradation pathways by compound-specific isotope analysis.  

PubMed

Nitroaromatic compounds that contaminate soil and groundwater can be biodegraded by different, sometimes competing reaction pathways. We evaluated the combined use of compound-specific stable C and N isotope analysis to distinguish between enzymatic nitrobenzene oxidation by Comamonas sp. strain JS765 and partial reduction by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain JS45 under aerobic conditions. Bulk 13C and 15N enrichment factors for nitrobenzene dioxygenation with JS765 were -3.9 per thousand +/- 0.09 per thousand (+/- 1sigma) and -0.75 per thousand +/- 0.09 per thousand, respectively. The corresponding primary apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) of 1.0241 +/- 0.0005 for 13C and a secondary 15N AKIE of 1.0008 +/- 0.0001 are in very good agreement with the proposed enzymatic addition of dioxygen to the aromatic ring to form a cis-dihydrodiol in the rate-limiting step of nitrobenzene degradation. For the partial reduction pathway with JS45, epsilonC and epsilonN values were -0.57 per thousand +/- 0.06 per thousand and -26.6 per thousand +/- 0.7 per thousand. The 13C and 15N AKIEs amount to 1.0034 +/- 0.0003 and 1.0273 +/- 0.0008, respectively, and are consistent with the two-electron reduction and dehydration of the aromatic NO2 group to nitrosobenzene. The combined evaluation of delta13C and delta15N changes in nitrobenzene, based on the isotope enrichment behavior found in this laboratory study, provide an excellent starting point for assessing of the extent of nitrobenzene biodegradation via competing pathways in contaminated environments. PMID:18678003

Hofstetter, Thomas B; Spain, Jim C; Nishino, Shirley F; Bolotin, Jakov; Schwarzenbach, Rene P

2008-07-01

144

Natural Compounds' Activity against Cancer Stem-Like or Fast-Cycling Melanoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence supports the concept that melanoma is highly heterogeneous and sustained by a small subpopulation of melanoma stem-like cells. Those cells are considered as responsible for tumor resistance to therapies. Moreover, melanoma cells are characterized by their high phenotypic plasticity. Consequently, both melanoma stem-like cells and their more differentiated progeny must be eradicated to achieve durable cure. By reevaluating compounds in heterogeneous melanoma populations, it might be possible to select compounds with activity not only against fast-cycling cells but also against cancer stem-like cells. Natural compounds were the focus of the present study. Methods We analyzed 120 compounds from The Natural Products Set II to identify compounds active against melanoma populations grown in an anchorage-independent manner and enriched with cells exerting self-renewing capacity. Cell viability, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, gene expression, clonogenic survival and label-retention were analyzed. Findings Several compounds efficiently eradicated cells with clonogenic capacity and nanaomycin A, streptonigrin and toyocamycin were effective at 0.1 µM. Other anti-clonogenic but not highly cytotoxic compounds such as bryostatin 1, siomycin A, illudin M, michellamine B and pentoxifylline markedly reduced the frequency of ABCB5 (ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 5)-positive cells. On the contrary, treatment with maytansine and colchicine selected for cells expressing this transporter. Maytansine, streptonigrin, toyocamycin and colchicine, even if highly cytotoxic, left a small subpopulation of slow-dividing cells unaffected. Compounds selected in the present study differentially altered the expression of melanocyte/melanoma specific microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and proto-oncogene c-MYC. Conclusion Selected anti-clonogenic compounds might be further investigated as potential adjuvants targeting melanoma stem-like cells in the combined anti-melanoma therapy, whereas selected cytotoxic but not anti-clonogenic compounds, which increased the frequency of ABCB5-positive cells and remained slow-cycling cells unaffected, might be considered as a tool to enrich cultures with cells exhibiting melanoma stem cell characteristics. PMID:24595456

Majchrzak, Kinga; Hartman, Mariusz; Czyz, Malgorzata

2014-01-01

145

Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study.  

PubMed

It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA) + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS). Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 ?g/g) and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 ?g/g); also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 ?g/g) and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 ?g/g) phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and EC (50)values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively. PMID:21472084

Esmaeili, N; Ebrahimzadeh, H; Abdi, K; Safarian, S

2011-01-01

146

Determination of some phenolic compounds in Crocus sativus L. corms and its antioxidant activities study  

PubMed Central

It is well known that phenolic compounds are constituents of many plants. In this study, the total phenolics content in Crocus sativus L. corms in dormancy and waking stages were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Analysis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after silylation by N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl trifluroacetamide (MSTFA) + %1 trimethyl iodosilane (TMIS). Numerous compounds were detected and 11 compounds were identified. The highest phenolics content in waking corms was observed for gentisic acid (5.693 ± 0.057 ?g/g) and the lowest for gallic acid (0.416 ± 0.006 ?g/g); also these two phenolic compounds are the highest (0.929 ± 0.015 ?g/g) and lowest (0.017 ± 0.001 ?g/g) phenolics in dormant corms, respectively. The results from quantization and GC-MS analysis showed a high concentration of phenolic compounds in waking corms than the dormant stage. Furthermore, the radical scavenging activities of saffron corms were studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and EC 50values were determined about 2055 ppm and 8274 ppm for waking and dormant corms, respectively. PMID:21472084

Esmaeili, N; Ebrahimzadeh, H; Abdi, K; Safarian, S

2011-01-01

147

Antifungal Activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 Volatile Compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 produces volatile compounds (VOCs) that inhibit the growth and spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Among the total of 36 volatile compounds detected, 11 compounds completely inhibited fungal growth. The antifungal activity of these compounds suggested that VOCs can play important roles over short and long distances in the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:22685147

Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem

2012-01-01

148

SIRT1 Activating compounds reduce oxidative stress mediated neuronal loss in viral induced CNS demyelinating disease  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, and increasing evidence demonstrates significant neuronal damage also occurs and is associated with permanent functional impairment. Current MS therapies have limited ability to prevent neuronal damage, suggesting additional neuroprotective therapies are needed. Compounds that activate the NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase prevent neuronal loss in an autoimmune-mediated MS model, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown, and it is unclear whether SIRT1 activating compounds exert similar effects in demyelinating disease induced by other etiologies. We measured neuronal loss in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with a neurotropic strain of mouse hepatitis virus, MHV-A59, that induces an MS-like disease. Results Oral treatment with the SIRT1 activating compound SRTAW04 significantly increased SIRT1 activity within optic nerves and prevented neuronal loss during optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve lesion that occurs in MS and its animal models. MHV-A59 induced neuronal loss was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and SRTAW04 treatment significantly reduced ROS levels while promoting increased expression of enzymes involved in mitochondrial function and reduction of ROS. SRTAW04 exerted similar protective effects in EAE spinal cords, with decreased demyelination. Conclusions Results demonstrate that SIRT1 activating compounds prevent neuronal loss in viral-induced demyelinating disease similar to their effects in autoimmune-mediated disease. One mechanism of this neuroprotective effect involves increasing mitochondrial biogenesis with reduction of oxidative stress. SIRT1 activators represent a potential neuroprotective therapy for MS. Understanding common mechanisms of these effects in distinct disease models will help identify targets for more specific therapies. PMID:24383546

2014-01-01

149

A bayesian analysis for identifying DNA copy number variations using a compound poisson process.  

PubMed

To study chromosomal aberrations that may lead to cancer formation or genetic diseases, the array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) technique is often used for detecting DNA copy number variants (CNVs). Various methods have been developed for gaining CNVs information based on aCGH data. However, most of these methods make use of the log-intensity ratios in aCGH data without taking advantage of other information such as the DNA probe (e.g., biomarker) positions/distances contained in the data. Motivated by the specific features of aCGH data, we developed a novel method that takes into account the estimation of a change point or locus of the CNV in aCGH data with its associated biomarker position on the chromosome using a compound Poisson process. We used a Bayesian approach to derive the posterior probability for the estimation of the CNV locus. To detect loci of multiple CNVs in the data, a sliding window process combined with our derived Bayesian posterior probability was proposed. To evaluate the performance of the method in the estimation of the CNV locus, we first performed simulation studies. Finally, we applied our approach to real data from aCGH experiments, demonstrating its applicability. PMID:20976296

Chen, Jie; Yi?iter, Ayten; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

2010-01-01

150

Spasmolytic and antinociceptive activities of ursolic acid and acacetin identified in Agastache mexicana.  

PubMed

Agastache mexicana is a plant in high demand that has long been used in Mexican folk medicine to treat anxiety, insomnia, and stomachache, among other afflictions. Ursolic acid and acacetin were isolated and identified as two possible active compounds of A. mexicana aerial parts. An antinociceptive response was demonstrated in a significant and dose-dependent manner with ursolic acid and acacetin (i. p. and p. o.) in comparison to the analgesic diclofenac by using the writhing test in mice. Moreover, acacetin also produced a significant concentration-dependent spasmolytic response with major efficacy compared to ursolic acid and papaverine by using rings from the isolated guinea pig ileum. These results provide evidence of the presence of two active constituents of Agastache mexicana reinforcing its utility as a therapy for visceral pain as used in traditional medicine. PMID:22473340

González-Trujano, María Eva; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Chávez, Marco; Díaz-Reval, Irene; Pellicer, Francisco

2012-05-01

151

How Can We Identify Ictal and Interictal Abnormal Activity?  

PubMed Central

The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) defined a seizure as “a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.” This definition has been used since the era of Hughlings Jackson, and does not take into account subsequent advances made in epilepsy and neuroscience research. The clinical diagnosis of a seizure is empirical, based upon constellations of certain signs and symptoms, while simultaneously ruling out a list of potential imitators of seizures. Seizures should be delimited in time, but the borders of ictal (during a seizure), interictal (between seizures) and postictal (after a seizure) often are indistinct. EEG recording is potentially very helpful for confirmation, classification and localization. About a half-dozen common EEG patterns are encountered during seizures. Clinicians rely on researchers to answer such questions as why seizures start, spread and stop, whether seizures involve increased synchrony, the extent to which extra-cortical structures are involved, and how to identify the seizure network and at what points interventions are likely to be helpful. Basic scientists have different challenges in use of the word ‘seizure,’ such as distinguishing seizures from normal behavior, which would seem easy but can be very difficult because some rodents have EEG activity during normal behavior that resembles spike-wave discharge or bursts of rhythmic spiking. It is also important to define when a seizure begins and stops so that seizures can be quantified accurately for pre-clinical studies. When asking what causes seizures, the transition to a seizure and differentiating the pre-ictal, ictal and post-ictal state is also important because what occurs before a seizure could be causal and may warrant further investigation for that reason. These and other issues are discussed by three epilepsy researchers with clinical and basic science expertise. PMID:25012363

Fisher, Robert S.; Scharfman, Helen E.; deCurtis, Marco

2015-01-01

152

Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.  

PubMed

Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively. PMID:25038709

Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

2014-12-15

153

Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07?mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55?mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96?mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

2014-01-01

154

Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are exploring the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. Recently we reported evidence for a new emissivity feature identified on Iapetus using Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer [1]. This 11.7 ?m feature is consistent with emissivity minima (transparency features) of very fine-grained silicates. Its position and shape may be diagnostic of silicate type, but most lab data at these wavelengths have been acquired using coarser grains and/or at Earth surface pressures and temperatures. Infrared spectra can change substantially under low-temperature, vacuum conditions [e.g., 2,3].We prepared sieved (<0.4 mm) and very fine-grained (few ?m) powders of six different silicates and measured their VNIR (0.35-2.5 ?m) reflectance spectra under ambient air, and mid-IR (1.2-20 ?m) spectra in a purged N2 glovebox. All silicates exhibited mid-IR transparency features (and loss of other features) in micronized form that were not observed for the coarser grain sizes. Muscovite, a phyllosilicate mineral possibly similar to those tentatively identified on Europa [4], provided the closest match to Iapetus in the mid-IR--although clear VNIR features of muscovite have not been identified on Iapetus [5]--and therefore we measured muscovite across the same wavelength range under Iapetus-like conditions (T=125 K, P<3x10^-8 torr). We will report on our ongoing analysis and plans for additional future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Young, C.L., et al. (2014), Workshop on the Habitability of Icy Worlds, Abstract #4038.[2] Logan, L.M., et al. (1973), J. Geophys. Res., 78(23), 4983-5003.[3] Donaldson Hanna, K.L., et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00H05.[4] Shirley, J.H., et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #P54A-07.[5] Clark, R.N., et al. (2012), Icarus, 218, 831-860.

Wray, James J.; Young, Cindy L.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

2014-11-01

155

Irreversible adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbons  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to determine the reasons why phenolic sorbates can be difficult to remove and recover from activated carbons. The chemical properties of the sorbate and the adsorbent surface, and the influences of changes in the adsorption and desorption conditions were investigated. Comparison of isotherms established after different contact times or at different temperatures indicated that phenolic compounds react on carbon surfaces. The reaction rate is a strong function of temperature. Regeneration of carbons by leaching with acetone recovered at least as much phenol as did regeneration with other solvents or with displacers. The physiochemical properties of adsorbents influences irreversible uptakes. Sorbates differed markedly in their tendencies to undergo irreversible adsorption. 64 refs., 47 figs., 32 tabs.

Grant, T.M.; King, C.J.

1988-12-01

156

[The release of biologically active compounds from peat peloids].  

PubMed

This work had the objective to study kinetics of the release of flavonoides from peat peloid compositions containing extracts of medicinal herbs in model systems.The key parameters of the process are defined. The rate of liberation of flavonoides is shown to depend on their initial concentration in the compositions being used. The influence of the flavonoide composition of the tested extracts and dimethylsulfoxide on the release of biologically active compounds contained in the starting material in the model environment is estimated. The possibility of the layer-by-layer deposition of the compositions and peat peloids in order to increase the efficacy of flavonoide release from the starting composition and to ensure more rational utilization of the extracts of medicinal plants is demonstrated. PMID:22165149

Babaskin, D V

2011-01-01

157

Propolis volatile compounds: chemical diversity and biological activity: a review  

PubMed Central

Propolis is a sticky material collected by bees from plants, and used in the hive as building material and defensive substance. It has been popular as a remedy in Europe since ancient times. Nowadays, propolis use in over-the-counter preparations, “bio”-cosmetics and functional foods, etc., increases. Volatile compounds are found in low concentrations in propolis, but their aroma and significant biological activity make them important for propolis characterisation. Propolis is a plant-derived product: its chemical composition depends on the local flora at the site of collection, thus it offers a significant chemical diversity. The role of propolis volatiles in identification of its plant origin is discussed. The available data about chemical composition of propolis volatiles from different geographic regions are reviewed, demonstrating significant chemical variability. The contribution of volatiles and their constituents to the biological activities of propolis is considered. Future perspectives in research on propolis volatiles are outlined, especially in studying activities other than antimicrobial. PMID:24812573

2014-01-01

158

15 CFR 930.33 - Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource...MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.33 Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or...

2012-01-01

159

15 CFR 930.33 - Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource...MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.33 Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or...

2014-01-01

160

15 CFR 930.33 - Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource...MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.33 Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or...

2010-01-01

161

15 CFR 930.33 - Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource...MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.33 Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or...

2013-01-01

162

15 CFR 930.33 - Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or resource...MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Federal Agency Activities § 930.33 Identifying Federal agency activities affecting any coastal use or...

2011-01-01

163

Pharmacologically active compounds in the Anoectochilus and Goodyera species.  

PubMed

The extract of Anoectochilus formosanus showed significant activity in decreasing the levels of the cytosolic enzymes LDH, GOT, and GPT, and the result demonstrated that A. formosanus possessed prominent hepatoprotective activity against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, in the results of the test using aurothioglucose-induced obese mice, the extract showed a significant antihyperliposis effect. A. formosanus grown in the wild and propagated by tissue culture contain ten compounds, including a major known component, (3R)-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)butanolide (kinsenoside; 1), and two new components, (3R)-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-hydroxybutanoic acid (2) and 2-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)methyl]-5-hydroxymethylfuran (3), along with the known compounds, isopropyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), (R)-3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acid gamma-lactone (5), 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) benzyl alcohol (6), (6R,9S)-9-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)megastigma-4,7-dien-3-one (7), and (3R)-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4-hydroxybutanolide (8). Since a higher concentration of kinsenoside (1) was detected in the crude drugs A. formosanus and A. koshunensis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, we proved a simple purification system for kinsenoside (1), giving 180 mg of kinsenoside (1) from 1 g of dried samples for further pharmacological experiments. In an anti-hyperliposis assay using high-fat-diet rats, 1 significantly reduced the weights of the body and the liver, and also decreased the triglyceride level in the liver compared to those of control rats. On the other hand, the epimer of 1, (3S)-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)butanolide, goodyeroside A (9), which was isolated from the Goodyera species, had no effect for anti-hyperliposis. In aurothioglucose-induced obese mice, 1 suppressed the body and liver weight increase, significantly ameliorated the triglyceride level in the liver, and also reduced the deposition of uterine fat pads. The anti-hepatoxic activities of 9 and goodyerosides B (10) were studied on injury induced by CCl(4) in primary cultured rat hepatocytes by measuring the levels of LDH, GOT, and GPT. In the CCl(4)-treated control group, there were marked increases in LDH, GOT, and GPT activities compared with the normal group. In contrast, these levels were suppressed in 9- and 10-treated groups. Goodyerin (11), a new typical flavone glycoside, exhibited a significant and dose-dependent sedative and anticonvulsant effect. PMID:18404313

Du, Xiao-Ming; Irino, Nobuto; Furusho, Norihiro; Hayashi, Jun; Shoyama, Yukihiro

2008-04-01

164

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

2012-01-01

165

Identification of two polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activities in longan pericarp tissues.  

PubMed

Longan fruits contain a significant amount of polyphenols. In the present study, polyphenols were extracted from longan pericarp tissues, and then two representative polyphenols were separated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and silica gel column chromatography. On the basis of 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) data, the two compounds were identified as 4-O-methylgallic acid and (-)-epicatechin, respectively. In terms of reaction with longan polyphenol oxidase (PPO), (-)-epicatechin was further identified as the PPO substrate that caused longan fruit to brown. The results of antioxidant activity showed that 4-O-methylgallic acid had higher reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl- (DPPH-), hydroxyl radical-, and superoxide radical-scavenging activities than (-)-epicatechin. PMID:17579438

Sun, Jian; Shi, John; Jiang, Yueming; Xue, Sophia Jun; Wei, Xiaoyi

2007-07-11

166

Ensemble docking and molecular dynamics identify knoevenagel curcumin derivatives with potent anti-EGFR activity.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Despite a number of effective EGFR inhibitors that are constantly expanding and different methods being employed to obtain novel compounds, the search for newer EGFR inhibitors is still a major scientific challenge. In the present study, a molecular docking and molecular dynamics investigation has been carried out with an ensemble of EGFR-TK structures against a synthetically feasible library of curcumin analogs to discover potent EGFR inhibitors. To resolve protein flexibility issue we have utilized 5 EGFR wild type crystal structures during docking as this gives improved possibility of identifying an active compound as compared to using a single crystal structure. We then identified five curcumin analogs representing different scaffolds that can serve as lead molecules. Finally, the 5 ns molecular dynamics simulation shows that knoevenagel condensate of curcumin specifically C29 and C30 can be used as starting blocks for developing effective leads capable of inhibiting EGFR. PMID:24491504

Yadav, Inderjit S; Nandekar, Prajwal P; Srivastavaa, Shambhavi; Shrivastava, Shambhavi; Sangamwar, Abhay; Chaudhury, Ashok; Agarwal, Subhash Mohan

2014-04-10

167

Comparative Study of the Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Bisphenol A and 19 Related Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endocrine-disrupting activities of bisphenol A (BPA) and 19 related compounds were comparatively examined by means of different in vitro and in vivo reporter assays. BPA and some related compounds exhibited estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but there were remarkable differ- ences in activity. Tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) showed the highest activity, followed by bisphenol B, BPA,

Shigeyuki Kitamura; Tomoharu Suzuki; Seigo Sanoh; Ryuki Kohta; Norimasa Jinno; Kazumi Sugihara

2005-01-01

168

Glucocorticoid Compounds Modify Smoothened Localization and Hedgehog Pathway Activity  

PubMed Central

Summary The Hedgehog signaling pathway is linked to a variety of diseases, notably a range of cancers. The first generation of drug screens identified Smoothened (Smo), a membrane protein essential for signaling, as an attractive drug target. Smo localizes to the primary cilium upon pathway activation, and this transition is critical for the response to Hedgehog ligands. In a high content screen directly monitoring Smo distribution in Hedgehog responsive cells, we identified different glucocorticoids as specific modulators of Smo ciliary accumulation. One class promoted Smo accumulation, conferring cellular hypersensitivity to Hedgehog stimulation. In contrast, a second class inhibited Smo ciliary localization and signaling activity by both wildtype Smo, and mutant forms of Smo, SmoM2 and SmoD473H, that are refractory to previously identified Smo antagonists. These findings point to the potential for developing glucocorticoid-based pharmacological modulation of Smo signaling to treat mutated drug-resistant forms of Smo, an emerging problem in long-term cancer therapy. They also raise a concern about potential crosstalk of glucocorticoid drugs in the Hedgehog pathway, if therapeutic administration exceeds levels associated with on-target transcriptional mechanisms of glucocorticoid action. PMID:22921064

Wang, Yu; Davidow, Lance; Arvanites, Anthony C.; Blanchard, Joel; Lam, Kelvin; Xu, Ke; Oza, Vatsal; Yoo, Jin Woo; Ng, Jessica M.Y.; Curran, Tom; Rubin, Lee L.; McMahon, Andrew P.

2013-01-01

169

A high-content screen identifies novel compounds that inhibit stress-induced TDP-43 cellular aggregation and associated cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

TDP-43 is an RNA binding protein found to accumulate in the cytoplasm of brain and spinal cord from patients affected with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Nuclear TDP-43 protein regulates transcription through several mechanisms, and under stressed conditions, it forms cytoplasmic aggregates that co-localize with stress granule (SG) proteins in cell culture. These granules are also found in the brain and spinal cord of patients affected with ALS and FTLD. The mechanism through which TDP-43 might contribute to neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood. To investigate the pathophysiology of TDP-43 aggregation and to isolate potential therapeutic targets, we screened a chemical library of 75,000 compounds using high-content analysis with PC12 cells that inducibly express human TDP-43 tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). The screen identified 16 compounds that dose-dependently decreased the TDP-43 inclusions without significant cellular toxicity or changes in total TDP-43 expression levels. To validate the effect, we tested compounds by Western blot analysis and in a Caenorhabditis elegans model that replicates some of the relevant disease phenotypes. The hits from this assay will be useful for elucidating regulation of TDP-43, stress granule response, and possible ALS therapeutics. PMID:24019256

Boyd, Justin D; Lee-Armandt, J Peter; Feiler, Marisa S; Zaarur, Nava; Liu, Min; Kraemer, Brian; Concannon, John B; Ebata, Atsushi; Wolozin, Benjamin; Glicksman, Marcie A

2014-01-01

170

Discovering novel anti-HCV compounds with inhibitory activities toward HCV NS3/4A protease  

PubMed Central

Aim: To discover novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors and elucidate the mechanism of action of the active compounds. Methods: HCV subgenomic replicon-based luciferase reporter cell line was used to screen 1200 synthetic compounds with novel structures. Huh7.5.1 cell line stably transfected with HCV NS3/4A protease reporter was established to investigate the anti-HCV mechanism of the active compounds. The active compounds were further examined in an in vitro HCV infection assay to confirm their anti-HCV activity. Results: After two-round screening in the anti-HCV replicon assay, some 2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivatives and carboxamide analogues were found to possess anti-HCV replicon activities (the IC50 values were less than 5 ?mol/L). Among them, two representative compounds HZ-1157 and LZ-110618-6 inhibited HCV NS3/4A protease with IC50 values of 1.0 and 0.68 ?mol/L, respectively. Furthermore, HZ-1157 and LZ-110618-6 inhibited HCV infection in vitro with IC50 values of 0.82 and 0.11 ?mol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Some 2,4-diaminoquinazoline derivatives and carboxamide analogues have been identified as novel anti-HCV compounds. PMID:25066323

Yu, Ye; Jing, Jing-feng; Tong, Xian-kun; He, Pei-lan; Li, Yuan-chao; Hu, You-hong; Tang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-ping

2014-01-01

171

Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.  

PubMed

Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety. PMID:25308688

Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

2015-03-15

172

Antiproliferative and cell apoptosis-inducing activities of compounds from Buddleja davidii in Mgc-803 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Buddleja davidii is widely distributed in the southwestern region of China. We have undertaken a systematic analysis of B. davidii as a Chinese traditional medicine with anticancer activity by isolating natural products for their activity against the human gastric cancer cell line Mgc-803 and the human breast cancer cell line Bcap-37. Results Ten compounds were extracted and isolated from B. davidii, among which colchicine was identified in B. davidii for the first time. The inhibitory activities of these compounds were investigated in Mgc-803, Bcap-37 cells in vitro by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, and the results showed that luteolin and colchicine had potent inhibitory activities against the growth of Mgc-803 cells. Subsequent fluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis indicated that these two compounds could induce apoptosis in Mgc-803 cells. The results also showed that the percentages of early apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-, where PI is propidium iodide) and late apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI+) increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After 36 h of incubation with luteolin at 20 ?M, the percentages of cells were approximately 15.4% in early apoptosis and 43.7% in late apoptosis; after 36 h of incubation with colchicine at 20 ?M, the corresponding values were 7.7% and 35.2%, respectively. Conclusions Colchicine and luteolin from B. davidii have potential applications as adjuvant therapies for treating human carcinoma cells. These compounds could also induce apoptosis in tumor cells. PMID:22938042

2012-01-01

173

Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity. PMID:25763039

Araújo, Sthéfane G.; Alves, Lucas F.; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A.; Oliveira, Graziela T.; Siqueira, Ezequias P.; Ribeiro, Rosy I. M. A.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Lima, Luciana A. R. S.

2014-01-01

174

Volatile compounds of Lamiaceae exhibit a synergistic antibacterial activity with streptomycin.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections cause thousands of deaths in the world every year. In most cases, infections are more serious because the patient is already weakened, and often, the bacteria are already resistant to the antibiotics used. Counterparting this negative scenario, the interest in medicinal plants as an alternative to the synthetic antimicrobial drugs is blossoming worldwide. In the present work, we identified the volatile compounds of ethanol extracts of Melissa officinalis, Mentha sp., Ocimum basilicum, Plectranthus barbatus, and Rosmarinus officinalis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Also was evaluated antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts against 6 bacteria of clinical interest, and was tested the interaction of these extracts with a commercial antibiotic streptomycin. Phytol was a compound identified in all extracts by GC/MS, being majoritary component in Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis. The Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ethanol extracts, and Plectranthus barbatus and Rosmarinus officinalis were the most active extracts. Ethanol extracts exhibited a synergetic effect with streptomycin. These results encourage additional studies, in order to evaluate the possibilities of using ethanol extracts of Lamiaceae family as natural source for antibacterial activity. PMID:25763039

Araújo, Sthéfane G; Alves, Lucas F; Pinto, Maria Eduarda A; Oliveira, Graziela T; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Ferreira, Jaqueline M S; Lima, Luciana A R S

2014-01-01

175

Antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and phenolic content in peel from three tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant compounds, antioxidant activity and content of individual phenolic compounds of freeze-dried peel from three tropical fruits grown in Yucatan, México: purple star apple (Chrysophyllum cainito L.), yellow cashew and red cashew (Anacardium occidentale). The freeze-dried peels were good source of antioxidant compounds. ABTS and DPPH values in the peel from each fruit were 3050.95-3322.31 ?M Trolox/100g dry weight (DW) or 890.19-970.01 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, and 1579.04-1680.90 ?M Trolox/100 g DW or 340.18-362.18 mg of vitamin C/100 g DW, respectively. Six phenolic compounds were identified in the peel from the tropical fruits studied: ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, gallic, ellagic and myricetin. This study demonstrated that freeze-dried peels from purple star apple, yellow cashew and red cashew, could serve as potential sources of antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25053022

Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Moo-Huchin, Mariela I; Estrada-León, Raciel J; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Estrada-Mota, Iván A; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

2015-01-01

176

Tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the compounds isolated from Neolitsea aciculata (Blume) Koidz.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity for the constituents isolated from Neolitsea aciculata. The stems of N. aciculata was extracted with aqueous ethanol and subjected to chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of 11 compounds: methyl linoleate (1), catechin (2), epicatechin (3), afzelin-7-O-glucopyranoside (4), 2',3'-di-(p-coumaroyl)afzelin (5), 2'-p-coumaroylafzelin (6), feruloyl tyramine (7), ?-sitosterol (8), daucosterol (9), oleic acid (10), and trilaurin (11). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. Among these isolates, compounds 5 and 6 were identified as potent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors with IC?? values of 0.067 and 0.080 mM, respectively. The inhibition kinetics, analysed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, indicated that compounds 5 and 6 are competitive tyrosinase inhibitors when using l-tyrosine as a substrate. Notably, compounds 1-11 were isolated for the first time from this plant. These results provide evidence that this plant might be a potential source of anti-melanogenesis agents. PMID:22468750

Kim, Sang Suk; Hyun, Chang-Gu; Choi, Young Hun; Lee, Nam Ho

2013-08-01

177

Activation tag screening to identify novel genes for trichothecene resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of our research is to identify plant genes which enhance trichothecene resistance and, ultimately, Fusarium Head Blight resistance in wheat and barley. We are taking a two pronged approach using Arabidopsis to identify plant genes which confer resistance to trichothecenes. The first approac...

178

Virtual Screening of compounds from Tabernaemontana divaricata for potential anti-bacterial activity.  

PubMed

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking analysis for Tabernaemontana divaricata derived 66 Law Molecular Weight Compounds (LMW) was conducted and to identified and predicted novel molecules as a inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumonia. The investigation has revealed several compounds with optimum binding towards Penicillin-binding proteins, Sialidases, Aspartate betasemialdehide dehydrogenase cell membrane protein of Streptococcus pneumonia. Docking results were computed in term of binding energy, ligand efficiency and number of hydrogen bonding. Apparicine (-5.14), 5-Hydroxyvoaphylline (-4.78), Voacangine (-4.7), 19-Hydroxycoronaridine (-4.44) and Coronaridine (-4.72) are identified as most suitable to bind with N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate uridyltransferase receptor. Ervaticine (-6.33), Ibogamine (-6.15), Methylvoaphylline (-5.74) and Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (-5.32) has showed novel binding against the penicillin-binding proteins. Ervaticine (-6.42), 5-oxo-11-hydroxy voaphylline (-6.18), Conolobine B (-6.02) has found optimum binding against the active site of NanB sialidase of Streptococcus pneumonia. The compounds 3S-Cyanocoronaridine (-6.71), 19-Epivoacristine (-5.48) and Ervaticine(-5.45) interacting with aspartate beta-semialdehide and found suitable with least docking score. PMID:24748755

Gogoi, Rashmi Rekha; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan

2014-01-01

179

Virtual Screening of compounds from Tabernaemontana divaricata for potential anti-bacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking analysis for Tabernaemontana divaricata derived 66 Law Molecular Weight Compounds (LMW) was conducted and to identified and predicted novel molecules as a inhibitor of Streptococcus pneumonia. The investigation has revealed several compounds with optimum binding towards Penicillin-binding proteins, Sialidases, Aspartate betasemialdehide dehydrogenase cell membrane protein of Streptococcus pneumonia. Docking results were computed in term of binding energy, ligand efficiency and number of hydrogen bonding. Apparicine (-5.14), 5-Hydroxyvoaphylline (-4.78), Voacangine (-4.7), 19-Hydroxycoronaridine (-4.44) and Coronaridine (-4.72) are identified as most suitable to bind with N-acetylglucosamine-1- phosphate uridyltransferase receptor. Ervaticine (-6.33), Ibogamine (-6.15), Methylvoaphylline (-5.74) and Coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (-5.32) has showed novel binding against the penicillin-binding proteins. Ervaticine (-6.42), 5-oxo-11-hydroxy voaphylline (-6.18), Conolobine B (-6.02) has found optimum binding against the active site of NanB sialidase of Streptococcus pneumonia. The compounds 3S-Cyanocoronaridine (-6.71), 19-Epivoacristine (-5.48) and Ervaticine(-5.45) interacting with aspartate beta-semialdehide and found suitable with least docking score. PMID:24748755

Gogoi, Rashmi Rekha; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Bezbaruah, Rajib Lochan

2014-01-01

180

Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites  

PubMed Central

Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

2010-01-01

181

EVALUATION OF THE REMOVAL OF POTENTIALLY HORMONALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS (ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS) BY DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES.  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of the chemicals identified as potential EDCs may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources due to their introduction from domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. Many of these compounds have already been show...

182

Tracking heavy water (D2O) incorporation for identifying and sorting active microbial cells  

PubMed Central

Microbial communities are essential to the function of virtually all ecosystems and eukaryotes, including humans. However, it is still a major challenge to identify microbial cells active under natural conditions in complex systems. In this study, we developed a new method to identify and sort active microbes on the single-cell level in complex samples using stable isotope probing with heavy water (D2O) combined with Raman microspectroscopy. Incorporation of D2O-derived D into the biomass of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and archaea could be unambiguously detected via C-D signature peaks in single-cell Raman spectra, and the obtained labeling pattern was confirmed by nanoscale-resolution secondary ion MS. In fast-growing Escherichia coli cells, label detection was already possible after 20 min. For functional analyses of microbial communities, the detection of D incorporation from D2O in individual microbial cells via Raman microspectroscopy can be directly combined with FISH for the identification of active microbes. Applying this approach to mouse cecal microbiota revealed that the host-compound foragers Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides acidifaciens exhibited distinctive response patterns to amendments of mucin and sugars. By Raman-based cell sorting of active (deuterated) cells with optical tweezers and subsequent multiple displacement amplification and DNA sequencing, novel cecal microbes stimulated by mucin and/or glucosamine were identified, demonstrating the potential of the nondestructive D2O-Raman approach for targeted sorting of microbial cells with defined functional properties for single-cell genomics. PMID:25550518

Berry, David; Mader, Esther; Lee, Tae Kwon; Woebken, Dagmar; Wang, Yun; Zhu, Di; Palatinszky, Marton; Schintlmeister, Arno; Schmid, Markus C.; Hanson, Buck T.; Shterzer, Naama; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Rauch, Isabella; Decker, Thomas; Bocklitz, Thomas; Popp, Jürgen; Gibson, Christopher M.; Fowler, Patrick W.; Huang, Wei E.; Wagner, Michael

2015-01-01

183

Discovery of a novel activator of 5-lipoxygenase from an anacardic acid derived compound collection  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases (COXs) metabolize poly-unsaturated fatty acids into inflammatory signaling molecules. Modulation of the activity of these enzymes may provide new approaches for therapy of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we screened novel anacardic acid derivatives as modulators of human 5-LOX and COX-2 activity. Interestingly, a novel salicylate derivative 23a was identified as a surprisingly potent activator of human 5-LOX. This compound showed both non-competitive activation towards the human 5-LOX activator adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and non-essential mixed type activation against the substrate linoleic acid, while having no effect on the conversion of the substrate arachidonic acid. The kinetic analysis demonstrated a non-essential activation of the linoleic acid conversion with a KA of 8.65 ?M, ?KA of 0.38 ?M and a ? value of 1.76. It is also of interest that a comparable derivative 23d showed a mixed type inhibition for linoleic acid conversion. These observations indicate the presence of an allosteric binding site in human 5-LOX distinct from the ATP binding site. The activatory and inhibitory behavior of 23a and 23d on the conversion of linoleic compared to arachidonic acid are rationalized by docking studies, which suggest that the activator 23a stabilizes linoleic acid, whereas the larger inhibitor 23d blocks the enzyme active site. PMID:24231650

Wisastra, Rosalina; Kok, Petra A.M; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Baumgartner, Matthew P.; Camacho, Carlos J.; Haisma, Hidde J.; Dekker, Frank J.

2013-01-01

184

Discovery of a novel activator of 5-lipoxygenase from an anacardic acid derived compound collection.  

PubMed

Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and cyclooxygenases (COXs) metabolize poly-unsaturated fatty acids into inflammatory signaling molecules. Modulation of the activity of these enzymes may provide new approaches for therapy of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we screened novel anacardic acid derivatives as modulators of human 5-LOX and COX-2 activity. Interestingly, a novel salicylate derivative 23a was identified as a surprisingly potent activator of human 5-LOX. This compound showed both non-competitive activation towards the human 5-LOX activator adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and non-essential mixed type activation against the substrate linoleic acid, while having no effect on the conversion of the substrate arachidonic acid. The kinetic analysis demonstrated a non-essential activation of the linoleic acid conversion with a KA of 8.65 ?M, ?KA of 0.38?M and a ? value of 1.76. It is also of interest that a comparable derivative 23d showed a mixed type inhibition for linoleic acid conversion. These observations indicate the presence of an allosteric binding site in human 5-LOX distinct from the ATP binding site. The activatory and inhibitory behavior of 23a and 23d on the conversion of linoleic compared to arachidonic acid are rationalized by docking studies, which suggest that the activator 23a stabilizes linoleic acid binding, whereas the larger inhibitor 23d blocks the enzyme active site. PMID:24231650

Wisastra, Rosalina; Kok, Petra A M; Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos; Baumgartner, Matthew P; Camacho, Carlos J; Haisma, Hidde J; Dekker, Frank J

2013-12-15

185

GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:24497744

Kanthal, Lakshmi Kanta; Dey, Akalanka; Satyavathi, K.; Bhojaraju, P.

2014-01-01

186

Antiestrogenic Activity of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners Identified in Human Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified in human serum have been synthesized and these include 2,2?,3,4?,5,5?-hexachloro-4-biphenylol; 2,3,3?,4?,5-pentachloro-4-biphenylol; 2?,3,3?,4?,5-pentachloro-4-biphenylol; 2,2?,3,3?,4?,5-hexachloro-4-biphenylol; 2,2?,3,3?,4?,5,5?-heptachloro-4-biphenylol; 2,2?,3,4?,5,5?,6-heptachloro-4-biphenylol; and 2,2?,3?,4,4?,5,5?-heptachloro-3-biphenylol. The hydroxy-PCBs exhibited minimal binding to the rat uterine cytosolic estrogen receptor (ER) and did not induce proliferation of estrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells at concentrations ranging from 10?5to 10?8m. The estrogenic activity of these compounds

M. Moore; M. Mustain; K. Daniel; I. Chen; S. Safe; T. Zacharewski; B. Gillesby; A. Joyeux; P. Balaguer

1997-01-01

187

Zebrafish promoter microarrays identify actively transcribed embryonic genes  

E-print Network

Abstract We have designed a zebrafish genomic microarray to identify DNA-protein interactions in the proximal promoter regions of over 11,000 zebrafish genes. Using these microarrays, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation with an antibody...

Wardle, Fiona C; Odom, Duncan T; Bell, George W; Yuan, Bingbing; Danford, Timothy W; Wiellette, Elizabeth L; Herbolsheimer, Elizabeth; Sive, Hazel L; Young, Richard A; Smith, James C

2006-08-04

188

Zebrafish promoter microarrays identify actively transcribed embryonic genes  

E-print Network

We have designed a zebrafish genomic microarray to identify DNA-protein interactions in the proximal promoter regions of over 11,000 zebrafish genes. Using these microarrays, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation ...

Wardle, Fiona C

189

Novel pathway of metabolic activation of bisphenol A-related compounds for estrogenic activity.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that estrogenic activity of bisphenol A (BPA) in the yeast estrogen screening assay was increased severalfold after incubation with rat liver S9 fraction in the presence of a NADPH-generating system. In this study, we investigated whether eight BPA-related compounds are similarly activated metabolically by rat liver S9 fraction. Three of the analogs exhibited an increase of estrogenic activity after incubation with rat liver S9 fraction but not with microsomal or cytosolic fraction alone. The structures of the metabolites formed were examined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition to oxidized metabolites such as catechols, we found novel dimer-type metabolites. Some of the putative metabolites were chemically synthesized to confirm their structures. The structural requirements for formation of the metabolites, some of which showed more potent estrogenic activity than the parent substrates, were examined. We have uncovered a new pathway of metabolic activation of certain phenolic compounds, such as BPA analogs, to estrogenic dimer-type compounds. PMID:21636669

Okuda, Katsuhiro; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Takiguchi, Masufumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi

2011-09-01

190

Identification of new compounds that trigger apoptosome-independent caspase activation and apoptosis.  

PubMed

Identification of alternative pathways of caspase activation is an important step to develop new antitumor treatments. We report here the result of a screening with a small chemical library, the Developmental Therapeutics Program-National Cancer Institute "challenge set," on cells expressing mutated caspase-9. We have identified two molecules capable of activating an apoptosome-independent apoptotic pathway. These compounds, named F6 and G5, target the ubiquitin-proteasome system by inhibiting the ubiquitin isopeptidases. We have shown that F6 and G5 induce a rather unique apoptotic pathway, which includes a Bcl-2-dependent but apoptosome-independent mitochondrial pathway with up-regulation of the BH3-only protein Noxa, stabilization of the inhibitor of apoptosis antagonist Smac, but also the involvement of the death receptor pathway. Noxa plays an important role in the induction of mitochondrial fragmentation and caspase activation, whereas the death receptor pathway becomes critical in the absence of a functional apoptosome. This study suggests that screening of chemical libraries on cancer cells with defined mutations in apoptotic key elements can lead to the identification of compounds that are useful to characterize alternative pathways of caspase activation. PMID:16982768

Aleo, Emanuela; Henderson, Clare J; Fontanini, Alessandra; Solazzo, Barbara; Brancolini, Claudio

2006-09-15

191

A dual read-out assay to evaluate the potency of compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days' growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors. PMID:23593234

Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Moraski, Garrett C; Casey, Allen; Florio, Stephanie; Alling, Torey; Miller, Marvin J; Parish, Tanya

2013-01-01

192

A Dual Read-Out Assay to Evaluate the Potency of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is a serious global health problem caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for discovery and development of new treatments, but this can only be accomplished through rapid and reproducible M. tuberculosis assays designed to identify potent inhibitors. We developed an automated 96-well assay utilizing a recombinant strain of M. tuberculosis expressing a far-red fluorescent reporter to determine the activity of novel compounds; this allowed us to measure growth by monitoring both optical density and fluorescence. We determined that optical density and fluorescence were correlated with cell number during logarithmic phase growth. Fluorescence was stably maintained without antibiotic selection over 5 days, during which time cells remained actively growing. We optimized parameters for the assay, with the final format being 5 days’ growth in 96-well plates in the presence of 2% w/v DMSO. We confirmed reproducibility using rifampicin and other antibiotics. The dual detection method allows for a reproducible calculation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), at the same time detecting artefacts such as fluorescence quenching or compound precipitation. We used our assay to confirm anti-tubercular activity and establish the structure activity relationship (SAR) around the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-carboxamides, a promising series of M. tuberculosis inhibitors. PMID:23593234

Ollinger, Juliane; Bailey, Mai Ann; Moraski, Garrett C.; Casey, Allen; Florio, Stephanie; Alling, Torey; Miller, Marvin J.; Parish, Tanya

2013-01-01

193

Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

2011-01-01

194

Phenolic compounds, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of three tropical fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major compounds (i.e. phenolic compounds and carotenoids) were analysed in the extracts of the edible part of three tropical fruits: the Andean blackberry, the naranjilla and the tree tomato. Ellagitannins and anthocyanins were predominant in blackberries and phenolic composition can be used to differentiate the two species studied. Similar phenolic composition occurred in red and yellow tree tomato except for

Christian Mertz; Anne-Laure Gancel; Ziya Gunata; Pascaline Alter; Claudie Dhuique-Mayer; Fabrice Vaillant; Ana Mercedes Perez; Jenny Ruales; Pierre Brat

2009-01-01

195

HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

2014-01-01

196

Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds  

SciTech Connect

Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused by these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects.

Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie [Merck KGaA, Merck Serono, NCD/Toxicology, Early and Explanatory Toxicology, 64271 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller, Stefan O. [Merck KGaA, Merck Serono, NCD/Toxicology, Early and Explanatory Toxicology, 64271 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: stefan.o.mueller@merck.de

2009-04-01

197

Production of antioomycete compounds active against the phytopathogens Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides by clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

A total of 412 strains belonging to 14 genera of clavicipitoid entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) were screened for activities against two economically important plant pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora sojae and Aphanomyces cochlioides. To identify the antioomycete compounds produced by EPF, the extracts of 13 highly active EPF strains were characterized in detail by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and high-resolution mass spectrometric detection and antioomycete assay. The antioomycete activity of several Metarhizium extracts was associated with previously isolated aurovertins, fungerin, N-(methyl-3-oxodec-6-enoyl)-2-pyrroline, and N-(methyl-3-oxodecanoyl)-2-pyrroline. The depsipeptide beauvericin was confirmed to be one of the active principles of three strains of Isaria tenuipes, which strongly inhibited mycelial growth of both P. sojae and A. cochlioides. Two known bioactive metabolites, paecilosetin and aranorosinol A, together with a novel and potent antioomycete compound, farinomalein, were isolated from the extracts of Isaria farinosa and all compounds were confirmed to have antioomycete activity. Identification of 8 antioomycete compounds from 13 clavicipitioid EPF demonstrated a new potential use of EPF as a source of compounds for the control of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. PMID:24268864

Putri, Sastia Prama; Ishido, Kei-Ichi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Kitani, Shigeru; Ihara, Fumio; Sakihama, Yasuko; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Nihira, Takuya

2014-05-01

198

Management Development Program. Preliminary Organizing Structure for Identifying Educational Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Management Development Program, which was designed to address the needs of executive-level administrators of higher education, is described. The program was developed by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). Seven limitations of executive-level administrators are identified, along with the capabilities of NCHEMS…

Cloud, Sherrill

199

PLACING INNOVATION: AN APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING EMERGENT TECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the elements of physical and organizational infrastructure most important for technological innovation is challenging for at least two reasons: measuring technological innovation is difficult; and establishing causality is difficult. In this paper, we partially address these paired challenges by (1) describing a new approach for measuring innovation, and (2) employing that approach to compare established technology regions with emerging

Philip Auerswald; Rajendra Kulkarni

2008-01-01

200

Low cost whole-organism screening of compounds for anthelmintic activity.  

PubMed

Due to major problems with drug resistance in parasitic nematodes of animals, there is a substantial need and excellent opportunities to develop new anthelmintics via genomic-guided and/or repurposing approaches. In the present study, we established a practical and cost-effective whole-organism assay for the in vitro-screening of compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barber's pole worm). The assay is based on the use of exsheathed L3 (xL3) and L4 stages of H. contortus of small ruminants (sheep and goats). Using this assay, we screened a panel of 522 well-curated kinase inhibitors (GlaxoSmithKline, USA; code: PKIS2) for activity against H. contortus by measuring the inhibition of larval motility using an automated image analysis system. We identified two chemicals within the compound classes biphenyl amides and pyrazolo[1,5-?]pyridines, which reproducibly inhibit both xL3 and L4 motility and development, with IC50s of 14-47?M. Given that these inhibitors were designed as anti-inflammatory drugs for use in humans and fit the Lipinski rule-of-five (including bioavailability), they show promise for hit-to-lead optimisation and repurposing for use against parasitic nematodes. The screening assay established here has significant advantages over conventional methods, particularly in terms of ease of use, throughput, time and cost. Although not yet fully automated, the current assay is readily suited to the screening of hundreds to thousands of compounds for subsequent hit-to-lead optimisation. The current assay is highly adaptable to many parasites of socioeconomic importance, including those causing neglected tropical diseases. This aspect is of major relevance, given the urgent need to deliver the goals of the London Declaration (http://unitingtocombatntds.org/resource/london-declaration) through the rapid and efficient repurposing of compounds in public-private partnerships. PMID:25746136

Preston, Sarah; Jabbar, Abdul; Nowell, Cameron; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Baell, Jonathan; Cardno, Tony; Korhonen, Pasi K; Piedrafita, David; Ansell, Brendan R E; Jex, Aaron R; Hofmann, Andreas; Gasser, Robin B

2015-04-01

201

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria.  

PubMed

This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, and ?-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:24031892

Dos Santos, Fernanda M; de Souza, Maria Gorete; Crotti, Antônio E Miller; Martins, Carlos H G; Ambrósio, Sérgio R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; E Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Cunha, Wilson R

2012-04-01

202

Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of extracts of Tibouchina candolleana (melastomataceae), isolated compounds and semi-synthetic derivatives against endodontic bacteria  

PubMed Central

This work describes the phytochemical study of the extracts from aerial parts of Tibouchina candolleana as well as the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of extracts, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives of ursolic acid against endodontic bacteria. HRGC analysis of the n-hexane extract of T. candolleana allowed identification of ?-amyrin, ?-amyrin, and ?-sitosterol as major constituents. The triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid were isolated from the methylene chloride extract and identified. In addition, the flavonoids luteolin and genistein were isolated from the ethanol extract and identified. The antimicrobial activity was investigated via determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the broth microdilution method. Amongst the isolated compounds, ursolic acid was the most effective against the selected endodontic bacteria. As for the semi-synthetic ursolic acid derivatives, only the methyl ester derivative potentiated the activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:24031892

dos Santos, Fernanda M.; de Souza, Maria Gorete; Crotti, Antônio E. Miller; Martins, Carlos H. G.; Ambrósio, Sérgio R.; Veneziani, Rodrigo C. S.; e Silva, Márcio L. Andrade; Cunha, Wilson R.

2012-01-01

203

Identifying active methane-oxidizers in thawed Arctic permafrost by proteomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate of CH4 release from thawing permafrost in the Arctic has been regarded as one of the determining factors on future global climate. It is uncertain how indigenous microorganisms would interact with such changing environmental conditions and hence their impact on the fate of carbon compounds that are sequestered in the cryosol. Multitudinous studies of pristine surface cryosol (top 5 cm) and microcosm experiments have provided growing evidence of effective methanotrophy. Cryosol samples corresponding to active layer were sampled from a sparsely vegetated, ice-wedge polygon at the McGill Arctic Research Station at Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, Canada (N79°24, W90°45) before the onset of annual thaw. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated the occurrence of methanotroph-containing bacterial families as minor components (~5%) in pristine cryosol including Bradyrhizobiaceae, Methylobacteriaceae and Methylocystaceae within alpha-Proteobacteria, and Methylacidiphilaceae within Verrucomicrobia. The potential of methanotrophy is supported by preliminary analysis of metagenome data, which indicated putative methane monooxygenase gene sequences relating to Bradyrhizobium sp. and Pseudonocardia sp. are present. Proteome profiling in general yielded minute traces of proteins, which likely hints at dormant nature of the soil microbial consortia. The lack of specific protein database for permafrost posted additional challenge to protein identification. Only 35 proteins could be identified in the pristine cryosol and of which 60% belonged to Shewanella sp. Most of the identified proteins are known to be involved in energy metabolism or post-translational modification of proteins. Microcosms amended with sodium acetate exhibited a net methane consumption of ~65 ngC-CH4 per gram (fresh weight) of soil over 16 days of aerobic incubation at room temperature. The pH in microcosm materials remained acidic (decreased from initial 4.7 to 4.5). Protein extraction and characterization identified ~350 proteins, confirmed enhanced microbial activities and significant shift in community structure within the microcosms. Although the activity of Shewanella sp. was suppressed by the incubation conditions, other bacteria were activated. This was shown by at least 3-fold increase in the number of identified proteins, which were primarily players in cellular energy metabolism. Among them, Geobacter sp. and methane-oxidizers, Bradyrhizobium sp., Methylosinus sp. and Methylocystis sp. appear dominant. In order to advance the protein database for better biodiversity and functional identification, we are currently using duo extraction protocols and consolidating metagenome data obtained from the same soil samples. A depth profile (from active to permafrost layer) for methanotrophs is being determined by examining pristine cores, thawed cryosols as well as enrichment cultures. The proteome information from these samples will be presented, which will be complemented by molecular studies.

Lau, C. M.; Stackhouse, B. T.; Chourey, K.; Hettich, R. L.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Layton, A. C.; Mykytczuk, N. C.; Whyte, L.; Onstott, T. C.

2012-12-01

204

Screening of an FDA-Approved Compound Library Identifies Four Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture  

PubMed Central

Coronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar previously unknown coronavirus emerged, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), thus far causing over 650 laboratory-confirmed infections, with an unexplained steep rise in the number of cases being recorded over recent months. The human MERS fatality rate of ?30% is alarmingly high, even though many deaths were associated with underlying medical conditions. Registered therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus infections are not available. Moreover, the pace of drug development and registration for human use is generally incompatible with strategies to combat emerging infectious diseases. Therefore, we have screened a library of 348 FDA-approved drugs for anti-MERS-CoV activity in cell culture. If such compounds proved sufficiently potent, their efficacy might be directly assessed in MERS patients. We identified four compounds (chloroquine, chlorpromazine, loperamide, and lopinavir) inhibiting MERS-CoV replication in the low-micromolar range (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 3 to 8 ?M). Moreover, these compounds also inhibit the replication of SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. Although their protective activity (alone or in combination) remains to be assessed in animal models, our findings may offer a starting point for treatment of patients infected with zoonotic coronaviruses like MERS-CoV. Although they may not necessarily reduce viral replication to very low levels, a moderate viral load reduction may create a window during which to mount a protective immune response. PMID:24841269

de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Jochmans, Dirk; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; van Nieuwkoop, Stefan; Bestebroer, Theo M.; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G.

2014-01-01

205

SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2  

EPA Science Inventory

High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

206

Antioxidant activity of compounds from the medicinal herb Aster tataricus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of compounds were isolated from the medicinal plant Aster tataricus including shionone, epifriedelinol, quercetin, kaempferol, scopoletin, emodin, aurantiamide acetate and 1,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone. The compounds were compared with regard to their ability in inhibiting hemolysis of rat erythrocytes induced by 2?-2? azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, lipid peroxidation using the FeSO4-ascorbic acid system, and generation of superoxide radicals using a phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide

T. B. Ng; Fang Liu; Yanhua Lu; C. H. K. Cheng; Zhengtao Wang

2003-01-01

207

Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.  

PubMed

The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. PMID:25842306

Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

2015-09-01

208

Synthesis and anticancer activity of focused compound libraries from the natural product lead, oroidin.  

PubMed

Oroidin (1), (E)-N-(3-(2-amino-1H-imidazol-4-yl)allyl)-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide, is a pyrrole alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Agelas oroides. Routine screening in a panel of twelve cancer cell lines revealed 1 to be poorly cytotoxic with the 50% growth inhibition concentration (GI50) of 42 ?M in MCF-7 (breast) cells and 24 ?M in A2780 (ovarian) cells and >50 ?M in all other cell lines tested. The development of eight focused libraries comprising thirty compounds total identified N-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (4l), N-benzyl-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (5a) and N-(biphenyl-4-ylmethyl)-4,5-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide (5l) as potent inhibitors of cell growth in our panel of cell lines. Of these compounds GI50 values of <5 ?M were observed with 4l against HT29 (colon) and SW480 (colon); 5a against HT29; and 5l against HT29, SW480, MCF-7, A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma) and MIA (pancreas) cell lines. As a cancer class, colon cancer appears to be more sensitive to the oroidin series of compounds, with analogue 5l being the most active. PMID:24508308

Dyson, Lauren; Wright, Anthony D; Young, Kelly A; Sakoff, Jennette A; McCluskey, Adam

2014-03-01

209

Activation Tagging Identifies a Conserved MYB Regulator of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants produce a wide array of natural products, many of which are likely to be useful bioactive structures. Unfortu- nately, these complex natural products usually occur at very low abundance and with restricted tissue distribution, thereby hindering their evaluation. Here, we report a novel approach for enhancing the accumulation of natural prod- ucts based on activation tagging by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

Justin O. Borevitz; Yiji Xia; Jack Blount; Richard A. Dixon; Chris Lamb

2000-01-01

210

Mosquito repelling activity of compounds occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol extract ofAchillea millefolium L. showed repelling properties against the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Prepared fractions from the extract contained several active compounds which were characterized by thin layer chromatography,\\u000a high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Of 35 compounds tested, the most active\\u000a were the nitrogen containing compound stachydrine, the carboxylic acids, caffeic, chlorogenic, and salicylic acids,

H. Tunón; W. Thorsell; L. Bohlin

1994-01-01

211

Antibacterial activity of extracellular compounds produced by a Pseudomonas strain against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a world health problem. Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, is one of the most important human pathogens associated with hospital and community-acquired infections. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived compound against MRSA strains. Methods Thirty clinical MRSA strains were isolated, and three standard MRSA strains were evaluated. The extracellular compounds were purified by vacuum liquid chromatography. Evaluation of antibacterial activity was performed by agar diffusion technique, determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration, curve of growth and viability and scanning electron microscopy. Interaction of an extracellular compound with silver nanoparticle was studied to evaluate antibacterial effect. Results The F3 (ethyl acetate) and F3d (dichloromethane- ethyl acetate) fractions demonstrated antibacterial activity against the MRSA strains. Phenazine-1-carboxamide was identified and purified from the F3d fraction and demonstrated slight antibacterial activity against MRSA, and synergic effect when combined with silver nanoparticles produced by Fusarium oxysporum. Organohalogen compound was purified from this fraction showing high antibacterial effect. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that the F3d fraction caused morphological changes to the cell wall of the MRSA strains. Conclusions These results suggest that P. aeruginosa-produced compounds such as phenazines have inhibitory effects against MRSA and may be a good alternative treatment to control infections caused by MRSA. PMID:23773484

2013-01-01

212

JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

Steven B. Hawthorne

2007-04-15

213

Sorption of boric acid and borax by activated carbon impregnated with various compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of boron compounds, boric acid and borax from aqueous solution by activated carbon before and after impregnation with various compounds was studied. A series of activated carbons was prepared from coconut shell impregnated with calcium and barium chlorides, citric and tartaric acids. The examined processes were performed in batch and continuous systems under equilibrium and dynamic conditions. Impregnation

Lj. V. Rajakovi?; M. Dj. Risti?

1996-01-01

214

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

E-print Network

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain

Sali, Andrej

215

Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria  

DOEpatents

A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

DiSpirito, Alan A. (Ames, IA); Zahn, James A. (Harbor Beach, MI); Graham, David W. (Lawrence, KS); Kim, Hyung J. (St. Paul, MN); Alterman, Michail (Lawrence, KS); Larive, Cynthia (Lawrence, KS)

2007-04-03

216

Development of a screen to identify selective small molecules active against patient-derived metastatic and chemoresistant breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction High failure rates of new investigational drugs have impaired the development of breast cancer therapies. One challenge is that excellent activity in preclinical models, such as established cancer cell lines, does not always translate into improved clinical outcomes for patients. New preclinical models, which better replicate clinically-relevant attributes of cancer, such as chemoresistance, metastasis and cellular heterogeneity, may identify novel anti-cancer mechanisms and increase the success of drug development. Methods Metastatic breast cancer cells were obtained from pleural effusions of consented patients whose disease had progressed. Normal primary human breast cells were collected from a reduction mammoplasty and immortalized with human telomerase. The patient-derived cells were characterized to determine their cellular heterogeneity and proliferation rate by flow cytometry, while dose response curves were performed for chemotherapies to assess resistance. A screen was developed to measure the differential activity of small molecules on the growth and survival of patient-derived normal breast and metastatic, chemoresistant tumor cells to identify selective anti-cancer compounds. Several hits were identified and validated in dose response assays. One compound, C-6, was further characterized for its effect on cell cycle and cell death in cancer cells. Results Patient-derived cells were found to be more heterogeneous, with reduced proliferation rates and enhanced resistance to chemotherapy compared to established cell lines. A screen was subsequently developed that utilized both tumor and normal patient-derived cells. Several compounds were identified, which selectively targeted tumor cells, but not normal cells. Compound C-6 was found to inhibit proliferation and induce cell death in tumor cells via a caspase-independent mechanism. Conclusions Short-term culture of patient-derived cells retained more clinically relevant features of breast cancer compared to established cell lines. The low proliferation rate and chemoresistance make patient-derived cells an excellent tool in preclinical drug development. PMID:23879992

2013-01-01

217

Prediction of Positions of Active Compounds Makes It Possible To Increase Activity in Fragment-Based Drug Development  

PubMed Central

We have developed a computational method that predicts the positions of active compounds, making it possible to increase activity as a fragment evolution strategy. We refer to the positions of these compounds as the active position. When an active fragment compound is found, the following lead generation process is performed, primarily to increase activity. In the current method, to predict the location of the active position, hydrogen atoms are replaced by small side chains, generating virtual compounds. These virtual compounds are docked to a target protein, and the docking scores (affinities) are examined. The hydrogen atom that gives the virtual compound with good affinity should correspond to the active position and it should be replaced to generate a lead compound. This method was found to work well, with the prediction of the active position being 2 times more efficient than random synthesis. In the current study, 15 examples of lead generation were examined. The probability of finding active positions among all hydrogen atoms was 26%, and the current method accurately predicted 60% of the active positions.

Fukunishi, Yoshifumi

2011-01-01

218

In Vivo Structure Activity Relationship Study of Dorsomorphin Analogs Identifies Selective VEGF and BMP Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic potential of small molecule signaling inhibitors is often limited by off-target effects. Recently, in a screen for compounds that perturb zebrafish embryonic dorsoventral axis, we identified dorsomorphin, the first selective inhibitor of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Here we show that dorsomorphin has significant “off-target” effects against the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) type-2 receptor (Flk1/KDR) and disrupts zebrafish angiogenesis. Since both BMP and VEGF signals are known to be involved in vascular development, we sought to determine whether dorsomorphin’s anti-angiogenic effects are due to its impact on the BMP or VEGF signals through the development of analogs that target BMP but not VEGF signaling, and vise versa. In a structure activity relationship (SAR) study of dorsomorphin analogs based primarily on their effects on live zebrafish embryos, we identified highly selective and potent BMP inhibitors as well as selective VEGF inhibitors. One of the BMP inhibitors, DMH1, which exclusively targets the BMP, but not VEGF, pathway, dorsalized the embryonic axis without disrupting angiogenic process, demonstrating that BMP signaling was not involved in angiogenic process. This is one of the first full-scale SAR study performed in vertebrates, and demonstrates the potential of zebrafish as an attractive complementary platform for drug development that incorporates an assessment of in vivo bioactivity and selectivity in the context of a living organism. PMID:20020776

Hao, Jijun; Ho, Joshua N.; Lewis, Jana A.; Karim, Kaleh A.; Daniels, R. Nathan; Gentry, Patrick R.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hong, Charles C.

2010-01-01

219

Discovery of a Novel Compound with Anti-Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity That Targets the Nonstructural Protein 2  

PubMed Central

Alphaviruses present serious health threats as emerging and re-emerging viruses. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), a New World alphavirus, can cause encephalitis in humans and horses, but there are no therapeutics for treatment. To date, compounds reported as anti-VEEV or anti-alphavirus inhibitors have shown moderate activity. To discover new classes of anti-VEEV inhibitors with novel viral targets, we used a high-throughput screen based on the measurement of cell protection from live VEEV TC-83-induced cytopathic effect to screen a 340,000 compound library. Of those, we identified five novel anti-VEEV compounds and chose a quinazolinone compound, CID15997213 (IC50?=?0.84 µM), for further characterization. The antiviral effect of CID15997213 was alphavirus-specific, inhibiting VEEV and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In vitro assays confirmed inhibition of viral RNA, protein, and progeny synthesis. No antiviral activity was detected against a select group of RNA viruses. We found mutations conferring the resistance to the compound in the N-terminal domain of nsP2 and confirmed the target residues using a reverse genetic approach. Time of addition studies showed that the compound inhibits the middle stage of replication when viral genome replication is most active. In mice, the compound showed complete protection from lethal VEEV disease at 50 mg/kg/day. Collectively, these results reveal a potent anti-VEEV compound that uniquely targets the viral nsP2 N-terminal domain. While the function of nsP2 has yet to be characterized, our studies suggest that the protein might play a critical role in viral replication, and further, may represent an innovative opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions for alphavirus infection. PMID:24967809

Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Tower, Nichole A.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Sahin, Ergin; Golden, Jennifer E.; Noah, James W.; Schroeder, Chad E.; Sotsky, Julie B.; Sosa, Melinda I.; Cramer, Daniel E.; McKellip, Sara N.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Schmaljohn, Connie S.; Julander, Justin G.; Smith, Jeffrey M.; Filone, Claire Marie; Connor, John H.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Davey, Robert A.

2014-01-01

220

Activity artifacts in drug discovery and different facets of compound promiscuity  

PubMed Central

Compounds with apparent activity in a variety of assays might disable target proteins or produce false assay signals in the absence of specific interactions. In some instances, such effects are easy to detect, in others they are not. Observed promiscuity of compounds might be due to such non-specific assay artifacts. By contrast, promiscuity might also result from specific interactions with multiple targets. In the latter case, promiscuous compounds can be attractive candidates for certain therapeutic applications. However, compounds with artificial activity readouts are often not recognized and are further progressed, which presents a substantial problem for drug discovery. In this context, the concept of PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds) should be seriously considered, which makes it possible to eliminate flawed compounds from the discovery pipeline, even if their activities appear to be sound at a first glance. PMID:25339989

Bajorath, Jürgen

2014-01-01

221

Identification of Compounds with Anti-Proliferative Activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei Strain 427 by a Whole Cell Viability Based HTS Campaign  

PubMed Central

Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by two trypanosome sub-species, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Drugs available for the treatment of HAT have significant issues related to difficult administration regimes and limited efficacy across species and disease stages. Hence, there is considerable need to find new alternative and less toxic drugs. An approach to identify starting points for new drug candidates is high throughput screening (HTS) of large compound library collections. We describe the application of an Alamar Blue based, 384-well HTS assay to screen a library of 87,296 compounds against the related trypanosome subspecies, Trypanosoma brucei brucei bloodstream form lister 427. Primary hits identified against T.b. brucei were retested and the IC50 value compounds were estimated for T.b. brucei and a mammalian cell line HEK293, to determine a selectivity index for each compound. The screening campaign identified 205 compounds with greater than 10 times selectivity against T.b. brucei. Cluster analysis of these compounds, taking into account chemical and structural properties required for drug-like compounds, afforded a panel of eight compounds for further biological analysis. These compounds had IC50 values ranging from 0.22 µM to 4 µM with associated selectivity indices ranging from 19 to greater than 345. Further testing against T.b. rhodesiense led to the selection of 6 compounds from 5 new chemical classes with activity against the causative species of HAT, which can be considered potential candidates for HAT early drug discovery. Structure activity relationship (SAR) mining revealed components of those hit compound structures that may be important for biological activity. Four of these compounds have undergone further testing to 1) determine whether they are cidal or static in vitro at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and 2) estimate the time to kill. PMID:23209849

Kaiser, Marcel; Chatelain, Eric; Moawad, Sarah R.; Ganame, Danny; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Avery, Vicky M.

2012-01-01

222

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of sulfur-containing compounds from Petiveria alliacea L.  

PubMed

A total of 18 organosulfur compounds originating from Petiveria alliacea L. roots have been tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. These represent compounds occurring in fresh homogenates as well as those present in various macerates, extracts and other preparations made from Petiveria alliacea. Of the compounds assayed, the thiosulfinates, trisulfides and benzylsulfinic acid were observed to be the most active, with the benzyl-containing thiosulfinates exhibiting the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The effect of plant sample preparation conditions on the antimicrobial activity of the extract is discussed. PMID:16229980

Kim, Seokwon; Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

2006-03-01

223

Antinociceptive and antitumor activity of novel synthetic mononuclear Ruthenium (II) compounds  

PubMed Central

Background: From the thousands of years, metal compounds have been used in medicine for treatment of various diseases including various types of cancers. Ruthenium was seen as a promising metal due to its similar kinetics to platinum and its lower toxicity. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the newer mononuclear ruthenium (II) compounds for antinociceptive and antitumor activities. Materials and Methods: Ruthenium (II) compounds were evaluated for antinociceptive and antitumor activity using the various in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were injected to mice at concentrations of 1 and 2 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally and were screened for antinociceptive activity, and the antiproliferative effect was evaluated against murine leukemia cells (L1210), human T-lymphocyte cells (CEM) and human cervix carcinoma cells (HeLa) using MTT assay. Results: The results for antitumor activity clearly indicated that compound R1 was potent cytotoxic agent than R2 with IC50 values ranging from 4-6 ?M for R1, whereas IC50 values for compound R2 ranging from 65-103 ?M. The compounds have shown a significant anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan and dextran models but do not having the central analgesic activity, this indicating that the antinociceptive activity is related to the peripheral nervous system. The results for 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity showed that both R1 and R2 compounds were found to be significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 14.35 ?g ml-1 and 29.24 ?g ml-1 respectively. Conclusion: These findings concluded that the new ruthenium compounds might be the promising antiproliferative agents as these compounds showing significant 5-LOX inhibitory activity and potential agents in the management of pain related disorders. PMID:23930118

Sunder A, Shyam; Dhulipala, Satyavati; Thota, Sreekanth; Yerra, Rajeshwar; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik

2013-01-01

224

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-?B luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

2013-08-15

225

Antimicrobial, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities of mono- and bisquaternary pyridinium compounds  

PubMed Central

Pyridinium-based oxime compounds have been utilized worldwide as antidotes following exposure to anticholinesterase agents. In the event of combined chemical and biological incident, it is of vital importance to know the ability of antidotes to provide additional protection against biological threats. This paper reports results of in vitro antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities of a series of quaternary pyridinium oximes against a number of lower pathogenicity BSL-1 and 2 agents. In general, our compound panel had little to no antimicrobial action except for thiophene- and benzothiophene-substituted monoquaternary pyridinium compounds 21 and 24 that showed moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococus aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus with IC50 values ranging from 12.2–17.7 µg/mL. Compounds 21 and 24 also exhibited antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 19 and 18 µg/mL, respectively. Another monoquaternary pyridinium compound with a bromobutyl side chain 17 showed antimalarial activity against both a chloroquine sensitive and resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 3.7 and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. None of the bisquaternary pyridinium compounds showed antimicrobial, or antiprotozoal activity. None of the compounds showed cytotoxic effects towards mammalian kidney fibroblasts. Results of this study indicate that the pyridinium compounds, some of which are already in use as antidotes, do not have significant antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities and cannot be relied upon for additional protection in the event of combined chemical-biological incident. PMID:21040494

Bharate, Sandip B.; Thompson, Charles M.

2010-01-01

226

Reactivity studies of antitumor active dirhodium compounds with DNA oligonucleotides  

E-print Network

oligonucleotides were investigated by the techniques of mass spectrometry, HPLC, and NMR spectroscopic analytical methods. The relative reactivities of three dirhodium compounds, namely Rh2(O2CCH3)4, Rh2(O2CCF3)4, and [Rh2(O2CCH3)2(CH3CN)6](BF4)2, with DNA...

Kang, Mijeong

2007-04-25

227

Polarographically Active Structural Fragments of Lignin. I. Monomeric Model Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical properties of compounds modeling typical structural units of lignin were determined by differential pulse polarography in dimethylsulfoxide with tetrabutylammonium perchlorate as a supporting electrolyte. p-Quinonemethides; derivatives of cinnamyl aldehyde and cinnamic acid; aromatic aldehydes, ketones, diketones, and carboxylic acids; isoeugenol; and coniferyl alcohol were studied. Structural effects on the reduction potentials of lignin units were estimated. The potentials, which

Edward Evstigneyev; Helen Maiyorova; Andrew Platonov

1999-01-01

228

Nanopharmacy: Inorganic nanoscale devices as vectors and active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we would like to aim at pharmaceuticals engineered on the nanoscale, i.e. pharmaceuticals where the nanomaterial plays the pivotal therapeutic role or adds additional functionality to the previous compound. Those cases would be considered as nanopharmaceuticals. The development of inorganic systems is opening the pharmaceutical nanotechnology novel horizons for diagnosis, imaging and therapy mainly because of their

Pilar Rivera Gil; Dominik Hühn; Loretta L. del Mercato; Daniel Sasse; Wolfgang J. Parak

2010-01-01

229

Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential. PMID:18616260

Kim, Min-Young; Seguin, Philippe; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Jong-Jin; Chun, Se-Chul; Kim, Eun-Hye; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Kim, Sun-Lim; Park, Yool-Jin; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chung, Ill-Min

2008-08-27

230

Effects of active conductance distribution over dendrites on the synaptic integration in an identified nonspiking interneuron.  

PubMed

The synaptic integration in individual central neuron is critically affected by how active conductances are distributed over dendrites. It has been well known that the dendrites of central neurons are richly endowed with voltage- and ligand-regulated ion conductances. Nonspiking interneurons (NSIs), almost exclusively characteristic to arthropod central nervous systems, do not generate action potentials and hence lack voltage-regulated sodium channels, yet having a variety of voltage-regulated potassium conductances on their dendritic membrane including the one similar to the delayed-rectifier type potassium conductance. It remains unknown, however, how the active conductances are distributed over dendrites and how the synaptic integration is affected by those conductances in NSIs and other invertebrate neurons where the cell body is not included in the signal pathway from input synapses to output sites. In the present study, we quantitatively investigated the functional significance of active conductance distribution pattern in the spatio-temporal spread of synaptic potentials over dendrites of an identified NSI in the crayfish central nervous system by computer simulation. We systematically changed the distribution pattern of active conductances in the neuron's multicompartment model and examined how the synaptic potential waveform was affected by each distribution pattern. It was revealed that specific patterns of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances were consistent, while other patterns were not, with the waveform of compound synaptic potentials recorded physiologically in the major input-output pathway of the cell, suggesting that the possibility of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances over the dendrite cannot be excluded as well as the possibility of uniform distribution. Local synaptic circuits involving input and output synapses on the same branch or on the same side were found to be potentially affected under the condition of nonuniform distribution while operation of the major input-output pathway from the soma side to the one on the opposite side remained the same under both conditions of uniform and nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances over the NSI dendrite. PMID:18493322

Takashima, Akira; Takahata, Masakazu

2008-01-01

231

Determination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in leaves from wild rubus L. Species.  

PubMed

Twenty-six different wild blackberry leaf samples were harvested from various localities throughout southeastern Poland. Leaf samples were assessed regarding their phenolic compound profiles and contents by LC/MS QTOF, and their antioxidant activity by ABTS and FRAP. Thirty-three phenolic compounds were detected (15 flavonols, 13 hydroxycinnamic acids, three ellagic acid derivatives and two flavones). Ellagic acid derivatives were the predominant compounds in the analyzed leaves, especially sanguiin H-6, ellagitannins, lambertianin C, and casuarinin. The content of phenolic compounds was significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of the analyzed samples. The highest level of phenolic compounds was measured for R. perrobustus, R. wimmerianus, R. pedemontanus and R. grabowskii. The study showed that wild blackberry leaves can be considered a good source of antioxidant compounds. There is clear potential for the utilization of blackberry leaves as a food additive, medicinal source or herbal tea. PMID:25793543

Oszmia?ski, Jan; Wojdy?o, Aneta; Nowicka, Paulina; Teleszko, Miros?awa; Cebulak, Tomasz; Wolanin, Mateusz

2015-01-01

232

Asymmetric bioreduction of activated alkenes to industrially relevant optically active compounds  

PubMed Central

Ene-reductases from the ‘Old Yellow Enzyme’ family of flavoproteins catalyze the asymmetric reduction of various ?,?-unsaturated compounds at the expense of a nicotinamide cofactor. They have been applied to the synthesis of valuable enantiopure products, including chiral building blocks with broad industrial applications, terpenoids, amino acid derivatives and fragrances. The combination of these highly stereoselective biocatalysts with a cofactor recycling system has allowed the development of cost-effective methods for the generation of optically active molecules, which is strengthened by the availability of stereo-complementary enzyme homologues. PMID:22498437

Winkler, Christoph K.; Tasnádi, Gábor; Clay, Dorina; Hall, Mélanie; Faber, Kurt

2012-01-01

233

Analysis of aroma-active compounds in three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivars by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Aroma is the core factor in aromatherapy. Sensory evaluation of aromas differed among three sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans) cultivar groups. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aroma-active compounds responsible for these differences. Methods: Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the aroma-active compounds and volatiles of creamy-white (‘Houban Yingui’, HBYG), yellow (‘Liuye Jingui’, LYJG), and orange (‘Gecheng Dangui’, GCDG) cultivars. Results: Seventeen aroma-active compounds were detected among 54 volatiles. trans-?-Ocimene, trans-?-ionone, and linalool, which were major volatiles, were identified as aroma-active, while cis-3-hexenyl butanoate, ?-terpinene, and hexyl butanoate were also aroma-active compounds, although their contents were low. Analysis of the odors was based on the sum of the modified frequency (MF) values of aroma-active compounds in different odor groups. HBYG contained more herb odors, contributed by cis-?-ocimene and trans-?-ocimene, while LYJG had more woody/violet/fruity odors released by trans-?-ionone, ?-ionone, and hexyl butanoate. In GCDG, the more floral odors were the result of cis-linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, and linalool. Conclusions: Aroma-active compounds were not necessarily only the major volatiles: some volatiles with low content also contributed to aroma. The aroma differences among the three cultivars resulted from variation in the content of different odor groups and in the intensities of aroma-active compounds. PMID:25001223

Cai, Xuan; Mai, Rong-zhang; Zou, Jing-jing; Zhang, Hong-yan; Zeng, Xiang-ling; Zheng, Ri-ru; Wang, Cai-yun

2014-01-01

234

The Dietary Compounds Resveratrol and Genistein Induce Activating Transcription Factor 3 While Suppressing Inhibitor of DNA Binding/Differentiation-1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Various chemopreventive compounds alter gene expression, possibly explaining their biological activity. One gene induced by a variety of chemopreventive compounds is the one coding for the transcription factor activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). In this study, we performed microarray analysis on mRNA isolated from human colorectal cancer cells overexpressing ATF3 to ascertain the biological activity of this gene in cancer. As a result, 64 genes were induced or repressed. One gene identified by microarray analysis as repressed by overexpression of ATF3 was inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation-1 (Id1). Id1 is important to cell growth and proliferation and therefore may represent an important downstream target of ATF3 responsible for the biological activity of ATF3. Id1 interacts with ATF3, thereby sequestering its activity, making it an ideal candidate for further study. The induction of ATF3 and repression of Id1 in these cells were confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels by semiquantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. To determine if the repression of Id1 seen following microarray analysis of these cells occurred following treatment with dietary compounds with known chemotherapeutic activity, human colorectal cancer cells were treated with resveratrol and genistein, and their expression was determined. As a result, ATF3 was induced, and Id1 was repressed, by these compounds and by sulindac sulfide, a positive control, at the mRNA and protein level. Further work is needed to determine the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the regulation of Id1 and to determine if biological activity of ATF3 overexpression is mediated by repression of Id1 by these compounds. PMID:21554132

Alston-Mills, Brenda

2011-01-01

235

Effect of polyphenolic compounds on the growth and cellulolytic activity of a strain of Trichoderma viride  

SciTech Connect

Polyphenolic compounds are often regarded as inhibitors of microorganism growth. However, polyphenolic compounds can also induce stimulating effects on the growth, respiration, fermentation and excretion of amino acids. Depending on the concentration of polyphenolic compounds in the medium, opposed effects (inhibition, stimulation) can be observed. The purpose of this article is to study the effects of condensed tannins and some monomers on the growth and cellulolytic activity of Trichoderma viride. (Refs. 30).

Arrieta-Escobar, A.; Belin, J.M.

1982-04-01

236

Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

2014-03-01

237

The adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds from aqueous solutions onto activated carbons.  

PubMed

In this study, the adsorption of pharmaceutically active compounds - salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, atenolol and diclofenac-Na onto activated carbons has been studied. Three different commercial activated carbons, possessing ?650, 900 or 1500m(2)g(-1) surface areas were used as solid adsorbents. These materials were fully characterized - their textural, surface features and points of zero charge have been determined. The adsorption was studied from aqueous solutions at 303K using batch adsorption experiments and titration microcalorimetry, which was employed in order to obtain the heats evolved as a result of adsorption. The maximal adsorption capacities of investigated solids for all target pharmaceuticals are in the range of 10(-4)molg(-1). The obtained maximal retention capacities are correlated with the textural properties of applied activated carbon. The roles of acid/base features of activated carbons and of molecular structures of adsorbate molecules have been discussed. The obtained results enabled to estimate the possibility to use the activated carbons in the removal of pharmaceuticals by adsorption. PMID:24857621

Raki?, Vesna; Rac, Vladislav; Krmar, Marija; Otman, Otman; Auroux, Aline

2015-01-23

238

Establishment of a Cell-Based Assay for Screening of Compounds Inhibiting Very Early Events in the Cytomegalovirus Replication Cycle and Characterization of a Compound Identified Using the Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simplify the detection of infectious human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), we generated a cell line that produced luciferase in a dose-dependent manner upon HCMV infection. Using this cell line, we identified anti-HCMV compounds from a diverse library of 9,600 compounds. One of them, 1-(3,5-dichloro-4-pyridyl)pi- peridine-4-carboxamide (DPPC), was effective against HCMV (Towne strain) infection of human lung fibro- blast cells at a

Yoshiko Fukui; Keiko Shindoh; Yumiko Yamamoto; Shin Koyano; Isao Kosugi; Toyofumi Yamaguchi; Ichiro Kurane; Naoki Inoue

2008-01-01

239

Isolation, structural elucidation and in vitro antioxidant activity of compounds from chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud.  

PubMed

This study was designed to isolate, characterise and explore in vitro antioxidant potential of compounds from the chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara wood belonging to Pinacae family. We have investigated the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of isolated compounds by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and reducing power ability. From the chloroform extract five sesquiterpenes namely atlantone, himaphenolone, atlantolone, deodardione and atlantone-2,3-diol were identified. Himaphenolone and deodardione from the chloroform extract of this plant have been isolated for the first time. A marked dose-dependent reducing power and strong TAC were found in favour of himaphenolone and atlantone-2,3-diol, respectively. Moreover, deodardione and atlantolone also exhibit good antioxidant potentials. However, atlantone has showed least antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the chloroform extract of C. deodara exhibited significant antioxidant potential mainly due to the presence of sesquiterpenes which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of this plant. PMID:25103644

Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Ahmad, Shamim; Mazumder, Avijit

2015-02-01

240

Screening method to identify preclinical liquid and semi-solid formulations for low solubility compounds: miniaturization and automation of solvent casting and dissolution testing.  

PubMed

We have developed an efficient screening method to identify liquid and semisolid formulations for low-solubility compounds. The method is most suitable for identifying dosing vehicles for compounds in lead optimization, where compound supply is limited and long-term stability is not a requirement. Dilute compound and excipient stock solutions are prepared in organic solvent and then dispensed and mixed in 96-well plates. The solvent is removed in a vacuum centrifuge evaporator, leaving neat formulation (e.g., 10-40 microg compound, 0.4 mg excipient) at the bottom of each well. After an aging step, an aqueous dilution medium is added and the plates are incubated (agitation by orbital shaking). The diluted formulations are then filtered and analyzed by ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To illustrate the method, two compounds (aqueous solubility compound/surfactant/oil formulations is also presented. PMID:17094139

Mansky, Paul; Dai, Wei-Guo; Li, Shu; Pollock-Dove, Crystal; Daehne, Klaus; Dong, Liang; Eichenbaum, Gary

2007-06-01

241

A High-Throughput Screen with Isogenic PTEN+/+ and PTEN?/? Cells Identifies CID1340132 as a Novel Compound That Induces Apoptosis in PTEN and PIK3CA Mutant Human Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer. Because inactivation of PTEN is a somatic event, PTEN mutations represent an important genetic difference between cancer cells and normal cells and therefore a potential anticancer drug target. However, it remains a substantial challenge to identify compounds that target loss-of-function events such as mutations of tumor suppressors. In an effort to identify small molecules that preferentially kill cells with mutations of PTEN, the authors developed and implemented a high-throughput, paired cell-based screen composed of parental HCT116 cells and their PTEN gene-targeted derivatives. From 138 758 compounds tested, two hits were identified, and one, N?-[(1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene]benzenesulfonohydrazide (CID1340132), was further studied using a variety of cell-based models, including HCT116, MCF10A, and HEC1A cells with targeted deletion of either their PTEN or PIK3CA genes. Preferential killing of PTEN and PIK3CA mutant cells was accompanied by DNA damage, inhibition of DNA synthesis, and apoptosis. taken together, these data validate a cell-based screening approach for identifying lead compounds that target cells with specific tumor suppressor gene mutations and describe a novel compound with preferential killing activity toward PTEN and PIK3CA mutant cells. PMID:21335596

Li, Hui-Fang; Keeton, Adam; Vitolo, Michele; Maddox, Clinton; Rasmussen, Lynn; Hobrath, Judith; White, E. Lucille; Park, Ben Ho; Piazza, Gary A.; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd

2013-01-01

242

Adsorption isotherms of phenolic compounds from aqueous solutions onto activated carbon fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds exist widely in the industrial effluents such as those from oil refineries and the coal tar, plastics, leather, paint, pharmaceutical, and steel industries. Since they are highly toxic and are, in general, not amenable to biological degradation, methods of treatment are continuously being modified and developed. Liquid-phase adsorption equilibria of eight phenolic compounds onto activated carbon fibers were

Ruey-Shin Juang; Feng-Chin Wu; Ru-Ling Tseng

1996-01-01

243

Modulation of Activity of Known Cytotoxic Ruthenium(III) Compound (KP418) with Hampered Transmembrane Transport  

E-print Network

Modulation of Activity of Known Cytotoxic Ruthenium(III) Compound (KP418) with Hampered on the cytotoxic and antitumor effect of a ruthenium(III) com- pound with hampered transmembrane transport, (im after ECT with KP418 in vitro. In addition, platinum compound cisplatin (CDDP) and ruthenium

Ljubljana, University of

244

Plant Compounds Enhance the Assay Sensitivity for Detection of Active Bacillus cereus Toxin.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus is an important food pathogen, producing emetic and diarrheal syndromes, the latter mediated by enterotoxins. The ability to sensitively trace and identify this active toxin is important for food safety. This study evaluated a nonradioactive, sensitive, in vitro cell-based assay, based on B. cereus toxin inhibition of green fluorescent protein (GFP) synthesis in transduced monkey kidney Vero cells, combined with plant extracts or plant compounds that reduce viable count of B. cereus in food. The assay exhibited a dose dependent GFP inhibition response with ~25% inhibition at 50 ng/mL toxin evaluated in culture media or soy milk, rice milk or infant formula, products associated with food poisonings outbreak. The plant extracts of green tea or bitter almond and the plant compounds epicatechin or carvacrol were found to amplify the assay response to ~90% inhibition at the 50 ng/mL toxin concentration greatly increasing the sensitivity of this assay. Additional studies showed that the test formulations also inhibited the growth of the B. cereus bacteria, likely through cell membrane disruption. The results suggest that the improved highly sensitive assay for the toxin and the rapid inactivation of the pathogen producing the toxin have the potential to enhance food safety. PMID:25767986

Rasooly, Reuven; Hernlem, Bradley; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

2015-01-01

245

Review on Natural Coumarin Lead Compounds for Their Pharmacological Activity  

PubMed Central

Coumarin (2H-1-benzopyran-2-one) is a plant-derived natural product known for its pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antitubercular, anticonvulsant, antiadipogenic, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. Dietary exposure to benzopyrones is significant as these compounds are found in vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, coffee, tea, and wine. In view of the established low toxicity, relative cheapness, presence in the diet, and occurrence in various herbal remedies of coumarins, it appears prudent to evaluate their properties and applications further. PMID:23586066

Venugopala, K. N.; Rashmi, V.; Odhav, B.

2013-01-01

246

Identification of aroma active compounds of cereal coffee brew and its roasted ingredients.  

PubMed

Cereal coffee is a coffee substitute made mainly from roasted cereals such as barley and rye (60-70%), chicory (15-20%), and sugar beets (6-10%). It is perceived by consumers as a healthy, caffeine free, non-irritating beverage suitable for those who cannot drink regular coffee made from coffee beans. In presented studies, typical Polish cereal coffee brew has been subjected to the key odorants analysis with the application of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). In the analyzed cereal coffee extract, 30 aroma-active volatiles have been identified with FD factors ranging from 16 to 4096. This approach was also used for characterization of key odorants in ingredients used for the cereal coffee production. Comparing the main odors detected in GC-O analysis of roasted cereals brew to the odor notes of cereal coffee brew, it was evident that the aroma of cereal coffee brew is mainly influenced by roasted barley. Flavor compound identification and quantitation has been performed with application of comprehensive multidimentional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToFMS). The results of the quantitative measurements followed by calculation of the odor activity values (OAV) revealed 17 aroma active compounds of the cereal coffee brew with OAV ranging from 12.5 and 2000. The most potent odorant was 2-furfurylthiol followed by the 3-mercapto-3-methylbutyl formate, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-thenylthiol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methoxy phenol and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol, 3(sec-butyl)-2-methoxypyrazine, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 2,3-pentanedione, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3-(2H)-furanone, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (Z)-4-heptenal, phenylacetaldehyde, and 1-octen-3-one. PMID:23414530

Majcher, Ma?gorzata A; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota; Dziadas, Mariusz; Jele?, Henryk H

2013-03-20

247

Identification of three novel natural product compounds that activate PXR and CAR and inhibit inflammation  

PubMed Central

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) have been known to play a role in xenobiotic metabolism by regulating the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. In addition, PXR agonists were found to exert therapeutic effects through multiple mechanisms, such as detoxification of bile acids and inhibition of inflammation. In this study, we first investigated the effects of three natural product compounds, carapin, santonin and isokobusone, on the activity of PXR and CAR. These compounds activated both PXR and CAR in transient transfection and luciferase reporter gene assays. Mutagenesis studies showed that two amino acid residues, Phe305 of the rodent PXR and Leu308 of the human PXR, are critical for the recognition of these compounds by PXR. Importantly, the activation of PXR and CAR by these compounds induced the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in primary human and mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, activation of PXR by these compounds inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of these natural compounds on drug metabolism and inflammation were abolished in PXR?/? hepatocytes. These natural compounds can be explored for their potential in the treatment of diseases where the PXR activation has been shown to be beneficial, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cholestasis, and hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:23896737

Kittayaruksakul, Suticha; Zhao, Wenchen; Xu, Meishu; Ren, Songrong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ju; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M.; Venkataramanan, Raman; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Xie, Wen

2013-01-01

248

In Vitro Neuroprotective Activities of Compounds from Angelica shikokiana Makino.  

PubMed

Angelica shikokiana is widely marketed in Japan as a dietary food supplement. With a focus on neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, the aerial part was extracted and through bio-guided fractionation, fifteen compounds [?-glutinol, ?-amyrin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, methyl chlorogenate, chlorogenic acid, hyuganin E, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, ?-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, adenosine (isolated for the first time from A. shikokiana), isoepoxypteryxin and isopteryxin] were isolated. Isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro neuroprotection using acetylcholine esterase inhibitory, protection against hydrogen peroxide and amyloid ? peptide (A?25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells, scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and intracellular reactive oxygen species and thioflavin T assays. Quercetin showed the strongest AChE inhibition (IC50 value = 35.5 µM) through binding to His-440 and Tyr-70 residues at the catalytic and anionic sites of acetylcholine esterase, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, its methyl ester, quercetin and luteolin could significantly protect neuro-2A cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity and scavenge hydroxyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoiside, hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin significantly decreased A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity and Th-T fluorescence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about neuroprotection of hyuganin E and isoepoxypteryxin against A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25786165

Mira, Amira; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Katakura, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2015-01-01

249

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.  

PubMed

The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines. PMID:25766797

Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

2015-08-01

250

Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Identifies 8-Hydroxyquinolines as Cell-Active Histone Demethylase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Background Small molecule modulators of epigenetic processes are currently sought as basic probes for biochemical mechanisms, and as starting points for development of therapeutic agents. N?-Methylation of lysine residues on histone tails is one of a number of post-translational modifications that together enable transcriptional regulation. Histone lysine demethylases antagonize the action of histone methyltransferases in a site- and methylation state-specific manner. N?-Methyllysine demethylases that use 2-oxoglutarate as co-factor are associated with diverse human diseases, including cancer, inflammation and X-linked mental retardation; they are proposed as targets for the therapeutic modulation of transcription. There are few reports on the identification of templates that are amenable to development as potent inhibitors in vivo and large diverse collections have yet to be exploited for the discovery of demethylase inhibitors. Principal Findings High-throughput screening of a ?236,000-member collection of diverse molecules arrayed as dilution series was used to identify inhibitors of the JMJD2 (KDM4) family of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone demethylases. Initial screening hits were prioritized by a combination of cheminformatics, counterscreening using a coupled assay enzyme, and orthogonal confirmatory detection of inhibition by mass spectrometric assays. Follow-up studies were carried out on one of the series identified, 8-hydroxyquinolines, which were shown by crystallographic analyses to inhibit by binding to the active site Fe(II) and to modulate demethylation at the H3K9 locus in a cell-based assay. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that diverse compound screening can yield novel inhibitors of 2OG dependent histone demethylases and provide starting points for the development of potent and selective agents to interrogate epigenetic regulation. PMID:21124847

Kawamura, Akane; Rose, Nathan R.; Ng, Stanley S.; Quinn, Amy M.; Rai, Ganesha; Mott, Bryan T.; Beswick, Paul; Klose, Robert J.; Oppermann, Udo; Jadhav, Ajit; Heightman, Tom D.; Maloney, David J.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Simeonov, Anton

2010-01-01

251

Procaspase-3 Activation as an Anti-Cancer Strategy: Structure-Activity Relationship of Procaspase-Activating Compound 1 (PAC-1) and its Cellular Co-Localization with Caspase-3  

PubMed Central

A goal of personalized medicine as applied to oncology is to identify compounds that exploit a defined molecular defect in a cancerous cell. A compound called procaspase-activating compound 1 (PAC-1) was reported that enhances the activity of procaspase-3 in vitro and induces apoptotic death in cancer cells in culture and in mouse xenograft models. Experimental evidence indicates that PAC-1 activates procaspase-3 in vitro through chelation of inhibitory zinc ions. Described herein is the synthesis and biological activity of a family of PAC-1 derivatives where key functional groups have been systematically altered. Analysis of these compounds reveals a strong correlation between the in vitro procaspase-3 activating effect and their ability to induce death in cancer cells in culture. Importantly, we also show that a fluorescently-labeled version of PAC-1 co-localizes with sites of caspase-3 activity in cancer cells. The data presented herein further bolster the hypothesis that PAC-1 induces apoptosis in cancer cells through the direct activation of procaspase-3, has implications for the design and discovery of next-generation procaspase-3 activating compounds, and sheds light on the anti-apoptotic role of cellular zinc. PMID:19708658

Peterson, Quinn P.; Hsu, Danny C.; Goode, David R.; Novotny, Chris J.; Totten, Ryan K.; Hergenrother, Paul J.

2009-01-01

252

Functional significance of passive and active dendritic properties in the synaptic integration by an identified nonspiking interneuron of crayfish.  

PubMed

Nonspiking interneurons control their synaptic output directly by membrane potential changes caused by synaptic activities. Although these interneurons do not generate spikes, their dendritic membrane is endowed with a variety of voltage-dependent conductances whose functional significance in synaptic integration remains unknown. We quantitatively investigated how the passive and active dendritic properties affect the synaptic integration in an identified nonspiking interneuron of crayfish by computer simulation using its multicompartment model based on electrophysiological measurements and three-dimensional morphometry. At the resting potential level, the attenuation factor (V(s)/V(t)) of a unitary synaptic potential in the course of its spread from a dendritic terminal (V(s)) to other terminals (V(t)) ranged from 4.42 to 6.30 with no substantial difference between hyperpolarizing and depolarizing potentials. The compound synaptic responses to strong mechanosensory stimulation could be reproduced in calculation only as the result of spatial summation of attenuated potentials, not as any single large potential. The characteristic response could be reproduced by assuming that the active conductances were distributed only in the dendritic region where the synaptic summation was carried out. The active conductances in other parts of the cell affected neither the shape of the compound synaptic response nor the dendritic spread of synaptic potentials. These findings suggest that the active membrane conductances do not affect the spatial distribution of synaptic potentials over dendrites but function in sculpting the summed synaptic potential to enhance temporal resolution in the synaptic output of the nonspiking interneuron. PMID:16914611

Takashima, Akira; Hikosaka, Ryou; Takahata, Masakazu

2006-12-01

253

The effect of humidity on the collection efficiency for oxygenated compounds adsorbed on activated charcoal  

E-print Network

THE EPPECT OP HUMIDITY ON THE COLIECTION EFFICIENCY POR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by ROBERT BRUCE WALTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE EFFECT OF HUMIDITY ON THE COLLECTIOM EFFICIENCY FOR OXYGENATED COMPOUNDS ADSORBED ON ACTIVATED CHARCOAL A Thesis by ROBERT BRUCE WALTON Approved...

Walton, Robert Bruce

1990-01-01

254

Active edible polysaccharide coating and interactions between solution coating compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control pathogenic strain growth on food surface, anti-microbial edible coatings were obtained from hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose associated with nisin. The inhibitory activity of nisin was confirmed on Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus. To improve packaging moisture barrier properties, stearic acid (SA) was used, but preliminary experiments showed a decrease in the inhibitory activity of coatings, probably from electrostatic

I Sebti; V Coma

2002-01-01

255

Extraction, chemical characterization and biological activity determination of broccoli health promoting compounds.  

PubMed

Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica) contains substantial amount of health-promoting compounds such as vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and dietary essential minerals; thus, it benefits health beyond providing just basic nutrition, and consumption of broccoli has been increasing over the years. This review gives an overview on the extraction and separation techniques, as well as the biological activity of some of the above mentioned compounds which have been published in the period January 2008 to January 2013. The work has been distributed according to the different families of health promoting compounds discussing the extraction procedures and the analytical techniques employed for their characterization. Finally, information about the different biological activities of these compounds has been also provided. PMID:23899380

Ares, Ana M; Nozal, María J; Bernal, José

2013-10-25

256

Synthetic mRNA Splicing Modulator Compounds with In Vivo Anti-tumor Activity  

PubMed Central

We report our progress on the development of new synthetic anti-cancer lead compounds that modulate the splicing of mRNA. We also report the synthesis evaluation of new biologically active ester and carbamate analogs. Further, we describe initial animal studies demonstrating the antitumor efficacy of compound 5 in vivo. Additionally, we report the enantioselective and diastereospecific synthesis of a new 1,3-dioxane series of active analogs. We confirm that compound 5 inhibits the splicing of mRNA in both cell-free nuclear extracts and in a cell-based dual-reporter mRNA splicing assay. In summary, we have developed totally synthetic novel spliceosome modulators as therapeutic lead compounds for a number of highly aggressive cancers. Future efforts will be directed toward the more complete optimization of these compounds as potential human therapeutics. PMID:19877647

Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Pourpak, Alan; Goronga, Tinopiwa; Jiang, Qin; Cui, Xiaoli; Hyle, Judith; Lahti, Jill; Morris, Stephan W.; Webb, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

257

In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of some phenolic compounds from propolis and lactones from Fijian Kawa (Piper methysticum).  

PubMed

During our search to discover new antitrypanosomal compounds, eight known plant compounds (three phenolic compounds and five kawa lactones) were evaluated for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, we found two phenolic compounds and three kawa lactones possessing an ?-pyrone influenced antitrypanosomal property. In particular, ?-phenethyl caffeate, farnesyl caffeate and dihydrokawain exhibited high or moderate selective and potent antitrypanosomal activity in vitro. We detail here the antitrypanosomal activity and cytotoxicities of the compounds, in comparison with two commonly used antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). Our findings represent the first report of the promising trypanocidal activity of these compounds. PMID:22116743

Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tsukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

2012-07-01

258

Identifying unknown minerals and compounds from X-ray diffraction patterns using the Johnson and Vand FORTRAN 4 computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated computer identification of minerals and compounds from unknown samples is provided along with detailed instructions and worked examples for use in graduate level courses in mineralogy and X-ray analysis applications.

Kyte, F. T.

1976-01-01

259

Update on project determining biologically active compounds in milk  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The added health value of raw and pasteurized milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, and often conflicting, scientific data. The Dairy & Functional Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-NAA, Wyndmoor, PA has an ongoing project to identify and compare the levels of bio...

260

Antiprotozoal and Antimycobacterial Activities of Pure Compounds from Aristolochia elegans Rhizomes  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of rhizomes from Aristolochia elegans. Some compounds of this extract were purified and tested against a group of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. We also evaluated their antiprotozoal activities. The hexane extract was active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv at a MIC = 100??g?mL?1; the pure compounds eupomatenoid-1, fargesin, and (8R,8?R,9R)-cubebin were active against M. tuberculosis H37Rv (MIC = 50??g?mL?1), while fargesin presented activity against three monoresistant strains of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and a MDR clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis (MIC < 50??g?mL?1). Both the extract and eupomatenoid-1 were very active against E. histolytica and G. lamblia (IC50 < 0.624??g?mL?1); in contrast, fargesin and (8R,8?R,9R)-cubebin were moderately active (IC50 < 275??g?mL?1). In this context, two compounds responsible for the antimycobacterial presented by A. elegans are fargesin and cubebin, although others may exert this activity also. In addition to the antimycobacterial activity, the hexane extract has important activity against E. histolytica and G. lamblia, and eupomatenoid-1 is one of the compounds responsible for the antiparasite activity. PMID:22454670

Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; León-Díaz, Rosalba; Meckes, Mariana; Tapia, Amparo; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

2012-01-01

261

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

262

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

263

Volatile Organic Compounds Identified in Post-Flight Air Analysis of the Multipurpose Logistics Module from International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative systems involve storing and processing waste along with atmospheric management. The MPLM, Multipurpose Logistics Module, is a reusable logistics carrier and primary delivery system used to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) and return Station cargo that requires a pressurized environment. The cylindrical module is approximately 6.4 meters long, 4.6 meters in diameter, and weighs almost 4,082kg. The module provides storage and additional workspace for up to two astronauts when docked to the ISS. It can carry up to 9,072 kg of supplies, science experiments, spare parts and other logistical components for ISS. There is concern for a potentially hazardous condition caused by contamination of the atmosphere in the MPLM upon return from orbit. This would be largely due to unforeseen spills or container leakage. This has led to the need for special care in handling the returned module prior to processing the module for its next flight. Prior to opening the MPLM, atmospheric samples are analyzed for trace volatile organic compounds, VOC's. It is noted that our analyses also reflect the atmosphere in the ISS on that day of closure. With the re turn of STS-108, 12th ISS Flight (UF1), the analysis showed 24 PPM of methane. This corresponds to the high levels on space station during a time period when the air filtration system was shut off. Chemical characterization of atmospheres on the ISS and MPLM provide useful information for concerns with plant growth experiments on ISS. Work with closed plant growth chambers show potential for VOC's to accumulate to toxic levels for plants. The ethylene levels for 4 MPLM analyses over the course on one year were measured at, 0.070, 0.017, 0.012 and 0.007 PPM. Phytochemical such as ethylene are detected with natural plant physiological events such as flowering and as a result of plant damage or from decaying food. A build up of VOC's may contribute to phytotoxic effects for the plant growth experiments or health problems for humans. Other identified components from the MPLM are quite similar to those found from off gassing of construction material and laboratory reagents characterized in ground based studies with closed plant growth chambers.

Peterson, B.; Wheeler, R.

264

Antileishmanial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Miconia langsdorffii, isolated compounds, and semi-synthetic derivatives.  

PubMed

The in vitro activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Miconia langsdorffii Cogn. was evaluated against the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans. The bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to identification of the triterpenes ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as the major compounds in the fraction that displayed the highest activity. Several ursolic acid semi-synthetic derivatives were prepared, to find out whether more active compounds could be obtained. Among these ursolic acid-derived substances, the C-28 methyl ester derivative exhibited the best antileishmanial activity. PMID:21343887

Peixoto, Juliana A; Andrade E Silva, Márcio Luis; Crotti, Antônio E M; Cassio Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo; Gimenez, Valéria M M; Januário, Ana H; Groppo, Milton; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Dos Santos, Fransérgio F; Albuquerque, Sérgio; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Cunha, Wilson R

2011-01-01

265

A High-Content Biosensor Based Screen Identifies Cell Permeable Activators and Inhibitors of EGFR Function: Implications in Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Early success of kinase inhibitors has validated their use as drugs. However, discovery efforts have also suffered from high attrition rates; due to lack of cellular activity. We reasoned that screening for such candidates in live cells would identify novel cell permeable modulators for development. For this purpose, we have used our recently optimized EGFR biosensor (EGFRB) assay to screen for modulators of EGFR activity. Here, we report on its validation under HTS conditions displaying a S/N ratio of 21 and a Z’ value of 0.56; attributes of a robust cell based assay. We performed a pilot screen against a library of 6,912 compounds demonstrating good reproducibility and identifying 82 inhibitors and 66 activators with initial hit rates of 1.2% and 0.95 %, respectively. Follow up dose response studies revealed that 12 out of the 13 known EGFR inhibitors in the library confirmed as hits. ZM-306416, a VEGFR antagonist, was identified as a potent inhibitor of EGFR function. Flurandrenolide, beclomethasone and ebastine were confirmed as activators of EGFR function. Taken together, our results validate this novel approach and demonstrate its utility in the discovery of novel kinase modulators with potential use in the clinic. PMID:22573732

Antczak, Christophe; Mahida, Jeni P.; Bhinder, Bhavneet; Calder, Paul A.; Djaballah, Hakim

2013-01-01

266

Differential in vitro activities of ionophore compounds against Plasmodium falciparum and mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-two ionophore compounds were screened for their antimalarial activities. They consisted of true ionophores (mobile carriers) and channel-forming quasi-ionophores with different ionic specificities. Eleven of the compounds were found to be extremely efficient inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of less than 10 ng/ml. Gramicidin D was the most active compound tested, with 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.035 ng/ml. Compounds with identical ionic specificities generally had similar levels of antimalarial activity, and ionophores specific to monovalent cations were the most active. Compounds were further tested to determine their in vitro toxicities against mammalian lymphoblast and macrophage cell lines. Nine of the 22 compounds, i.e., alborixin, lonomycin, nigericin, narasin, monensin and its methylated derivative, lasalocid and its bromo derivative, and gramicidin D, most specific to monovalent cations, were at least 35-fold more active in vitro against P. falciparum than against the two other mammalian cell lines. The enhanced ability to penetrate the erythrocyte membrane after infection could be a factor that determines ionophore selectivity for infected erythrocytes. PMID:8851578

Gumila, C; Ancelin, M L; Jeminet, G; Delort, A M; Miquel, G; Vial, H J

1996-01-01

267

Anti-Prion Activity of a Panel of Aromatic Chemical Compounds: In Vitro and In Silico Approaches  

PubMed Central

The prion protein (PrP) is implicated in the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), which comprise a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and other mammals. Conversion of cellular PrP (PrPC) into the scrapie form (PrPSc) is the hallmark of TSEs. Once formed, PrPSc aggregates and catalyzes PrPC misfolding into new PrPSc molecules. Although many compounds have been shown to inhibit the conversion process, so far there is no effective therapy for TSEs. Besides, most of the previously evaluated compounds failed in vivo due to poor pharmacokinetic profiles. In this work we propose a combined in vitro/in silico approach to screen for active anti-prion compounds presenting acceptable drugability and pharmacokinetic parameters. A diverse panel of aromatic compounds was screened in neuroblastoma cells persistently infected with PrPSc (ScN2a) for their ability to inhibit PK-resistant PrP (PrPRes) accumulation. From ?200 compounds, 47 were effective in decreasing the accumulation of PrPRes in ScN2a cells. Pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties were predicted in silico, allowing us to obtain estimates of relative blood brain barrier permeation and mutagenicity. MTT reduction assays showed that most of the active compounds were non cytotoxic. Compounds that cleared PrPRes from ScN2a cells, were non-toxic in the MTT assay, and presented a good pharmacokinetic profile were investigated for their ability to inhibit aggregation of an amyloidogenic PrP peptide fragment (PrP109–149). Molecular docking results provided structural models and binding affinities for the interaction between PrP and the most promising compounds. In summary, using this combined in vitro/in silico approach we have identified new small organic anti-scrapie compounds that decrease the accumulation of PrPRes in ScN2a cells, inhibit the aggregation of a PrP peptide, and possess pharmacokinetic characteristics that support their drugability. These compounds are attractive candidates for prion disease therapy. PMID:24400098

Ferreira, Natalia C.; Marques, Icaro A.; Conceição, Wesley A.; Macedo, Bruno; Machado, Clarice S.; Mascarello, Alessandra; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domeneghini; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Hughson, Andrew G.; Raymond, Lynne D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Caughey, Byron; Cordeiro, Yraima

2014-01-01

268

Synthesis, fungicidal activity, and structure-activity relationship of spiro-compounds containing macrolactam (macrolactone) and thiadiazoline rings.  

PubMed

Two series of novel spiro-compounds containing macrolactam or macrolactone and thiadiazoline rings, 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4,9-triaza-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4F) and 1-thia-2-alkylimino-3,4-diaza-9-oxa-10-oxospiro[4.15]eicosyl-3-ene (4G), were synthesized from 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactam and 12-oxo-1,15-pentadecanlactone, respectively. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR. The conformation of compounds 4F was determined via the crystal structure of a representative compound (4F(6)). The bioassay showed that compounds 4F have much better fungicidal activity against five fungi ( Botrytis cinerea Pers., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., Phomopsis asparagi Sacc., and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.) than compounds 4G. The fact above showed that the presence of a hydrogen-bonding donor for the fungicidal activity of macrocyclic compounds is very important. 4F(6) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae, which is much better than the commercial fungicide isoprothiolane, and 4F(13) showed excellent fungicidal activity against P. oryzae and good fungicidal activity against P. asparagi. PMID:20041703

Li, Jian-Jun; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Zhu; Qi, Shu-Hua; Chen, Fu-Heng; Wang, Dao-Quan

2010-03-10

269

[Study of antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from some species of Georgian flora].  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from different parts of Georgian flora species Hamamelis virginiana L., Astragalus caucasicus Pall., Astragalus microcephalus Willd., Vitis vinifera L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Rhododendron Ungernii Trautv., Ginkgo biloba L., Salvia officinalis L., Querqus iberica Stev., Maclura aurantiaca Nutt., Cotinus coggygria Ledeb., Fraxinus ornus L., Urtica dioica L., Rhododendron caucasicum Pall., Pueraria hirsuta Matsum., Geranium pusillum L., Astragalus Tanae Sosn., Pinus silvestris L. has been studied. Comparison with ethylentetraacetate and ?-tocopherole revealed high efficacy of all extracts studied. 45 individual phenolic compounds were isolated and described by chemical examination of biologically active objects. Common sage (Salvia officinalis) extract turned out as the most active (200 %). The chemical study revealed the dominant content of condensed tannins and low molecular phenolic compounds, which may be attributed to the high antioxidant activity. Biologically active antiatherosclerotic food additive "Salbin" was developed on the basis of Common sage - Salvia officinalis L. phenolic compounds. PMID:24099817

Alaniia, M; Shalashvili, K; Sagareishvili, T; Kavtaradze, N; Sutiashvili, M

2013-09-01

270

Activated phosphors having matrices of yttrium-transition metal compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for preparing a phosphor composition containing a ; lanthanide activator element with a host matrix having a transition element as a ; major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or ; vanadates such as YPOâ with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one ; or more of the transition

E. L. De Kalb; V. A. Fassel

1975-01-01

271

Antioxidant activity of plants methanolic extracts containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of natural antioxidant in plants is well known. This paper reports the antioxidative activities of some methanolic plant extracts namely 'ulam raja' (Cosmos caudatus), 'kesum' (Polygonum minus), 'selom' (Oenanthe javanica), 'pegaga' (Centella asiatica) and 'curry leaf' (Murraya koenigii). The analysis carried out was total phenolic content, ferric reducing power, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) tests. From

A. Noriham; A. S. Norrakiah; Food Biotechnology Programme; Bandar Baru Nilai

272

Screening of natural compounds as activators of the keap1-nrf2 pathway.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is a master regulator that promotes transcription of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative/electrophilic stress. A large number of natural dietary compounds are thought to protect against oxidative stress, and a few have been reported to induce genes involved in antioxidant defense through activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Therefore, a library of 54 natural compounds were collected to determine whether they are nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activators and to compare their efficacy and potency to activate nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The assay utilized AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control of antioxidant response element promoters. Each natural compound was tested at 13 concentrations between 0.02 and 30?µM. Known nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 activators tert-butylhydroquinone and 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide were used as positive controls in parallel with the natural compounds. Among the 54 tested natural compounds, andrographolide had the highest efficacy, followed by trans-chalcone, sulforaphane, curcumin, flavone, kahweol, and carnosol, all of which had better efficacy than tert-butylhydroquinone. Among the compounds tested, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide was the most potent, having an EC50 of 0.41?µM. Seven of the natural compounds, namely andrographolide, trans-chalcone, sulforaphane, curcumin, flavone, kahweol, and cafestol had lower EC50 values than tert-butylhydroquinone but higher than 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-diene-28-imidazolide. The present study provides insights into which natural compounds activate the Keap1-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway and thus might be useful for detoxifying oxidative/electrophilic stress. PMID:24310212

Wu, Kai C; McDonald, Peter R; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D

2014-01-01

273

Anti-trypanosomal activity of certain phenyldiazoamino- and phenylazoamino-phenanthridinium compounds  

PubMed Central

Red phenyldiazoaminophenanthridinium and purple phenylazoaminophenanthridinium compounds, most of which were obtained as isomeric pairs, were tested in mice for curative and prophylactic action against Trypanosoma congolense. Several of the individual compounds showed a high degree of activity, the red isomer of each pair usually being more active therapeutically and prophylactically than the purple one, although high prophylactic effect was not always associated with high therapeutic potency. The most interesting isomeric pair was that consisting of metamidium, 7-(m-amidinophenyldiazoamino)-2-amino-10-ethyl-9-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride (red isomer) and x-(m-amidinophenylazo)-2,7-diamino-10-ethyl-9-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride (purple isomer). Among the individual compounds, the one with the greatest curative action was the red isomer of metamidium, now known as isometamidium. Its 10-methyl homologue was slightly less active and its p-amidino-isomer was considerably less active. The compounds with the greatest prophylactic action were 2,7-di(m-amidinophenyldiazoamino)-10-ethyl-9-phenylphenanthridinium chloride dihydrochloride trihydrate, its 10-methyl homologue, and the red m-amidino-isomers mentioned above. The only other compounds to show appreciable prophylactic action were three guanidino-substituted phenyldiazoaminophenanthridines, although they were less active than metamidium at low doses. One of these, 2-amino-10-ethyl-7-(m-guanidinophenyldiazoamino)-9-phenylphenanthridinium chloride hydrochloride, was also very active therapeutically. PMID:13873683

Brown, K. N.; Hill, J.; Holland, A. E.

1961-01-01

274

Effects of ammonium compounds on the foliar activity of acifluorfen  

E-print Network

penetration of certain herbicides (22, 38). They commonly contain surfactants to facilitate mixing in an aqueous solution (22). Recently however, the use of fertilizers as adjuvants is becoming increasingly popular. Numerous herbicides have shown... activity is a well established practice. It has long been known that certain substances, when added to an herbicide solution, would increase its effectiveness. Adjuvants come in several forms including nonionic, cationic, anionic and amphoteric (22...

Schaffers, William Clemens

1989-01-01

275

Extraction of biologically active compounds from Sideritis ssp. L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study extraction of polyphenols and flavonoids from cultivated hybrid Sideritis scardica×Sideritis syriaca, known for its rich content of phenolics and flavonoids with antioxidant activity, was investigated. Extractions have been done by ethanol and water–ethanol, respectively. High equilibrium values of the extracted species were obtained—17.55mg\\/(gsolid) total phenolics and 5.7mg\\/(gsolid) total flavonoids with ethanol as solvent. The influence of the

Iren Tsibranska; Bartosz Tylkowski; Ruslan Kochanov; Kalina Alipieva

2011-01-01

276

Persistence of biologically active compounds in soil: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the long-term effects of soil-applied oil shale process water on the VA fungi and Rhizobium bacteria in a native soil. Techniques include assessing the VA fungal activity at field treatment plots and using treated field soils in a bioassay to determine VA infection and Rhizobium-nodulation potentials four years after process water application. 52 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

Williams, S.E.

1987-02-01

277

Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use. PMID:21455445

Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

2010-10-01

278

Global emissions and models of photochemically active compounds  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions from industrial activity, fossil fuel combustion, and biomass burning are now known to be large enough (relative to natural sources) to perturb the chemistry of vast regions of the troposphere. A goal of the IGAC Global Emissions Inventory Activity (GEIA) is to provide authoritative and reliable emissions inventories on a 1{degree} {times} 1{degree} grid. When combined with atmospheric photochemical models, these high quality emissions inventories may be used to predict the concentrations of major photochemical products. Comparison of model results with measurements of pertinent species allows us to understand whether there are major shortcomings in our understanding of tropospheric photochemistry, the budgets and transport of trace species, and their effects in the atmosphere. Through this activity, we are building the capability to make confident predictions of the future consequences of anthropogenic emissions. This paper compares IGAC recommended emissions inventories for reactive nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to those that have been in use previously. We also present results from the three-dimensional LLNL atmospheric chemistry model that show how emissions of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides might potentially affect tropospheric ozone and OH concentrations and how emissions of anthropogenic sulfur increase sulfate aerosol loadings.

Penner, J.E.; Atherton, C.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Graedel, T.E. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1993-05-20

279

Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.  

PubMed

Absolutes isolated from Viola odorata leaves, valuable materials for the flavor and fragrance industry, were studied. Violets are mainly cultivated in France and Egypt and extracted locally. The absolutes of the two origins showed different olfactory profiles both in top and heart notes, as evidenced by sensory analysis. The aims of this study were i) to characterize the volatile compounds, ii) to determine the odorant-active ones, and iii) to identify some markers of the plant origin. Two complementary analytical methods were used for these purposes, i.e., headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using different fiber coatings followed by GC/MS analysis and gas chromatography - olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) applied to violet leaf extracts. From a total of 70 identified compounds, 61 have never been reported so far for this species, 17 compounds were characterized by both techniques (with seven among them known from the literature), 23 compounds were solely identified by HS-SPME GC/MS (among them only two being already mentioned as components of violet absolutes in the literature), and, finally, 30 compounds were only identified by GC-O/MS. According to the HS-SPME GC/MS analyses, ethyl hexanoate and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienol were specific volatile compounds of the sample with French origin, while (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, hexanoic acid, limonene, tridecane, and eugenol were specific of the samples with Egyptian origin. Additional compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME GC/MS analysis were revealed by GC-O analyses, some of them being markers of origin. Pent-1-en-3-ol, 3-methylbut-2-enal, 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazine, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, ?-phenethyl formate, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine revealed to be odorant markers of the French sample, whereas cis-rose oxide, trans-rose oxide, and 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone were odorant markers of the Egyptian samples. PMID:24934671

Saint-Lary, Laure; Roy, Céline; Paris, Jean-Philippe; Tournayre, Pascal; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Fernandez, Xavier

2014-06-01

280

Establishment and Validation of Whole-Cell Based Fluorescence Assays to Identify Anti-Mycobacterial Compounds Using the Acanthamoeba castellanii - Mycobacterium marinum Host-Pathogen System  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is considered to be one of the world’s deadliest disease with 2 million deaths each year. The need for new antitubercular drugs is further exacerbated by the emergence of drug-resistance strains. Despite multiple recent efforts, the majority of the hits discovered by traditional target-based screening showed low efficiency in vivo. Therefore, there is heightened demand for whole-cell based approaches directly using host-pathogen systems. The phenotypic host-pathogen assay described here is based on the monitoring of GFP-expressing Mycobacterium marinum during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. The assay showed straight-forward medium-throughput scalability, robustness and ease of manipulation, demonstrating its qualities as an efficient compound screening system. Validation with a series of known antitubercular compounds highlighted the advantages of the assay in comparison to previously published macrophage-Mycobacterium tuberculosis-based screening systems. Combination with secondary growth assays based on either GFP-expressing D. discoideum or M. marinum allowed us to further fine-tune compound characterization by distinguishing and quantifying growth inhibition, cytotoxic properties and antibiotic activities of the compounds. The simple and relatively low cost system described here is most suitable to detect anti-infective compounds, whether they present antibiotic activities or not, in which case they might exert anti-virulence or host defense boosting activities, both of which are largely overlooked by classical screening approaches. PMID:24498207

Kicka, Sébastien; Trofimov, Valentin; Harrison, Christopher; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; McKinney, John; Scapozza, Leonardo; Hilbi, Hubert; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry

2014-01-01

281

Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression  

PubMed Central

Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

2015-01-01

282

Identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression.  

PubMed

Essential proteins are vitally important for cellular survival and development, and identifying essential proteins is very meaningful research work in the post-genome era. Rapid increase of available protein-protein interaction (PPI) data has made it possible to detect protein essentiality at the network level. A series of centrality measures have been proposed to discover essential proteins based on the PPI networks. However, the PPI data obtained from large scale, high-throughput experiments generally contain false positives. It is insufficient to use original PPI data to identify essential proteins. How to improve the accuracy, has become the focus of identifying essential proteins. In this paper, we proposed a framework for identifying essential proteins from active PPI networks constructed with dynamic gene expression. Firstly, we process the dynamic gene expression profiles by using time-dependent model and time-independent model. Secondly, we construct an active PPI network based on co-expressed genes. Lastly, we apply six classical centrality measures in the active PPI network. For the purpose of comparison, other prediction methods are also performed to identify essential proteins based on the active PPI network. The experimental results on yeast network show that identifying essential proteins based on the active PPI network can improve the performance of centrality measures considerably in terms of the number of identified essential proteins and identification accuracy. At the same time, the results also indicate that most of essential proteins are active. PMID:25707432

Xiao, Qianghua; Wang, Jianxin; Peng, Xiaoqing; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Pan, Yi

2015-01-01

283

Lignans, bacteriocides and organochlorine compounds activate the human pregnane X receptor (PXR)  

SciTech Connect

The pregnane X receptor (PXR) mediates the induction of enzymes involved in steroid metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification. The receptor is expressed in liver and intestinal tissues and is activated by a wide range of compounds. The ability of a diverse range of dietary compounds to activate PXR-mediated transcription was assayed in HuH7 cells following transient transfection with human PXR (hPXR). The compounds investigated included phytochemicals such as lignans and phytoestrogens, organochlorine dietary contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and triclosan and selected steroid, drug and herbal compounds. The hPXR activation at the top concentrations tested (10 {mu}M) relative to the positive control 10 {mu}M rifampicin ranged from 1.3% (trans-resveratrol) to 152% (ICI 182780). Hydroxylated compounds were marginally more potent than the parent compounds (tamoxifen activation was 74.6% whereas 4 hydroxytamoxifen activation was 84.2%) or significantly greater (vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 1.6%, while hydroxylated vitamin D{sub 3} activation was 55.6%). Enterolactone, the metabolite of common dietary lignans, was a medium activator of PXR (35.6%), compared to the lower activation of a parent lignan, secoisolariciresinol (20%). Two non-hydroxylated PCB congeners (PCB 118 and 153), which present a larger fraction of the PCB contamination of fatty foods, activated hPXR by 26.6% and 17%, respectively. The pesticide trans-nonachlor activation was 53.8%, while the widely used bacteriocide triclosan was a medium activator of hPXR at 46.2%. The responsiveness of PXR to activation by lignan metabolites suggests that dietary intake of these compounds may affect the metabolism of drugs that are CYP3A substrates. Additionally, the evidence that organochlorine chemicals, particularly the ubiquitous triclosan, activate hPXR suggests that these environmental chemicals may, in part, exhibit their endocrine disruptor activities by altering PXR-regulated steroid hormone metabolism with potential adverse health effects in exposed individuals.

Jacobs, Miriam N. [Molecular Toxicology Group, School of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of Surrey Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: miriam.jacobs@jrc.it; Nolan, Gail T. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom); Hood, Steven R. [Molecular MET, DMPK, GlaxoSmithKline, Park Road, Ware, Herts (United Kingdom)

2005-12-01

284

Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly proportional to the pupal mortality. Conclusion These results suggest that the P. cablin chemical compositions have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent and pupicidal activities of the reported P. cablin chemical compositions.

Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

2013-01-01

285

An expedient synthesis and screening for antiacetylcholinesterase activity of piperidine embedded novel pentacyclic cage compounds.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to synthesize and evaluate diazapentacyclic analogs for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The pentacyclic analogs were synthesized by one-pot three-component domino reactions in a microwave synthesizer. Most of the compounds exhibited moderate to good AChE inhibitory activity, compound 5i showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 1.12 ± 0.01 µM and this may provide a new lead for developing potential inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23627271

Kumar, Raju Suresh; Almansour, Abdulrahman I; Arumugam, Natarajan; Osman, Hasnah; Ali, Mohamed Ashraf; Basiri, Alireza; Kia, Yalda

2014-03-01

286

Review article SOME INDIAN BRYOPHYTES KNOWN FOR THEIR BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT: Bryophytes are known to produce a great range of biologically active compounds viz. terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and acetogenins. A lot of these constituents have typical odour, tanginess, and bitterness, and exhibit a fairly curious collection of bioactivities and medicinal properties. Chemical studies of the bryophytes were neglected for a long time in India. They are stockroom of naturally occurring materials. Many of these materials display substantial biological activity. Investigations are hindered commonly because of too little amounts of plant material. The resulting low yields of components are then generally insufficient to allow testing for biological activity. In vitro culture and suitable chemical synthesis on a preparative scale are now being undertaken to overcome this difficulty. In present review the bryophytes of Indian territory and their biologically active compounds have been highlighted which need to be used in sustainable manner.

Afroz Alam

287

Adsorption and Regeneration on Activated Carbon Fiber Cloth for Volatile Organic Compounds at Indoor Concentration Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing concerns about indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) regarding their health effects and frequent occurrence. Adsorption using granular activated carbon (GAC) is a safe methodology for removing VOCs from indoor air. Although GAC has been widely used to remove VOCs from indoor air, the use of activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) is a promising substitute to the conventional

Meng Yao; Qiong Zhang; David W. Hand; David Perram; Roy Taylor; Mridul Gautam; Nigel Clark; Thomas Spencer; Daniel Carder; Thomas Balon; Paul Moynihan; Joshua Fu; David Streets; Carey Jang; Jiming Hao; Kebin He; Litao Wang; Qiang Zhang; Jan Paca; Martin Halecky; Mark Fitch; David Williams; William Potter; William Clarkson; Dee Sanders; John Stevens; Hazem El-Zanan; Barbara Zielinska; Lynn Mazzoleni; D. Hansen; Hyun-Sun Kim; Seung-Muk Yi; Eric Edgerton; Gary Casuccio; Rick Saylor; Traci Lersch; Benjamin Hartsell; John Jansen; Roger Wayson; Gregg Fleming; Ralph Iovinelli; Hans Grimm; Delbert Eatough

2009-01-01

288

Antifungal activity of extracts and select compounds in heartwood of seven western conifers toward Phytophthora ramorum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western red cedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper,...

289

Causal connection between detoxification enzyme activity and consumption of a toxic plant compound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect herbivores can increase their detoxification activities against a particular plant poison in response to prolonged ingestion of the same compound. For example, larval tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta) experience a dramatic increase in cytochrome P450 activity against nicotine after ingesting nicotine. While it is generally assumed that this induction process permits increased consumption of toxic plant tissues, we are not

M. J. Snyder; J. I. Glendinning

1996-01-01

290

Removal Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs), Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs) and Personal Care Products (PCPs) by NF Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), and personal care products (PCPs) have raised substantial concern in important potable drinking water quality issues. Our study investigates the removal of EDCs, PhACs, and PCPs of 10 compounds having different physico-chemical properties (e.g., molecular weight, and octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow)) by nanofiltration (NF) membranes. The rejection of micropollutants

Hyuewon Jang; Seungkwan Hong; Yeomin Yoon; Jin-Young Jung; Yun-Chul Chung

291

Anti-trypanosomal activities and structural chemical properties of selected compound classes.  

PubMed

Potent compounds do not necessarily make the best drugs in the market. Consequently, with the aim to describe tools that may be fundamental for refining the screening of candidates for animal and preclinical studies and further development, molecules of different structural classes synthesized within the frame of a broad screening platform were evaluated for their trypanocidal activities, cytotoxicities against murine macrophages J774.1 and selectivity indices, as well as for their ligand efficiencies and structural chemical properties. To advance into their modes of action, we also describe the morphological and ultrastructural changes exerted by selected members of each compound class on the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Our data suggest that the potential organelles targeted are either the flagellar pocket (compound 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 15, amino acid derivative with piperazine moieties), the endoplasmic reticulum membrane systems (37, bisquaternary bisnaphthalimide; 77, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative), or mitochondria and kinetoplasts (88, N-Arylpyridinium salt; 68, piperidine derivative). Amino acid derivatives with fumaric acid and piperazine moieties (4, 15) weakly inhibiting cysteine proteases seem to preferentially target acidic compartments. Our results suggest that ligand efficiency indices may be helpful to learn about the relationship between potency and chemical characteristics of the compounds. Interestingly, the correlations found between the physico-chemical parameters of the selected compounds and those of commercial molecules that target specific organelles indicate that our rationale might be helpful to drive compound design toward high activities and acceptable pharmacokinetic properties for all compound families. PMID:25416330

Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Bruhn, Heike; Schirmeister, Tanja; Cecil, Alexander; Albert, Christian R; Buechold, Christian; Tischer, Maximilian; Schlesinger, Susanne; Goebel, Tim; Fuß, Antje; Mathein, Daniela; Merget, Benjamin; Sotriffer, Christoph A; Stich, August; Krohne, Georg; Engstler, Markus; Bringmann, Gerhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

2015-02-01

292

In vitro and in vivo anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities of essential oils and individual compounds.  

PubMed

Essential oils are increasingly of interest for use as novel drugs acting as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. In the present study, we report the in vitro antiviral activities of 29 essential oils, extracted from Chinese indigenous aromatic plants, against the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Of these essential oils, those oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass effected a more than 50% inhibition of TMV at 100 ?g/ml. In addition, the mode of antiviral action of the active essential oils was also determined. Essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass possessed potent inactivation and curative effects in vivo and had a directly passivating effect on TMV infection in a dose-dependent manner. However, all other active essential oils exhibited a moderate protective effect in vivo. The chemical constitutions of the essential oils from ginger, lemon, tea tree, tangerine peel, artemisia, and lemongrass were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of these essential oils were ?-zingiberene (35.21%), limonene (76.25%), terpinen-4-ol (41.20%), limonene (80.95%), 1,8-cineole (27.45%), and terpinolene (10.67%). The curative effects of 10 individual compounds from the active essential oils on TMV infection were also examined in vivo. The compounds from citronellal, limonene, 1,8-cineole, and ?-zingiberene effected a more than 40% inhibition rate for TMV infection, and the other compounds demonstrated moderate activities at 320 ?g/ml in vivo. There results indicate that the essential oils isolated from artemisia and lemongrass, and the individual compound citronellal, have the potential to be used as an effective alternative for the treatment of tobacco plants infected with TMV under greenhouse conditions. PMID:23676919

Lu, Min; Han, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yun; Yao, Lei

2013-06-28

293

Biosynthesis of the active compounds of Isatis indigotica based on transcriptome sequencing and metabolites profiling  

PubMed Central

Backgroud Isatis indigotica is a widely used herb for the clinical treatment of colds, fever, and influenza in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Various structural classes of compounds have been identified as effective ingredients. However, little is known at genetics level about these active metabolites. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive dataset of I. indigotica. Results A database of 36,367 unigenes (average length?=?1,115.67 bases) was generated by performing transcriptome sequencing. Based on the gene annotation of the transcriptome, 104 unigenes were identified covering most of the catalytic steps in the general biosynthetic pathways of indole, terpenoid, and phenylpropanoid. Subsequently, the organ-specific expression patterns of the genes involved in these pathways, and their responses to methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induction, were investigated. Metabolites profile of effective phenylpropanoid showed accumulation pattern of secondary metabolites were mostly correlated with the transcription of their biosynthetic genes. According to the analysis of UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGT) family, several flavonoids were indicated to exist in I. indigotica and further identified by metabolic profile using UPLC/Q-TOF. Moreover, applying transcriptome co-expression analysis, nine new, putative UGTs were suggested as flavonol glycosyltransferases and lignan glycosyltransferases. Conclusions This database provides a pool of candidate genes involved in biosynthesis of effective metabolites in I. indigotica. Furthermore, the comprehensive analysis and characterization of the significant pathways are expected to give a better insight regarding the diversity of chemical composition, synthetic characteristics, and the regulatory mechanism which operate in this medical herb. PMID:24308360

2013-01-01

294

Cost Analysis of Activated Carbon Versus Photocatalytic Oxidation for Removing Organic Compounds from Indoor Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m\\/sec indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) versus photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.27 mg\\/m. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming that the inlet VOCs had a reasonable carbon sorption affinity, representative of compounds having four or more atoms (exclusive

D. Bruce Henschel

1998-01-01

295

Development of antitubercular compounds based on a 4-quinolylhydrazone scaffold. Further structure-activity relationship studies.  

PubMed

A series of 4-quinolylhydrazones was synthesized and tested in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At a concentration of 6.25microg/mL, most of the newly synthesized compounds displayed 100% inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis in cellular assays. Further screening allowed the identification of very potent antitubercular agents. Compound 4c was also tested in a time-course experiment and against mtb clinical isolates, displaying interesting results. PMID:19620006

Gemma, Sandra; Savini, Luisa; Altarelli, Maria; Tripaldi, Pierangela; Chiasserini, Luisa; Coccone, Salvatore Sanna; Kumar, Vinod; Camodeca, Caterina; Campiani, Giuseppe; Novellino, Ettore; Clarizio, Sandra; Delogu, Giovanni; Butini, Stefania

2009-08-15

296

Polyphenolic compounds and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of some Cirsium species.  

PubMed

Crude aqueous extracts from leaves of Cirsium arvense, C. oleraceum, C. palustre, C. rivulare and C. vulgare were investigated. The content of tannins in mentioned sources, determined by the weight method with hide powder, varied between 1 and 7.63%. Total phenolic content, analysed by using Folin-Ciocalteau's method, ranged between 54 and 96 mg g(-1), was expressed as milligrams of gallic acid per gram of dry extract. Phenolic acids were identified by HPLC method. Antimicrobial activity of those extracts was examined. Cirsium palustre extract was the most active against investigated microorganisms. It was observed that the content of small-molecular phenolic compounds had greater influence on the activity of extracts than tannins. The total antioxidant activity indicated by radical cation 2,2'-azini-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) ABTS(*+), expressed as total antioxidant status (TAS) ranged from 2.31 to 2.78 mM L(-1). PMID:19085412

Nazaruk, Jolanta; Czechowska, Sylwia K; Markiewicz, Renata; Borawska, Maria H

2008-12-01

297

Hammerhead ribozyme activity and oligonucleotide duplex stability in mixed solutions of water and organic compounds  

PubMed Central

Nucleic acids are useful for biomedical targeting and sensing applications in which the molecular environment is different from that of a dilute aqueous solution. In this study, the influence of various types of mixed solutions of water and water-soluble organic compounds on RNA was investigated by measuring the catalytic activity of the hammerhead ribozyme and the thermodynamic stability of an oligonucleotide duplex. The compounds with a net neutral charge, such as poly(ethylene glycol), small primary alcohols, amide compounds, and aprotic solvent molecules, added at high concentrations changed the ribozyme-catalyzed RNA cleavage rate, with the magnitude of the effect dependent on the NaCl concentration. These compounds also changed the thermodynamic stability of RNA base pairs of an oligonucleotide duplex and its dependence on the NaCl concentration. Specific interactions with RNA molecules and reduced water activity could account for the inhibiting effects on the ribozyme catalysis and destabilizing effects on the duplex stability. The salt concentration dependence data correlated with the dielectric constant, but not with water activity, viscosity, and the size of organic compounds. This observation suggests the significance of the dielectric constant effects on the RNA reactions under molecular crowding conditions created by organic compounds. PMID:25161873

Nakano, Shu-ichi; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

2014-01-01

298

Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

2011-01-01

299

Sample Preparation Methods and Pre-harvest Factors Influencing the Contents of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Peppers  

E-print Network

Peppers are a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. The levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity can be affected by analytical methods, pre-harvest factors, and the quality of peppers...

Bae, Hae Jin

2012-02-14

300

50 CFR 300.207 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities that are not certified in this...Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL...identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities that are not certified in...

2013-10-01

301

50 CFR 300.207 - Alternative procedures for nations identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities that are not certified in this...Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL...identified as having vessels engaged in IUU fishing activities that are not certified in...

2014-10-01

302

Inverse Virtual Screening allows the discovery of the biological activity of natural compounds.  

PubMed

A small library of phenolic natural compounds belonging to different chemical classes was screened on a panel of targets involved in the genesis and progression of cancer. The re-investigation of their potential activity was achieved through the Inverse Virtual Screening approach. The normalization of the predicted binding energies permitted the selection of promising compounds on definite targets, avoiding the selection of false positive results. In vitro biological tests revealed the inhibitory activity of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol on PDK1 and PKC protein kinases. This study validates the robustness of the Inverse Virtual Screening in silico approach as a useful tool for the identification of the specific biological activity of a given set of compounds. PMID:22537682

Lauro, Gianluigi; Masullo, Milena; Piacente, Sonia; Riccio, Raffaele; Bifulco, Giuseppe

2012-06-01

303

Sorghum flour fractions: Correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.  

PubMed

Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, ?-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5±0.41; WSF 77.2±0.33; and SB 60.3±0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and ?-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI. PMID:25766808

Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; Menezes, Cícero Beserra de; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

2015-08-01

304

A novel daucosterol derivative and antibacterial activity of compounds from Arctotis arctotoides.  

PubMed

Arctotis arctotoides is a perennial herb used medicinally for the treatment of various ailments in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Different extracts of the plant were investigated for their antimicrobial constituents. This led to the isolation and identification of a new daucosterol derivative 3-O-[beta-D-(6'-nonadeanoate)glucopyranosyl]-beta-sitosterol and seven known compounds namely: serratagenic acid, stigmasterol, daucosterol, zaluzanin D, dehydrocostuslactone, nepetin, and pedalitin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis, including homo and hetero nuclear correlation NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) and mass spectra as well as by comparison with available data in the literature. The compounds exhibited antibacterial activity except stigmasterol, daucosterol and dehydrocostuslactone. Nepetin was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4 microg mL( - 1) and 31 microg mL( - 1), respectively, while others exhibited moderate activity. PMID:17680499

Sultana, Nasim; Afolayan, A J

2007-08-01

305

The relation of certain organic phosphorus compounds to blood cholinesterase activity and their value as anthelmintics in ruminants  

E-print Network

Cholinesterase Activity and Its Measurement B. Metabolism of Organic Phosphorus Compounds C. Toxicity Caused by Organic Phosphorus Compounds D. Mechanism of Cholinesterase Inhibition and Treatment of Affected Animals E. Residues in Animal Tissues and Milk... compounds have been evaluated for anthelmintio activity'. The compounds referred to in this report are listed according to their generic designation and/or common name snd chemical formula. 1. Bayer 21/199 (Co-Ral, Asuntol)~ 0, 0-diethyl (h (3-chloro- 4...

Galvin, Thomas Joseph

1961-01-01

306

Active-site iron dynamics in heme proteins and model compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active-site iron dynamics in heme proteins and model compounds are studied via nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) and compared with other experimental vibrational probes and theoretical calculations, yielding new insight into the vibrational dynamics of biologically significant proteins. NRVS is a novel technique that selectively probes only 57Fe; experiments provide quantitative information on the amplitude and frequency of all normal modes having significant iron vibrational motion. Data from other vibrational probes including traditional Mossbauer, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and inelastic neutron scattering provide complementary information on the vibrational dynamics of the heme-protein system as a whole. Specific iron participation is identified in resonance Raman and inelastic neutron modes when these spectroscopic modes are seen at the same frequency as NRVS vibrations. NRVS data is examined for 57Fe-containing myoglobin, cytochrome f, hemoglobin, and several heme model compounds. A template of heme normal modes is obtained from analyses of several model compound systems: phenyl-like modes or modes associated with the protein peak at very low-energies ˜30--60 cm-1, out-of-plane modes in the ˜70--130 cm-1 region, imidazole or histidine modes near 220 cm-1, in-plane modes from ˜200--500 cm-1, and ligand modes at the highest frequencies ˜460--600 cm-1. A qualitative understanding of the more complicated heme-protein dynamics is obtained by applying this template to the protein vibrational density of states (VDOS). Differences in heme-to-protein binding configurations in myoglobin and cytochrome f are reflected in the iron VDOS, suggesting a structural and dynamical correlation with their different biological functions (i.e. ligand binding versus electron transport). Hemoglobin hybrids containing 57Fe and 56Fe have been prepared for the first time and NRVS measurements show data for the selected alpha or beta subunits within a relatively unperturbed hemoglobin sample. Myoglobin and hybrid hemoglobin data show a broad range of modes with doming character, but modes near 100 cm-1 appear to have importance in the communication pathway of the hemoglobin allosteric effect.

Adams, Kristl L.

307

Phytogrowth-inhibitory activities of 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid and its related compounds.  

PubMed

2-Thiophenecarboxylic acid (I) exhibited growth-inhibitory activity in five kinds of plants. In particular, I strongly inhibited the growth of the roots of Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia LAM and Echinochloa utilis OHWI et YABUNO, even at the low concentration of 5.0 x 10(-3) M. Furthermore, all of the I-related compounds (II-V and VII-X) except for VI, showed more or less obvious inhibitory activity on the seeds of Sesamum indicum L. Compounds VII-X, in which the carboxyl group of I was replaced by acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and acrylic acid, and exhibited more potent phytogrowth-inhibitory activity than I. Among these compounds, 2-thiophenebutyric acid (IX) showed the strongest activity. Esterification of the carboxyl group in I increased the inhibitory activity relative to that of I, while amidation and reduction of this group markedly decreased its inhibitory activity. The radicles of the plants treated with each of the compounds except for VI showed negative geotropism, even though germination occurred. PMID:8148810

Inamori, Y; Muro, C; Funakoshi, Y; Usami, Y; Tsujibo, H; Numata, A

1994-01-01

308

Synthesis and evaluation of diaryl sulfides and diaryl selenide compounds for antitubulin and cytotoxic activity  

PubMed Central

We have devised a procedure for the synthesis of analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) containing sulfur and selenium atoms as spacer groups between the aromatic rings. CA-4 is well known for its potent activity as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization, and its prodrugs combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4P) and combretastatin A-1 phosphate (CA-1P) are being investigated as antitumor agents that cause tumor vascular collapse in addition to their activity as cytotoxic compounds. Here we report the preparation of two sulfur analogs and one selenium analog of CA-4. All synthesized compounds, as well as several synthetic intermediates, were evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and for cytotoxic activity in human cancer cells. Compounds 3 and 4 were active at nM concentration against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. As inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, both 3 and 4 were more active than CA-4 itself. In addition, 4 was the most active of these agents against 786, HT-29 and PC-3 cancer cells. Molecular modeling binding studies are also reported for compounds 1, 3, 4 and CA-4 to tubulin within the colchicine site. PMID:23810282

dos Santos, Edson dos A.; Hamel, Ernest; Bai, Ruoli; Burnett, James C.; Tozatti, Camila Santos Suniga; Bogo, Danielle; Perdomo, Renata T.; Antunes, Alexandra M. M.; Marques, M. Matilde; Matos, Maria de F. C.; de Lima, Dênis P.

2013-01-01

309

Synthesis and evaluation of diaryl sulfides and diaryl selenide compounds for antitubulin and cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

We have devised a procedure for the synthesis of analogs of combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) containing sulfur and selenium atoms as spacer groups between the aromatic rings. CA-4 is well known for its potent activity as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization, and its prodrugs combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4P) and combretastatin A-1 phosphate (CA-1P) are being investigated as antitumor agents that cause tumor vascular collapse in addition to their activity as cytotoxic compounds. Here we report the preparation of two sulfur analogs and one selenium analog of CA-4. All synthesized compounds, as well as several synthetic intermediates, were evaluated for inhibition of tubulin polymerization and for cytotoxic activity in human cancer cells. Compounds 3 and 4 were active at nM concentration against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. As inhibitors of tubulin polymerization, both 3 and 4 were more active than CA-4 itself. In addition, 4 was the most active of these agents against 786, HT-29 and PC-3 cancer cells. Molecular modeling binding studies are also reported for compounds 1, 3, 4 and CA-4 to tubulin within the colchicine site. PMID:23810282

dos Santos, Edson dos A; Hamel, Ernest; Bai, Ruoli; Burnett, James C; Tozatti, Camila Santos Suniga; Bogo, Danielle; Perdomo, Renata T; Antunes, Alexandra M M; Marques, M Matilde; Matos, Maria de F C; de Lima, Dênis P

2013-08-15

310

A high-content, multiplexed screen in human breast cancer cells identifies profilin-1 inducers with anti-migratory activities.  

PubMed

Profilin-1 (Pfn-1) is a ubiquitously expressed actin-binding protein that is essential for normal cell proliferation and migration. In breast cancer and several other adenocarcinomas, Pfn-1 expression is downregulated when compared to normal tissues. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that genetically modulating Pfn-1 expression significantly impacts proliferation, migration, and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and mammary tumor growth, dissemination, and metastatic colonization in vivo. Therefore, small molecules that can modulate Pfn-1 expression could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. The overall goal of this study was to perform a multiplexed phenotypic screen to identify compounds that inhibit cell motility through upregulation of Pfn-1. Screening of a test cassette of 1280 compounds with known biological activities on an Oris™ Pro 384 cell migration platform identified several agents that increased Pfn-1 expression greater than two-fold over vehicle controls and exerted anti-migratory effects in the absence of overt cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Concentration-response confirmation and orthogonal follow-up assays identified two bona fide inducers of Pfn-1, purvalanol and tyrphostin A9, that confirmed in single-cell motility assays and Western blot analyses. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of Pfn-1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of tyrphostin A9 on cell migration, suggesting Pfn-1 is mechanistically linked to tyrphostin A9's anti-migratory activity. The data illustrate the utility of the high-content cell motility assay to discover novel targeted anti-migratory agents by integrating functional phenotypic analyses with target-specific readouts in a single assay platform. PMID:24520372

Joy, Marion E; Vollmer, Laura L; Hulkower, Keren; Stern, Andrew M; Peterson, Cameron K; Boltz, R C Dutch; Roy, Partha; Vogt, Andreas

2014-01-01

311

Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

2010-01-01

312

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Assessing a signal model and identifying brain activity from fMRI  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Assessing a signal model and identifying brain activity from fMRI data-Verlag 2008 Abstract One of the major challenges of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis brain activity from fMRI data. We perform three tasks: (a) Estimating noise level from experimental fMRI

Gao, Jianbo

313

Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 microg/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37 degrees C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 microg/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 microg/ml), oregano oil (68.2 microg/ml), carvacrol (72.2 microg/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 microg/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 microg/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y Y; Grant, Irene R; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T; Situ, Chen

2008-10-01

314

The Antimicrobial Activities of Extract and Compounds Isolated from Brillantaisia lamium  

PubMed Central

Background: Brillantaisia lamium is an erect branched herb, which grows to a height of 1.50 m in moist tropical areas, both in full sun and partial shade. In , the aerial part of this plant is used in the treatment of various microbial infections such as skin diseases and infections of urinary tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract, fractions and compounds from the aerial part of B. lamium. Methods: The plant was dried and extracted by maceration in CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1 v/v). Structures of the compounds from the CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) soluble fraction were determined by spectroscopic methods and compared with published data. The broth micro dilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungal species. Results: Four known compounds: aurantiamide acetate (1), lupeol (2), lespedin (3), sitosterol 3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4) and a mixture of sterols: campesterol (5), stigmasterol (6) and ?-sitosterol (7) were isolated from CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract of B. lamium aerial parts. The crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds exhibited both antibacterial and antifungal activities that varied with microorganism (MIC=6.25 – 1000 µg/ml). Compound 3 was the most active (MIC=6.25 – 100 µg/ml) while Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans were the most sensitive to all the tested compounds. Conclusion: The overall results of this study indicate that the CH2Cl2: MeOH (1:1) extract and some of isolated compounds have interesting antimicrobial properties and can be used for the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections. PMID:23365474

Tamokou, Jean De Dieu; Kuiate, Jules Roger; Tene, Mathieu; Kenla Nwemeguela, Timothée Julbelin; Tane, Pierre

2011-01-01

315

Antibacterial Activities of Naturally Occurring Compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activities of 18 naturally occurring compounds (including essential oils and some of their isolated constituents, apple and green tea polyphenols, and other plant extracts) against three strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a bovine isolate [NCTC 8578], a raw-milk isolate [806R], and a human isolate [ATCC 43015]) were evaluated using a macrobroth susceptibility testing method. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was grown in 4 ml Middlebrook 7H9 broth containing 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 0.05% Tween 80 (or 0.2% glycerol), and 2 ?g/ml mycobactin J supplemented with five concentrations of each test compound. The changes in the optical densities of the cultures at 600 nm as a measure of CFU were recorded at intervals over an incubation period of 42 days at 37°C. Six of the compounds were found to inhibit the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compound was trans-cinnamaldehyde, with a MIC of 25.9 ?g/ml, followed by cinnamon oil (26.2 ?g/ml), oregano oil (68.2 ?g/ml), carvacrol (72.2 ?g/ml), 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (74 ?g/ml), and 2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde (90.4 ?g/ml). With the exception of carvacrol, a phenolic compound, three of the four most active compounds are aldehydes, suggesting that the structure of the phenolic group or the aldehyde group may be important to the antibacterial activity. No difference in compound activity was observed between the three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains studied. Possible mechanisms of the antimicrobial effects are discussed. PMID:18676709

Wong, Stella Y. Y.; Grant, Irene R.; Friedman, Mendel; Elliott, Christopher T.; Situ, Chen

2008-01-01

316

Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N?-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

2014-10-01

317

Antioxidative and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of caffeoylquinic acids and other compounds from moxa.  

PubMed

The MeOH extract of moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP. (Asteraceae), exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and melanogenesis-inhibitory activity in ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Eight caffeoylquinic acids, 1 and 6-12, five flavonoids, 13-17, two benzoic acid derivatives, 18 and 19, three coumarin derivatives, 20-22, four steroids, 23-26, and six triterpenoids, 27-32, were isolated from the MeOH extract. Upon evaluation of compounds 1, 6-23, and four semisynthetic caffeoylquinic acid esters, 2-5, for their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, 15 compounds, 1-13, 17, and 19, showed potent activities (IC(50) 3.1-16.8 ?M). The 15 compounds exhibited, moreover, potent inhibitory activities (51.1-92.5% inhibition) against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 10 ?g/ml concentration. In addition, when 27 compounds, 1-8, 10, 12, 13, 15-18, 20-25, and 27-32, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against melanogenesis in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, five caffeoylquinic acids, i.e., chlorogenic acid (1), ethyl chlorogenate (3), propyl chlorogenate (4), isopropyl chlorogenate (5), and butyl chlorogenate (6), along with homoorientin (17) and vanillic acid (18), exhibited inhibitory activities with 33-62% reduction of melanin content at 100 ?M concentration with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (89-114% of cell viability at 100 ?M). Western blot analysis showed that compound 6 reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Furthermore, four compounds, 13, 15, 16, and 30, exhibited cytotoxicities against HL60 human leukemia cell line (IC(50) 7.0-11.1 ?M), and nine compounds, 14-16, 23, 26-28, 31, and 32, showed inhibitory effects (IC(50) 272-382 mol ratio/32 pmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphohrbol-13-acetate (TPA)) against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA in Raji cells. PMID:23495149

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Kohta; Orido, Masashi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ogihara, Eri; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Fuji, Jizaemon

2013-03-01

318

Adsorption of phenolic compounds by activated carbon--a critical review.  

PubMed

Adsorption of phenol and its derivatives on activated carbons is considered based on numerous papers related to this issue. Special attention is paid to the effects of carbon surface functionalities, pH of solution and heterogeneity effects that accompany adsorption of phenolic compounds. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to irreversible adsorption of phenols and impact of different substituents of phenolic compounds on their uptake by activated carbons is considered. Finally, some remarks pertaining to applications of novel adsorbents for phenol adsorption are discussed and illustrated by means of a few examples. PMID:15664613

Dabrowski, A; Podko?cielny, P; Hubicki, Z; Barczak, M

2005-02-01

319

Antifungal compounds from turmeric and nutmeg with activity against plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of twenty-two common spices was evaluated against plant pathogens using direct-bioautography coupled Colletotrichum bioassays. Turmeric, nutmeg, ginger, clove, oregano, cinnamon, anise, fennel, basil, black cumin, and black pepper showed antifungal activity against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum fragariae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Among the active extracts, turmeric and nutmeg were the most active and were chosen for further investigation. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of three compounds from turmeric (1-3) and three compounds from nutmeg (4-6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including HR-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR as curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2) and bisdemethoxy-curcumin (3), erythro-(7R,8R)-?(8')-4,7-dihydroxy-3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (4), erythro-(7R,8R)-?8'-7-acetoxy-3,4,3',5'-tetra-methoxy-8-O-4'-neolignan (5), and 5-hydroxy-eugenol (6). The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated using a 96-well microbioassay against plant pathogens. At 30 ?M, compounds 2 and 3 possessed the most antifungal activity against Phomopsis obscurans and Phomopsis viticola, respectively. PMID:25173461

Radwan, Mohamed M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Tarawneh, Amer H; Cutler, Stephen J

2014-12-01

320

Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract and compounds from the twigs of Dorstenia mannii (Moraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Dorstenia mannii (Moraceae) is a medicinal herb used traditionally for the treatment of many diseases. In the present study, the methanol extract of D. mannii and nine of its isolated compounds, namely dorsmanin A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (6), F (7), G (8) dorsmanin I (9) and 6,8-diprenyleriodictyol (5), were tested for their antimicrobial activities against yeast, Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution method were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) of the above extract and compounds on a panel of bacterial species. Results The results of the MIC determinations demonstrated that the methanol extract as well as compounds 3 and 8 were able to prevent the growth of all the fourteen studied microorganisms within the concentration range of 4 to 1024??g/ml. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract (64??g/ml) was obtained on Candida albicans. The lowest value for individual compounds (4??g/ml) was recorded with compounds 3 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and 7 on Eschericia coli ATCC strain. The MIC values recorded with compounds 3 on P. aeruginosa PA01, 6 on C. albicans,7 on P. aeruginosa PA01 and K. pneumoniae ATCC strain and C. albicans,and 8 on P. aeruginosa PA01, PA124, P. stuartii, M. tuberculosis MTCS1 were lower than or equal to those of the reference drugs. MMC values not greater than 1024??g/ml were recorded on all studied microorganisms with compounds 3 and 8. Conclusion The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract of D. mannii as well as some of its compounds such compounds 3 and 8 could be a potential source of natural antimicrobial products. PMID:22747736

2012-01-01

321

Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds on granular activated carbon.  

PubMed

The performance of a biofilter packed with Active Carbon (AC) was evaluated. The effluent (alcohol, ketones, esters, aromatic and chlorinated compounds) treated was a representative mixture of most common industrial emissions. To achieve a better knowledge of multicomponent adsorption mechanisms, and to underline the interest of inoculating AC, a control abiotic humidified filter had been operated in the same conditions as the biofilter. For a load of 110 g VOC m(-3) AC h(-1), after 55 days of operation, the removal efficiency was higher in the biotic than in the abiotic filter (85% vs 55%, respectively). Moreover, in the biofilter, at steady state, the elimination of all compounds was almost complete except for chlorinated compounds and p-xylene (removal efficiency of 25% and 64%, respectively). The microbial colonization of AC involved a decrease of the adsorption sites accessibility and enhanced the treatment of VOCs (volatile organic compounds) having a lower affinity for activated carbon. Moreover, while aromatic compounds and MIBK were eliminated along the overall height of the biofilter, pollutants with reduced affinity for AC, such as methanol, acetone, and halogenated compounds were only treated on the second half of the reactor. Thus, the affinity for activated carbon was an important parameter controlling the biodegradation process. Nevertheless, the use of AC as packing material in biofilters treating complex mixtures of VOCs is limited. Actually, similar removal efficiency could be reached, in the same conditions, for a biofilter packed with granular peat. Furthermore, for the biofilter packed with AC, the column height necessary to remove biodegradable compounds, with reduced affinity for the support, was important. PMID:12800142

Aizpuru, A; Malhautier, L; Roux, J C; Fanlo, J L

2003-08-20

322

Antifeeding activity of isoquinoline alkaloids identified in Coptis japonica roots against Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Agelastica coerulea (Coleoptera: Galerucinae).  

PubMed

The anti-feeding activity of 3 isoquinoline alkaloids identified from roots of Coptis japonica Makino toward 4th-instar larvae of Hyphantria cunea Drury and adults of Agelastica coerulea Baly was examined using the leaf-dipping bioassay. The biologically active constituents of the Coptis roots were characterized as the isoquinoline alkaloids berberine, palmatine and coptisine by spectroscopic analysis. In a test with H. cunea larvae, the anti-feeding activity was much more pronounced in an application of a mixture of palmatine iodide and berberine chloride (1:1, wt:wt) at 250 ppm (82.3%) and 500 ppm (100%), compared with palmatine iodide (76.0%) and berberine chloride (75.4%) alone at 500 ppm. These results indicate a synergistic effect. With A. courulea adults, berberine chloride showed 57.5 and 91.1% anti-feeding activity at 125 and 250 ppm, respectively; whereas, weak activity was obtained in application of 500 ppm of palmatine iodide (41.4%) and coptisine chloride (52.4%) alone. The Coptis root-derived compounds merit further study as potential insect-control agents. PMID:10826181

Park, I K; Lee, H S; Lee, S G; Park, J D; Ahn, Y J

2000-04-01

323

Rethinking molecular similarity: comparing compounds on the basis of biological activity.  

PubMed

Since the advent of high-throughput screening (HTS), there has been an urgent need for methods that facilitate the interrogation of large-scale chemical biology data to build a mode of action (MoA) hypothesis. This can be done either prior to the HTS by subset design of compounds with known MoA or post HTS by data annotation and mining. To enable this process, we developed a tool that compares compounds solely on the basis of their bioactivity: the chemical biological descriptor "high-throughput screening fingerprint" (HTS-FP). In the current embodiment, data are aggregated from 195 biochemical and cell-based assays developed at Novartis and can be used to identify bioactivity relationships among the in-house collection comprising ~1.5 million compounds. We demonstrate the value of the HTS-FP for virtual screening and in particular scaffold hopping. HTS-FP outperforms state of the art methods in several aspects, retrieving bioactive compounds with remarkable chemical dissimilarity to a probe structure. We also apply HTS-FP for the design of screening subsets in HTS. Using retrospective data, we show that a biodiverse selection of plates performs significantly better than a chemically diverse selection of plates, both in terms of number of hits and diversity of chemotypes retrieved. This is also true in the case of hit expansion predictions using HTS-FP similarity. Sets of compounds clustered with HTS-FP are biologically meaningful, in the sense that these clusters enrich for genes and gene ontology (GO) terms, showing that compounds that are bioactively similar also tend to target proteins that operate together in the cell. HTS-FP are valuable not only because of their predictive power but mainly because they relate compounds solely on the basis of bioactivity, harnessing the accumulated knowledge of a high-throughput screening facility toward the understanding of how compounds interact with the proteome. PMID:22594495

Petrone, Paula M; Simms, Benjamin; Nigsch, Florian; Lounkine, Eugen; Kutchukian, Peter; Cornett, Allen; Deng, Zhan; Davies, John W; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Glick, Meir

2012-08-17

324

Quantitative assessment of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of 15 jujube cultivars.  

PubMed

Fifteen jujube cultivars late in their maturation were analysed in the red stage for bioactive compounds; including total phenolics (bound/free), total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, ascorbic acid, total triterpenes, proanthocyanidins and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydracyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) (ABTS(+)) scavenging methods and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution method (TOPSIS) was employed to evaluate the nutrition of different jujube cultivars based on their bioactive compounds. The results indicated that the contents of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacities vary between different jujube cultivars. Correlation analysis revealed that ascorbic acid, polyphenols and proanthocyanidins were the 3 main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of jujubes. TOPSIS analysis indicated that Zyzyphus jujube cv. Nanjingyazao ranks the highest of the 15 jujube fruits with regards to nutritional value. PMID:25466122

Kou, Xiaohong; Chen, Qiong; Li, Xianhua; Li, Mianfang; Kan, Cong; Chen, Boru; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Zhaohui

2015-04-15

325

High-Throughput Screening of a Collection of Known Pharmacologically Active Small Compounds for Identification of Candida albicans Biofilm Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most common etiologic agent of systemic fungal infections with unacceptably high mortality rates. The existing arsenal of antifungal drugs is very limited and is particularly ineffective against C. albicans biofilms. To address the unmet need for novel antifungals, particularly those active against biofilms, we have screened a small molecule library consisting of 1,200 off-patent drugs already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Prestwick Chemical Library, to identify inhibitors of C. albicans biofilm formation. According to their pharmacological applications that are currently known, we classified these bioactive compounds as antifungal drugs, as antimicrobials/antiseptics, or as miscellaneous drugs, which we considered to be drugs with no previously characterized antifungal activity. Using a 96-well microtiter plate-based high-content screening assay, we identified 38 pharmacologically active agents that inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation. These drugs were subsequently tested for their potency and efficacy against preformed biofilms, and we identified three drugs with novel antifungal activity. Thus, repurposing FDA-approved drugs opens up a valuable new avenue for identification and potentially rapid development of antifungal agents, which are urgently needed. PMID:23689719

Siles, Samuel A.; Srinivasan, Anand; Pierce, Christopher G.

2013-01-01

326

A novel compound, NK150460, exhibits selective antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

PubMed

Antiestrogen agents are commonly used to treat patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been the mainstay of endocrine treatment for patients with early and advanced breast cancer for many years. Following tamoxifen treatment failure, however, there are still limited options for subsequent hormonal therapy. We discovered a novel compound, NK150460, that inhibits 17?-estradiol (E2)-dependent transcription without affecting binding of E2 to ER. Against our expectations, NK150460 inhibited growth of not only most ER-positive, but also some ER-negative breast cancer cell lines, while never inhibiting growth of non-breast cancer cell lines. Cell-based screening using a random shRNA library, identified aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) as a key gene involved in NK150460's antitumor mechanism. siRNAs against not only ARNT but also its counterpart aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and their target protein, CYP1A1, dramatically abrogated NK150460's growth-inhibitory activity. This suggests that the molecular cascade of AhR/ARNT plays an essential role in NK150460's antitumor mechanism. Expression of ER? was decreased by NK150460 treatment, and this was inhibited by an AhR antagonist. Unlike two other AhR agonists now undergoing clinical developmental stage, NK150460 did not induce histone H2AX phosphorylation or p53 expression, suggesting that it did not induce a DNA damage response in treated cells. Cell lines expressing epithelial markers were more sensitive to NK150460 than mesenchymal marker-expressing cells. These data indicate that NK150460 is a novel AhR agonist with selective antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines, and its features differ from those of the other two AhR agonists. PMID:25522763

Fukasawa, Kazuteru; Kagaya, Shigehide; Maruyama, Sakiko; Kuroiwa, Shunsuke; Masuda, Kuniko; Kameyama, Yoshio; Satoh, Yoshitaka; Akatsu, Yuichi; Tomura, Arihiro; Nishikawa, Kiyohiro; Horie, Shigeo; Ichikawa, Yuh-ichiro

2015-02-01

327

Novel Indole-2-Carboxamide Compounds Are Potent Broad-Spectrum Antivirals Active against Western Equine Encephalitis Virus In Vivo  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Neurotropic alphaviruses, including western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, cause serious and potentially fatal central nervous system infections in humans for which no currently approved therapies exist. We previously identified a series of thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole derivatives as novel inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication, using a cell-based phenotypic assay (W. Peng et al., J. Infect. Dis. 199:950–957, 2009, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597275), and subsequently developed second- and third-generation indole-2-carboxamide derivatives with improved potency, solubility, and metabolic stability (J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 55:3535–3545, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300214e; J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:9222–9241, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401330r). In this report, we describe the antiviral activity of the most promising third-generation lead compound, CCG205432, and closely related analogs CCG206381 and CCG209023. These compounds have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of ?1 ?M and selectivity indices of >100 in cell-based assays using western equine encephalitis virus replicons. Furthermore, CCG205432 retains similar potency against fully infectious virus in cultured human neuronal cells. These compounds show broad inhibitory activity against a range of RNA viruses in culture, including members of the Togaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Although their exact molecular target remains unknown, mechanism-of-action studies reveal that these novel indole-based compounds target a host factor that modulates cap-dependent translation. Finally, we demonstrate that both CCG205432 and CCG209023 dampen clinical disease severity and enhance survival of mice given a lethal western equine encephalitis virus challenge. These studies demonstrate that indole-2-carboxamide compounds are viable candidates for continued preclinical development as inhibitors of neurotropic alphaviruses and, potentially, of other RNA viruses. IMPORTANCE There are currently no approved drugs to treat infections with alphaviruses. We previously identified a novel series of compounds with activity against these potentially devastating pathogens (J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 55:3535–3545, 2012, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm300214e; W. Peng et al., J. Infect. Dis. 199:950–957, 2009, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/597275; J. A. Sindac et al., J. Med. Chem. 56:9222–9241, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm401330r). We have now produced third-generation compounds with enhanced potency, and this manuscript provides detailed information on the antiviral activity of these advanced-generation compounds, including activity in an animal model. The results of this study represent a notable achievement in the continued development of this novel class of antiviral inhibitors. PMID:25031353

Delekta, Phillip C.; Dobry, Craig J.; Sindac, Janice A.; Barraza, Scott J.; Blakely, Pennelope K.; Xiang, Jianming; Kirchhoff, Paul D.; Keep, Richard F.; Irani, David N.; Larsen, Scott D.

2014-01-01

328

EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVAL OF TOXIC AND/OR CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS FROM WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This research addressed quantification of the performance of fixed-bed granular activated carbon processes for treatment of public water supplies. It included evaluation of the adsorption of selected toxic and/or carcinogenic trace compounds of man-related origin, including carbo...

329

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of polyphenolic compounds from bitter cumin ( Cuminum nigrum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cumin is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional ayurvedic medicine as a stimulant, carminative and astringent. Earlier we have reported that bitter cumin (Cuminum nigrum L.) possess the most potent antioxidant activity among cumin varieties—cumin, black cumin and bitter cumin. In this study, we have further characterized the polyphenolic compounds of

V. Ani; M. C. Varadaraj; K. Akhilender Naidu

2006-01-01

330

Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

331

Pharmacology of nootropics and metabolically active compounds in relation to their use in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of effective drugs for the treatment of dementia is an important therapeutic target. Drugs which stop the progression of dementia have not been developed; however, nootropics and metabolically active compounds such as the vinca alkaloids and the ergot alkaloids as well as alkylxanthines are widely used to alleviate the symptoms. This review summarises animal studies investigating the mechanism

C. D. Nicholson

1990-01-01

332

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

333

Combined removal of sulfur compounds and nitrate by autotrophic denitrication in bioaugmented activated sludge system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autotrophic denitrification process using reduced sulfur compounds (thiosulfate and sulfide) as electron donor in an activated sludge system is proposed as an efficient and cost effective alternative to conventional heterotrophic denitrification for inorganic (or with low C\\/N ratio) wastewaters and for simultaneous removal of sulfide or thiosulfate and nitrate. A suspended culture of sulfur-utilizing denitrifying bacteria was fast and

I. Manconi; A. Carucci; P. N. L. Lens

2007-01-01

334

Ytterbium triflate hydrate catalyzed Michael addition and cyclocondensation of ?,?-unsaturated ketones with active methylene compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalyzed by ytterbium(III) triflate hydrate [Yb(OTf)3·xH2O], the Michael addition and cyclocondensation of ?,?-unsaturated ketones with active methylene compounds to afford the 1,4-adducts and benzo[b]pyran derivatives, respectively were studied.

Zhi Wei Chen; Yan Li Wang; Ren Er Chen; Wei Ke Su

2008-01-01

335

New Generation of Chromatographic Packings and Columns for Determination of Biologically Active Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of biologically active substances is particularly important in the pharmaceutical and biomedical area. For separation of polar compounds or complex mixtures by normal (NP) or reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and\\/or electromigration techniques, it is necessary to apply a new generation of packings and columns with strictly defined properties. It is connected to the definition of chromatographic behavior and

Bogus?aw Buszewski; Sylwia Kowalska; Katarzyna Krupczy?ska

2005-01-01

336

Differential Effects of Procaspase-3 Activating Compounds in the Induction of Cancer Cell Death  

E-print Network

Differential Effects of Procaspase-3 Activating Compounds in the Induction of Cancer Cell Death ions in vitro, induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in culture, and reduce tumor burden in vivo. Ip with spontaneously occurring lymphoma. Here we show that PAC-1 and S-PAC-1 have similar mechanisms of cell death

Hergenrother, Paul J.

337

COST ANALYSIS OF ACTIVATED CARBON VERSUS PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION FOR REMOVING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM INDOOR AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

A cost comparison has been conducted of 1 m3/s indoor air cleaners using granular activated carbon (GAC) vs. photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) for treating a steady-state inlet volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration of 0.3 mg/m3. The commercial GAC unit was costed assuming t...

338

Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

2010-01-01

339

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING  

EPA Science Inventory

Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

340

Laboratory Animal Science Issues in the Design and Conduct of Studies with Endocrine-active Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of rodent models for research and testing on endo- crine-active compounds necessitates an awareness of a number of laboratory animal science issues to standardize bioassay methods and facilitate reproducibility of results between laboratories. These issues are not unique to endo- crine research but are particularly important in this field due to the complexities and interdependencies of the endocrine

Jeffrey I. Everitt; Paul M. D. Foster

2004-01-01

341

Large compound databases for structure-activity relationships studies in drug discovery.  

PubMed

Large libraries of chemical compounds reflect the exponentially growing data-enrichment in drug discovery that trends towards fully automated informatics solutions to study structure - activity relationships by screening docked ligand candidates to biological target structures. We review otherwise disseminated user descriptions of mainly public databases with free access and also our integrated data mining tool GPDBnet for phyto-pharmacology. PMID:17692047

Scior, Thomas; Bernard, Philippe; Medina-Franco, José Luis; Maggiora, Gerald M

2007-08-01

342

Inhibitory effects of key compounds isolated from Corni fructus on BACE1 Activity.  

PubMed

Progressive cerebral deposition of A? in the brain is a seminal event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A? is generated from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by proteolytic processing of ?-secretase (BACE1) and ?-secretase. Consequently, BACE1, a key enzyme in the production of A?, is a prime target for therapeutic intervention in AD. In the course of screening for natural BACE1 inhibitors from Corni fructus, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction showed significant inhibitory activity against BACE1. By activity guided purification, three compounds of BACE1 inhibitors p-coumaric acid, gallic acid and ursolic acid were isolated from Corni fructus EtOAc fraction. All isolated compounds suppressed BACE1 in a dose dependent manner. p-Coumaric acid, in particular, exhibited significant inhibitory activity against BACE1 with 9.0?×?10(-5) ?m and a K(i) value of 1.9?×?10(-6) ?m. Also this compound was non-competitive with a substrate in the Dixon plot, suggesting that it might bind either to the ?-secretase subsite or to another regulatory site. All compounds showed no significant attenuation of TACE (?-secretase) and other serine proteases such as chymotrypsin and trypsin, demonstrating that they were relatively selective and specific inhibitors of BACE1. These novel findings suggest that Corni fructus contains biologically active components that may be used to attenuate the progression and/or prevention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22407769

Youn, Kumju; Jun, Mira

2012-11-01

343

Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of

Linda Saxe Einbond; Ye Wen-Cai; Kan He; Hsan-au Wu; Erica Cruz; Marc Roller; Fredi Kronenberg

2008-01-01

344

Drug Discovery for Schistosomiasis: Hit and Lead Compounds Identified in a Library of Known Drugs by Medium-Throughput Phenotypic Screening  

PubMed Central

Background Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism) screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease—tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. Methods A partially automated, three-component phenotypic screen workflow is presented that utilizes at its apex the schistosomular stage of the parasite adapted to a 96-well plate format with a throughput of 640 compounds per month. Hits that arise are subsequently screened in vitro against adult parasites and finally for efficacy in a murine model of disease. Two GO/NO GO criteria filters in the workflow prioritize hit compounds for tests in the animal disease model in accordance with a target drug profile that demands short-course oral therapy. The screen workflow was inaugurated with 2,160 chemically diverse natural and synthetic compounds, of which 821 are drugs already approved for human use. This affords a unique starting point to ‘reposition’ (re-profile) drugs as anti-schistosomals with potential savings in development timelines and costs. Findings Multiple and dynamic phenotypes could be categorized for schistosomula and adults in vitro, and a diverse set of ‘hit’ drugs and chemistries were identified, including anti-schistosomals, anthelmintics, antibiotics, and neuromodulators. Of those hits prioritized for tests in the animal disease model, a number of leads were identified, one of which compares reasonably well with PZQ in significantly decreasing worm and egg burdens, and disease-associated pathology. Data arising from the three components of the screen are posted online as a community resource. Conclusions To accelerate the identification of novel anti-schistosomals, we have developed a partially automated screen workflow that interfaces schistosomula with microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. The workflow has identified various compounds and drugs as hits in vitro and leads, with the prescribed oral efficacy, in vivo. Efforts to improve throughput, automation, and rigor of the screening workflow are ongoing. PMID:19597541

Wolff, Brian; Snedecor, June; Lim, Kee-Chong; Xu, Fengyun; Renslo, Adam R.; Williams, Janice; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

2009-01-01

345

Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. The development of new anti-TB therapeutics is required, because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains as well as co-infection with other pathogens, especially HIV. Recently, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline published the results of a high-throughput screen (HTS) of their two million compound library for anti-mycobacterial phenotypes. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain, including a subset of 177 prioritized compounds with high potency and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The next major challenge is the identification of the target proteins. Here, we use a computational approach that integrates historical bioassay data, chemical properties and structural comparisons of selected compounds to propose their potential targets in M. tuberculosis. We predicted 139 target - compound links, providing a necessary basis for further studies to characterize the mode of action of these compounds. The results from our analysis, including the predicted structural models, are available to the wider scientific community in the open source mode, to encourage further development of novel TB therapeutics. PMID:24098102

Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Yang, Lun; Wallace, Iain M.; Kumar, Vinod; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Brown, James R.; Overington, John P.; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

2013-01-01

346

Infrared decontamination of oregano: effects on Bacillus cereus spores, water activity, color, and volatile compounds.  

PubMed

Infrared (IR) heating, a novel technology for decontaminating oregano, was evaluated by investigating the reduction of inoculated Bacillus cereus spores and the effect on water activity (a(w)), color, and headspace volatile compounds after exposure to IR treatment. Conditioned oregano (a(w) 0.88) was IR-treated in a closed heating unit at 90 and 100 °C for holding times of 2 and 10 min, respectively. The most successful reduction in B. cereus spore numbers (5.6 log units) was achieved after a holding time of 10 min at 90 °C, while treatment at 100 °C for the same time resulted in a lower reduction efficiency (4.7 log units). The lower reduction at 100 °C was probably due to a reduced aw (aw 0.76) during IR treatment or possibly to the alteration or loss of volatile compounds possessing antimicrobial properties. The green color of oregano was only slightly affected, while the composition of volatile compounds was clearly altered by IR heating. However, two of the key aroma compounds, carvacrol and thymol, were only slightly affected, compared to the effect on the other studied compounds, indicating that the typical oregano aroma can likely be preserved. In conclusion, IR heating shows potential for the successful decontamination of oregano without severe alteration of its color or the key aroma compounds, carvacrol and thymol. PMID:25393824

Eliasson, Lovisa; Libander, Patrik; Lövenklev, Maria; Isaksson, Sven; Ahrné, Lilia

2014-12-01

347

Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole compounds containing piperazine moiety.  

PubMed

Design and synthesis of triazole library antifungal agents having piperazine side chains, analogues to fluconazole were documented. The synthesis highlighted utilization of the click chemistry on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14?-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS and IR. The influences of piperazine moiety on in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. PMID:25090121

Wang, Yanwei; Xu, Kehan; Bai, Guojing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuye; Pan, Weihua; Yu, Shichong

2014-01-01

348

Antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity of extracts and isolated compounds from Araucaria angustifolia dead bark.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of the extract and its relevant fraction as well as isolated compounds from the dead bark of Araucaria angustifolia are presented. This tree represents the Mixed Ombrophile Forest, which is endangered due to extensive logging. The dead bark of Araucaria is naturally discarded by the tree, and its hydroalcoholic crude extract has exhibited protective qualities against stress induced by H(2)O(2) in cell culture. Using several in vitro models, here we describe the antioxidant potential of the crude extract and its component ethyl acetate fraction and also of some compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. We provide the first description of the isolation of two natural product afzelechin derivatives. The extract and isolated compounds, particularly epiafzelechin protocatechuate (5), displayed very high antioxidant activity, as did compound 4, quercetin, which is well known for its antioxidant properties. In a DPPH assay, compound 5 exhibited an IC(50) of 0.7 ?M; in a lipid peroxidation assay; IC(50) values of 21 ?M and 35 ?M were obtained when the oxidation was induced by UV and ascorbate free radicals, respectively. PMID:21208522

Seccon, Andrea; Rosa, Daniela W; Freitas, Rilton A; Biavatti, Maique W; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B

2010-01-01

349

Therapeutic Uses and Pharmacological Properties of Garlic, Shallot, and Their Biologically Active Compounds  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Garlic (Allium sativum L. family Liliaceae) is well known in Iran and its leaves, flowers, and cloves have been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Research in recent decades has shown widespread pharmacological effects of A. sativum and its organosulfur compounds especially Allicin. Studies carried out on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are organosulfur compounds such as allicin, diallyl disulphide, S-allylcysteine, and diallyl trisulfide. Allicin represents one of the most studied among these naturally occurring compounds. In addition to A. sativum, these compounds are also present in A. hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various diseases. This article reviews the pharmacological effects and traditional uses of A. sativum, A. hirtifolium, and their active constituents to show whether or not they can be further used as potential natural sources for the development of novel drugs. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, the authors went through a vast number of sources and articles and all needed data was gathered. The findings were reviewed and classified on the basis of relevance to the topic and a summary of all effects were reported as tables. Conclusion: Garlic and shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active compounds with low toxicity. Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and quality of the plants to be used by clinicians as therapeutic agents. PMID:24379960

Mikaili, Peyman; Maadirad, Surush; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Sarahroodi, Shadi

2013-01-01

350

Magnesium lithospermate B and rosmarinic acid, two compounds present in Salvia miltiorrhiza, have potent antiviral activity against enterovirus 71 infections.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-EV71 activity produced by Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts. A pGS-EV71 IRES-based bicistronic reporter assay platform was used for rapid analysis of compounds that could specifically inhibit EV71 viral IRES-mediated translation. The analysis identified 2 caffeic acid derivatives, magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) and rosmarinic acid (RA), which suppressed EV71 IRES-mediated translation at concentrations of 30?g/ml. We also found that MLB and RA inhibited EV71 infection when they were added to RD cells during the viral absorption stage. MLB had a low IC50 value of 0.09mM and a high TI value of 10.52. In contrast, RA had an IC50 value of 0.50mM with a TI value of 2.97. MLB and RA (100µg/ml) also reduced EV71 viral particle production and significantly decreased VP1 protein production. We propose that these two derivatives inhibit EV71 viral entry into cells and viral IRES activity, thereby reducing viral particle production and viral RNA expression and blocking viral VP1 protein translation. This study provides useful information for the development of anti-EV71 assays and reagents by demonstrating a convenient EV71 IRES-based bicistronic assay platform to screen for anti-EV71 IRES activity, and also reports 2 compounds, MLB and RA, which are responsible for the anti-EV71 activity of S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:25773498

Chung, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Lin, Ying-Ju; Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Ching-Ting; Tang, Nou-Ying; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

2015-05-15

351

Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.  

PubMed

Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 ?g/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 ?g/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 ?g/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 ?g/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 ?g/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 ?g/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17?-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non-effect concentration, were lower than 1 for all the pharmaceutically active compounds so no significant risks are expected to occur due to the application of sewage sludge onto soils, except for 17?-ethinylestradiol when chronic toxicity was considered. PMID:24909712

Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

2015-01-15

352

Variety of Antiprion Compounds Discovered through an In Silico Screen Based on Cellular-Form Prion Protein Structure: Correlation between Antiprion Activity and Binding Affinity ? †  

PubMed Central

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are associated with the conformational conversion of the prion protein from the cellular form (PrPC) to the scrapie form. This process could be disrupted by stabilizing the PrPC conformation, using a specific ligand identified as a chemical chaperone. To discover such compounds, we employed an in silico screen that was based on the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of PrPC. In combination, we performed ex vivo screening using the Fukuoka-1 strain-infected neuronal mouse cell line at a compound concentration of 10 ?M and surface plasmon resonance. Initially, we selected 590 compounds according to the calculated docked energy and finally discovered 24 efficient antiprion compounds, whose chemical structures are quite diverse. Surface plasmon resonance studies showed that the binding affinities of compounds for PrPC roughly correlated with the compounds' antiprion activities, indicating that the identification of chemical chaperones that bind to the PrPC structure and stabilize it is one efficient strategy for antiprion drug discovery. However, some compounds possessed antiprion activities with low affinities for PrPC, indicating a mechanism involving additional modulation factors. We classified the compounds roughly into five categories: (i) binding and effective, (ii) low binding and effective, (iii) binding and not effective, (iv) low binding and not effective, and (v) acceleration. In conclusion, we found a spectrum of compounds, many of which are able to modulate the pathogenic conversion reaction. The appropriate categorization of these diverse compounds would facilitate antiprion drug discovery and help to elucidate the pathogenic conversion mechanism. PMID:19015328

Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Kamatari, Yuji O.; Nakamura, Hironori K.; Kuwata, Kazuo

2009-01-01

353

Inhibitory mechanism of chroman compound on LPS-induced nitric oxide production and nuclear factor-?B activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

6-Hydroxy-7-methoxychroman-2-carboxylic acid phenylamide (KL-1156) is a novel chemically synthetic compound. In the present study, the chroman KL-1156 compound was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide production in macrophages RAW 264.7. KL-1156 compound attenuated LPS-induced synthesis of both mRNA and protein of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), in parallel, and inhibited LPS-induced iNOS promoter activity, indicating that the chroman compound

Byung Hak Kim; Alavala Matta Reddy; Kum-Ho Lee; Eun Yong Chung; Sung Min Cho; Heesoon Lee; Kyung Rak Min; Youngsoo Kim

2004-01-01

354

Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Multiple Cancers - Josh Stuart, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2011  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Cancers - Josh Stuart Patient-Specific Pathway Analysis Using PARADIGM Identifies Key Activities in Multiple Cancers - Josh

355

Removal of higher molecular weight organic compounds by the granular activated carbon adsorption unit process.  

PubMed

The granular activated carbon adsorption unit process in drinking water treatment typically removes purgeable organic compounds for time periods on the order of a few weeks. Experimental evidence indicates that less volatile compounds of generally higher molecular weight than the purgeable fraction, but still detectable by gas chromatography, are efficiently removed for longer periods. Field data substantiate this. Explanatory mechanisms may include stronger adsorption affinities or biodegradation. Non-gas chromatographable, higher molecular weight materials such as humic acids, as measured by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) or trihalomethane formation potential, revert to lower removal efficiencies. Biodegradation may be responsible for a continued long term removal of a fraction of these materials. PMID:3694484

Stevens, A A; Seeger, D R; DeMarco, J; Moore, L

1987-01-01

356

Activity-related changes in protein phosphorylation in an identified Aplysia neuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The relationship between long-term electrical activity and protein phosphorylation was investigated in single, identifiable neurons in the abdominal ganglion ofAplysia californica by the intracellular injection of radiolabeled ATP followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis.2.Natural and pharmacological treatments that alter the impulse activity of neurons L6 and R15 for prolonged periods did not appear to affect the phosphorylation of

Mark Schaefer; Paul D. Shirk; Daniel L. Roth; Philip H. Brownell

1985-01-01

357

Multifractal analysis of Mt. St. Helens seismicity as a tool for identifying eruptive activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multifractal analysis of Mount St. Helens seismic activity\\u000aduring 1980-2002. The seismic time distribution is studied in relation to the\\u000aeruptive activity, mainly marked by the 1980 major explosive eruptions and by\\u000athe 1980-1986 dome building eruptions. The spectrum of the generalized fractal\\u000adimensions, i.e. Dq vs q, extracted from the data, allows us to identify two

Filippo Caruso; Sergio Vinciguerra; Vito Latora; Andrea Rapisarda; Stephen Malone

2003-01-01

358

In silico repositioning-chemogenomics strategy identifies new drugs with potential activity against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J; Braga, Rodolpho C; Bezerra, José C B; Cravo, Pedro V L; Andrade, Carolina H

2015-01-01

359

In Silico Repositioning-Chemogenomics Strategy Identifies New Drugs with Potential Activity against Multiple Life Stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis are serious public health problems in developing countries. Because praziquantel is the only drug in therapeutic use, the risk of drug resistance is a concern. In the search for new schistosomicidal drugs, we performed a target-based chemogenomics screen of a dataset of 2,114 proteins to identify drugs that are approved for clinical use in humans that may be active against multiple life stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target, and its amino acid sequence was used to interrogate three databases: Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), DrugBank and STITCH. Predicted drug-target interactions were refined using a combination of approaches, including pairwise alignment, conservation state of functional regions and chemical space analysis. To validate our strategy, several drugs previously shown to be active against Schistosoma species were correctly predicted, such as clonazepam, auranofin, nifedipine, and artesunate. We were also able to identify 115 drugs that have not yet been experimentally tested against schistosomes and that require further assessment. Some examples are aprindine, gentamicin, clotrimazole, tetrabenazine, griseofulvin, and cinnarizine. In conclusion, we have developed a systematic and focused computer-aided approach to propose approved drugs that may warrant testing and/or serve as lead compounds for the design of new drugs against schistosomes. PMID:25569258

Neves, Bruno J.; Braga, Rodolpho C.; Bezerra, José C. B.; Cravo, Pedro V. L.; Andrade, Carolina H.

2015-01-01

360

Novel FTY720-Based Compounds Stimulate Neurotrophin Expression and Phosphatase Activity in Dopaminergic Cells.  

PubMed

?-Synuclein is a chaperone-like protein implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Among ?-synuclein's normal functions is an ability to bind to and stimulate the activity of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit in vitro and in vivo. PP2A activity is impaired in PD and in dementia with Lewy Bodies in brain regions harboring ?-synuclein aggregates. Using PP2A as the readout, we measured PP2A activity in response to ?-synuclein, ceramides, and FTY720, and then on the basis of those results, we created new FTY720 compounds. We then measured the effects of those compounds in dopaminergic cells. In addition to stimulating PP2A, all three compounds stimulated the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and protected MN9D cells against tumor-necrosis-factor-?-associated cell death. FTY720-C2 appears to be more potent while FTY720-Mitoxy targets mitochondria. Importantly, FTY720 is already FDA approved for treating multiple sclerosis and is used clinically worldwide. Our findings suggest that FTY720 and our new FTY720-based compounds have considerable potential for treating synucleinopathies such as PD. PMID:25050165

Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Krishnamachari, Sesha; Villanueva, Ernesto; Godfrey, Wesley H; Lou, Haiyan; Chinnasamy, Ramesh; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Perez, Ruth G

2014-07-10

361

Kinetics and activation parameters of the reaction of organoarsenic(V) compounds with glutathione.  

PubMed

In this work the kinetics of the reaction of glutathione (GSH) with the organoarsenic(V) compounds phenylarsonic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid (HNPAA), p-aminophenylarsonic acid (p-APAA) and o-aminophenylarsonic acid (o-APAA) as well as monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) is investigated. The reaction progress is monitored in real time by (1)H NMR, allowing the determination of rate coefficients and half-lives as well as activation parameters. The reaction consists of two steps: redox reaction and conjugation. In all investigated systems the conjugation is fast compared to the redox reaction and, therefore, rate determining. All investigated phenylarsonic acids follow the same rate law, showing overall reaction orders of 3 and half-lives between 47.7 ± 0.2 and 71.0 ± 3.6 min. The methylated compounds react slower, showing half-lives of 76.6 ± 0.4 and 444 ± 10 min for DMAA and MMAA, respectively. Enthalpies of activation range from 20 to 36 (± 2) kJ mol(-1) and the entropies of activation are within -154 and -97(± 7)J mol(-1)K(-1). The results reveal a correlation of the toxicity of the arsenic compound and the reaction rate with GSH. This may pave the way for the estimation of the toxicity of such compounds by simple kinetic studies. PMID:25238190

Kretzschmar, Jerome; Brendler, Erica; Wagler, Jörg; Schmidt, Anne-Christine

2014-09-15

362

SABER: A computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions  

PubMed Central

A software suite, SABER (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644–1649). SABER is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the SABER search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were l-Ala d/l-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used SABER to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, SABER identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used SABER to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. PMID:22492397

Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

2012-01-01

363

Evaluation of antioxidant activities of the edible and medicinal Acacia albida organs related to phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

This study compared phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in different organs of Acacia albida (leaves and bark) and focuses on identification of phenolic compounds of leaves by HPLC-DAD. The analysed organs exhibited differences in total polyphenol contents (100 and 59.5 mg GAE g(-1) DW). Phenolic contents of leaves were two times higher than those in bark. Ethanolic extracts exhibited good antioxidant activities with IC50 = 26 ?g mL(-1) for DPPH and EC50 = 50 ?g mL(-1) for FRAP. Identification by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of nine phenolic compounds known for their high antioxidant activity. The results suggested that this species can be used as source of natural antioxidants. PMID:25143148

Karoune, Samira; Falleh, Hanen; Kechebar, Mohamed Seif Allah; Halis, Youcef; Mkadmini, Khaoula; Belhamra, Mohamed; Rahmoune, Chaabane; Ksouri, Riadh

2015-01-01

364

Development of models for prediction of the antioxidant activity of derivatives of natural compounds.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are important for maintaining the appropriate balance between oxidizing and reducing species in the body and thus preventing oxidative stress. Many natural compounds are being screened for their possible antioxidant activity. It was found that a mushroom pigment Norbadione A, which is a pulvinic acid derivative, shows an antioxidant activity; the same was found for other pulvinic acid derivatives and structurally related coumarines. Based on the results of in vitro studies performed on these compounds as a part of this study quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) predictive models were constructed using multiple linear regression, counter-propagation artificial neural networks and support vector regression (SVR). The models have been developed in accordance with current QSAR guidelines, including the assessment of the models applicability domains. A new approach for the graphical evaluation of the applicability domain for SVR models is suggested. The developed models show sufficient predictive abilities for the screening of virtual libraries for new potential antioxidants. PMID:25813231

Martin?i?, Rok; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Wagner, Alain; Novi?, Marjana

2015-04-01

365

Potent antifungal activity of extracts and pure compound isolated from pomegranate peels and synergism with fluconazole against Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Activity-guided repeated fractionation of crude hydro alcoholic extract prepared from the fruit peel of Punica granatum on a silica-gel column yielded a compound that exhibited strong antifungal activity against Candida spp. Based on spectral analyses, the compound was identified as punicalagin. Punicalagin showed strong activity against Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis, with MICs of 3.9 and 1.9 microg/ml, respectively. The combination of punicalagin and fluconazole showed a synergistic interaction. MIC for fluconazole decreased twofold when combined with the extract. The FIC index was 0.25. The synergism observed in disk-diffusion and checkerboard assays was confirmed in time-kill curves. The effect of punicalagin on the morphology and ultrastructure in treated yeast cells was examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. An irregular budding pattern and pseudohyphae were seen in treated yeasts. By transmission electron microscopy, treated cells showed a thickened cell wall, changes in the space between cell wall and the plasma membrane, vacuoles, and a reduction in cytoplasmic content. Since the punicalagin concentration effective in vitro is achievable in vivo, the combination of this agent with fluconazole represents an attractive prospect for the development of new management strategies for candidiasis, and should be investigated further in in vivo models. PMID:20541606

Endo, Eliana Harue; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado

2010-09-01

366

Bioactivity-guided isolation of the active compounds from Rosa nutkana and quantitative analysis of ascorbic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

Rosa nutkana Presl. (Rosaceae) is distributed abundantly throughout central and southern areas of British Columbia, Canada. Aboriginal people in the Pacific Northwest have traditionally used R. nutkana as a food, medicine, and source of cultural material. The methanolic extract of the fruits of R. nutkana was previously found to have inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In our study, bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from R. nutkana led to the isolation of the following 10 compounds: (i) tormentic acid, (ii) euscaphic acid, (iii) ursolic acid, (iv) maslinic acid, (v) quercetin, (vi) catechin gallate, (vii) quercetin-3-O-glucoside, (viii) 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucoside, (ix) L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and (x) 1,6-digalloyl-beta-D-glucoside. Structures were elucidated by ultraviolet, infrared, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance data, as well as by comparison with those of the literature. The compounds quercetin, catechin gallate, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucoside, and 1,6-digalloyl-beta-D-glucoside exhibited weak antibacterial activity against MRSA. Our research demonstrates the value of traditional knowledge held by Aboriginal people in the Pacific Northwest with respect to uses of R. nutkana. Some described uses in the ethnobotanical literature correspond to activities observed under laboratory conditions. Further work on British Columbia Rosa spp. may contribute to identifying other potential therapeutic uses. PMID:18066132

Jovel, Eduardo M; Zhou, Xi Ling; Ming, Dong Sheng; Wahbe, Tanya R; Towers, G H Neil

2007-09-01

367

Comparison of the activity of subsurface and surface microorganisms and their anaerobic transformation of heterocyclic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Our interest in this research was mainly to compare the physiological characteristics of microorganisms derived from subsurface and surface environments and their ability to transform heterocyclic aromatic chemicals. We selected essentially indole and pyridine compounds as representatives of heterocyclic compounds. The samples investigated originated from the subsurface drillings at the Savannah River Plant, from surface samples in Pennsylvania, from municipal sewage of State College, Pennsylvania, and from pyridine-contaminated sites at Indianapolis. At different physiological conditions (aerobic, denitrifying, sulfate-reducing or methanogenic), different groups of microorganisms are active. Not only the thermodynamics of microbial physiology vary, but different metabolic pathways are used by the various types of microbial processes. Therefore, it was important to determine under which physiological conditions a compound was metabolized, and to clarify the metabolic conditions under which intermediate(s) were produced. 29 refs.

Bollag, J.-M.

1991-02-01

368

Screening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split-GFP  

E-print Network

is dissected into two fragments, which when expressed to- gether in Escherichia coli do not reassembleScreening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split-GFP 06520 cbi9990825210008 W e have previously described a split-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reassembly

Shorter, James

369

Does Art Therapy Work? Identifying the Active Ingredients of Art Therapy Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy research is beginning to identify more precisely the active ingredients that produce change in treatment and to test commonly held assumptions about efficacy. This editorial discusses the progression from clinical observation to single-case research and randomized controlled trials in building an evidence-based model of art therapy.

Lynn Kapitan

2012-01-01

370

Use of Bromodeoxyuridine Immunocapture To Identify Active Bacteria Associated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Hyphae  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizae are beneficial for crops grown under low-till management systems. Increasingly, it is becoming apparent that bacteria associated with mycorrhizae can enhance the beneficial relationship between mycorrhizae and plants. However, it has been difficult to study these relationships by conventional techniques. In this study actively growing bacteria were identified in soil from an undisturbed fallow field known to contain arbuscular mycorrhizae by using molecular tools to eliminate the need for cultivation. A thymidine analog, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), was added to the soil and incubated for 2 days. DNA was extracted, and the newly synthesized DNA was isolated by immunocapture of the BrdU-containing DNA. The active bacteria in the community were identified by 16S rRNA gene PCR amplification and DNA sequence analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence information, a selective medium was chosen to isolate the corresponding active bacteria. Bacillus cereus strain VA1, one of the bacteria identified by the BrdU method, was isolated from the soil and tagged with green fluorescent protein. By using confocal microscopy, this bacterium was shown to clearly attach to arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. This study was the first to use this combination of molecular and traditional approaches to isolate, identify, and visualize a specific bacterium that is active in fallow soil and associates with arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae. PMID:14532082

Artursson, Veronica; Jansson, Janet K.

2003-01-01

371

Appendix 1: Race Equality Action Plan 2009 -2012 No. Area of activity/focus Action Identified  

E-print Network

Appendix 1: Race Equality Action Plan 2009 - 2012 No. Area of activity/focus Action Identified its legal duties in respect of race equality Feb 2009 - ongoing Deputy Vice Chancellor (Chair Website · Promote race equality and support the achievements of our race equality objectives through

Sussex, University of

372

Synthesis and antioxidant activities of some new triheterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole, thiophene, and 1,2,4-triazole rings.  

PubMed

Abstract Various triheterocyclic compounds containing benzimidazole, thiophene, and 1,2,4-triazole rings (3-6) were synthesized and screened for their antioxidant activities. The structures of the synthesized compounds (2-6) were judged by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, elemental analysis, and LC-MS spectral data. Antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds (2-6) were determined with CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC), ABTS (2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulfate, and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assays. Most of the compounds showed a significant antioxidant activity and especially, compound 5c showed very good SC50 value for DPPH method and compound 5h exhibited very high scavenging activity to ABTS method. PMID:25198894

Mente?e, Emre; Y?lmaz, Fatih; Balta?, Nimet; Bekircan, Olcay; Kahveci, Bahittin

2014-09-01

373

In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of some synthetic riparin-derived compounds.  

PubMed

This study aimed to study the in vitro antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumor cells lines of six synthetic substances derived from riparins. All the substances showed antioxidant activity and riparins C, D, E, F presented cell growth inhibition rates greater than 70%, suggesting that these molecules have antitumor properties. These substances also caused greater than 80% releases of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH). Although the antioxidant and antitumor properties presented herein require further assessment, the outcomes indicate that these novel riparins are promising biologically active compounds. PMID:24731987

Nunes, Geandra B L; Policarpo, Paola R; Costa, Luciana M; da Silva, Teresinha G; Militão, Gardenia Carmen G; Câmara, Celso A; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Gutierrez, Stanley Juan C; Islam, Mohammed T; de Freitas, Rivelilson M

2014-01-01

374

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate therethrough to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex.

Dinh, Tuan V. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01

375

Photo-activated luminescence sensor and method of detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds  

DOEpatents

A sensor for detecting trichloroethylene and related volatile organochloride compounds uses a photo-activator that produces a photo-product complex with the contaminant. Characteristics of the light emitted from the complex will indicate the presence of the contaminant. A probe containing the photo-activator has an excitation light interface and a contaminant interface. One particular embodiment uses a porous membrane as the contaminant interface, so that the contaminant can migrate there through to the photo-activator and thereby form the complex. 23 figs.

Dinh, T.V.

1996-06-11

376

Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from??Zea mays L.  

PubMed Central

Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78??M). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

2013-01-01

377

A concise synthesis and antimicrobial activity of a novel series of naphthylpyridine-3-carbonitrile compounds.  

PubMed

A novel series of acyclic nucleosides 2-5 and 13a-c were synthesized by utilizing 4-phenyl-6(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropridine-3-carbonitrile (1) as a key starting material. Chlorination of 1 yielded the chloro analogue 6 that was allowed to react with urea, thiourea, thiosemicarbazide and alicyclic secondary amines to produce the corresponding derivatives 7a-c and 11a-c. Further condensation of 6 with various amino acids provided the compounds 8-10, whereas hydrazinolysis of 6 yielded the hydrazinyl analogue 12 which was condensed with different isothiocyanates and acid anhydrides to afford derivatives 18-20, respectively. Upon treatment of 12 with sodium nitrite, the azide derivative 14 was obtained which was subjected to reaction with various active methylene compounds to obtain the corresponding triazolo derivatives 15-17. The structure assignment of the new compounds is based on chemicaland spectroscopic evidence. Antimicrobial evaluation of the newly synthesized derivatives was performed using ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The most effective compounds against the tested bacterial and fungal isolates were the benzothiohydrazide compound 18b followed by the hydrazone and the phthalic anhydride derivatives 13c and 20, respectively. PMID:23923391

Kotb, Eman R; Anwar, Manal M; Abbas, Hebat-Allah S; Abd El-Moez, Sherein I

2013-01-01

378

Implementation of a High-Throughput Screen for Identifying Small Molecules to Activate the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE Pathway  

E-print Network

compounds protect against oxidative/ electrophilic stress-induced toxicity, at least partially through activating Nrf2. For example, curcumin protects against focal ischemia of the cerebrum through upregulation of Nrf2 [16], and oltipraz protects against... pathway [18]. To date, a number of compounds with diverse chemical structures have been shown to activate Keap1- Nrf2, including oxidizable diphenols (tBHQ), dithiolethiones (oltipraz), isothiocyanates (sulforaphane), and Michael acceptors (curcumin...

Wu, Kai Connie; McDonald, Peter R.; Liu, Jie Jerry; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2012-10-08

379

The uterotonic activity of compounds isolated from the supercritical fluid extract of Ekebergia capensis.  

PubMed

The wood of Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. is used by the local Zulu community in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa to facilitate childbirth. In this investigation, the uterotonic properties of extracts from this tree were evaluated using both pregnant and non-pregnant guinea pig uterine smooth muscle in vitro. The extracts were prepared using water modified supercritical carbon dioxide at 400 atm and 80 degrees C. As samples of these extracts displayed positive results when screened for uterotonic activity, gravity column chromatography followed by NMR spectroscopy was performed in an attempt to isolate and elucidate the structures of the compounds that were present in the extract. The extract yielded five known compounds of which only two, viz. oleanonic acid and 3-epioleanolic acid, displayed uterotonic activity. Receptor binding assays were subsequently performed with 3-epioleanolic acid to ascertain its mode of action. Bradykinin (30 ng/100 microl) and acetylcholine (1 microg/100 microl) were used as the B2 and cholinergic receptor agonists respectively with icatibant (HOE 140) (30 ng/100 microl) and atropine (60 micro/100 microl) as their corresponding antagonists. 3-epioleanolic acid was observed to mediate its effect through the cholinergic receptor. The results of this study show that two compounds from the extract of this tree possess varying degrees of agonist activity on uterine smooth muscle with minor changes in the molecular structure affecting its intrinsic activity on uterine muscle. PMID:11108547

Sewram, V; Raynor, M W; Mulholland, D A; Raidoo, D M

2000-12-01

380

Phenolic compounds with in vitro activity against respiratory syncytial virus from the Nigerian lichen Ramalina farinacea.  

PubMed

The extract of the Nigerian lichen Ramalina farinacea showed inhibitory activity against the respiratory syncytial virus in a preliminary assay. A follow-up chemical investigation of this lichen led to the isolation of thirteen phenolic compounds (1-13), including one new hydroquinone depside, designated 5-hydroxysekikaic acid (1), and one new orsellinic acid derivative, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-6-pentylbenzoic acid (8). Their structures were unambiguously determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data, as well as by comparison with literature data. Compound 1 was found to partially convert to a 1,4-benzoquinone derivative (1a) during storage. The antiviral activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against the respiratory syncytial virus. Among them, sekikaic acid (2) showed potent inhibition towards a recombinant strain rg respiratory syncytial virus (IC50 5.69 µg/mL) and respiratory syncytial virus A2 strain (IC50 7.73 µg/mL). The effect of sekikaic acid on the cell viability of HEp2 and Vero cell lines was investigated, and the time of addition assay revealed that sekikaic acid clearly interferes with viral replication at a viral post-entry step, which is over 1.3-fold more active than the control ribavirin at 4 hours postinfection addition. Furthermore, sekikaic acid did not display virucidal activity at concentrations below the TC50, whereas the parental extract did. PMID:23970423

Lai, Daowan; Odimegwu, Damian C; Esimone, Charles; Grunwald, Thomas; Proksch, Peter

2013-10-01

381

Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.  

PubMed

Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin. PMID:25829633

Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

2015-04-01

382

Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii and its major compound, dehydroabietic acid, against multidrug-resistant strains.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged from the widespread use of antibiotics worldwide and have prompted the search for new sources of antimicrobial substances. Pinus spp. contain several bioactive compounds consisting mainly of terpenes, terpenoids and some other aromatic and aliphatic constituents. These compounds exert important biological effects, and pine oils have found wide application in the industry. In the present study, we have evaluated the potential activity of the resin-oil of Pinus elliottii and its major compound dehydroabietic acid (DA) against multiresistant bacteria by MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill assays. The MIC of the resin-oil of P. elliottii varied between 25 and 100 µg ml(-1). As for DA, the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration varied between 6.25 and 50 and between 6.25 and 100 µg ml(-1), respectively. The time-kill assay conducted with DA at 6.25 µg ml(-1) evidenced bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis (American Type Culture Collection 14990) within 24 h. On the basis of these results, the resin-oil of P. elliottii and its major compound DA play an important part in the search for novel sources of agents that can act against multiresistant bacteria. PMID:25261060

Leandro, Luís Fernando; Cardoso, Miguel Jorge Oliveira; Silva, Sandro Donizeti Caetano; Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Ambrosio, Sergio Ricardo; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2014-12-01

383

NPACT: Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database  

PubMed Central

Plant-derived molecules have been highly valued by biomedical researchers and pharmaceutical companies for developing drugs, as they are thought to be optimized during evolution. Therefore, we have collected and compiled a central resource Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anti-cancer Compound-Activity-Target database (NPACT, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/npact/) that gathers the information related to experimentally validated plant-derived natural compounds exhibiting anti-cancerous activity (in vitro and in vivo), to complement the other databases. It currently contains 1574 compound entries, and each record provides information on their structure, manually curated published data on in vitro and in vivo experiments along with reference for users referral, inhibitory values (IC50/ED50/EC50/GI50), properties (physical, elemental and topological), cancer types, cell lines, protein targets, commercial suppliers and drug likeness of compounds. NPACT can easily be browsed or queried using various options, and an online similarity tool has also been made available. Further, to facilitate retrieval of existing data, each record is hyperlinked to similar databases like SuperNatural, Herbal Ingredients’ Targets, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, PubChem and NCI-60 GI50 data. PMID:23203877

Mangal, Manu; Sagar, Parul; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.; Agarwal, Subhash M.

2013-01-01

384

New phenolic compounds hydrothermally extracted from the olive oil byproduct alperujo and their antioxidative activities.  

PubMed

The application of a novel process based on the hydrothermal treatment of olive oil waste (alperujo) led to a final liquid phase that contained a high concentration of simple phenolic compounds. This study evaluated the effects of time (15-90 min) on the composition of the phenolic compounds isolated at a fixed temperature of 160 °C. Phenolic compounds were extracted with ethyl acetate. Both qualitative and quantitative HPLC analyses of the extracts showed variation of the concentrations of phenolic compounds with time. In addition, new phenols that were not present in the untreated control have been characterized. The antioxidant activities of different phenolic extracts was measured by various assays conducted in vitro: antiradical capacity (using DPPH and ABTS radicals), ferric reducing power (P(R)), inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation in lipid systems, and other tests, such as inhibition of tyrosinase activity. The results show that the phenolic extracts inhibited oxidation in aqueous and lipid systems to a significantly greater extent than the untreated control, and they performed as well as or better than vitamin E in this capacity. PMID:22225465

Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Rodríguez-Gutíerrez, Guillermo; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

2012-02-01

385

Screening for lead compounds and herbal extracts with potential anti-influenza viral activity.  

PubMed

Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) contains a conserved RNA binding domain (RBD) that inhibits antiviral functions of host-innate immune response. Dimerization of NS1 forms a central groove and binds to double stranded (ds) RNA. This region might serve as a potential drug target. In this study, three dimensional structure model of NS1 RBD protein was constructed and virtual screening was performed to identify lead compounds that bound within and around the central groove. The virtual screening showed that 5 compounds bound within the central groove with binding energy ranging between -16.05 and -17.36 Kcal/mol. Two commercially available compounds, estradiol and veratridine, were selected for using in an in vitro screening assay. The results showed that neither of the compounds could inhibit the association between dsRNA and NS1 RBD protein. In addition, 34 herbal extracts were examined for their inhibitory effects. Five of them were able to inhibit association between NS1 RBD and dsRNA in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Four herbs, Terminalia belirica, Salacia chinensis, Zingiber montanum and Peltophorum pterocarpum, could reduce > 50% of infectivity of H5N1 in a cell-based assay, and it is worth further studying their potential use as source of antiviral drugs. PMID:24964655

Klaywong, Konrapob; Khutrakul, Gachagorn; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Lekcharoensuk, Chalermpol; Petcharat, Nantawan; Leckcharoensuk, Porntippa; Ramasoota, Pongrama

2014-01-01

386

Drug-repositioning screening identified piperlongumine as a direct STAT3 inhibitor with potent activity against breast cancer.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 regulates many cardinal features of cancer including cancer cell growth, apoptosis resistance, DNA damage response, metastasis, immune escape, tumor angiogenesis, the Warburg effect and oncogene addiction and has been validated as a drug target for cancer therapy. Several strategies have been used to identify agents that target Stat3 in breast cancer but none has yet entered into clinical use. We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscopy search strategy to identify compounds in a drug-repositioning library (Prestwick library) that block ligand-induced nuclear translocation of Stat3 and identified piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the fruit of the pepper Piper longum. PL inhibited Stat3 nuclear translocation, inhibited ligand-induced and constitutive Stat3 phosphorylation, and modulated expression of multiple Stat3-regulated genes. Surface plasmon resonance assay revealed that PL directly inhibited binding of Stat3 to its phosphotyrosyl peptide ligand. Phosphoprotein antibody array analysis revealed that PL does not modulate kinases known to activate Stat3 such as Janus kinases, Src kinase family members or receptor tyrosine kinases. PL inhibited anchorage-independent and anchorage-dependent growth of multiple breast cancer cell lines having increased pStat3 or total Stat3, and induced apoptosis. PL also inhibited mammosphere formation by tumor cells from patient-derived xenografts. PL's antitumorigenic function was causally linked to its Stat3-inhibitory effect. PL was non-toxic in mice up to a dose of 30?mg/kg/day for 14 days and caused regression of breast cancer cell line xenografts in nude mice. Thus, PL represents a promising new agent for rapid entry into the clinic for use in treating breast cancer, as well as other cancers in which Stat3 has a role.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.72. PMID:24681959

Bharadwaj, U; Eckols, T K; Kolosov, M; Kasembeli, M M; Adam, A; Torres, D; Zhang, X; Dobrolecki, L E; Wei, W; Lewis, M T; Dave, B; Chang, J C; Landis, M D; Creighton, C J; Mancini, M A; Tweardy, D J

2014-03-31

387

Natural hydrazine-containing compounds: Biosynthesis, isolation, biological activities and synthesis.  

PubMed

Hydrazine, hydrazone and hydrazide derivatives are nitrogen-nitrogen bond containing compounds. Such molecules are relatively scarce in nature and have been isolated from plants, marine organisms and microorganisms. These compounds exhibit remarkable structural diversity and relevant biological activities. The enzymes involved in the formation of the N-N bond are still unknown, but many lines of evidence support the involvement of N-nitrosation and N-hydroxylation activating steps. Beside the challenging N-N bond, N-acylases catalyzing the C-N bond formation contribute to the chemical diversity of N-N-containing natural products (N2NP). This review examines the state of knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of N2NP, for which only two biosynthetic gene clusters have been investigated. Biological properties and chemical synthesis of hydrazines, hydrazones and hydrazides are also reported. PMID:25456382

Le Goff, Géraldine; Ouazzani, Jamal

2014-10-22

388

Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

389

Structure-activity relationships of tulipalines, tuliposides, and related compounds as inhibitors of MurA.  

PubMed

The enzyme MurA performs an essential step in peptidoglycan biosynthesis and is therefore a target for the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds. We report here the inhibition of MurA by natural products from tulips (tulipalines and tuliposides), and the structure-activity relationships of various derivatives. The inhibition of MurA can be related to antibacterial activity, and MurA is probably one of the relevant molecular targets of the tulipaline derivatives. MurA inhibition by this class of compounds depends on the presence of the substrate UNAG, which indicates non-covalent suicide inhibition as observed previously for cnicin. With respect to selectivity, however, the reactivity against arbitrary sulfhydryl groups, such as in glutathione, could not yet be sufficiently separated from MurA inhibition in the present dataset. PMID:20729083

Mendgen, Thomas; Scholz, Therese; Klein, Christian D

2010-10-01

390

Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds  

PubMed Central

In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

Nunes, Túlio M.; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P.; Amaral, Mônica F. Z. J.; von Zuben, Lucas G.; Clososki, Giuliano C.; Bento, José M. S.; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B.; Lopes, Norberto P.

2014-01-01

391

Queen signals in a stingless bee: suppression of worker ovary activation and spatial distribution of active compounds.  

PubMed

In most species of social insect the queen signals her presence to her workers via pheromones. Worker responses to queen pheromones include retinue formation around the queen, inhibition of queen cell production and suppression of worker ovary activation. Here we show that the queen signal of the Brazilian stingless bee Friesella schrottkyi is a mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons. Stingless bees are therefore similar to ants, wasps and bumble bees, but differ from honey bees in which the queen's signal mostly comprises volatile compounds originating from the mandibular glands. This shows that cuticular hydrocarbons have independently evolved as the queen's signal across multiple taxa, and that the honey bees are exceptional. We also report the distribution of four active queen-signal compounds by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging. The results indicate a relationship between the behavior of workers towards the queen and the likely site of secretion of the queen's pheromones. PMID:25502598

Nunes, Túlio M; Mateus, Sidnei; Favaris, Arodi P; Amaral, Mônica F Z J; von Zuben, Lucas G; Clososki, Giuliano C; Bento, José M S; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Silva, Ricardo; Zucchi, Ronaldo; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P

2014-01-01

392

Antiviral activity of Plantago major extracts and related compounds in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plantago major L., a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases varying from cold to viral hepatitis. The aim of present study was to examine the antiviral activity of aqueous extract and pure compounds of P. major. Studies were conducted on a series of viruses, namely herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and adenoviruses (ADV-3, ADV-8, ADV-11). The

L. C Chiang; W Chiang; M. Y Chang; L. T Ng; C. C Lin

2002-01-01

393

New 1,5-benzodiazepine compounds: activity at native GABA A receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various new 1,5-benzodiazepine compounds were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in terms of effects on GABAA receptors of rat cerebellar granules in culture. Their effects were compared to those of a 1,4-benzodiazepine agonist, flunitrazepam and the already known 1,5-benzodiazepine antiepileptic clobazam. The effects were evaluated for the two different GABAA receptor populations present in these neurons, one mediating

E. Gatta; A. Cupello; M. Di Braccio; G. Grossi; R. Ferruzzi; G. Roma; M. Robello

2010-01-01

394

Activated Carbon Adsorption of the Odorous Compounds 2-Methylisoborneol and Geosmin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two primary causative agents, 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, of earthy-musty odor in water supplies readily adsorb on granular activated carbon at the threshold odor limit, 0.1 µg\\/l. Distilled water solutions and real and simulated natural water solutions were used in batch equilibrium tests and continuous flow column experiments. Most of the adsorbed compounds could be recovered by extraction of the carbon

Dennis R. Herzing; Vernon L. Snoeyink; Neville F. Wood

1977-01-01

395

On the reactive adsorption of ammonia on activated carbons modified by impregnation with inorganic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia adsorption was studied under dynamic conditions, at room temperature, on activated carbons of different origins (coal-based, wood-based and coconut-shell-based carbons) before and after their impregnation with various inorganic compounds including metal chlorides, metal oxides and polycations. The role of humidity was evaluated by running tests in both dry and moist conditions. Adsorbents were analyzed before and after exposure to

Teresa J. Bandosz; Camille Petit

2009-01-01

396

Procaspase-activating compound 1 induces a caspase-3-dependent cell death in cerebellar granule neurons  

SciTech Connect

Procaspase-activating compound 1, PAC-1, has been introduced as a direct activator of procaspase-3 and has been suggested as a therapeutic agent against cancer. Its activation of procaspase-3 is dependent on the chelation of zinc. We have tested PAC-1 and an analogue of PAC-1 as zinc chelators in vitro as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 and induce cell death in chicken cerebellar granule neuron cultures. These neurons are non-dividing, primary cells with normal caspase-3. The results reported herein show that PAC-1 chelates zinc, activates procaspase-3, and leads to caspase-3-dependent cell death in neurons, as the specific caspase-3-inhibitor Ac-DEVD-cmk inhibited both the caspase-3 activity and cell death. Thus, chicken cerebellar granule neurons is a suitable model to study mechanisms of interference with apoptosis of PAC-1 and similar compounds. Furthermore, the present study also raises concern about potential neurotoxicity of PAC-1 if used in cancer therapy.

Aziz, Gulzeb [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway); Akselsen, Oyvind W.; Hansen, Trond V. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.n [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo (Norway)

2010-09-15

397

Antioxidant activities and skin hydration effects of rice bran bioactive compounds entrapped in niosomes.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds [ferulic acid (F), gamma-oryzanol (O) and phytic acid (P)] in rice bran have been widely used as antioxidants in skin care products. However, one of the major problems of antioxidants is the deterioration of their activities during long exposure to air and light. Niosomes have been used to entrap many degradable active agents not only for stability improvement, but also for increasing skin hydration. The objective of this study was to determine antioxidant activities [by in vitro ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and ex vivo lipid peroxidation inhibition assay] and in vivo human skin hydration effects of gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes. Gel and cream containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes showed higher antioxidant activity (ORAC value) at 20-28 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram of the sample than the placebo gel and cream which gave 16-18 micromolTE/g. Human sebum treated with these formulations showed more lipid peroxidation inhibition activity than with no treatment of about 1.5 times. The three different independent techniques including corneometer, vapometer and confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM) indicated the same trend in human skin hydration enhancement of the gel or cream formulations containing the rice bran extracts entrapped in niosomes of about 20, 3 and 30%, respectively. This study has demonstrated the antioxidant activities and skin hydration enhancement of the rice bran bioactive compounds when entrapped in niosomes and incorporated in cream formulations. PMID:21449379

Manosroi, Aranya; Chutoprapat, Romchat; Sato, Yuji; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Hsueh, Kesyin; Abe, Masahiko; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

2011-03-01

398

Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.  

PubMed

The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on ?-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to ?-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104

Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

2011-01-01

399

Effect of Freeze-Drying on the Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Tropical Fruits  

PubMed Central

The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on ?-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to ?-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested. PMID:21845104

Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

2011-01-01

400

[The content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity ready to eat desserts for infants].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in ready-to-eat desserts for babies. The experimental material consisted of six kinds of fruit desserts taken from the market in 2008, in which the content of dry matter phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity levels on the basis of free radical quenching ability ABTS were determined. The largest share of dry matter was found in apricot mousse with apples and bananas (16.9%). The largest amounts of phenolic compounds were found in the cream with apple and wild rose (186.3 mg/100 g) and apple with forest fruits (170.7 mg/100 g). The highest antioxidant activity among the desserts was determined in cream with apple and wild rose (14.2 micromol Trolox/g) and apple mousse with peaches (12.8 micromol Trolox/g). The antioxidant capacity of the remaining examined purée was slightly lower and ranged from 11.4-11.7 micromol Trolox/g. PMID:22435292

Filipiak-Florkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dere?, Katarzyna

2011-01-01

401

New 1,5-benzodiazepine compounds: activity at native GABA(A) receptors.  

PubMed

Various new 1,5-benzodiazepine compounds were synthesized and tested for their biological activity in terms of effects on GABA(A) receptors of rat cerebellar granules in culture. Their effects were compared to those of a 1,4-benzodiazepine agonist, flunitrazepam and the already known 1,5-benzodiazepine antiepileptic clobazam. The effects were evaluated for the two different GABA(A) receptor populations present in these neurons, one mediating phasic inhibition and the other one mediating tonic inhibition. Many such compounds display a profile of inverse agonist to both GABA(A) receptor populations. One of them presents a profile of full agonist at the component mediating phasic inhibition. Interestingly, substitution of just one oxygen atom in that compound with sulphur in a specific position of a morpholine ring resulted in a remarkable change of activity from full agonist to a probable inverse agonist. This indicates such a position as a proton accepting one for the ligand within the benzodiazepine binding pocket of the relevant GABA(A) receptors. In addition, that position appears to be critical for the pharmacological activity. PMID:20096335

Gatta, E; Cupello, A; Di Braccio, M; Grossi, G; Ferruzzi, R; Roma, G; Robello, M

2010-03-31

402

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

403